WorldWideScience

Sample records for australian aboriginal communities

  1. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  2. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services

    OpenAIRE

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Healt...

  3. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  4. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  5. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful......, collaborative, locally-acceptable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion....

  6. Australian Aboriginal Education at the Fulcrum of Forces of Change: Remote Queensland Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victoria J.

    Schools in Australian Aboriginal communities are pulled between an educational model that stresses cultural pride and preservation and one that emphasizes uniformity of education to prepare Aboriginal students for a place in the dominant society. The tension between these objectives is seen in these case studies of schools in two remote Queensland…

  7. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  8. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  9. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  10. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  11. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  12. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

  13. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  14. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  15. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  16. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  17. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson Lynne; Da Costa Cliff; Jamison Jennifer R; Walker Bruce F; Vindigni Dein; Blunden Steve

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal an...

  18. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods A survey questionnaire t...

  19. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  20. Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

  1. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  2. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with PAboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  3. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson Lynne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189 were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP

  4. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  5. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  6. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  7. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  8. The correlates of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a high risk Australian aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Albuminuria marks renal disease and cardiovascular risk. It was estimated to contribute 75% of the risk of all-cause natural death in one Aboriginal group. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is commonly used as an index of albuminuria. This study aims to examine the associations between demographic factors, anthropometric index, blood pressure, lipid-protein measurements and other biomarkers and albuminuria in a cross-sectional study in a high-risk Australian Aboriginal population. The models will be evaluated for albuminuria at or above the microalbuminuria threshold, and at or above the “overt albuminuria” threshold with the potential to distinguish associations they have in common and those that differ. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 598 adults aged 18–76 years. All participants were grouped into quartiles by age. Logistic regression models were used to explore the correlates of ACR categories. Results The significant correlates were systolic blood pressure (SBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, diabetes, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (marginally significant, p = 0.054) and serum albumin (negative association) for ACR 17+ (mg/g) for men and 25+ for women. Independent correlates were SBP, uric acid, diabetes, total cholesterol, alanine amino transferase (ALT), Cystatin C and serum albumin (negative association) for overt albuminuria; and SBP, CRP and serum albumin only for microalbuminuria. Conclusions This is the most detailed modelling of pathologic albuminuria in this setting to date. The somewhat variable association with risk factors suggests that microalbuminuria and overt albuminuria might reflect different as well as shared phenomena. PMID:23947772

  9. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.

  10. Trachoma control in two Central Australian Aboriginal communities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansingh, Van C; Mukesh, Bickol N; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2010-08-01

    This prospective case study assessed the additional impact of environmental changes (E) within the SAFE strategy in controlling trachoma in two Aboriginal communities (populations 315 and 385) in Central Australia. Baseline levels for trachoma, facial cleanliness, and nasal discharge were measured in children <15 years old. Health and facial cleanliness promotion were initiated in each community and housing and environmental improvements were made in one community. Azithromycin was distributed to all members of each community (coverage 55-73%). Assessments of trachoma and facial cleanliness were made at 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Baseline trachoma rates were similar for the two communities (48 and 50%). Rates were significantly lower at 3, 6, and 12 months compared to baseline, but there was no significant difference between the two communities. The A/F components of the SAFE strategy significantly reduced the prevalence of trachoma; however, while the E intervention did not bring any apparent benefits, several factors might have masked them. PMID:20358257

  11. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  12. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  13. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia. PMID:22881383

  14. Secondary prevention of renal and cardiovascular disease: results of a renal and cardiovascular treatment program in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Baker, Philip R A; Kelly, Angela M

    2003-07-01

    Australian Aborigines are experiencing an epidemic of renal and cardiovascular disease. In late 1995 we introduced a treatment program into the Tiwi community, which has a three- to fivefold increase in death rates and a recent annual incidence of treated ESRD of 2760 per million. Eligible for treatment were people with hypertension, diabetics with micro or overt albuminuria, and all people with overt albuminuria. Treatment centered around use of perindopril (Coversyl, Servier), with other agents added to reach BP goals; attempts to control glucose and lipid levels; and health education. Thirty percent of the adult population, or 267 people, were enrolled, with a mean follow up of 3.39 yr. Clinical parameters were followed every 6 mo, and rates of terminal endpoints were compared with those of 327 historical controls matched for baseline disease severity, followed in the pretreatment program era. There was a dramatic reduction in BP in the treatment group, which was sustained through 3 yr of treatment. Albuminuria and GFR stabilized or improved. Rates of natural deaths were reduced by an estimated 50% (P = 0.012); renal deaths were reduced by 57% (P = 0.038); and nonrenal deaths by 46% (P = 0.085). Survival benefit was suggested at all levels of overt albuminuria, and regardless of diabetes status, baseline BP, or prior administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). No significant benefit was apparent among people without overt albuminuria, nor among those with GFR less than 60 ml/min. An estimated 13 renal deaths and 10 nonrenal deaths were prevented, with the number-needed-to-treat to avoid one terminal event of only 11.6. Falling deaths and renal failure in the whole community support these estimates. The program was extremely cost-effective. Programs like this should be introduced to all high-risk communities as a matter of urgency. PMID:12819325

  15. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  16. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  17. Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Briganti, Esther; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Chadban, Steven; Shaw, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    To compare body size measurements in Australian Aboriginals living in three remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia with those of the general Australian population. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and derivative values of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHT), and waist-weight ratios (WWT) of adult Aboriginal volunteers (n = 814), aged 25 to 74 years were compared with participants in the nationally representative 'AusDiab' survey (n = 10,434). The Aboriginal body habitus profiles differed considerably from the Australian profile. When compared to Australian females, Aboriginal females were taller and had lower hip circumference but had higher WC, WHR, WHT, and WWT (P Australian counterparts, Aboriginal males were shorter, had lower body weight, WC, hip circumference, BMI, and WHT but had higher WHR and WWT (P Aboriginal females were classified as overweight and or obese using cutoffs defined by WC and by WHR than by BMI. Aboriginal males were less often overweight and/or obese by BMI than their counterparts, but were significantly more often overweight or obese by WHR. There were significant variations in body size profiles between Aboriginal communities. However, the theme of excess waist measurements relative to their weight was uniform. Aboriginal people had preferential central fat deposition in relation to their overall weight. BMI significantly underestimated overweight and obesity as assessed by waist measurements among Aboriginals. This relationship of preferential central fat deposition to the current epidemic of chronic diseases needs to be explored further. PMID:18203125

  18. Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

  19. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  20. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  1. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  2. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  3. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  4. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (PAustralian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  5. The determinants of fertility among Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, G

    1981-06-01

    This paper concerns the determinants of fertility of precontact Australian Aborigine women. Emphasis is placed on social organization as well as the physical environment and considerations of adaptation. The key to understanding the fertility of Australian Aborigines is the structural tension evident in male-female relations. Ethnographic data on hunter-gatherers fertility indicate a low fertility rate, e.g. 4.7-5.2 live births/woman for the Kung. Traditional Aboriginal physiological fertility was also low if infant mortality is separated from infertility. Past studies of population and transition theory in pre-contact situations have attributed increase in population to reduction in mortality. This paper suggests that there must have been an increase in the birth rate. Factors affecting ovulation, conception, and parturition are examined for traditional Aboriginal populations. Ovulation is affected by nutrition, lactation, and introcision. Lack of body fat in women causes anovulation due to insufficent energy reserves. Increased fertility appears to be a greatly reduced energy expenditure and an increased carbohydrate intake leading to a build up of body weight. Pre-contact Aboriginal fertility was low because of a low caloric intake and a high energy expenditure. Prolonged lactation does not seem to cause birth spacing. The actual length of time after parturition appears to be an independent cause of reduced prolactin, and of reestablishment of ovulation. Stress and anxiety are factors which could reduce fertility by causing anovulation in women and/or reduced sperm counts in men. Contraception is affected by coital frequency and male fertility. Aboriginal coital frequency may have been affected by the lack of privacy and competition of a co-wife. Gestation is affected by spontaneous abortion, sterility, and foetal wastage. Harsh conditions of traditional Aborigines may have affected their ability to conceive. Voluntary controls on fertility for Aborigines

  6. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Jonathon P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should

  7. A case study of physical and social barriers to hygiene and child growth in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Jocelyn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Australia's wealth, poor growth is common among Aboriginal children living in remote communities. An important underlying factor for poor growth is the unhygienic state of the living environment in these communities. This study explores the physical and social barriers to achieving safe levels of hygiene for these children. Methods A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach included a community level cross-sectional housing infrastructure survey, focus groups, case studies and key informant interviews in one community. Results We found that a combination of crowding, non-functioning essential housing infrastructure and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children in this remote community. Conclusion There is a need to address policy and the management of infrastructure, as well as key parenting and childcare practices that allow the high burden of infection among children to persist. The common characteristics of many remote Aboriginal communities in Australia suggest that these findings may be more widely applicable.

  8. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  9. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  10. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, John Edward

    2004-01-01

    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  11. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lililwan Project is the first population-based study to determine Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) prevalence in Australia and was conducted in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia. The diagnostic process for FASD requires accurate assessment of gross and fine motor functioning using standardised cut-offs for impairment. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is a norm-referenced assessment of motor function used worldwide and in FASD clinics in North America. It is available in a Complete Form with 53 items or a Short Form with 14 items. Its reliability in measuring motor performance in children exposed to alcohol in utero or living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities is unknown. Methods A prospective inter-rater and test-retest reliability study was conducted using the BOT-2 Short Form. A convenience sample of children (n = 30) aged 7 to 9 years participating in the Lililwan Project cohort (n = 108) study, completed the reliability study. Over 50% of mothers of Lililwan Project children drank alcohol during pregnancy. Two raters simultaneously scoring each child determined inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by assessing each child on a second occasion using predominantly the same rater. Reliability was analysed by calculating Intra-Class correlation Coefficients, ICC(2,1), Percentage Exact Agreement (PEA) and Percentage Close Agreement (PCA) and measures of Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were calculated. Results Thirty Aboriginal children (18 male, 12 female: mean age 8.8 years) were assessed at eight remote Fitzroy Valley communities. The inter-rater reliability for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.88 (95%CI, 0.77 – 0.94) to 0.92 (95%CI, 0.84 – 0.96) indicating excellent reliability. The test-retest reliability (median interval between tests being 45.5 days) for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from

  12. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  13. Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  14. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  15. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  16. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  17. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  18. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  19. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  20. Educational Implications of the Values Held by Australian Aboriginal Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the values held by Australian aboriginal college students, which are more collective than those of non-aboriginal students, could help explain their low achievement levels. Longitudinal survey data indicated there were factors other than value systems that had a much greater impact on students' problems (e.g., lack of…

  1. "We made the rule, we have to stick to it": towards effective management of environmental tobacco smoke in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007-2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study's intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514

  2. “We Made the Rule, We Have to Stick to It”: Towards Effective Management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Remote Australian Aboriginal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Clough

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years, participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS.

  3. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

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    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  4. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong;

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that...... Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves...... prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa....

  5. A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

  6. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  7. Age-dependent decline of association between obesity and coronary heart disease: a cohort study in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the association between obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Aboriginal adults depends on age. Design, setting and participants A cohort study with up to 20 years of follow-up of 849 participants aged 18–76 years in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Main outcome measures Newly diagnosed CHD cases were identified through hospital records according to ICD codes during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard model wa...

  8. Deprivation and dialysis: pathways to kidney failure in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Rates of end-stage renal disease among Australian Aboriginal people have been increasing over the past 2 decades, particularly in the northern and more remote areas of Australia, and especially in disadvantaged communities. Proteinuria predicts the rate of loss of kidney function; it is common in young adults and virtually universal in those over 50 years of age. Cumulative independent risk factors include low birth weight, recurrent skin infections, adult obesity, diabetes or its precursors, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, and a family history of renal disease. A plausible theory is that intrauterine malnutrition permanently reduces total nephron numbers, which are then overworked in adulthood by the metabolic stresses of obesity (from excess alcohol and poor diet), by higher blood pressures, and by infections, while starved of blood supply because of smoking. Although kidney disease is often only detected when already well established, active medical intervention offers great rewards. Control of blood pressure (preferentially using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (AIIRBs) in combination) can often stop or even reverse kidney damage, even if ongoing diabetes control is poor. Adequately funded kidney health programs with active Aboriginal health worker involvement are enormously cost-effective: tight blood pressure control at least halves the rate of disease progression, and every year of dialysis deferred for 1 patient could fund the appointment of 2 health workers. Addressing the underlying social causes for this epidemic is critical. PMID:15719338

  9. Fitzgerald factor deficiency in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, T; Barber, S; Naujalis, J

    1987-05-18

    This case reports the first description of Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) deficiency in Australia. Since this homozygous abnormality was found in an Aborigine it is suggested that the defective gene may be prevalent in some tribes and that abnormal results of clotting tests in Aborigines should be investigated carefully. PMID:3574180

  10. Mining information kit for Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The opportunities for building relationships between Aboriginal communities and the mining industry were discussed, along with opportunities for communities to build capacity and to participate in the mining cycle. With nearly 1200 Aboriginal communities located within 200 km of minerals and metals activities in Canada, there is potential for significant economic and business growth in the communities. This educational tool informs Aboriginal communities across Canada about all the stages of the mining cycle, from early exploration to mine closure. Its purpose is to help Aboriginal people to better understand mining activities and identify the many opportunities that mining can bring to their communities. The information kit contains 4 modules corresponding to the main stages of the mining cycle. It provides examples of community experiences, positive relationships, and partnerships with mining companies. It also outlines the regulatory process to ensure Aboriginal peoples are well informed of the economic, social and environmental effects, benefits and opportunities in making decisions. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Comparison of cervicovertebral dimensions in Australian Aborigines and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, B; Brown, T; Townsend, G

    1999-04-01

    Cervicovertebral dimensions were compared in a group of 30 male and 30 female young adult Australian Aborigines from the Northern Territory, and a control sample consisting of 60 Caucasian dental students from Adelaide, matched for sex and age. Thirty-six variables, 22 cervical and 14 craniofacial, were derived from standardized lateral roentgenograms with the use of a computerized cephalometric system. Vertebral body height and length were significantly greater in Aboriginal males than females for C3 to C7, while dorsal arch height of C1 and C2 displayed the greatest dimensional variability in both sexes. The antero-posterior length of C1, dens height, and body heights of C3 and C4 were significantly shorter in Aborigines than Caucasians for both males and females. Total length of the column from C2 to C6 was approximately 12 per cent shorter in the Aborigines compared with Caucasians. The height of the posterior arch of C1 was significantly correlated with one or both posterior cranial base lengths in Aborigines and Caucasians. Associations were also noted between mandibular lengths and posterior arch heights of the upper two vertebrae. The results confirm and clarify several previous observations on the relative shortness of the cervical spine in Australian Aboriginals. They also indicate some associations between dimensions of the cervical vertebrae and craniofacial lengths, particularly those representing the posterior cranial base and the mandible. PMID:10327736

  12. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  13. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  14. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2009-12-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  15. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  16. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  17. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  18. Transferrin D1: identity in Australian aborigines and American Negroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A C; Sutton, H E; Scott, I D

    1967-05-19

    Human transferrin D(1) obtained from an Australian aborigine was found to have the same substitution of glycine for aspartic acid in peptide 1C previously shown in transferrin D(1) from an American Negro. This finding is relevant to formation of distinct Australoid and African populations. PMID:6023254

  19. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  20. Did aboriginal vegetation burning impact on the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Chen, Guangshan

    2011-06-01

    Aboriginal vegetation burning practices and their role in the Australian environment remains a central theme of Australian environmental history. Previous studies have identified a decline in the Australian summer monsoon during the late Quaternary and attributed it to land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, related to Aboriginal burning practices. Here we undertake a comprehensive, ensemble model evaluation of the effects of a decrease in vegetation cover over the summer monsoon region of northern Australia. Our results show that the climate response, while relatively muted during the full monsoon, was significant for the pre-monsoon season (austral spring), with decreases in precipitation, higher surface and ground temperatures, and enhanced atmospheric stability. These early monsoon season changes can invoke far-reaching ecological impacts and set-up land surface-atmosphere feedbacks that further accentuate atmospheric stability.

  1. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Mongols and Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alestig, E; Hannoun, C; Horal, P; Lindh, M

    2001-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is spread worldwide. Seven genotypes, A-G, have been described, differing by more than 8% of the genome. In eastern Asia and Oceania genotypes B and C are predominant. However, little is known about genotypes in Mongolia and Australian aborigines. We analysed the preS and S regions of HBV from 9 Mongols and 5 Australian Aborigines. All Mongolian strains were of genotype D and were most similar to Central Asian sequences. All the Australian strains were genetically of serotype ayw3, and could not be reliably classified by the S region analysis, but placed on a separate branch. By preS analysis, they were however clearly of genotype C. The 6-7% nucleotide difference from published Asian genotype C sequences suggests that they diverged from Asian genotype C branch more than 1000 years ago. PMID:11811682

  2. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  3. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  4. Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite variation in Australian aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, N; van Oorschot, R A; Tyler-Smith, C; Mitchell, R J

    1999-12-01

    The frequency distributions of 4 highly polymorphic Y-chromosome-specific microsatellites (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, and DYS392) were determined in 79 unrelated Australian Aboriginal males from the Northern Territory. These results are compared with those observed in worldwide populations at both the locus and the haplotype level. Common alleles in Aboriginals are DYS19*15 (49%), DYS19*14 (28%), DYS390*19 (39%), DYS390*24 (20%), DYS391*10 (72%), DYS392*11 (63%), and DYS392*13 (28%). No evidence of reduced gene diversity was observed for these Y-chromosome alleles. DYS390 exhibits the most complex arrangement, displaying a bimodal distribution composed of common alleles (*22-*26), and rare short alleles (*18-*20), with an intermediate allele (*21) being absent. DYS390*20, previously reported only in Papuans and Samoans, is observed for the first time in Aboriginals. Compared with a recent study of Aboriginals, our sample exhibits considerable diversity in the haplotypes associated with the rare DYS390*19 allele, indicating that this allele is of considerable antiquity, if it arose as a single deletion event. Combining all 4 Y-chromosome-linked microsatellites produced 41 unique haplotypes, which were linked using a median-joining network. This network shows that most (78%) of our Aboriginal haplotypes fall into 2 distinct clusters, which likely represent 2 separate lineages. Seven haplotypes are shared with haplotypes found in a recent study of Aboriginals, and 7 are shared with a Spanish population. The cluster of Aboriginal haplotypes associated with the short DYS390 alleles does not share any haplotypes with the Spanish, indicating that this cluster of haplotypes is unique to Australian Aboriginals. Limited data from 4 worldwide populations used to construct haplotypes based on 3 loci (DYS19, DYS390, DYS392) show that only 4 of these haplotypes are seen in Australian Aboriginals. Shared haplotypes may be the result of admixture and/or recurrent mutation at these

  5. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  6. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  7. Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  8. Enhancing Opportunities for Australian Aboriginal Literacy Learners in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lee; Clancy, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the context of contemporary Australian society, the education system is still failing to increase educational outcomes among the majority of Australian Aboriginal (1) learners. This educational dilemma has persisted despite the regular introduction of systemic initiatives and funding aimed at addressing Australian Aboriginal learners' low…

  9. Did Aboriginal vegetation burning affect the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)

  10. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    OpenAIRE

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M.; Sved, J; Boettcher, B.

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some id...

  11. Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye Janice Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal people have among the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD worldwide. We investigated clinical diagnosis, risk factors, comorbidities and vaccine coverage in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal IPD cases. Using enhanced surveillance, we identified IPD cases in Western Australia, Australia, between 1997 and 2007. We calculated the proportion with risk factors and comorbidities in children (<5 years and adults (≥15 years, as well as adults living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. We then calculated the proportion of cases eligible for vaccination who were vaccinated before contracting IPD. Of the 1,792 IPD cases that were reported, 355 (20% were Aboriginal and 1,155 (65% were adults. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (61% of non-Aboriginal and 49% of Aboriginal adult IPD cases in 2001-2007. Congenital abnormality was the most frequent comorbidity in non-Aboriginal children (11%. In Aboriginal children, preterm delivery was most common (14%. Ninety-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 96% of Aboriginal adults had one or more risk factors or comorbidities. In non-Aboriginal adults, cardiovascular disease (34% was the predominant comorbidity whilst excessive alcohol use (66% was the most commonly reported risk factor in Aboriginal adults. In adults, comorbidities were more frequently reported among those in metropolitan regions than those in non-metropolitan regions. Vaccination status was unknown for 637 of 1,082 cases post-July 2001. Forty-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 60% of Aboriginal children were eligible for vaccination but were not vaccinated. Among adults with risk factors who were eligible for vaccination and with known vaccination status, 75% Aboriginal and 94% non-Aboriginal were not vaccinated. An all-of-life immunisation register is needed to evaluate vaccine coverage and effectiveness in preventing IPD in adults.

  12. Co-operative inquiry: the development of a visual impairment prevention program initiative for two Aboriginal communities in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Meri; Baxter, Sarah

    2003-10-01

    Impaired vision and blindness are two serious health problems in Australian Aboriginals. In an initiative known as the Visual Impairment Prevention Program (VIPP) commonwealth funding was made available to each state/territory to improve eye status of the Aboriginal population. The South Australian Department of Human Services selected two Aboriginal communities to take part in this initiative. This paper outlines how Flinders University participated in this process. The aim was to conduct an eye program for Aboriginal health workers and develop eye health promotional resources for educational use in the Aboriginal community. The principles of Co-Operative Inquiry were used to guide the process. An evaluation indicated that both products were culturally acceptable to the Aboriginal community. PMID:14649529

  13. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  14. Australian Aboriginal Unemployment: Is It a Case of Psychological Readiness or Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Graham

    Australian aboriginal unemployment stands at somewhere between 45 percent and 80 percent, a situation caused, according to certain observers, by aboriginal attitudes and values regarding work and by educational disadvantage, not by anything in the working environment. According to this view, aborigines are said to be lacking in motivation, to…

  15. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines. PMID:9848966

  16. Songlines and Navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal Cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Australian Aboriginal language groups, using previously unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass, and by using it as a mnemonic

  17. Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

  18. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  19. The predictive value of albuminuria for renal and nonrenal natural deaths over 14 years follow-up in a remote aboriginal community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zaimin; Wendy E. Hoy

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian aboriginal people living in remote regions have extraordinary higher rates of mortality compared with other Australian ethnicities. Albuminuria marks the underlying renal disease. This study assessed the predictive value of albuminuria for nonrenal and renal deaths in a remote Australian aboriginal community over a follow-up period of >14 years. Methods From 1992 to 1997, 85% of community members participated in a health screen, which included measurement of urine albumi...

  20. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant variation exists in published Aboriginal mortality and life expectancy (LE) estimates due to differing and evolving methodologies required to correct for inadequate recording of Aboriginality in death data, under-counting of Aboriginal people in population censuses, and unexplained growth in the Aboriginal population attributed to changes in the propensity of individuals to identify as Aboriginal at population censuses. The objective of this paper is to analyse variation in reported Australian Aboriginal mortality in terms of LE and infant mortality rates (IMR), compared with all Australians. Methods Published data for Aboriginal LE and IMR were obtained and analysed for data quality and method of estimation. Trends in reported LE and IMR estimates were assessed and compared with those in the entire Australian population. Results LE estimates derived from different methodologies vary by as much as 7.2 years for the same comparison period. Indirect methods for estimating Aboriginal LE have produced LE estimates sensitive to small changes in underlying assumptions, some of which are subject to circular reasoning. Most indirect methods appear to under-estimate Aboriginal LE. Estimated LE gaps between Aboriginal people and the overall Australian population have varied between 11 and 20 years. Latest mortality estimates, based on linking census and death data, are likely to over-estimate Aboriginal LE. Temporal LE changes by each methodology indicate that Aboriginal LE has improved at rates similar to the Australian population overall. Consequently the gap in LE between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population appears to be unchanged since the early 1980s, and at the end of the first decade of the 21st century remains at least 11–12 years. In contrast, focussing on the 1990–2010 period Aboriginal IMR declined steeply over 2001–08, from more than 12 to around 8 deaths per 1,000 live births, the same level as Australia overall in

  1. Meteorite Falls and Cosmic Impacts in Australian Aboriginal Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2009-09-01

    The witness and cultural impact of meteorite falls and cosmic impacts has been studied extensively in some world cultures, including cultures of Europe, China, and the Middle East. However, ethnographic records and oral traditions of meteorite falls in Aboriginal culture remain relatively unknown to the scientific community. Various Aboriginal stories from across Australia describe meteorite falls with seemingly accurate detail, frequently citing a specific location, including Wilcannia, NSW; Meteor Island, WA; Hermannsburg, NT; McGrath Flat, SA; and Bodena, NSW among others. Most of these falls and impact sites are unknown to Western science. In addition, some confirmed impact structures are described in Aboriginal lore as having cosmic origins, including the Gosse's Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters. This paper attempts to analyse and synthesize the plethora of fragmented historic, archaeological, and ethnographic data that describe meteorite falls and cosmic impacts in the mythologies and oral traditions spanning the 300+ distinct Aboriginal groups of Australia. Where applicable, coordinates of the reputed falls and impacts are cited in order for future inspections of these sights for evidence of meteoritic masterial or impact cratering.

  2. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  3. Aboriginal, Anglo, and Immigrant Australian Students' Motivational Beliefs about Personal Academic Success: Are There Cultural Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Hinkley, John; Dowson, Martin; Van Etten, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a study in which the similarities and differences between Aboriginal Australian, Anglo Australian, and immigrant Australian students' learning-goal orientations were measured. Previous research posits that children embrace different learning goals according to their culture. In contrast, findings indicate that the profiles of all…

  4. The cranial base and calvaria index methods applied to Australian aborigine skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthlin, J H; Gadeholt, G

    1988-11-01

    Cranial base and calvaria indices were calculated on lateral skull radiographs of Australian aborigines, and compared with the values of one mummy, 4 prehistoric (fossil), and modern Scandinavian skulls. The aborigines had thicker calvarian bone and a lower forehead profile than the mummy and the modern skulls, but a higher frontal calvarium than the fossils. The aborigines may developmentally represent a link between prehistoric and modern man (including the mummy). PMID:3234401

  5. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  6. The Aboriginal Australian in Northern-Eastern Arnhem Land. Resources Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoll, Peter

    The paper examines the nature of current curriculum and resource materials related to Aboriginal studies, and reviews the curriculum materials "The Aboriginal Australian in North-Eastern Arnhem Land" which were trialled with Year 8 and Year 9 classes during 1980 in four Queensland State High Schools - Kingston, Mackay North, Murgon, and Pimlico.…

  7. Summer Institute of Linguistics Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch. Annual Report 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer Inst. of Linguistics, Darwin (Australia). Australian Aborigines Branch.

    Approximately 47,000 people in Australia speak an Aboriginal or Islander language as their first language and have better comprehension in one of these languages than in English. Recognizing this, and desiring to provide biblical translations in these languages, the Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch of the Summer Institute of Linguistics…

  8. Disturbances and Dislocations: Understanding Teaching and Learning Experiences in Australian Aboriginal Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    A White Australian professor of a class on Indigenous women's dance has her Aboriginal sister-in-law conduct workshops on Indigenous dance. The classroom dynamics resulting from the complex power relationships (teacher as White woman, Aboriginal family member, and students) disturbs Western paradigms. The responsibility of "safely delivering"…

  9. Historical Factors, Discrimination and Oral Health among Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Margie; Jamieson, Lisa; Kapellas, Kostas

    2016-02-01

    Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations. This relationship, however, is far from causal in any straight-forward way. In support of the work by Paradies, research from the U.S. also shows that racism, both explicit and subtle, contributes to chronic disease and suffering among ethnic minorities. While the exploration of the perceived or self-reported racial discrimination is recent, this concept has increasing evidence to support its relationship to poor health outcomes. PMID:26853197

  10. Early chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian children: remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage or race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, L; Williams, R; Hodson, E; Roy, L P; Lyle, D; Craig, J C

    2007-04-01

    Indigenous people suffer substantially more end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), especially Australian Aboriginals. Previous work suggests causal pathways beginning early in life. No studies have shown the prevalence of early markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children or the association with environmental health determinants--geographic remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantage. Height, weight, blood pressure, and urinary abnormalities were measured in age- and gender-matched Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children from elementary schools across diverse areas of New South Wales, Australia. Hematuria was defined as>or=25 red blood cells/microl (>or=1+), proteinuria>or=0.30 g/l (>or=1+), and albuminuria (by albumin:creatinine)>or=3.4 mg/mmol. Remoteness and socioeconomic status were assigned using the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia and Socio-Economic Indexes For Areas. From 2002 to 2004, 2266 children (55% Aboriginal, mean age 8.9 years) were enrolled from 37 elementary schools. Overall prevalence of hematuria was 5.5%, proteinuria 7.3%, and albuminuria 7.3%. Only baseline hematuria was more common in Aboriginal children (7.1 versus 3.6%; P=0.002). At 2-year follow-up, 1.2% of Aboriginal children had persistent hematuria that was no different from non-Aboriginal children (P=0.60). Socioeconomic disadvantage and geographical isolation were neither significant nor consistent risk factors for any marker of CKD. Aboriginal children have no increase in albuminuria, proteinuria, or persistent hematuria, which are more important markers for CKD. This suggests ESKD in Aboriginal people may be preventable during early adult life. PMID:17311073

  11. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Laura M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1 quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors; (2 qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems.

  12. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  13. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The st...

  14. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue: Australian Aboriginal Students' Schematic Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.; Sharifian, Farzad

    2005-01-01

    Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its…

  15. Environment and morphology in Australian Aborigines: a re-analysis of the Birdsell database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ian; Bulbeck, David

    2007-09-01

    Pursuant to his major research interest in the cultural ecology of hunter-gatherers, Birdsell collected an unparalleled body of phenotypic data on Aboriginal Australians during the mid twentieth century. Birdsell did not explicitly relate the geographic patterning in his data to Australia's climatic variation, instead arguing that the observable differences between groups reflect multiple origins of Australian Aborigines. In this article, bivariate correlation and multivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between climatic variables and the body build of Australians that are consistent with the theoretical expectations of Bergmann's and Allen's rules. While Australian Aborigines in comparison to Eurasian and New World populations can be generally described as long-headed, linear in build, and characterized by elongated distal limbs, the variation in this morphological pattern across the continent evidently reflects biological adaptation to local Holocene climates. These results add to a growing body of evidence for the role of environmental selection in the development of modern human variation. PMID:17568440

  16. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  17. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. PMID:26654863

  18. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  19. Maternal health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1989-08-01

    Undernutrition is widespread in Australian Aboriginal infants and children and is associated with high rates of infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Maternal ill-health and undernutrition seem to be neglected factors which contribute to the high incidence of low birthweight in Aboriginal babies and to their poor growth in the first five years of life. More effective preventive programmes are needed to help overcome these problems. PMID:2514558

  20. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen SC; Hollinsworth D

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both de...

  1. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in bot...

  2. Successful Transition to School for Australian Aboriginal Children: The 2005 International Focus Issue of Childhood Education Focused on the Education of Aboriginal and Indigenous Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Mason, Terry; Perry, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal people have been described as the most educationally disadvantaged group of people within Australia. Their participation rates at all levels of education are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. In an effort to enhance the learning and teaching of Aboriginal students, education systems are seeking appropriate strategies and…

  3. “No More Boomerang”: Environment and Technology in Contemporary Aboriginal Australian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral traditions and song cycles, contemporary Aboriginal Australian poetry is full of allusions to the environment. Not merely a physical backdrop for human activities, the ancient Aboriginal landscape is a nexus of ecological, spiritual, material, and more-than-human overlays—and one which is increasingly compromised by modern technological impositions. In literary studies, while Aboriginal poetry has become the subject of critical interest, few studies have foregrounded the interconnections between environment and technology. Instead, scholarship tends to focus on the socio-political and cultural dimensions of the writing. How have contemporary Australian Aboriginal poets responded to the impacts of environmental change and degradation? How have poets addressed the effects of modern technology in ancestral environments, or country? This article will develop an ecocritical and technology-focused perspective on contemporary Aboriginal poetry through an analysis of the writings of three significant literary-activists: Jack Davis (1917–2000, Oodgeroo Noonuccal (1920–1993, and Lionel Fogarty (born 1958. Davis, Noonuccal, and Fogarty strive poetically to draw critical attention to the particular impacts of late modernist technologies on Aboriginal people and country. In developing a critique of invasive technologies that adversely affect the environment and culture, their poetry also invokes the Aboriginal technologies that sustained (and, in places, still sustain people in reciprocal relation to country.

  4. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  5. A germline MTOR mutation in Aboriginal Australian siblings with intellectual disability, dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and small thoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynam, Gareth; Overkov, Angela; Davis, Mark; Mina, Kym; Schofield, Lyn; Allcock, Richard; Laing, Nigel; Cook, Matthew; Dawkins, Hugh; Goldblatt, Jack

    2015-07-01

    We report on three Aboriginal Australian siblings with a unique phenotype which overlaps with known megalencephaly syndromes and RASopathies, including Costello syndrome. A gain-of-function mutation in MTOR was identified and represents the first reported human condition due to a germline, familial MTOR mutation. We describe the findings in this family to highlight that (i) the path to determination of pathogenicity was confounded by the lack of genomic reference data for Australian Aboriginals and that (ii) the disease biology, functional analyses in this family, and studies on the tuberous sclerosis complex support consideration of an mTOR inhibitor as a therapeutic agent. PMID:25851998

  6. Lip and tongue pressures related to dental arch and oral cavity size in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffit, W R; McGlone, R E; Barrett, M J

    1975-01-01

    Although the oral cavity and dental arches of the Australian aborigine are large, studies of lingual and labial pressures indicate that the tongue is neither unusually large nor strong. The Australian aborigine's pharyngeal cavity is smaller in height and depth than that of the American; just the opposite is true for the oral cavity. To the extent that environmental factors are important at all, the resting pressure of the lips, not tongue pressure during swallowing, is probably the significant determinant of dental arch dimensions. PMID:1059654

  7. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson; Terri Farrelly; Ryan Frazer; Fiona Borthwick

    2015-01-01

    Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insight...

  8. An ancient common origin of aboriginal Australians and New Guinea highlanders is supported by alpha-globin haplotype analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts-Thomson, J. M.; Martinson, J. J.; Norwich, J. T.; Harding, R M; Clegg, J B; Boettcher, B.

    1996-01-01

    The origins of aboriginal Australians and their relationship with New Guineans and neighboring Southeast Asians remains controversial. We have studied the alpha-globin haplotype composition of an aboriginal tribe from central Australia, to address some of the ambiguities of previous studies. Australians have a haplotype repertoire that is shared with New Guinea highlanders, a fact that strongly supports a common origin of these two populations. Further, Australians and New Guinea highlanders ...

  9. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  10. Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla M.

    2009-07-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.

  11. Australian Curriculum Implementation in a Remote Aboriginal School: A Curriculum Leader's Search for a Transformational Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the trial implementation of the Australian Curriculum in a remote Aboriginal school. It was a school that at the time was beginning to achieve successes with the development of dual-knowledge, transformational outcomes based curriculum that had its justification in the Northern Territory Curriculum Framework. Drawing on the…

  12. Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch. Up to December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Alison, Comp.

    This bibliography is primarily a listing of works by current or former members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch (SIL-AAIB), but also lists works by non SIL-AAIB members that are included in publications edited and/or published by the organization. Unpublished works are not included, with the…

  13. Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

    These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

  14. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  15. Health literacy in relation to cancer: addressing the silence about and absence of cancer discussion among Aboriginal people, communities and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2013-11-01

    Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal Australians are poorer when compared with cancer outcomes for non-Aboriginal Australians despite overall improvements in cancer outcomes. One concept used to examine inequities in health outcomes between groups is health literacy. Recent research and advocacy have pointed to the importance of increasing health literacy as it relates to cancer among Aboriginal people. This study examined individual, social and cultural aspects of health literacy relevant to cancer among Aboriginal patients, carers and their health workers in New South Wales. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people who had been diagnosed with cancer, 18 people who were carers of Aboriginal people with cancer and 16 healthcare workers (eight Aboriginal and eight non-Aboriginal health workers). Awareness, knowledge and experience of cancer were largely absent from people's lives and experiences until they were diagnosed, illustrating the need for cancer awareness raising among Aboriginal people, communities and services. Some beliefs about cancer (particularly equating cancer to death) differed from mainstream Western biomedical views of the body and cancer and this served to silence discussion on cancer. As such, these beliefs can be used to inform communication and help illuminate how beliefs can shape responses to cancer. Participants proposed some practical strategies that could work to fill absences in knowledge and build on beliefs about cancer. These results were characterised by a silence about cancer, an absence of discussions of cancer and an acknowledgement of an already full health agenda for Aboriginal communities. To promote health literacy in relation to cancer would require a multi-layered programme of work involving grass-roots community education, workers and Board members of Aboriginal community-controlled health organisations and speciality cancer services, with a particular focus on programmes to bridge community-based primary

  16. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  17. The Australian Aboriginal People: How to Misunderstand Their Science

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2014-01-01

    Just one generation ago, schoolkids were taught that Aboriginal people couldn't count beyond five, wandered the desert scavenging for food, had no civilization or religion, had no agriculture, couldn't navigate, didn't build houses, and peacefully acquiesced when Western Civilisation rescued them in 1788. How did we get it so wrong? Here I show that traditional Aboriginal people knew a great deal about the sky, knew the cycles of movements of the stars and the complex motions of the sun, moon and planets. I argue that school students studying science today could learn much from the way that pre-contact Aboriginal people used observation to build a self-consistent picture of the world around them, with predictive power and practical applications.

  18. Mineral resources in lands owned by Australian aborigines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, P.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of British legal treatment of aboriginal natives in Australia focuses on land rights and the ownership of mineral resources. After nearly 200 years of denying the rights of aborigines, legislation began in the 1970s to grant traditional tribal lands in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and New South Wales, with similar action imminent in Victoria. The grants confer a right of exclusive occupation, but do not make the land immune from access for mining purposes by authorized persons. Aborigines have more control over access by outsiders for mining purposes than do ordinary land owners, and have the authority to exact payments as a condition of access from mining operators and royalties from the state. Neither the restraints nor the rights are uniform. Hostility on the part of the mining industry is expected to lessen as negotiations proceed.

  19. "They should come out here ...": research findings on lack of local palliative care services for Australian aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Holewa, Hamish; Kail-Buckley, Stasia

    2007-01-01

    Although Aboriginal Australians experience morbidity and mortality rates far greater than that of the wider Australian population, to date, their access to culturally appropriate palliative care services has remained unexplored. This article provides findings from an Australian National Health and Medical Research funded study that documents the availability of palliative care services to Aboriginal peoples of the Northern Territory, Australia. The data were collected through a series of open-ended, qualitative interviews with a cross section of Aboriginal peoples and health professionals conducted during a 2-year period. The findings provide an overview of the palliative care services that are presently available and reflect a serious lack of local, culturally appropriate palliative care services. This research shows the similarities in the struggles and difficulties faced by Australian Aboriginals and Indigenous peoples worldwide. The hope is that the suggestions put forward for improvement will one day be useful for the world's Indigenous peoples. PMID:17502434

  20. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  1. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27070114

  2. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447

  3. Multiple strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in skin sores of aboriginal Australians.

    OpenAIRE

    Carapetis, J; Gardiner, D; Currie, B; Mathews, J D

    1995-01-01

    A molecular technique (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) was used to characterize group A streptococcal (GAS) strains among 194 isolates from 55 swabs from 12 Australian Aboriginal children and adults with multiple pyoderma lesions. Ninety-three percent of the lesions contained only one strain of GAS, but 8 of 12 individuals were infected with more than one strain. We conclude that accurate epidemiologic surveys require that more than one swab specimen be obtained from each person, whe...

  4. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  5. X-chromosome-linked inheritance of the variant thyroxine-binding globulin in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refetoff, S; Murata, Y

    1985-02-01

    The inheritance of quantitative changes in serum T4-binding globulin (TBG; reduced or elevated serum levels) and electrophoretic variants of TBG have been shown to be X-chromosome linked. However, it recently was suggested that another TBG variant, widely distributed in the Australian Aborigine population, may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. This communication deals with studies directed to the elucidation of the mode of inheritance of the Aboriginal variant TBG. By measuring the rate of denaturation of TBG at 56 C, we identified three distinct types of TBG in Australian Aborigines. One was a relatively heat-stable TBG (mean t1/2, 58.0 min; range, 68-53 min; group A), indistinguishable from TBG in caucasians (mean t1/2, 55.1; range, 67-43); another was a heat-labile TBG (mean t1/2, 20.8 min; range, 23.7-18.4 min; group C); and a third had intermediate values (mean t1/2, 35.7 min; range, 39.5-30.6 min; group B). Serum samples from the latter group belonged exclusively to women. Assuming that individuals from group A were homozygous for the caucasian type TBG (TBGCC), those from group C were homozygous for the Aboriginal variant of TBG (TBGAA), and individuals from group B were heterozygous (TBGCA), gene frequencies were calculated for the product of TBGC and TBGA, and the incidence of expected genotypes was compared to that observed. The results are compatible with X-chromosome, but not autosomal, inheritance, with a gene frequency of TBGC of 0.4118 and of TBGA of 0.5882. The ability to identify individuals who are heterozygous for the Aboriginal variant TBG confirmed that the structural gene of TBG in man is located on the X-chromosome. PMID:3917459

  6. Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education. Proceedings of the Conference (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, November 17-18, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.

    Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu School Read Glenyse Ward's…

  7. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Curnoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  8. A 'cold-case' review of historic aboriginal and European-Australian encounters with toxic blooms of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John

    2012-09-01

    Interest in preserving the cultural knowledge of Aboriginal Australians continues to rise. Various studies have erupted which aim to redefine knowledge that was once lost or obscured in writing and hitherto ignored. Recognising and acknowledging the traditional Aboriginal knowledge of the Australian environment helps to strengthen Aboriginal identity and gives credibility to the rising paradigm of ecotechnology in historic pre-European Australia. This review aims to establish knowledge of a traditional awareness of factors leading towards eutrophication in water resource management. Journals from pioneering explorers were examined for evidence of cyanobacterial blooms and examples of Aboriginal water resource management practices that aimed at avoiding health threats from poor water quality. Some cultural practices, focused on water resource management, are discussed with brief mentioned of the Waugal. It is concluded that in some cases the incorporation of scientific laws into mythology is a form of conceptual modelling compatible with science if examined carefully. PMID:22777052

  9. Reduced nephron number and glomerulomegaly in Australian Aborigines: a group at high risk for renal disease and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Singh, G R; Douglas-Denton, R; Bertram, J F

    2006-07-01

    Aborigines in remote areas of Australia have much higher rates of renal disease, as well as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, than non-Aboriginal Australians. We compared kidney findings in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in one remote region. Glomerular number and mean glomerular volume were estimated with the disector/fractionator combination in the right kidney of 19 Aborigines and 24 non-Aboriginal people undergoing forensic autopsy for sudden or unexpected death in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Aborigines had 30% fewer glomeruli than non-Aborigines--202,000 fewer glomeruli per kidney, or an estimated 404,000 fewer per person (P=0.036). Their mean glomerular volume was 27% larger (P=0.016). Glomerular number was significantly correlated with adult height, inferring a relationship with birthweight, which, on average, is much lower in Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people with a history of hypertension had 30% fewer glomeruli than those without--250,000 fewer per kidney (P=0.03), or 500,000 fewer per person, and their mean glomerular volume was about 25% larger. The lower nephron number in Aboriginal people is compatible with their susceptibility to renal failure. The additional nephron deficit associated with hypertension is compatible with other reports. Lower nephron numbers are probably due in part to reduced nephron endowment, which is related to a suboptimal intrauterine environment. Compensatory glomerular hypertrophy in people with fewer nephrons, while minimizing loss of total filtering surface area, might be exacerbating nephron loss. Optimization of fetal growth should ultimately reduce the florid epidemic of renal disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:16723986

  10. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th and 227Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: 210Po>>226210[234Usimilar238[230Thsimilar232Th]. The 210Po/210Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially 226Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. PMID:24958498

  12. An investigation of admixture in an Australian Aboriginal Y-chromosome STR database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Wilcox, Stephen; Henry, Julianne; Turakulov, Rust; Mitchell, R John

    2012-09-01

    .A.) were significantly different to those seen in samples from the Northern Territory and Western Australia. In S.A., K* (∼60%) has a much higher frequency than C4 (∼40%), and the subgroup of C4, C4(DYS390.1del), comprised only 17%. Clearly admixture in the paternal line is at high levels among males who identify themselves as Australian Aboriginals and this knowledge may have implications for the compilation and use of Y-STR databases in frequency estimates. PMID:22297081

  13. Globalising Aboriginal Reconciliation: Indigenous Australians and Asian (Japanese Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Hokari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, I have attended several political meetings concerned with the refugee crisis, multiculturalism or Indigenous rights in Australia, meetings at which liberal democratic–minded ‘left-wing’ people came together to discuss, or agitate for change in, governmental policies. At these meetings, I always found it difficult to accept the slogans on their placards and in their speeches: ‘Shame Australia! Reconciliation for a united Australia’, ‘Wake up Australia! We welcome refugees!’ or ‘True Australians are tolerant! Let’s celebrate multicultural Australia!’ My uncomfortable feeling came not only from the fact that I was left out because of my Japanese nationality but also because I had never seen or heard words like ‘shame Japan’, ‘wake up Japan’ or ‘true Japanese are ...’ at Japanese ‘left-wing’ political gatherings. In Japan, these are words used only by right-wing nationalists. Indeed it is difficult to even imagine liberal-left intellectuals in postwar Japan calling for a ‘true Japanese’ political response (as if such a response was positive, such is the extent to which the idea of ‘good nationalism’ is now regarded as an oxymoron. This is my starting point for an essay in which I want to be attentive to the different roles played by national(ism in the Japanese and Australian political environments.

  14. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P. [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS), Jabiru (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 227}Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: {sup 210}Po>>{sup 226210}[{sup 234}Usimilar{sup 238}[{sup 230}Thsimilar{sup 232}Th]. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially {sup 226}Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Rhetoric, Aboriginal Australians and the Northern Territory Intervention: A Socio-legal Investigation into Pre-legislative Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Roffee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented within this article is a systematic discourse analysis of the arguments used by the then Australian Prime Minister and also the Minister for Indigenous Affairs in explaining and justifying the extensive and contentious intervention by the federal government into remote Northern Territory Aboriginal communities. The methods used within this article extend the socio-legal toolbox, providing a contextually appropriate, interdisciplinary methodology that analyses the speech act’s rhetorical properties. Although many academics use sound-bites of pre-legislative speech in order to support their claims, this analysis is concerned with investigating the contents of the speech acts in order to understand how the Prime Minister’s and Minister for Indigenous Affairs’ argumentations sought to achieve consensus to facilitate the enactment of legislation. Those seeking to understand legislative endeavours, policy makers and speech actors will find that paying structured attention to the rhetorical properties of speech acts yields opportunities to strengthen their insight. The analysis here indicates three features in the argumentation: the duality in the Prime Minister’s and Minister’s use of the Northern Territory Government’s Little Children are Sacred report; the failure to sufficiently detail the linkages between the Intervention and the measures combatting child sexual abuse; and the omission of recognition of Aboriginal agency and consultation.

  16. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  17. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  18. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  19. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  20. The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy Three Years On: What Is the Evidence? What Does It Indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA), which began operation as part of the government schooling system in 2010, incorporates activities across three overlapping "domains": Class--the formal schooling component; Culture--Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultural knowledge; and Club--sporting, cultural, music and physical…

  1. Community Development and Research. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Developpement Communautaire et Recherches. Collection sur les Autochtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community…

  2. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  3. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

  4. Structuring oil and gas joint ventures with aboriginal communities: conference papers conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Insight Conference featured twelve articles on the following topics: 1 - researching and understanding your legal partners; II - an aboriginal game plan - a plan for success; III - legal and management issues relating to aboriginal ventures; IV - tax status of reserve-based aboriginal people and businesses under the Indian Act; v - first nations as exempt bodies under the Income Tax Act; V I - innovative options for structuring oil and gas leases and exploration permits on aboriginal lands; VII - joint venture and partnership arrangements; V III - the impact of taxation on aboriginal ventures; I X - bankruptcy and insolvency issues for on-reserve businesses; X - financing options for oil and gas ventures with first nations; XI - Syncrude's commitment to aboriginal development; and X II - structuring oil and gas ventures with aboriginal communities. Articles abstracted/indexed separately include: I, II, V I (2), V III, X, XI, and X II

  5. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  6. Characterisation of novel and rare Y-chromosome short tandem repeat alleles in self-declared South Australian Aboriginal database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tegan E; Ottens, Renee; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Nagle, Nano; Henry, Julianne; Taylor, Duncan; Gardner, Michael G; Fitch, Alison J; Goodman, Amanda; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Mitchell, R John; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are used in forensic science laboratories all over the world, as their application is wide and often vital in solving casework. Analysis of an in-house database of South Australian self-declared Aboriginal males held by Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA) using the Applied Biosystem's AmpFℓSTR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit revealed 43 variant Y-STR alleles at 6 of the 17 loci. All variant alleles were sequenced to determine the exact repeat structure for each. As a high level of admixture has previously been found within the SA Aboriginal database, samples were haplogrouped using Y-SNPs to determine their likely geographical origin. Although a number of variant alleles were associated with non-Aboriginal Y-haplogroups, a high frequency was observed within the Australian K-M9 lineage. Detailed knowledge of these variant alleles may have further application in the development of new DNA markers for identification purposes, and in population and evolutionary studies of Australian Aborigines. PMID:24048501

  7. Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities. Corrections. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Comprendre le role de la guerison dans les collectivites autochtones. Affaires correctionnelles. Collection sur les autochtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawll, Marcia B.

    Written in English and French, this report presents views of Canadian Aboriginal community members about developing healthy communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with elders, youth, parents, political leaders, victims, offenders, and government employees in five Aboriginal communities, and telephone and mail surveys were conducted in…

  8. The Importance of Insects in Australian Aboriginal Society: A Dictionary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Si

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects and their products have long been used in Indigenous Australian societies as food, medicine and construction material, and given prominent roles in myths, traditional songs and ceremonies. However, much of the available information on the uses of insects in Australia remains anecdotal. In this essay, we review published dictionaries of Aboriginal languages spoken in many parts of Australia, to provide an overview of the Indigenous names and knowledge of insects and their products. We find that that native honeybees and insect larvae (particularly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are the most highly prized insects, and should be recognized as cultural keystone species. Many insects mentioned in dictionaries lack scientific identifications, however, and we urge documentary linguists to address this important issue.

  9. Mathematical and descriptive classification of variations in dental arch shape in an Australian aborigine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, J K; Molnar, S

    1988-01-01

    The ability to describe dental arch shape is necessary for biomechanical studies of occlusion as well as for anthropological studies of human and primate dental variation. A mathematical method of describing and classifying human dental arch shape was used to assess the nature of individual variability. The method involved the calculation of a series of third-degree polynomials which were fitted to coordinate points along the dental arcade. The slopes of the polynomials, evaluated at these coordinate points, provided a multivariate description of shape, independent of arch size. Graphic representations of arch shape could be constructed from the polynomial equations. These mathematical techniques were used in association with multivariate and univariate statistics to explore the types of variability in dental arch shape among a population of Australian aborigines. The results illustrated the ambiguities of conventional subjective classifications. PMID:3256297

  10. The evolution and diversity of TNF block haplotypes in European, Asian and Australian Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, F P; Tan, C R T; Temple, S E; Phipps, M; Witt, C S; Kaur, G; Gut, I; McGinn, S; Allcock, R J N; Chew, C S N; Price, P

    2009-10-01

    The region spanning the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) cluster in the human major histocompatibility complex is implicated in susceptibility to immunopathological disease, but ethnic differences and linkage disequilibrium have hampered identification of critical polymorphisms. Here, we investigate Europeans, Asians (Bidayuh, Chinese, Indian, Jehai, Malay, Temuan) and Australian Aborigines to provide a framework for disease-association studies. DNA from 999 unrelated healthy donors was genotyped at 38 loci, primarily in coding and promoter regions over a 60-kb region spanning seven genes near TNF. The PHASE algorithm was used to statistically infer TNF block haplotypes and estimate their frequencies in each population. The TNF block is carried as 31 haplotypes in all populations combined, with 160,000 years ago. Some haplotypes are unique to isolated populations, but they do not contain unique SNP. Hence, they reflect restricted migration and/or extinction of some families rather than de novo mutation. PMID:19536152

  11. Sexual dimorphism in crown units of mandibular deciduous and permanent molars in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, S; Townsend, G C

    2004-01-01

    Sexual differences in the crown units of mandibular molars were investigated in Australian Aborigines. The first and second deciduous molars (dm1 and dm2), and first to third permanent molars (M1, M2 and M3) were measured on dental casts using a sliding caliper. Measurements of tooth crowns included overall mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of the trigonid and talonid. Percentage dimorphism values were greater in the talonid dimensions than the trigonid, indicating that sex differences tend to be larger in the later-developing crown units. Sex differences in mesiodistal diameters increased from dm1 to M2 but decreased for M3, the tooth that showed the least dimorphism of all the molars. This result seems to be due to the marked variability in size of the M3 between individuals. PMID:15553268

  12. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Misan, G.; Jamieson, L. M.; L. Richards; H. Mills; A. Russell; Shearer, M.; Parker, E J

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencin...

  13. Using theory to improve low back pain care in Australian Aboriginal primary care: a mixed method single cohort pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ivan B; Coffin, Juli; O’Sullivan, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) care is frequently discordant with research evidence. This pilot study evaluated changes in LBP care following a systematic, theory informed intervention in a rural Australian Aboriginal Health Service. We aimed to improve three aspects of care; reduce inappropriate LBP radiological imaging referrals, increase psychosocial oriented patient assessment and, increase the provision of LBP self-management information to patients. Methods Three interventions to improv...

  14. The health of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoGiudice, Dina

    2016-06-01

    The health of Aboriginal Australians is poorer than that of all other Indigenous cultures in developed nations, and recent studies suggest high rates of dementia and other conditions that are common in old age. This has implications for health promotion, provision of services and planning for older age in these communities. This article provides an overview on the health of Older Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27155822

  15. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

  16. Dental arch form in three Pacific populations: a comparison with Japanese and Australian aboriginal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, K; Kanazawa, E; Aboshi, H; Richards, L C; Matsuno, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information about arch shape variations among South Pacific populations. The application of Fourier transforms, Y(phi i) = ao/2 + sigma (aicos phi i + bisin phi i) was used to separate two components of variation; size and shape. Dental arch size can be described by one coefficient (ao), while the shape can be summarized by the first three harmonics (amp1-3) in the Fourier series. The materials used in this study were dental casts of South Pacific populations (Fiji, Western Samoa and Kiribati), Australian Aboriginals and Japanese. Fijians, Western Samoans and Kiribati people have larger upper and lower dental arches than that of Japanese. These populations were separated by the arch size and first Fourier amplitudes which showed the arch depth/width ratio. The Fijian upper and lower dental arches were significantly larger than those found in other populations and was characterized by a wide posterior arch breadth. The Western Samoan and Kiribati arch shape was more similar to the Japanese arch shape than the Fijian. Distribution patterns of arch shape characteristics in these populations showed the same tendencies in the upper and lower arches. PMID:9476433

  17. Evaluation of relative comparator and k0-NAA for characterization of Aboriginal Australian ochre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical 'fingerprint'. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity (sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k0-NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in 'fingerprinting' the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed. (author)

  18. High Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Non-Vaccine Serotypes in Western Australian Aboriginal People Following 10 Years of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jacinta; Jones, Jade; Stemberger, Natalie A.; Richmond, Peter C.; Leach, Amanda J.; Lehmann, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA) since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. Methods We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried pneumococci. A large proportion of circulating serotypes are not covered by any currently licensed vaccine. PMID:24349245

  19. Possible association of high urinary magnesium and taurine to creatinine ratios with metabolic syndrome risk reduction in Australian aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Atsumi; Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Hideki; Thorpe, Marjorie; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16-79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%). After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre) (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.57; P Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine. PMID:21738855

  20. First Genome-Wide Association Study in an Australian Aboriginal Population Provides Insights into Genetic Risk Factors for Body Mass Index and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Scaman, Elizabeth S. H.; Davis, Elizabeth; Miles, Simon J.; McLeay, Toby; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as PAboriginal people in Australia >45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5’ of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5’ of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin’s transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population. PMID:25760438

  1. First genome-wide association study in an Australian aboriginal population provides insights into genetic risk factors for body mass index and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Anderson

    Full Text Available A body mass index (BMI >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7 for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R. PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7 was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5, previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6 for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1 and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1 functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4 for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6 for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.

  2. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  3. Australian First Nations University: A Discussion on the Establishment of an Aboriginal University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Errol

    1994-01-01

    A number of issues in the establishment of an Aboriginal university in Australia are examined, including support in the Aborigine population, academic standards, acceptance and recognition among mainstream institutions, racism, availability of qualified leadership, and site selection. A multicampus model is outlined. (MSE)

  4. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  5. Emerging opportunities between the Aboriginal communities and the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of oil and gas resources from Indian Reserve lands across Canada is the responsibility of Indian Oil and Gas Canada (IOGC). The IOGC issues and executes all agreements relating to exploration and development of oil and gas on Indian lands. Band Council signs all agreements as consenters. In the last two years, activity levels at the IOGC have exceeded average normal levels. In 1997-98, a total of 116 new wells were drilled on First Nation Lands; in 1996-97 the number of new wells drilled was 130. Currently, there are a total of 800 wells administered by the IOGC. A total of 179 oil and gas companies operate on 76 First Nation reserves in Alberta, Saskatchewan, British Columbia and Manitoba. There are 14 First Nation-owned oil and gas companies holding leases on reserve lands. This paper reviews the changes in the structuring of joint ventures and resource development arrangement with Aboriginal communities in light of the recent Delgamuukw decision

  6. Re Herrington: aboriginality and the quality of human rights jurisprudence in end-of-life decisions by the Australian judiciary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    In Re Herrington [2007] VSC 151 (King's Case) the partner and family of an Aboriginal woman (diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state after an accident) sought an order from the Victorian Supreme Court that the decision of her treating doctors to withhold further medical treatment be opposed. The resultant judicial decision contains a very brief review of the now considerable case law in this area, does not mention the increasingly important role of clinical ethics committees in this context, or discuss the relevance of recently passed human rights legislation in Victoria. Given the statutory requirement for judicial reference to international human rights norms in jurisdictions such as Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory, and their increasing importance in other developed nations, the authors highlight the need for the Australian judiciary to lift the quality of their jurisprudence in relation to end-of-life cases. PMID:18035839

  7. “There’s a housing crisis going on in Sydney for Aboriginal people”: focus group accounts of housing and perceived associations with health

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Melanie J.; Williamson, Anna B.; Fernando, Peter; Redman, Sally; Vincent, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor housing is widely cited as an important determinant of the poor health status of Aboriginal Australians, as for indigenous peoples in other wealthy nations with histories of colonisation such as Canada, the United States of America and New Zealand. While the majority of Aboriginal Australians live in urban areas, most research into housing and its relationship with health has been conducted with those living in remote communities. This study explores the views of Aboriginal pe...

  8. Is increased energy utilization linked to greater cultural complexity? Energy utilization by Australian Aboriginals and traditional swidden agriculturalists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [Expertisecentrum Duurzame Ontwikkeling en Instituut voor Biodiversiteit en Ecosysteem Dynamica ECDO/IBED, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    Theories have been proposed that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity. Indeed, available estimates of per capita non-food energy utilization by hunter - gatherers and by people practising swidden agriculture in wooded areas, focusing on fuel wood use, are roughly 1 - 2 orders of magnitude lower than for industrial societies. The latter are in the range of 0.8 - 3.4 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. However, apart from the use of fuel wood, the former estimates have not included work performed by burning vegetation. Here quantitative estimates are given of recent energy utilization linked to burning biomass by Australian Aboriginals and people practising traditional swidden agriculture. Per capita energy utilization linked to biomass burning by Australian Aboriginals is estimated at 1.6 x 10{sup 6} to 4.0 x 10{sup 7} MJ year{sup -1}. Estimated per capita energy utilization associated with burning biomass in traditional swidden agriculture in the tropical rainforests of Kalimantan and Venezuela, the dry forest of north-eastern Brazil and the miombo woodland of Zambia is in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup 5} to 6.3 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. The values for non-food energy utilization reported here are at variance with theories that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity.

  9. RENAL GLOMERULAR NUMBER AND SIZE IN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES, AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WHITE POPULATIONS FROM THE SAME LOCATIONS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bertram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available End stage renal disease is a major health problem for Australian Aborigines and African Americans. Abnormally enlarged glomeruli are commonly observed in biopsies from Aborigines and African Americans and may represent a compensatory hypertrophic response to reduced nephron endowment. We have commenced a study examining glomerular number and size, and their associations in Australian Aborigines and whites, and US African Americans and whites. Kidneys at autopsy are perfusion-fixed and subsampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number (Nglom; using the physical disector/fractionator combination, and mean renal corpuscle (Vcorp and glomerular volume (Vglom. Kidneys from 58 people have been studied to date with ages ranging from newborn to 84 years. Preliminary findings are: (1 an almost 9-fold range in Nglom (from 210,332 to 1,825,380 with a mean of 762,302; (2 Nglom decreased with age in adult life (p = 0.014; (3 Vcorp varied 19-fold in the series and 5.5-fold in adults; (4 Vglom was inversely correlated with Nglom (p = 0.004; (5 total renal corpuscle volume (Nglom × Vcorp ranged by a factor of 13.2; (6 kidney weight was correlated with body surface area (BSA at all ages (p < 0.001; (7 BSA-corrected kidney weight did not vary with age, it ranged from 47 g/m2 to 175 g/m2, a 3.7 fold difference, with an average of 92 ± 25 g/m2. These preliminary results have revealed several new and important correlations. No racial differences in glomerular number or size have yet been identified, but with greater sample sizes such differences may be revealed.

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with Strongyloides stercoralis Treatment Failure in Australian Aboriginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Russell; Esterman, Adrian; McDermott, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of serologically diagnosed cases of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection in an Aboriginal community and to describe factors that may influence the outcome of treatment. Methods Longitudinal study of a group of 92 individuals with serologically diagnosed S. stercoralis treated with ivermectin and followed up over a period of approximately 6 months. Main outcomes were serological titers pre and post treatment, diabetic status, and duration of follow up. Findings Treatment success was achieved in 62% to 79% of cases dependent on the methods employed for the diagnosis of infection and assessment of treatment outcome. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) was found to be significantly associated with treatment failure in this group for two of the three methods employed. Interpretation Ivermectin has been confirmed as an effective treatment for S stercoralis infection in this setting. T2DM appears to be an independent risk factor for treatment failure in this population, and plausible mechanisms to explain this observation are presented. PMID:26295162

  11. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Bolam; Claire Henderson-Wilson; Mardie Townsend; Jonathan Kingsley

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Count...

  12. Strategies in Aboriginal Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alan T.

    1973-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal practices render traditional adult education programs futile. Aboriginal adult education must be concerned with the growth and development of the total personality. Adopted strategies must motivate Aborigines as individuals and as members of the community. (AG)

  13. Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

  14. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bolam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  15. Crosscutting values: Aboriginal community development and the mineral industry: Proceedings of the 6. annual international conference of the Canadian Aboriginal Minerals Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land and resource management concern of First Nations, economic development, the social, economic and environmental impacts of mining on aboriginal communities, mineral/lands ownership by native communities and negotiations with mining companies were the focus of this conference which was attended by speakers from the U.S., South Africa, Australia and Canada. Advancements made in land claim settlements were also discussed

  16. An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta ({\\eta}) Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated the event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of {\\eta} Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

  17. An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J.

    2010-11-01

    We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated this event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of Eta Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

  18. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  19. Nucleotide sequences of the HLA-DRw12 and DRw8 B1 chains from an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, R M; Cram, D S; Russ, G R; Starr, R; Tait, B D

    1992-06-01

    To gain a more detailed understanding of the molecular structure of the HLA genes in Australian aborigines, the polymorphic first-domain sequences of the DR B alleles were determined in an aborigine who was tissue typed as HLA-DRw8 and a probable DRw12; DRw52; DQw1,7. Both peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line were reactive with the majority of DRw12-specific sera, but also with half of the DRw11-specific sera. With the use of primers specific for the conserved regions flanking the first domain, the polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify first-strand synthesis products prepared from the cell line. Two distinct DRB1 sequences were obtained. One was virtually identical to the reported DRw8,Dw8.3 sequence present in an Asian haplotype, differing only by a single silent nucleotide substitution at the third position of codon 36 (A to G). A second DRB allele was closely related to two recently published and nearly identical sequences for DRw12, with amino acid differences at positions 67 and 85 of the first domain. DRB RFLP studies on this cell line using the Taq I restriction enzyme indicated bands previously described for the DRw8 and DRw12 haplotypes. PMID:1358866

  20. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  1. Assets for Employment in Aboriginal Community-Based Human Services Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the prior educational and employment experiences of staff members in urban Aboriginal human services agencies. A total of 44 individuals employed by one of three community sites within one Canadian inner city generated 85 unique responses to the question: "What were your employment and education…

  2. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  3. Community Arts as Public Pedagogy: Disruptions into Public Memory through Aboriginal Counter-Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Amy; Sonn, Christopher; Kasat, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Community Arts and Cultural Development (CACD) is a form of public pedagogy that seeks to intervene into the reproduction of meaning in public spaces. In this article, we explore the Bush Babies and Elders portrait project that sought to contribute to the empowerment of Aboriginal participants through counter-storytelling. Drawing on interview and…

  4. Queering Place: The Intersection of Feminist Body Theory and Australian Aboriginal Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author used an auto-ethnographic philosophical approach to construct a fragile history of the present. Margaret Somerville reports doing this through tracing key moments and movements of queering feminist poststructural theory and evolving a queering method of body/place writing through her embeddedness in Aboriginal stories.…

  5. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies; Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

    Entries in this aboriginal studies catalogue are listed under language/tribe and subject indexes, and include linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, songs and music, and speech. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief, but in most cases, additional information is available…

  6. Writing Aboriginal English & Creoles: Five Case Studies in Australian Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbray, Samantha; Loakes, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts in Aboriginal English (AE) and creole varieties have been created by Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers for a range of purposes. In this paper, we focus on materials created in and for five educational contexts, and investigate the orthographic or spelling systems developed in each setting. Choices about orthography are guided by…

  7. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  8. Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS protocol: a cohort study investigating the significance of minor echocardiographic abnormalities in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémond Marc Gerard Wootton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, rheumatic heart disease (RHD is almost exclusively restricted to Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people with children being at highest risk. International criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD have been developed but the significance of minor heart valve abnormalities which do not reach these criteria remains unclear. The Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS aims to clarify this question in children and adolescents at high risk of RHD. Methods/design RhFFUS is a cohort study of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents aged 8–17 years residing in 32 remote Australian communities. Cases are people with non-specific heart valve abnormalities detected on prior screening echocardiography. Controls (two per case are age, gender, community and ethnicity-matched to cases and had a prior normal screening echocardiogram. Participants will have echocardiography about 3 years after initial screening echocardiogram and enhanced surveillance for any history suggestive of acute rheumatic fever (ARF. It will then be determined if cases are at higher risk of (1 ARF or (2 developing progressive echocardiography-detected valve changes consistent with RHD. The occurrence and timing of episodes of ARF will be assessed retrospectively for 5 years from the time of the RhFFUS echocardiogram. Episodes of ARF will be identified through regional surveillance and notification databases, carer/subject interviews, primary healthcare history reviews, and hospital separation diagnoses. Progression of valvular abnormalities will be assessed prospectively using transthoracic echocardiography and standardized operating and reporting procedures. Progression of valve lesions will be determined by specialist cardiologist readers who will assess the initial screening and subsequent RhFFUS screening echocardiogram for each participant. The readers will be blinded to the initial assessment and

  9. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-10-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  10. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  11. Primary Health Networks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity. PMID:27031397

  12. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Fractures of the femoral neck in Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, D J; Pearson, B

    2001-06-01

    The objective was to study patients of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin who were admitted to Cairns Base Hospital with the diagnosis of femoral neck fracture. An analysis of all 232 admissions with this diagnosis between November 1997 and July 2000 was carried out. Information was gathered from data accumulated on the Clinical Pathways database; other local data was also considered. Patients registered as being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin have a lower incidence of these fractures than might be expected on an overall population basis, but similar rates on age-standardised data. The female age profile is substantially older than the female non-indigenous osteoporotic fracture group. Indigenous females develop osteoporotic type fractures of the femoral neck at a later age than do non-indigenous females. This may reflect a genetic difference in bone mineral density or a healthy lifestyle in earlier days. Further research is suggested. PMID:11421964

  14. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Catherine L. Taylor; Stephen R Zubrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of...

  15. Australia hopes new strategy will improve health services for aboriginal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J

    1995-05-01

    Australia has embarked on a National Aboriginal Health Strategy that aims to give aboriginals equal access to health services by 2001. Although the harmful effects of colonization are now recognized, it is not possible to eradicate overnight the health problems resulting from 200 years of mistreatment and neglect, officials say. In implementing the strategy, the Australian government is spending $1.3 billion over 5 years to improve the basic infrastructure of housing, water, waste disposal, roads and communications in aboriginal communities, enhance health services and encourage more aboriginals to seek careers in health care. PMID:7728705

  16. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Ramamoorthi; Rama Jayaraj; Leonard Notaras; Mahiban Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as “Indigenous”) is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have...

  17. Structuring joint ventures and resource development arrangements between Aboriginal communities and the petroleum industry : Proceedings of an Insight Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15 presentations at this conference focused on the structuring of joint ventures with the petroleum industry and First Nations communities in the wake of the recent Delgamuukw decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, issued in December 1997. This decision asserted the right of Aboriginal communities to exclusive use and occupation of their land. The decision has created an urgent need to re-examine business relationships with Aboriginal communities and led to an increase in interest by resource industry people in Aboriginal practices, customs and traditions. Accordingly, speakers at this conference explored the consequences of self government by native communities, native cultural issues that influence the way Aboriginal people conduct business and the effect of the Supreme Court decision on land use planning in the resource-rich provinces of Canada. refs., tabs., figs

  18. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

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    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  19. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.

  20. Wurdi Youang: an Australian Aboriginal stone arrangement with possible solar indications

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P; Hamacher, Duane W; Abrahams, Reg

    2012-01-01

    Wurdi Youang is an egg-shaped Aboriginal stone arrangement in Victoria, Australia. Here we present a new survey of the site, and show that its major axis is aligned within a few degrees of east-west. We confirm a previous hypothesis that it contains alignments to the position on the horizon of the setting sun at the equinox and the solstices, and show that two independent sets of indicators are aligned in these directions. We show that these alignments are unlikely to have arisen by chance, and instead the builders of this stone arrangement appear to have deliberately aligned the site on astronomically significant positions.

  1. Wurdi Youang: an Australian Aboriginal stone arrangement with possible solar indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla; Hamacher, Duane W.; Abrahams, Reg

    2013-05-01

    Wurdi Youang is an egg-shaped Aboriginal stone arrangement in Victoria, Australia. Here we present a new survey of the site, and show that its major axis is aligned within a few degrees of east-west. We confirm a previous hypothesis that it contains alignments to the position on the horizon of the setting sun at the equinox and the solstices, and show that two independent sets of indicators are aligned in these directions. We show that these alignments are unlikely to have arisen by chance, and instead the builders of this stone arrangement appear to have deliberately aligned the site on astronomically significant positions.

  2. Structuring oil and gas ventures with Aboriginal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimee Well Servicing Ltd., a 100% Aboriginal owned company that provides safe, competitive and high quality services to the oil and gas industry, is described. Working safely at Pimee is the company's number one priority. The chiefs of each shareholder First Nation make up the board of directors. The company has learned that it is extremely important for a company's management to posses a great amount of knowledge of the business at hand, that they had to be very patient when starting up a new company, and that signed contracts are a necessity. The size of the company tripled in the past four years, and the company can provide guidance through the implementation of business and operating practices and safety and training programs

  3. Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including ...

  4. Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2003-07-01

    To study the evolutionary history of the Australian and New Guinean indigenous peoples, we analyzed 101 complete mitochondrial genomes including populations from Australia and New Guinea as well as from Africa, India, Europe, Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The genetic diversity of the Australian mitochondrial sequences is remarkably high and is similar to that found across Asia. This is in contrast to the pattern seen in previously described Y-chromosome data where an Australia-specific haplotype was found at high frequency. The mitochondrial genome data indicate that Australia was colonized between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, either by a single migration from a heterogeneous source population or by multiple movements of smaller groups occurring over a period of time. Some Australian and New Guinea sequences form clades, suggesting the possibility of a joint colonization and/or admixture between the two regions. PMID:12840039

  5. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  6. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1 quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2 identifying factors influencing participation, and (3 planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children’s dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  7. Traditional Urban Aboriginal Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Everett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a group of Aboriginal people who claim traditional Aboriginal ownership of a large Australian metropol is. They have struggled for at least the last 25 to 30 years to articulate and represent the ir contemporary group identity to the wider Australian society that very often does not take th eir expressions seriously. This is largely because dominant discourses claim that ‘authentic’ Aboriginal culture only exists in remote, pristine areas far away from western societ y and that urban Aboriginal traditions, especially urban religious traditions are, today, d efunct. This paper is an account of one occasion on which such traditional Aboriginal relig ious practice was performed before the eyes of a group of tourists.

  8. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  9. Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens 1-5 in indigenous Australians in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J A; Palmer, L J; Musk, A W; Erber, W N

    2002-06-01

    The frequencies of human platelet antigen (HPA) systems vary between different racial groups; however, HPA frequency data for some racial groups are still incomplete. We report the distribution of HPA 1-5 systems in Australian Aborigines from a remote community in the north-west of Australia and compare our findings with HPA observed in a Western Australian blood donor population. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with sequence-specific primers, 185 indigenous Australians and 1000 Western Australian blood donors were genotyped for each of the HPA 1-5 systems. Comparison of gene frequencies of alleles from HPA-1, -2, -3 and -5 systems showed significant differences between Aboriginal people and Western Australian blood donors (P Australian Aboriginals, from this study, was one of the lowest reported, whilst the frequency of HPA-5b (0.246) was one of the highest for this allele. Gene frequencies were similar to those reported for central Australian Aborigines but with no other ethnic group. In conclusion, this study confirms significant differences in HPA distributions between indigenous Australians, Australian blood donors and other racial groups. These results indicate a higher potential risk of alloimmunization to HPA-1, -2 and -3 in Australian Aborigines receiving transfusion therapy from a Caucasian blood donor population, thereby having practical implications for transfusion and pregnancy risks in people of Aboriginal origin. PMID:12071877

  10. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  11. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands development. figs

  12. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  13. From structure to substance and back: materialities in Australian Aboriginal kinship

    OpenAIRE

    Dousset, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In Race et Histoire, Lévi-Strauss wrote a few very interesting sentences, which I must quote here to some extend as a start: “For all that touches on the organization of the family and the harmonization of the relationship between family group and social group, the Australians, although backwards with regard to economy, occupy such an advanced position in comparison to the rest of humanity that it is, to understand the systems of rules that they have elaborated in a reflected and conscious m...

  14. Aboriginal medical services cure more than illness: a qualitative study of how Indigenous services address the health impacts of discrimination in Brisbane communities

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Josifini T; Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders persistently experience a significantly lower standard of health in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. The factors contributing to this disparity are complex and entrenched in a history of social inequality, disempowerment, poverty, dispossession and discrimination. Aboriginal medical services (AMS) provide a culturally appropriate alternative to mainstream medical services as a means to address this health disparity and also advocate f...

  15. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  16. Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairney Sheree J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aboriginal adults residing in the northern region of Australia's Northern Territory. Methods Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. Results After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health. Conclusion The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous

  17. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis from Australian Aboriginal people with trachoma are polyphyletic composed of multiple distinctive lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patiyan; Harris, Simon R; Smith, Helena M B Seth; Hadfield, James; O'Neill, Colette; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Douglas, Fiona P; Asche, L Valerie; Mathews, John D; Hutton, Susan I; Sarovich, Derek S; Tong, Steven Y C; Clarke, Ian N; Thomson, Nicholas R; Giffard, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted infections and the blinding disease trachoma. Current data on C. trachomatis phylogeny show that there is only a single trachoma-causing clade, which is distinct from the lineages causing urogenital tract (UGT) and lymphogranuloma venerum diseases. Here we report the whole-genome sequences of ocular C. trachomatis isolates obtained from young children with clinical signs of trachoma in a trachoma endemic region of northern Australia. The isolates form two lineages that fall outside the classical trachoma lineage, instead being placed within UGT clades of the C. trachomatis phylogenetic tree. The Australian trachoma isolates appear to be recombinants with UGT C. trachomatis genome backbones, in which loci that encode immunodominant surface proteins (ompA and pmpEFGH) have been replaced by those characteristic of classical ocular isolates. This suggests that ocular tropism and association with trachoma are functionally associated with some sequence variants of ompA and pmpEFGH. PMID:26912299

  19. Service providers' views of community participation at six Australian primary healthcare services: scope for empowerment and challenges to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Baum, Frances E; Jolley, Gwyneth M; Lawless, Angela; Edwards, Tahnia; Javanparast, Sara; Ziersch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Community participation is a key principle of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). There is little literature on how community participation is implemented at Australian PHC services. As part of a wider study conducted in partnership with five South Australian PHC services, and one Aboriginal community controlled health service in the Northern Territory, 68 staff, manager, regional health executives, and departmental funders were interviewed about community participation, perceived benefits, and factors that influenced implementation. Additional data were collected through analysis of policy documents, service reports on activity, and a web-based survey completed by 130 staff. A variety of community participation strategies was reported, ranging from consultation and participation as a means to improve service quality and acceptability, to substantive and structural participation strategies with an emphasis on empowerment. The Aboriginal community controlled health service in our study reported the most comprehensive community participation. Respondents from all services were positive about the benefits of participation but reported that efforts to involve service users had to compete with a centrally directed model of care emphasising individual treatment services, particularly at state-managed services. More empowering substantive and structural participation strategies were less common than consultation or participation used to achieve prescribed goals. The most commonly reported barriers to community participation were budget and lack of flexibility in service delivery. The current central control of the state-managed services needs to be replaced with more local management decision making if empowering community participation is to be strengthened and embedded more effectively in the culture of services. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24789355

  20. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  1. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts. PMID:25488936

  2. A Service-Learning Immersion in a Remote Aboriginal Community: Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Shane; Cain, Glenda; Hampton, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a service-learning immersion undertaken by pre-service primary teachers in a remote indigenous community and school in Western Australia. The article initially presents the purpose and significance for the immersion in the light of the Australian National Professional Standards for Teachers. The article subsequently outlines…

  3. Teacher Awareness and Understandings about Aboriginal English in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Vanderford, Samantha; Grote, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Repeated assessments of literacy skills have shown that Aboriginal students do not achieve at the same level as their non-Aboriginal peers. Many Aboriginal students speak Aboriginal English, a dialect different from the Standard Australian English used in schools. Research shows that it is crucial for educators in bidialectal contexts to be aware…

  4. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  5. Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, Joanne; Naz, Tarannum; ,; Harrington, David; Jamie, Joanne F.; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a collaboration between Macquarie University researchers and the Yaegl Aboriginal Community of northern NSW, Australia to investigate the antimicrobial potential of plants used in the topical treatment of wounds, sores and skin infections. Based on previously documented medicinal applications, aqueous and aqueous ethanolic extracts of Alocasia brisbanensis, Canavalia rosea, Corymbia intermedia, Hibbertia scandens, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Lophostemon suaveolens and Synca...

  6. The Streamlining of the Kabinakagami River Hydroelectric Project Environmental Assessment: What is the "Duty to Consult" with Other Impacted Aboriginal Communities When the Co-Proponent of the Project is an Aboriginal Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Gardner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is existing tension within many Aboriginal communities between economic development and preservation of traditional lands for the continued practice of traditional activities. The "duty to consult" doctrine has has become an important mechanism by which these concerns were identified and addressed (when possible prior to development. This is a legal requirement that is rooted in the Constitution Act (1982 and subsequent legal case law that has further defined and outlined requirements under this obligation. This article describes the process that was carried out to advance the proposed Kabinakagami River Hydro Project Class Environmental Assessment in Northern Ontario, Canada with an emphasis on the approach to Aboriginal consultation. This project is unique because the co-proponent of the project is an Aboriginal community, with several neighbouring Aboriginal communities potentially affected by the project. This project raises questions about the approach to carrying out the duty to consult in an effective way. An evaluative framework was developed to examine timeline, information, means, and flexibility and transparency of the process to highlight shortcomings in the process and make recommendations for improvement.

  7. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  8. Characterization of mutants of the vitamin-D-binding protein/group specific component: GC aborigine (1A1) from Australian aborigines and South African blacks, and 2A9 from south Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, A; Braun, A; Jenkins, T; Serjeantson, S W; Cleve, H

    1995-01-01

    The structure and organization of the human vitamin-D-binding protein gene (DBP, group-specific component, GC) have recently been determined. Each exon may now be amplified by the PCR method using oligonucleotide primers deduced from the intron sequences near their 5' ends and 3' ends. In this study we examined the anodal GC variants 1A1 and 2A9. Genomic DNA of the variant 1A1 was obtained from Australian Aborigines and from South African Bantu-speaking Blacks. Amplification and sequencing of exon 11 of 1A1 revealed a point mutation in codon 429 at the second position. It is remarkable that this mutation was found in the Australian 1A1 variant and in the African 1A1 variant, and raises the question whether the mutation in these two ethnic groups has a common origin. Genomic DNA of the 2A variant called 2A9 was obtained from South Germany and a point mutation also concerning position 429 in exon 11 was found. The nucleotide exchange in this case, however, was at the first position of the codon. The widely distributed genetic polymorphism of DBP/GC is located in exon 11 and is characterized by substitution at amino acid positions 416 and 420. Variant 1A1 is due to a second site mutation of the allele GC*1F; variant 2A9 is due to a mutation in the GC*2 allele. PMID:7725672

  9. Chagas' disease in Aboriginal and Creole communities from the Gran Chaco Region of Argentina: Seroprevalence and molecular parasitological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, R H; Brusés, B L; Cura, C I; Formichelli, L B; Juiz, N; Fernández, G J; Bisio, M; Deluca, G D; Besuschio, S; Hernández, D O; Schijman, A G

    2016-07-01

    Most indigenous ethnias from Northern Argentina live in rural areas of "the Gran Chaco" region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. Serological and parasitological features have been poorly characterized in Aboriginal populations and scarce information exist regarding relevant T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) and parasitic loads. This study was focused to characterize T. cruzi infection in Qom, Mocoit, Pit'laxá and Wichi ethnias (N=604) and Creole communities (N=257) inhabiting rural villages from two highly endemic provinces of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. DNA extracted using Hexadecyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide reagent from peripheral blood samples was used for conventional PCR targeted to parasite kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) and identification of DTUs using nuclear genomic markers. In kDNA-PCR positive samples from three rural Aboriginal communities of "Monte Impenetrable Chaqueño", minicircle signatures were characterized by Low stringency single primer-PCR and parasitic loads calculated using Real-Time PCR. Seroprevalence was higher in Aboriginal (47.98%) than in Creole (27.23%) rural communities (Chi square, p=4.e(-8)). A low seroprevalence (4.3%) was detected in a Qom settlement at the suburbs of Resistencia city (Fisher Exact test, p=2.e(-21)).The kDNA-PCR positivity was 42.15% in Aboriginal communities and 65.71% in Creole populations (Chi square, p=5.e(-4)). Among Aboriginal communities kDNA-PCR positivity was heterogeneous (Chi square, p=1.e(-4)). Highest kDNA-PCR positivity (79%) was detected in the Qom community of Colonia Aborigen and the lowest PCR positivity in two different surveys at the Wichi community of Misión Nueva Pompeya (33.3% in 2010 and 20.8% in 2014). TcV (or TcII/V/VI) was predominant in both Aboriginal and Creole communities, in agreement with DTU distribution reported for the region. Besides, two subjects were infected with TcVI, one with TcI and four presented mixed infections of TcV plus TcII/VI. Most minicircle signatures

  10. Development opportunities for northern aboriginal communities from Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Richards, a public relations specialist from Cogema Resources Inc., discussed the programmes for human resource and community development in northern Saskatchewan. This region has the world's largest known high-grade deposits of uranium as well as a high level of provincial, public and northern community support. A mainly Aboriginal population of around 35 000 with a very high proportion of young persons entering the work force, lives in small, dispersed communities in a landscape of forest and lakes. All of the uranium mines are in remote locations with 'local impact' communities often several hundred kilometres away. In the late 1970's a public board of inquiry set none operating conditions that included maximizing opportunities for northern business and employment. Dozens of joint initiatives have since been developed and resulted in innovative hiring, training and transportation programmes, as well as support programmes to improve health, education, professional and business development and quality of life in the communities. Residents of northern Saskatchewan, like all other Canadians, are not prepared to accept environmental risks in return for economic opportunities. Three regional Environmental Quality Committees, with representatives froth all of the northern communities, work with Provincial agencies and the uranium mining industry to ensure community concerns are included in decisions. Northern hunters and fishermen, whose close links with the land are respected, provide relevant data to the Environmental Monitoring Program. Mutual trust is developed through constant interaction and dialogue in one-to-one relationships. Traditional activities like trapping are given their full importance. A Community Vitality Project jointly monitors social well being as defined by northern interests and culture. Compensations and company donations in some cases provide resources for community activities. (author)

  11. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  12. Starting Points and Pathways in Aboriginal Students' Learning of Number: Recognising Different World Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a "counting" task that involved fetching "maku" (witchetty…

  13. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  14. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented

  15. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  16. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durey Angela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.

  17. Rebuilding from Resilience: Research Framework for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Community-led Interventions to Prevent Domestic Violence in Aboriginal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Shea, Beverley; Amaratunga, Carol; McGuire, Patricia; Sioui, Georges

    2010-01-01

    This research framework, which competed successfully in the 2008 CIHR open operating grants competition, focuses on protocols to measure the impact of community-led interventions to reduce domestic violence in Aboriginal communities. The project develops and tests tools and procedures for a randomized controlled trial of prevention of family violence. Women's shelters mainly deal with victims of domestic violence, and the framework also addresses other types of domestic violence (male and female children, elderly, and disabled). The partner shelters are in Aboriginal communities across Canada, on and off reserve, in most provinces and territories. The baseline study applies a questionnaire developed by the shelters. Testing the stepped wedge design in an Aboriginal context, shelters randomized themselves to two waves of intervention, half the shelters receiving the resources for the first wave. A repeat survey after two years will measure the difference between first wave and second wave, after which the resources will shift to the second wave. At least two Aboriginal researchers will complete their doctoral studies in the project. The steering committee of 12 shelter directors guides the project and ensures ethical standards related to their populations. Each participating community and the University of Ottawa reviewed and passed the proposal. PMID:20975853

  18. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  19. Community Development in Indigenous Australia: Self-Determination or Indirect Rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, David

    1996-01-01

    As Aborigines have gained self-determination, the incorporation of their communities into the mainstream can actually increase state supervision and threaten cultural independence. Indigenous Australians are forced to operate according to nonindigenous criteria such as return on investment. (SK)

  20. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions. PMID:10459151

  1. School Communities: National Inquiry into Rural and Remote Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Meredith; Newell, Susan

    This document focuses on ways that Australian Aboriginal parents and communities can get involved in schools. It reflects the recommendation given to the Australian Parliament by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) concerning the rights of Indigenous communities to self-determination within the education system. Chapters are…

  2. Dose commitment estimates in an Aboriginal community: Problem in rapidly changing social values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive contamination at the former United Kingdom weapons testing site at Maralinga, South Australia, is described briefly. The socio-economic situation of the Aboriginal people prior to the testing period of the 1950s is outlined. Aboriginal aspirations as a result of the granting of land rights in the region are examined. Facets of Aboriginal lifestyle, which vary markedly from European norms and would also lead to extra dose commitment, are examined. Likely scenarios which may affect occupancy factors once the contaminated regions are released from restrictions on entry are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Epidemiology of participation: an Australian community study

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, F.; Bush, R.; Modra, C.; Murray, C.; Cox, E.; Alexander, K.; Potter, R

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeonomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data.
DESIGN—Cross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation.
SETTING—Random sample of the population from the western suburbs of Adela...

  4. ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease

  5. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Annette; Finucane Janine; Elsbury Dimity; Jacoby Peter; Weeks Sharon; Lehmann Deborah; Monck Ruth; Coates Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed ...

  6. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  7. A novel syndrome of paediatric cataract, dysmorphism, ectodermal features, and developmental delay in Australian Aboriginal family maps to 1p35.3-p36.32

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    Gecz Jozef

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel phenotype consisting of cataract, mental retardation, erythematous skin rash and facial dysmorphism was recently described in an extended pedigree of Australian Aboriginal descent. Large scale chromosomal re-arrangements had previously been ruled out. We have conducted a genome-wide scan to map the linkage region in this family. Methods Genome-wide linkage analysis using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers on the Affymetrix 10K SNP array was conducted and analysed using MERLIN. Three positional candidate genes (ZBTB17, EPHA2 and EPHB2 were sequenced to screen for segregating mutations. Results Under a fully penetrant, dominant model, the locus for this unique phenotype was mapped to chromosome 1p35.3-p36.32 with a maximum LOD score of 2.41. The critical region spans 48.7 cM between markers rs966321 and rs1441834 and encompasses 527 transcripts from 364 annotated genes. No coding mutations were identified in three positional candidate genes EPHA2, EPHB2 or ZBTB17. The region overlaps with a previously reported region for Volkmann cataract and the phenotype has similarity to that reported for 1p36 monosomy. Conclusions The gene for this syndrome is located in a 25.6 Mb region on 1p35.3-p36.32. The known cataract gene in this region (EPHA2 does not harbour mutations in this family, suggesting that at least one additional gene for cataract is present in this region.

  8. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522

  9. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  10. Aboriginal review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between Syncrude Canada Ltd., and the aboriginal people of Northeast Alberta was discussed. In 1970, Syncrude began development of its oil sands mega-project in the Fort McMurray region. Since then, the company has worked in partnership with the aboriginal communities to maximize their productive participation in the oil sands. Syncrude has provided opportunities in employment, education, and business and community development. Their goals for aboriginal employment are: (1) to attain 10 per cent aboriginal employees in the Company's direct workforce, and (2) to attain 13 per cent aboriginal employees in the overall workforce, including contractors. Currently, Syncrude Canada employs 315 aboriginal people in various career positions. The Company is also committed to the protection of the environment. As proof of this commitment, when a mine site is reclaimed, the Company does all that is required to ensure that the land can support both industry and traditional land uses such as hunting, fishing and trapping. Syncrude also works on air quality issues dealing with odors and sulfur dioxide emissions as shown by a two million dollar company-sponsored program to examine local air quality and its effect on people and their health. figs

  11. The quantity, quality and characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian mentoring literature: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; McCalman, Janya; Towle, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring is a key predictor of empowerment and prospectively a game changer in the quest to improve health inequities. This systematic review reports on the state of evidence on mentoring for Indigenous Australians by identifying the quantity, nature, quality and characteristics of mentoring publications. Methods Thirteen databases were searched using specific search strings from 1983 - 2012. Grey literature was also canvassed. The resultant publications were mined to identify the...

  12. Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney Sheree J; Gunthorpe Wendy; Paradies Yin C; Jamieson Lisa M; Sayers Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aborig...

  13. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

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    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  14. The development of the energy sector in partnership with Aboriginal communities; Le developpement du secteur energetique en partenariat avec les autochtones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, A. [Fasken Martineau DuMoulin, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Energy development in the province of Quebec must involve input from Aboriginal communities. This paper addressed issues regarding the negotiation of treaties and agreements regarding First Nation governance, land use and dispute resolution mechanisms as stipulated in the Constitution Act, 1982. Energy options that offer great opportunities for mutual benefits were discussed with reference to the different possible types of partnerships between private industry and native communities. Mechanisms to finance energy projects were reviewed along with legal and environmental aspects of energy development, such as the Crown's duty to consult and accommodate where Aboriginal rights and title claims are asserted. tabs., figs.

  15. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

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    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  16. Biomass uptake and fire as controls on groundwater solute evolution on a southeast Australian granite: aboriginal land management hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. F.; Webb, J. A.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Chisari, R.; Dresel, P. E.

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater and surface water is often considered to be dominated by water-rock interactions, particularly weathering; however, it has been increasingly realised that plant uptake can deplete groundwater and surface water of nutrient elements. Here we show, using geochemical mass balance techniques, that water-rock interactions do not control the hydrochemistry at our study site within a granite terrain in southwest Victoria, Australia. Instead the chemical species provided by rainfall are depleted by plant biomass uptake and exported, predominantly through fire. Regular landscape burning by Aboriginal land users is hypothesized to have caused the depletion of chemical species in groundwater for at least the past 20 000 yr by accelerating the export of elements that would otherwise have been stored within the local biomass. These findings are likely to be applicable to silicate terrains throughout southeast Australia, as well as similar lithological and climatic regions elsewhere in the globe, and contrast with studies of groundwater and surface water chemistry in higher rainfall areas of the Northern Hemisphere, where water-rock interactions are the dominant hydrochemical control.

  17. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  18. Common Belief. Australia's Faith Communities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen Australian faith communities representing the world's great religious traditions have united to speak out on climate change: Aboriginal people, the Australian Christian lobby, Baha'i believers, Baptists, Buddhists, Catholics, Evangelical Christians, Greek Orthodox, Hindus, Jewish people, Lutherans, Muslims, The Salvation Army, Sikhs, The United Church

  19. At the Time of Disclosure: A Manual for Front-Line Community Workers Dealing with Sexual Abuse Disclosures in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series = A l'etape de la divulgation: guide pour les travailleurs communautaires de premiere ligne a qui des actes de violence sexuelle sont divulgues dans les collectivites Autochtones. Collection sur les Autochtones, serie technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Judie; Bopp, Michael

    This manual was developed to assist front-line community workers (including teachers) with issues concerning the disclosure and investigation of sexual abuse allegations in Canadian aboriginal communities. Written in English and French, this document examines the needs of individuals, families, and communities dealing with sexual abuse. Part 1…

  20. How Aboriginal Peer Interactions in Upper Primary School Sport Support Aboriginal Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-01

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible. PMID:27178269

  2. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

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    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  3. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2009-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  4. Protective and nonprotective epitopes from amino termini of M proteins from Australian aboriginal isolates and reference strains of group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, E R; Teh, T; Relf, W A; Hobb, R I; Good, M F

    2000-12-01

    The M protein is the primary vaccine candidate to prevent group A streptococcal (GAS) infection and the subsequent development of rheumatic fever (RF). However, the large number of serotypes have made it difficult to design a vaccine against all strains. We have taken an approach of identifying amino-terminal M protein epitopes from GAS isolates that are highly prevalent in GAS-endemic populations within the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Australian Aboriginals in the NT experience the highest incidence of RF worldwide. To develop a vaccine for this population, 39 peptides were synthesized, representing the amino-terminal region of the M protein from endemic GAS. Mice immunized with these peptides covalently linked to tetanus toxoid and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant raised high-titer antibodies. Over half of these sera reduced bacterial colony counts by >80% against the homologous isolate of GAS. Seven of the peptide antisera also cross-reacted with at least three other heterologous peptides by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antiserum to one peptide, BSA10(1-28), could recognize six other peptides, and five of these peptides could inhibit opsonization mediated by BSA10(1-28) antiserum. Cross-opsonization studies showed that six of these sera could opsonize at least one heterologous isolate of GAS. These data reveal vaccine candidates specific to a GAS-endemic area and show the potential of some to cross-opsonize multiple isolates of GAS. This information will be critical when considering which epitopes may be useful in a multiepitope vaccine to prevent GAS infection. PMID:11083769

  5. Prevention and management of chronic disease in Aboriginal and Islander Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland: a quality improvement study assessing change in selected clinical performance indicators over time in a cohort of services

    OpenAIRE

    Panaretto, K S; Gardner, K L; Button, S; Carson, A; Schibasaki, R; Wason, G; Baker, D.; Mein, J.; Dellit, A; Lewis, D; Wenitong, M; Ring, I

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical healthcare performance in Aboriginal Medical Services in Queensland and to consider future directions in supporting improvement through measurement, target setting and standards development. Design Longitudinal study assessing baseline performance and improvements in service delivery, clinical care and selected outcomes against key performance indicators 2009–2010. Setting 27 Aboriginal and Islander Community Controlled Health Services (AICCHSs) in Queensland, w...

  6. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  7. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spec., revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia. Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.

  8. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  9. An Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Pilot Study in Australia using Yes I Can

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the remote Aboriginal community of Wilcannia in western NSW hosted the first Australian pilot of a Cuban mass adult literacy campaign model known as Yes I Can. The aim was to investigate the appropriateness of this model in Aboriginal Australia. Building on an intensive community development process of ‘socialisation and mobilisation’, sixteen community members with very low literacy graduated from the basic literacy course, with the majority continuing on into post-literacy activities, further training and/or employment. The pilot was initiated by the National Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Steering Committee (NAALCSC consisting of Aboriginal leaders from the education and health sectors, and managed by the University of New England (UNE, working in partnership with the Wilcannia Local Aboriginal Land Council as the local lead agency. The pilot was supported by a Cuban academic who came to Australia for this purpose, and included a Participatory Action Research (PAR evaluation led by the UNE Project Manager. In this paper, members of the project team and the NAALCSC describe the pilot and reflect on its outcomes.

  10. Chemical and biological characterization of novel essential oils from Eremophila bignoniiflora (F. Muell) (Myoporaceae): a traditional Aboriginal Australian bush medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Hitchcock, Maria; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from the traditional Australian medicinal plant Eremophila bignoniiflora, characterized chemically and then screened for bioactivity. Characterization and quantification were completed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection, respectively. Antimicrobial capacity was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-titre plate broth dilution and further characterized using thin layer chromatography followed by bioautography to assign activity to separated individual active components. Antifungal capacity was investigated using micro-titre plate broth dilution against pathogenic Trichophyton species. Free radical scavenging ability was assessed using the diphenylpicrylhydradyl reaction in methanol. The predominant components of the essential oil were fenchyl-acetate and bornyl-acetate. However, bioautography indicated antimicrobial ability to be largely linked to the less abundant, more polar constituents. Oils displayed only modest antifungal ability against pathogenic Trichophyton species associated with dermatophytosis, but moderate to high antimicrobial activity, particularly against the yeast Candida albicans and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Essential oils exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Speculation over the role of essential oils in the traditional medicinal applications of E. bignoniiflora follows, exploring correlations between traditional use and investigated bioactivities. PMID:23193085

  11. Christian Churches and Chinese Community Culture in Australia: Opportunity for Confucius Institutes to Enter Into Australian Chinese Communities

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Hong

    2016-01-01

    Through investigation on the Australian Chinese history and its current situation, Australian Chinese society and their activities in the case of Melbourne area and case study, it could be concluded that the Christian Churches in Chinese communities have provided a platform, a spiritual home for Chinese people and other new settlers who first arrived Australia. Church activities have become one of the ways for Australian Chinese to proactively join in the dominant culture of developed capital...

  12. Building better research partnerships by understanding how Aboriginal health communities perceive and use data: a semistructured interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christian; Tong, Allison; Sherriff, Simone; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Muthayya, Sumithra; Craig, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals working in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) towards the access, usage and potential value of routinely obtained clinical and research data. Design, setting and participants Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 health professionals from 2 urban and 1 regional ACCHS in New South Wales. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results Six major themes were identified: occupational engagement (day-to-day relevance, contingent on professional capacity, emphasising clinical relevance), trust and assurance (protecting ownership, confidence in narratives, valuing local sources), motivation and empowerment (engaging the community, influencing morale, reassuring and encouraging clients), building research capacity (using cultural knowledge, promoting research aptitude, prioritising specific data), optimising service provision (necessity for sustainable services, guiding and improving services, supporting best practice), and enhancing usability (ensuring ease of comprehension, improving efficiency of data management, valuing accuracy and accessibility). Conclusions Participants were willing to learn data handling procedures that could further enhance health service delivery and enable more ACCHS-led research, but busy workloads restrict these opportunities. Staff held concerns regarding the translation of research data into beneficial services, and believed that the outcome and purpose of data collection could be communicated more clearly. Promoting research partnerships, ensuring greater awareness of positive health data and the purposes of data collection, and communicating data in a user-friendly format are likely to encourage greater data use, build research capacity and improve health services within the Aboriginal community. PMID:27113239

  13. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948

  14. Aboriginal Family Education Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, A.

    1970-01-01

    The Department of Adult Education of the University of Sydney (Australia) has been conducting an action-research project in family education for the Aborigines. The staff is to be available on request to visit communities, listen to expressed needs, and find ways of translating professional knowledge into media that can be understood. Gradually,…

  15. Common Belief. Australia's Faith Communities on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    Sixteen Australian faith communities representing the world's great religious traditions have united to speak out on climate change: Aboriginal people, the Australian Christian lobby, Baha'i believers, Baptists, Buddhists, Catholics, Evangelical Christians, Greek Orthodox, Hindus, Jewish people, Lutherans, Muslims, The Salvation Army, Sikhs, The United Church.

  16. Child-Caregiver Interaction in Two Remote Indigenous Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eVaughan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu respectively to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English respectively. The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children’s productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately two years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children’s speech.At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT, there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio. For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU, children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study’s findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children’s language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As

  17. Oral health investigations of indigenous participants in remote settings: a methods paper describing the dental component of wave III of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Susan M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with

  18. Chronic hepatitis B prevalence among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians since universal vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia, higher rates of chronic hepatitis B (HBsAg) have been reported among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) compared with non-Indigenous people. In 2000, the Australian government implemented a universal infant/adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the disparity of HBsAg prevalence between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, particularly since 2000. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and public health bulletins up to March 2011. We used meta-analysis methods to estimate HBsAg prevalence by Indigenous status and time period (before and since 2000). Results There were 15 HBsAg prevalence estimates (from 12 studies) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous people; adults and pregnant women (n = 9), adolescents (n = 3), prisoners (n = 2), and infants (n = 1). Of these, only one subgroup (adults/pregnant women) involved studies before and since 2000 and formed the basis of the meta-analysis. Before 2000, the pooled HBsAg prevalence estimate was 6.47% (95% CI: 4.56-8.39); 16.72% (95%CI: 7.38-26.06) among Indigenous and 0.36% (95%CI:-0.14-0.86) in non-Indigenous adults/pregnant women. Since 2000, the pooled HBsAg prevalence was 2.25% (95% CI: 1.26-3.23); 3.96% (95%CI: 3.15-4.77) among Indigenous and 0.90% (95% CI: 0.53-1.28) in non-Indigenous adults/pregnant women. Conclusions The disparity of HBsAg prevalence between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people has decreased over time; particularly since the HBV vaccination program in 2000. However HBsAg prevalence remains four times higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous people. The findings highlight the need for opportunistic HBV screening of Indigenous people to identify people who would benefit from vaccination or treatment. PMID:24004727

  19. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together. Who or what is making the assists to score social goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Daniel; Hylton, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Providing pragmatic interventions (through sport) to tackle social issues in hard-to-reach communities, including those in Aboriginal and black minority ethnic (BME) communities, this study highlights how a community football club was able to deliver positive outcomes for racism, discrimination and health. The article compares findings geographically originating from Australia with those in the UK. The program highlighted herein does not have the so-called 'power' and backing of a brand (of a professional football club) to rely on, and the appealing factor is football alone; football in its purest sense: the activity. We call upon those strategically placed in funding and commissioning roles to draw on the evidence base to support non-professional football (and sport and recreation) clubs to deliver on the health agenda. Adding further conclusions that this mechanism and context of delivery can support positive social and health changes, but requires further examination. PMID:26329993

  20. Improving the accuracy of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal disease notification rates using data linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routinely collected infectious disease surveillance data provide a valuable means to monitor the health of populations. Notifiable disease surveillance systems in Australia have consistently reported high levels of completeness for the demographic data fields of age and sex, but low levels of completeness for Aboriginality data. Significant amounts of missing data associated with case notifications can introduce bias in the estimation of disease rates by population subgroups. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the use of data linkage to improve the accuracy of estimated notification rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and blood borne viruses (BBVs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups in Western Australia. Methods Probabilistic methods were used to link disease notification data received in Western Australia in 2004 with core population health datasets from the established Western Australian Data Linkage System. A comparative descriptive analysis of STI and BBV notification rates according to Aboriginality was conducted based on the original and supplemented notification datasets. Results Using data linkage, the proportion of STI and BBV notifications with missing Aboriginality data was reduced by 74 per cent. Compared with excluding notifications with unknown Aboriginality data from the analysis, or apportioning notifications with unknown Aboriginality based on the proportion of cases with known Aboriginality, the rate ratios of chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis C among Aboriginal relative to non-Aboriginal people decreased when Aboriginality data from data linkage was included. Conclusion Although there is still a high incidence of STIs and BBVs in Aboriginal people, incompleteness of Aboriginality data contributes to overestimation of the risk associated with Aboriginality for these diseases. Data linkage can be effectively used to improve the accuracy of estimated disease notification rates.

  1. Mapping More than Aboriginal Studies: Pedagogy, Professional Practice and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    As undergraduate curriculum is increasingly required to meet a range of intellectual, professional practice and personal learning outcomes, what purpose does Australian Aboriginal Studies have in curriculum? Most Australian universities are currently in the process of developing institution-wide approaches to Indigenous Australian content in…

  2. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes how the Syncrude relationship with Aboriginal communities in the region came about, and how Syncrude maintains that relationship and share in the community at its oil sands operation in Alberta, Canada. Syncrude is a world leader in oil sands development and in promoting the quality of the working life and employment of native peoples. The remainder of the presentation is devoted to that particular achievement. The partnerships Syncrude has built are based on mutual respect, a sustainable capability, a professional relationship, support of community, and self-reliance. Syncrude recognized very early on that Aboriginal people would have a major interest in the company's future and sought to integrate the company's program into operations as a normal way of doing business. Today, Aboriginal people play a vital role in the oil sands industry, working at a variety of skilled occupations. The education component of Syncrude's program is designed to equip Aboriginal people with the training they need to claim their fair share of the employment pie at Syncrude. Contractors servicing Syncrude are about one-fifth Aboriginal-owned and run operations and they are in turn encouraged to hire Aboriginal employees. There are three direct elements of the program: employment, education and business development, but partnerships go beyond just that: they extend to the community such that Syncrude is dedicated to working with local people, when requested, to help them define and meet their needs and to achieve self-reliance

  3. Surface rights on Aboriginal lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several issues regarding access and activity by petroleum industry on Aboriginal and Metis lands are discussed. Some alternative means by which both industry and Aboriginal groups can approach the matter of surface rights are presented. A historical account of how surface rights have been interpreted in the past was given. It was emphasized that the approach to surface rights compensation and negotiation for both aboriginal and industry parties must begin with adequate consultation. Rigid adherence to the usual past practice of geologically identifying locations, surveying and requesting a lease will no longer suffice. The aboriginal community must be consulted with as much lead time as possible, even assisted financially to identify traditional use areas that require protection, or cannot be disturbed, or require particular mitigation measures. Once this has been done, the operator can proceed to outline the scope of his project, detailing the timing, location, business and employment opportunities and other economic opportunities to the community. 21 refs

  4. Real Stories, Extraordinary People: Preliminary Findings from an Aboriginal Community-Controlled Cultural Immersion Program for Local Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Pat

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on effective strategies for developing the cultural competence of teachers involved in Aboriginal education and presents the preliminary findings of a review into the Connecting to Country Program (CTC), a joint venture of the NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) and the NSW Department of Education and Communities…

  5. Literacy in an Aboriginal Context. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series B, Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Susanne, Ed.

    Presented in this volume are five papers on literacy in the Australian Aboriginal context. They include: "Cultural Considerations in Vernacular Literacy Programmes for Traditionally Oriented Adult Aborigines" (Joy L. Sandefur); "Characteristics of Aboriginal Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Literacy and Research Programmes" (W. H. Langlands);…

  6. Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Kamarra Shearer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘naïve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

  7. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  8. Aboriginal English in the Classroom: An Asset or a Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of Australian Aboriginal English in the classroom in the light of a recent survey. Aboriginal English is often correlated with low academic performance and poor school attendance. The paper argues that in any discussion of the school role of students' home talk, a range of factors need to be…

  9. Training of Para-Legal Staff: The Aboriginal Legal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kim

    1978-01-01

    Describes the in-service training project for Australian aboriginal paralegal field officers of the Aboriginal Legal Service, organized by the Law School and Extension Service of the University of Western Australia. The project team acted as facilitators for the field officers, a participative training program design being found to be important.…

  10. Aboriginal Pygmalion in Australia: An Open and Closed Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B.

    1978-01-01

    Racism in Australian schools is indicated by an attitude survey which reveals that teachers from traditional classrooms believe that Aboriginal students will do less well than White students, whereas teachers from an open school predict that Aboriginal children should do as well as White children, given equal ability. (Author/EB)

  11. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. B...

  12. Making Social Science Matter?: Case Studies from Community Development and Empowerment Education Research in Rural Ghana and Aboriginal Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Tsey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite potential opportunities offered by exceptional advances in science and technology, we are increasingly polarised from each other. Social inequalities, poverty and deprivation are only a few of the challenges facing most societies. By combining the theoretical perspective of Bent Flyvberg’s Making Social Science Matter (2001 and related Perestroika discourse with insights from community development and empowerment research in rural Ghana and Aboriginal Australia, this paper demonstrates a strengths-based approach to social science that builds social capital through enhancing the capacity of individuals and communities to routinely consider ethical questions; where they are going; what can be done to make things better. Focus is on Flyvbjerg’s challenge to social scientists to undertake research relevant to challenges and opportunities facing contemporary society. Highlighted is a need for researchers to reflect more explicitly about ways they seek to make their work relevant to people with whom they work. Strengths-based approaches, grounded in relevant ethical values, norms and local histories and traditions, offer one avenue for making social research relevant.

  13. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Annette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51 of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121 of non-Aboriginal children aged Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78 in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95 in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting.

  14. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  15. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  16. Using the risk behaviour diagnosis scale to understand Australian Aboriginal smoking — A cross-sectional validation survey in regional New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Sandra Gould

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In these Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, the RBD Scale appeared valid and reliable. Further research is required to assess whether the RBD Scale and EPPM can predict quit attempts and assist with tailored approaches to counselling and targeted health promotion campaigns.

  17. Improving the Participation and Engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thi Kim Anh; Vitartas, Peter; Ambrose, Kurt; Millar, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities have among their goals to increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students at their institutions. In the Australian higher education context, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are seriously under-represented, particularly in business education compared to other disciplines. An…

  18. Increasing rates of surgical treatment and preventing comorbidities may increase breast cancer survival for Aboriginal women

    OpenAIRE

    Supramaniam, Rajah; Gibberd, Alison; Dillon, Anthony; Goldsbury, David Eamon; O’Connell, Dianne L

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unc...

  19. A Direction towards Sustainability? Australian Rural Communities and Care for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoffrey; Stehlik, Dani

    1996-01-01

    Rural elderly in Australia lack access to health and welfare services, compounded by an increasingly aging population and downsizing of services. Successful strategies can be found in U.S. retirement communities and the Australian Community Aged Care Package program. However, these strategies often compete with a drive toward cost-effectiveness.…

  20. Using Communities of Practice to Enhance Interdisciplinary Teaching: Lessons from Four Australian Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Emma; Davison, Aidan; McGregor, Helen; Warr, Kristin; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We report on the establishment of communities of practice at four Australian institutions and evaluate their effectiveness and durability as a means of building staff and institutional capacity for interdisciplinary teaching. A community of practice approach is a potentially valuable methodology for overcoming dynamics of fragmentation, isolation…

  1. Children's Language Input: A Study of a Remote Multilingual Indigenous Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Billington, Rosey

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous children growing up in the remote regions of Australia live in multilingual communities which are often undergoing rapid language shift. In these communities, children are exposed to a range of language input, including the traditional language of the area, a local creole and Standard Australian English. The extent to which the…

  2. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  3. Aboriginal Peoples and Forest Certification: a Review of the Canadian Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald L. Trosper; Innes, John L.; Anna V. Tikina; Bruce C. Larson

    2010-01-01

    We assess how different certification standards address Aboriginal issues in Canada, augmenting current legislation related to Aboriginal issues. The benefits from forest certification and the obstacles to its adoption by the Aboriginal community are also reviewed. We conclude that it would take significant effort, time, and resources to achieve widespread Aboriginal adoption of forest certification.

  4. Aboriginal Peoples and Forest Certification: a Review of the Canadian Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We assess how different certification standards address Aboriginal issues in Canada, augmenting current legislation related to Aboriginal issues. The benefits from forest certification and the obstacles to its adoption by the Aboriginal community are also reviewed. We conclude that it would take significant effort, time, and resources to achieve widespread Aboriginal adoption of forest certification.

  5. Adherence to management guidelines for growth faltering and anaemia in remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal infants and barriers to health service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Zeev, Sarah J; Kruske, Sue G; Barclay, Lesley M; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kildea, Sue V

    2013-01-01

    Background Remote dwelling Aboriginal infants from northern Australia have a high burden of disease and frequently use health services. Little is known about the quality of infant care provided by remote health services. This study describes the adherence to infant guidelines for anaemia and growth faltering by remote health staff and barriers to effective service delivery in remote settings. Methods A mixed method study drew data from 24 semi-structured interviews with clinicians working in ...

  6. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic John Gibson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.

  7. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  8. Social Integration of Fringe-Dwelling Aboriginal Children and Their Families in Selected Townships of South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, F. N.

    This paper discusses the problems faced by young Australian Aboriginal families and particularly their children as they attempt to find a satisfactory solution to being Aboriginal in a dominant white urban society. The paper is restricted to a consideration of country-urban Aborigines categorized as 'fringe dwellers,' because they live…

  9. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  10. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Shield

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods: Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%; hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%; Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni (25%; S. stercoralis (19%; Rodentolepis nana (16%; and Giardia duodenalis (10%. Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87 than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41, while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91. Discussion: Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species.

  11. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  12. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  13. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  14. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben

  15. Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

  16. The photovoice method: researching the experiences of Aboriginal health workers through photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Alice; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodological framework and perspectives that were used in a larger study aiming at examining the experience of working life among female Aboriginal health care workers. Currently, the voice of Aboriginal women who work in the Australian health system has not received much attention. In comparison to other occupations and backgrounds, there is virtually no literature on Aboriginal woman health care workers despite 15% of health care and social service industry employees in Australia being Aboriginal. In this study, we selected female participants because of the fact that of these 15% of health workers in the Victorian health system, 76% of them are women. This paper outlines some of the barriers in researching Indigenous communities. These barriers were overcome in this study by framing the research in feminist theory, decolonising theory, empowerment and by employing the photovoice method. The photovoice method was used because it is relatively unobtrusive and has the capacity to be empowering. All data was extrapolated from the participants' own narratives that were prompted by the photographs they had taken. The data produced were rich descriptions and narratives that were oral as well as visual. Finally, the article discusses the experience of using the photovoice method from the researcher and participants' perspective. PMID:20815993

  17. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27196990

  18. Evaluation of an Australian indigenous housing programme: community level impact on crowding, infrastructure function and hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Bailie, Ross S; McDonald, Elizabeth L; Stevens, Matthew; Guthridge, Steven; Brewster, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim Housing programmes in indigenous Australian communities have focused largely on achieving good standards of infrastructure function. The impact of this approach was assessed on three potentially important housing-related influences on child health at the community level: (1) crowding, (2) the functional state of the house infrastructure and (3) the hygienic condition of the houses. Methods A before-and-after study, including house infrastructure surveys and structured inter...

  19. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya

    2015-01-01

    The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...

  20. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  1. Tooth use in Aboriginal Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Clement

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of dental casts taken from living people avoids the ethical problems of research into human remains, while providing valuable information about diet and life styles. This article describes a study of tooth wear in dental casts of three different groups of Australian Aborigines. The authors describe their methods of recording and report differential patterns of wear in the different groups. Preliminary interpretation relates the wear patterns both to diet and to the use of teeth as tools in a range of cultural activities, results which are potentially relevant to other groups of hunter-gatherers, past and present.

  2. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice. PMID:25040582

  3. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  4. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  5. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  6. Adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma in an aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, M A; Frasca, J; Bastian, I

    1991-10-01

    A 44-year-old Aborigine with Adult T-cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) due to HTLV-I is reported. He presented with transverse myelitis of subacute onset, and subsequently developed frank T-cell leukaemia complicated by splenomegaly and hypercalcaemia. Cell surface marker studies showed a phenotype of CD3+ CD4+ CD8- CD25+, and serological and molecular studies confirmed HTLV-I infection. This is the first report of ATLL in an Australian Aborigine. PMID:1759923

  7. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults. PMID:26881483

  8. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    OpenAIRE

    Saini B; Krass I.; Smith L; Bosnic-Anticevich S; Armour C

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade o...

  9. Expanding social inclusion in community sports organizations: evidence from rural Australian Football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel Frost; Margaret Lightbody; Abdel Halabi

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasise a historic ‘masculine’ culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalises women and children. Le...

  10. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 μg), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material

  11. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creagh, D.C. [Division of Health, Design and Science University of Canberra, CANBERRA ACT 2601 (Australia)], E-mail: dcreagh@bigpond.net.au; Kubik, M.E. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University (Australia); Sterns, M. [Department of Chemistry, Australian National University (Australia)

    2007-09-21

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 {mu}g), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material.

  12. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, D. C.; Kubik, M. E.; Sterns, M.

    2007-09-01

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 μg), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material.

  13. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

  14. The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

    This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

  15. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. PMID:24601916

  16. Can We Educate and Train Aboriginal Leaders within Our Tertiary Education Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…

  17. Bridging Programs for Aborigines Wishing to Study Science and Mathematics in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; And Others

    Most Aboriginal people in Australia lack the background qualifications to enter higher education courses in science and mathematics. In 1984, the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) (now Curtin University of Technology) developed a project which created and evaluated bridging courses for Aboriginal people seeking to gain access into…

  18. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Phillips

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina. The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education. Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “spec...

  19. Improving access to primary care for Aboriginal babies in Western Australia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McAullay, Daniel; McAuley, Kimberley; Marriott, Rhonda; Pearson, Glenn; Jacoby, Peter; Ferguson, Chantal; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Sibosado, Selina; Henry, Barbara; Doherty, Dorota; Edmond, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a decade of substantial investments in programs to improve access to primary care for Aboriginal mothers and infants, more than 50 % of Western Australian Aboriginal babies are still not receiving primary and preventative care in the early months of life. Western Australian hospitals now input birth data into the Western Australian electronic clinical management system within 48 hours of birth. However, difficulties have arisen in ensuring that the appropriate primary care ...

  20. The Representation of the Australian Aborigines in Text and Picture: Dr. Med. Pál Almási Balogh (1794-1863 and the Birth of the Science of Anthropology in Central Europe/Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Sz. Kristof

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a manuscript entitled Az ember Australiában (The Man in Australia found in one of the collections of private files in the University Library of Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. Preserved in the miscellaneous files of Pál Almási Balogh, a Hungarian physician active mostly during the first half of the 19th century, and written in Hungarian, this writing describes the bodily structure, the way of life and the geographical environment of the Australian aborigines. Written probably around 1835 and divided into chapters like “Religion”, “Habitation”, “Way of life”, “Marriage”, “Superstition”, “Inclinations”, “Dress”, and “Language,” the manuscript seems however never to have been published. The author identifies this writing of Almási Balogh as the first scientific, ethnographical/anthropological monograph ever written in Hungary on the native inhabitants of the fifth continent, and she analyzes its content according to both its textual-philological and visual-figural register. According to her results, the manuscript was compiled from the works of Jules Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842, David Collins (1756-1810, George Barrington (1755-1804, Alan Cunningham (1791-1839, James Cook (1728-1779, and perhaps some other Western European explorers and natural historians of Australia. And, as for its visual register, it relied heavily on the illustrations of Voyage pittoresque autour du monde of Dumont d’Urville, published in different languages in Western Europe from 1834-1835 on.

  1. Implementing a working together model for Aboriginal patients with acute coronary syndrome: an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working together to improve hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daws, Karen; Punch, Amanda; Winters, Michelle; Posenelli, Sonia; Willis, John; MacIsaac, Andrew; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) contributes to the disparity in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Improving hospital care for Aboriginal patients has been identified as a means of addressing this disparity. This project developed and implemented a working together model of care, comprising an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse, providing care coordination specifically directed at improving attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services for Aboriginal Australians in a large metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. A quality improvement framework using a retrospective case notes audit evaluated Aboriginal patients' admissions to hospital and identified low attendance rates at cardiac rehabilitation services. A working together model of care coordination by an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse was implemented to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance in Aboriginal patients admitted with ACS to the cardiac wards of the hospital. A retrospective medical records audit showed that there were 68 Aboriginal patients admitted to the cardiac wards with ACS from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2011. A referral to cardiac rehabilitation was recorded for 42% of these. During the implementation of the model of care, 13 of 15 patients (86%) received a referral to cardiac rehabilitation and eight of the 13 (62%) attended. Implementation of the working together model demonstrated improved referral to and attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services, thereby, has potential to prevent complications and mortality. PMID:25200319

  2. Learning from Anangu Histories: Population Centralisation and Decentralisation Influences and the Provision of Schooling in Tri-State Remote Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Remote Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schools and communities are diverse and complex sites shaped by contrasting geographies, languages, histories and cultures, including historical and ongoing relationships with colonialism, and connected yet contextually unique epistemologies, ontologies and cosmologies. This paper explores…

  3. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Marine debris and marine wildlife entanglement remains a significant global issue. • We examined awareness of this issue in an Australian community sample. • Findings reveal gaps exist in terms of what entanglement is and the risks posed. • Enhancing community understanding may facilitate greater conservation action. • The ‘Seal the Loop’ initiative provides one potential mechanism for such education. - Abstract: Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative ‘Seal the Loop’ [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours)

  4. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills

  5. "If it wasn't for OTDs, there would be no AMS": overseas-trained doctors working in rural and remote Aboriginal health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Marisa T; Wakerman, John; Durey, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Australian-trained doctors are often reluctant to work in rural and remote areas and overseas-trained doctors (OTDs) are recruited to practise in many rural Aboriginal medical services. This paper focuses on recent research carried out in Australia to analyse factors affecting OTDs' professional, cultural and social integration and examine their training and support needs. Ten case studies were conducted throughout Australia with OTDs, which also included interviews with spouses/partners, professional colleagues, co-workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members associated with the health service. Key themes emerging from the data across all informants included the need to better address recruitment, orientation and cross-cultural issues; the importance of effective communication and building community and institutional relationships, both with the local health service and the broader medical establishment. PMID:18980561

  6. Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Big-Canoe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.

  7. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

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    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  8. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  9. Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Big-Canoe; Lindsay Doxtator; Maggie M. Sopper; Mottola, Michelle F.; Harry Prapavessis

    2011-01-01

    Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a succe...

  10. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  11. Relationscapes: How Contemporary Aboriginal Art Moves Beyond the Map

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    Erin Manning

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses landscape art of Australian Aboriginal landscape paintings since the 1970s, particualry that of  Emily Kngwarreye, Dorothy Napangardi, Kathleen Petyarre and Clifford Possum. The author explores how modern materials and techniques are used to convey traditional stories, topographies and cosmologies, using Deleuzian analysis.

  12. “A short historical investigation into cross cultural Australian ideas about the marine animal group Teredinidae and some socioecological consequences and options”

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    Mary Gardner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How are contemporary multicultural coastal Australians, Aboriginals and settlers alike, to develop wiser ideas and practices towards marine animals as well as each other? To illustrate the importance and complexity of this question, I offer a sh ort historical investigation of some contrasting ideas and practices held by Australian Aboriginal and settler cultures about marine animals of the group Teredinidae. I present two “screenshots”: one from the period 1798 - 1826 and another from 1970 - 2012. Th e first period examines a negative but influential interpretation by Thomas Malthus of a cross cultural encounter featuring Australian Aboriginal consumption of local Teredinidae known as “cobra”. While this cultural tone remains largely unchanged in the s econd period, the biological understanding of the marine animals has developed greatly. So has awareness of the socioecology of Teredinidae: their estuarine habitats and cultural significance. Their potential role as subjects of community based monitoring is undeveloped but could serve overlapping concerns of environmental justice as well as the restoration and “future proofing” of habitats. Such a new composite of ideas and practices will rely on better integration of biology with community based social in novations. A symbolic beginning would be a change in Australian English colloquialisms for Teredinidae, from the erroneous “shipworm” or “mangrove worm” to the more accurate “burrowing clam”

  13. Indigenizing Teacher Professional Development: Anticipating the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the…

  14. The Relationship between Racial Attitudes and Social-Cognitive Development in Children: An Australian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black-Gutman, Dasia; Hickson, Fay

    1996-01-01

    Examined the racial attitudes of 122 Euro-Australian children toward Euro-, Asian, and Aboriginal Australians across the 5-/6-, 7-/9-, and 10-/12-year age groups. Found that the middle group had fewer negative attitudes toward Aborigines than the older and younger groups. Notes the influence of environmental and cognitive factors in the…

  15. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

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    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  16. Participation of Aboriginal peoples in resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The means by which the petroleum industry can establish a successful relationship with Aboriginal people and their community are described. It was emphasized that industry and Aboriginals must define training, employment and business objectives jointly for the longer term. Suncor's Oil Sands Group operates in an area considered to be traditional lands by the First Nation and Metis people of Fort McKay. Suncor recognizes its responsibilities to Fort McKay and has taken the approach to support Aboriginal community development through written agreements and protocols which identify the social, economic, environmental and political issues that are important to them. The Memorandum of Understanding between Suncor Energy Oil Sands, Fort McKay First Nation, and Fort McKay Metis Local 122 is used as an example of one major company's initiatives to establish a mutually supportive and interdependent relationship

  17. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  18. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  19. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

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    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  20. Consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Colonial Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early years education, consultation and partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are central to embedding Indigenous perspectives. Building sustained and reciprocal partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people supports access to local knowledges and perspectives to inform curriculum planning,…

  1. Identifying multi-level culturally appropriate smoking cessation strategies for Aboriginal health staff: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco control personnel. Smoking cessation strategies (n = 74) were brainstormed using 34 interviews, 3 focus groups and a stakeholder workshop. Stakeholders sorted strategies into meaningful groups and rated them on perceived importance and feasibility. A concept map was developed using multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses. Ten unique clusters of smoking cessation strategies were depicted that targeted individuals, family and peers, community, workplace and public policy. Smoking cessation resources and services were represented in addition to broader strategies addressing social and environmental stressors that perpetuate smoking and make quitting difficult. The perceived importance and feasibility of clusters were rated differently by participants working in health services that were government-coordinated compared with community-controlled. For health service workers within vulnerable populations, these findings clearly implicate a need for contextualized strategies that mitigate social and environmental stressors in addition to conventional strategies for tobacco control. The concept map is being applied in knowledge translation to guide development of smoking cessation programs for AHWs. PMID:23221591

  2. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  3. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  4. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  5. Evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator Chemistry-Climate Model

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    K. A. Stone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry climate models are important tools for addressing interactions of composition and climate in the Earth System. In particular, they are used for assessing the combined roles of greenhouse gases and ozone in Southern Hemisphere climate and weather. Here we present an evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere and the Australian region. This model is used for the Australian contribution to the international Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which is soliciting hindcast, future projection and sensitivity simulations. The model simulates global total column ozone (TCO distributions accurately, with a slight delay in the onset and recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion, and consistently higher ozone values. However, October averaged Antarctic TCO from 1960 to 2010 show a similar amount of depletion compared to observations. A significant innovation is the evaluation of simulated vertical profiles of ozone and temperature with ozonesonde data from Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica from 38 to 90° S. Excess ozone concentrations (up to 26.4 % at Davis during winter and stratospheric cold biases (up to 10.1 K at the South Pole outside the period of perturbed springtime ozone depletion are seen during all seasons compared to ozonesondes. A disparity in the vertical location of ozone depletion is seen: centered around 100 hPa in ozonesonde data compared to above 50 hPa in the model. Analysis of vertical chlorine monoxide profiles indicates that colder Antarctic stratospheric temperatures (possibly due to reduced mid-latitude heat flux are artificially enhancing polar stratospheric cloud formation at high altitudes. The models inability to explicitly simulated supercooled ternary solution may also explain the lack of depletion at lower altitudes. The simulated Southern Annular Mode (SAM index compares well with ERA-Interim data. Accompanying

  6. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

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    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  7. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

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    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  8. The Gender Balance of the Australian Space Research Community: A Snapshot From The 15th ASRC, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Jonathan; Gorman, Alice; Cairns, Ann; Short, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the striking gender imbalance in the physical sciences has been a topic for much debate. National bodies and professional societies in the astronomical and space sciences are now taking active steps to understand and address this imbalance. In order to begin this process in the Australian Space Research community, we must first understand the current state of play. In this work, we therefore present a short 'snapshot' of the current gender balance in our community, as observe...

  9. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

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    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  10. Kingdon's Multiple Streams Model and the Window of Opportunity for Improved Aboriginal Employment and Skills Development Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhangoo, Gurminder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A rapidly growing and relatively young Aboriginal population in Canada has renewed concerns regarding the severe poverty experienced by this community. Statistics Canada estimates the Aboriginal population in Canada could reach between 1.7 million and 2.2 million by 2031. As a nation, Canadian history offers much to celebrate and be proud of, although the mistreatment of Aboriginal peoples remains a shameful chapter. Moreover, a tenuous relation between the federal government and Aboriginal C...

  11. ABORIGINALITY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism seems to be a buzz-word applied on a widest contexts and studies. The importance West has given to this term is linked to a new process of acceptance of diversity as never before. However, in the core of this discourse, the spirit of colonialism remains. In this conceptual paper, not only the main assumptions of cultural tourism are discussed in depth, but also its connection with colonization. One of main problems of cultural tourism is the conceptual basis on where this theory lies. For one hand, this term is strictly applied on local communities (aboriginals or ethnic minorities that have not sustained the progress on their own. On another one, this type of new paternalism closes the door for a real opportunity of dialogue between centre and periphery. As things being, cultural tourism not only is a concept very hard to be applied on research but also follow to nourish the ethnocentrism of nineteen-century racism.

  12. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

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    Scott Godwin

    Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies

  13. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  14. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. PMID:25912518

  15. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  16. From the barrel of the gun: policy incursions, land, and Aboriginal peoples in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Robert J. Parkes

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the enduring traces of colonialism within the Australian nation-state and the ongoing challenges to Aboriginal peoples’ rights, especially land rights. We try to make sense of contemporary federal government and New South Wales state, or provincial, government policy changes which connect land use, access and ownership to social welfare, and which target Aboriginal peoples in remote, or outback, areas and the inner city. We connect these two policy initiatives by pointin...

  17. Sustaining an Aboriginal mental health service partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth

    2005-11-21

    The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise. PMID:16296956

  18. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  19. Lifting the burden: a coordinated approach to action on Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Jasmine; Hunt, Jennifer; Ivers, Rowena; Smyth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence continues to be significantly higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people, resulting in a range of serious health consequences and inequities. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AHandMRC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health (the Ministry) have worked in partnership to develop The ATRAC Framework: A Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control in NSW, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities and a range of stakeholders. The goal of the ATRAC Framework is to reduce smoking prevalence and the harmful impacts of tobacco use among Aboriginal people and communities in NSW. The framework includes reviews of relevant evidence and recommended actions, organised under six areas: leadership, partnerships and coordination; community action, awareness and engagement; workforce development; supportive environments; quitting support; and evidence, evaluation and research. The framework stresses that, to be successful, Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control programs and activities need to be evidence based, coordinated, integrated and involve Aboriginal people and Aboriginal community controlled health organisations in all aspects, from development through to implementation and evaluation. Consultations and evidence reviews highlight the importance of workforce support and development, including the ongoing need for more workers specialising in Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control, as well as ongoing training for all staff involved in delivering care to Aboriginal people. Other key strategies identified in the framework include improving access to nicotine replacement therapy and other medications to support quitting; supporting, strengthening and building on existing innovative community-based programs; and further developing the evidence base. The AHandMRC and the Ministry will continue to work in partnership to drive the use of the ATRAC Framework by all people

  20. Racial Attitudes of Australian Tertiary Students. University of Maryland Cultural Study Center Research Report No. 4-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaples, Ernest A.; And Others

    Three forms of the Situational Attitude Scale (SAS), measuring attitudes toward Aborigines, New Australians and a neutral form, were administered to 314 white Australian university and college students (New Australians are immigrants from non-English speeking European countries). Analysis of the data indicated that white Australian students have a…

  1. “I know it’s bad for me and yet I do it”: exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson Anna P; Cargo Margaret; Stewart Harold; Chong Alwin; Daniel Mark

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to infor...

  2. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  3. Acquiring and presenting Aboriginal art in art museums: my first 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Radford

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, Aboriginal art is celebrated as one of the most popular areas in any Australian art museum. The author charts his role in presenting and acquiring Aboriginal art as art, in art museums, against the backdrop of related developments in the Australian art world. He traces developments from the late 1970s when he was director of the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, though his 23 years at the Art Gallery of South Australia, as a curator then director, to his current position as director of the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra, which now has the largest collection and display of Australian Indigenous art. He also describes the steady progress long before his time, some of which has not been documented before, made by art museums around Australia as they gradually accepted, collected and prominently displayed Aboriginal art. He was invited to present this paper.

  4. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  5. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ian PS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH's experience in setting and meeting priorities. Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met. In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities. This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled

  6. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Johanna M; Rowley, Kevin G; Anderson, Ian Ps

    2009-01-01

    Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH)'s experience in setting and meeting priorities.Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met.In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities.This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled researchers and stakeholders to come

  7. Understanding community beliefs of Chinese-Australians about cancer: initial insights using an ethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Soo See; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Katherine; Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2005-03-01

    Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who had been recruited through two Sydney familial cancer clinics. Many of the informants included in their narrative terms that seemed to match Western biomedical explanations for cancer. The majority of informants also maintained traditional Chinese beliefs, despite high acculturation and beliefs in biomedical explanations about cancer. Explanations of illness including cancer, referred to the following concepts: (i) karma (yeh), (ii) retribution (bao ying), (iii) fate (ming yun) or Heaven's or God's will, (iv) geomancy (feng-shui), (v) touched evil (zhong chia), (vi) misfortune or bad luck (shui wan, dong hark); (vii) offending the gods or deities requiring prayers or offerings for appeasement; and (viii) kong-tau (spells invoked through human intervention). Taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the Chinese population, the findings provide an insight into Chinese illness conceptualization that may assist health professionals to develop an understanding of how the cultural explanatory models affect access to screening services, communication of diagnosis of cancer and management of treatment regimen. PMID:15386778

  8. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health practitioner regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2014-03-01

    An aspect of the much needed efforts to "close the gap" in Indigenous health disadvantage in Australia has been workforce reform. This has included targeted training for general practitioners and has also been characterised by sensitising of psychiatrists to the particular mental health needs of persons of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander background. It has also incorporated increasing involvement by Indigenous persons in providing health services. In 2012, each Australian State and Territory constituted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Practice Board to regulate and register Indigenous health practitioners. This marked an important recognition of the contribution able to be made by this complementary component of the Australian health workforce which is particularly enabled to understand and meet the needs of Indigenous persons. This column chronicles the first steps of the new regulatory board and identifies issues which face it. PMID:24804527

  9. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people’s territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  10. The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS and two institution-based systems

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    Auer Anna M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to examine how the World Health Organization (WHO injury surveillance guidelines have been applied to evaluate systems operating in three different contexts. Methods The attributes of a good surveillance system as well as instructions for conducting evaluations, outlined in the WHO injury surveillance guidelines, were used to develop an analytical framework. Using this framework, a comparative analysis of the application of the guidelines was conducted using; the Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance System (ACCISS from Canada, the Shantou-Emergency Department Injury Surveillance Project (S-EDISP from China, and the Yorkhill-Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (Y-CHIRPP imported from Canada and implemented in Scotland. Results The WHO guidelines provide only a basic platform for evaluation. The guidelines over emphasize epidemiologic attributes and methods and under emphasize public health and injury prevention perspectives requiring adaptation for context-based relevance. Evaluation elements related to the dissemination and use of knowledge, acceptability, and the sustainability of ISS are notably inadequate. From a public health perspective, alternative reference points are required for re-conceptualizing evaluation paradigms. This paper offers an ISS evaluation template that considers how the WHO guidelines could be adapted and applied. Conclusions Findings suggest that attributes of a good surveillance system, when used as evaluation metrics

  11. Double Oppressions of Racism and Sexism: Australian Indigenous Women in Prichard's Fiction about the Aborigines%种族与性别的双重压迫:普里查德土著题材小说中的澳大利亚土著女性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐在中

    2011-01-01

    澳大利亚作家凯瑟琳·苏珊娜·普里查德,在她的土著题材作品中,努力克服种族偏见,对土著民和土著文化倾注了同情、理解和尊重;不仅如此,作为一个女性作家,她还对土著女性的不利生存地位给予了特别的关注,这使得她的土著题材作品既有反对种族主义的一面,又有关注性别歧视的一面。本文结合《库娜图》等四部作品,探讨了澳大利亚土著女性在19世纪末至20世纪初的殖民时期所遭受的种族和性别的双重压迫。%In her fictional writing about the Australian Aborigines, Katharine Susannab Prichard uniquely attempts to free herself from racial prejudice and expresses her sympathy, understanding and respect towards the Aborigines in general. As a woman writer, she also concerns with Indigenous women's disadvantaged living status. This renders her novels and other works characteristically anti- racist and anti-sexist. In the study of Coonardoo and her three other works, this paper examines the double oppressions of racism and sexism imposed upon Indigenous women in colonial Australia in the late 19th and early 20th century.

  12. Forestry and Road Development: Direct and Indirect Impacts from an Aboriginal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom M. Beckley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest industry is a significant contributor to the development of roads and most are constructed on Aboriginal territories. Many Aboriginal communities are isolated both socially and economically and Aboriginal cultures are often described as having inherent socio-environmental relationships. Aboriginal communities, therefore, may be the most likely to benefit and be most vulnerable to the impacts of road development. We use a case study approach to explore how an Aboriginal community interprets and responds to the increasing development of roads in its territory. The results are interpreted using the theory of access in order to frame the interactions between people and nature within a cohesive system which includes elements which are spatially located, flow, interact, and can be disturbed. The dominant themes discussed as being affected by the influence of roads on access included issues of the following nature: Aboriginal, hunting, foreign, territorial and environmental. Issues pertaining to Aboriginal actors as opposed to foreign actors such as the industry or non-aboriginal hunters and fishers dominated discussions. Although the positive effects provided by roads were alluded to, focus tended towards the affected relationships and ties between the territory, the environment and Aboriginal members. Roads are associated with changes in traditional roles and practices which benefit individualistic behaviors. The access mechanisms mediating and controlling the use of resources through traditional norms and roles such as sharing, asking permission, and helping in the practice of traditional activities no longer apply effectively. Changes in the traditional spatial organization of the territory have minimized the influence of knowledge, identity, and negotiation in mediating access among communities. Results highlight that conflicts have thus resulted between and among Aboriginal communities. Also, perception of the role of the environment

  13. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  14. Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan A NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO. An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure–process–outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was

  15. Evaluation of the first strategic plan for Aboriginal health in south western Sydney, 1993-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriage, C; Harris, E; Kristensen, E

    2000-01-01

    The 1993-98 Aboriginal Health Strategic Plan for South Western Sydney represented the first partnership of its kind between an Area Health Service, local Aboriginal Health Workers and the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in Australia. During 1998, an evaluation of the plan was undertaken as part of the preparation for the second Aboriginal Health Plan. Of the 45 strategies in the first plan, 38% had been fully implemented, 42% had been partly implemented, and 20% were not implemented at all. This paper discusses the importance of data collection and monitoring systems, the integration of Aboriginal health into mainstream services, the further development of Aboriginal health infrastructure, and continued leadership by senior managers. PMID:11186054

  16. The Changing Political Economy of Australian Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1994-01-01

    The Australian labour market is undergoing fundamental change, following economic restructuring and industrial relations and vocational education reform. This article outlines the recent evidence relating to unequal outcomes for immigrants from non English-speaking background and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian labour market. It then argues that, rather than meritocratic, these outcomes are partially the result of racial discrimination. The paper then considers the so...

  17. Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Denis, Verna

    2007-01-01

    A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

  18. Educational Issues Facing Aboriginal Families in Rural Australia: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    A case study of Aboriginal education in Geraldton, Western Australia, looked at the cycle of low educational attainment, unemployment, and poverty; national and state programs to support Aboriginal students and parent involvement; and community attitudes toward existing programs and proposed improvement strategies. A 1-year plan is detailed for…

  19. Aboriginal secondary education: Non completion and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Donders, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    I use 2001 Canadian Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) Census data to assess two dimensions of Aboriginal educational attainment: (1) what proportion of Aboriginals fail to complete high school; and (2) what is the return to different levels of education for Aboriginals. I find that Aboriginals, for certain age groups, are two times more likely than non Aboriginals to leave high school before completion. Further, I find that in terms of high school completion within the Aboriginal population, ...

  20. IN SEARCH OF POLITICAL INTEGRITY : COMPLIANCE OF AUSTRALIAN LAW IN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT LAW IN REPRESENTING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper articulates the human rights violation of the minority group of Aborigines Community in Australia. Australia has ratified the International Committee for Elimination of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, and other human rights doctrines that protect the rights of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders; however the Government of Australia from its inception have done little to ensure that those political protections are effective in ensuring the genuine protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. Most frequently cited is the failure of international laws to ensure the land and self-determination rights of these peoples. However, domestic law could undoubtedly ensure that these rights are in place, if the desire to do so is present within the Australian government.

  1. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-01-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school plac...

  2. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  3. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  4. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  5. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  6. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  7. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265

  8. Representation of Indigenous Women in Contemporary Aboriginal Short Stories of Australia and India: A Study in Convergences and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Acharya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to review and reassess the tribal situation with special reference to the tribal women in India and Australia. It is an attempt to locate the ‘Aboriginal woman’ question in the context of women’s movement in both countries. In Australia the women’s movement, on the whole, has not been successful in incorporating Aboriginal women into its concerns and activities. Relations with Aboriginal women have constituted a problem with the women’s movement. Despite many differences in socio-cultural set up the stories of Anil Gharai and those of Australian Aboriginal writers share many common traits and cut across cultural differences. It establishes the theory of pan-aboriginality that exists in countries that possess a sizeable population of indigenous people.

  9. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  10. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  11. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  12. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  13. Cosmos, culture and landscape: Documenting, learning and sharing Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in contemporary society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    This PhD thesis presents Australian Aboriginal astronomical knowledge, its documentation, sharing and communication, with an emphasis on contemporary collaborations. The research is primarily focussed on the Murchison region (associated with Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory), East Kimberley (Wolfe Creek Crater) and the South West of Western Australia.

  14. Educational Failure or Success: Aboriginal Children's Non-Standard English Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…

  15. Psychosocial Disorders of Aboriginal People of the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Marvin W.

    1986-01-01

    Compares high rates of psychosocial disorders found among American Indians, Eskimos, and Australian Aborigines. Relates high rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse, depression, suicide, family instability, delinquency, and accidental death to experiences of traditional cultures with western domination. Reviews major psychosocial explanations of…

  16. Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S., Ed.

    Six papers on Australian Aboriginal and Islander grammars include: "Repetition of Tiwi at Clause Level" (Marie P. Godfrey); "Iwaidja Verbal Clauses" (Noreen Pym); "Murinbata Noun Clauses" (Chester S. Street); "Clauses in Kala Lagaw Ya" (Rod Kennedy); "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs" (Rod Kennedy); and "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs: Speaker Perspective and Tense, Mood,…

  17. Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

  18. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the “costly” crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  19. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  20. Current Trends of the Linguistic and Cultural Values of the Greek Australian Community in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the perspectives of Greek origin people as regards their intention to maintain their ancestral culture within the Australian context of social values. This qualitative research study, influenced by Humanistic Sociology, analyses data collected through questionnaires from first and second generation parents and teachers of…

  1. The Gender Balance of the Australian Space Research Community: A Snapshot From The 15th ASRC, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Cairns, Ann; Short, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the striking gender imbalance in the physical sciences has been a topic for much debate. National bodies and professional societies in the astronomical and space sciences are now taking active steps to understand and address this imbalance. In order to begin this process in the Australian Space Research community, we must first understand the current state of play. In this work, we therefore present a short 'snapshot' of the current gender balance in our community, as observed at the 15th Australian Space Research Conference. We find that, at this year's conference, male attendees outnumbered female attendees by a ratio of 3:1 (24% female). This gender balance was repeated in the distribution of conference talks and plenary presentations (25 and 22% female, respectively). Of the thirteen posters presented at the conference, twelve were presented by men (92%), a pattern repeated in the awards for the best student presentations (seven male recipients vs one female). The program and organising c...

  2. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal society was an overarching challenge to quitting. Conclusions Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking that include personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. Multidimensional smoking cessation programs are needed that reduce the stress and burden for Aboriginal Health Workers; provide access to culturally relevant quitting resources; and address the prevailing normalisation of smoking in the family, workplace and community.

  3. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  4. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1 ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2 kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still

  5. 'We know the aborigines are dying out': Aboriginal people and the quest to ensure their survival, Wave Hill Station, 1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    In 1939 an Australian anthropologist, W.E.H Stanner, believed that the nation needed to examine the question of biological and cultural preservation of the Aboriginal peoples. In an attempt to address the issue a range of proposals were suggested, most concentrating on the provision of adequate nutrition, proper medical supervision, good conditions of employment, appropriately trained field staff with sufficient financial resources, and the creation of inviolable reserves. This paper is a case study of a northwest Northern Territory cattle station, Wave Hill, where a survey conducted by two anthropologists aimed to reveal the causes of population decline on Vestey owned cattle stations. Could these anthropologists devise a way that would see an increase in station labour without having to seek new labour from marginal areas--'bush' people as they were called? Could they provide an answer to the wider challenge of stemming population decline through improving Aboriginal health? PMID:25095482

  6. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  7. Social Indicators in Surveys of Urban Aboriginal Residents in Saskatoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alan B.; Spence, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The Bridges and Foundations Project on Urban Aboriginal Housing, a Community-University Research Alliance (CURA) project financed primarily by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), has been operational in Saskatoon since early 2001. During these past 5 years…

  8. Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-01-01

    In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools. PMID:22731254

  9. Hydro-acoustic remote sensing of benthic biological communities on the shallow South East Australian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.

  10. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Resilience in a National Community-Based Cohort of Australian Gay Men Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Rozbroj, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    HIV-positive gay men may experience multiple sources of adversity and stress, related both to their HIV diagnosis and sexual identity. Most of these men, however, do not experience mental health problems. Little is known about factors that help them achieve resilience in the face of life challenges. This study examined psychosocial factors associated with resilience in a national community-based sample of 357 Australian HIV-positive gay men. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Higher levels of resilience were linked with experiencing low or no internalized HIV-related stigma, having no previous history of mental health problems, and a number of socioeconomic indicators. In addition to providing a more complete picture of the mental health of HIV-positive gay men, findings from this study can be used to inform strength-based approaches to mental health prevention and support. PMID:26884311

  11. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation. PMID:24888391

  12. Seeking a Pedagogy of Difference: What Aboriginal Students and Their Parents in North Queensland Say about Teaching and Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Osborne, Barry; Lloyd, Natalie; Llewellyn, Linda; Boon, Helen; Webber, Tammi; Laffin, Gail; Kemp, Codie; Day, Cathy; Wills, Jennifer; Harrison, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the outcomes of the first phase of a three phase research initiative which begins by identifying through the voices of Aboriginal students and community members the teaching practices that influence Aboriginal student engagement and learning. The study occurs within the Diocese of Townsville Catholic Education schools in North…

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors in aboriginal Taiwanese: findings from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Sung; Tsai, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of obesity in Taiwanese aborigines and to identify the associated factors. Data for this study were from the "2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)" that conducted in-home, face-to-face, interviews on 6,592 households (26,658 persons) of a national probability sample in Taiwan. Aborigine-dense mountainous areas are over-sampled. BMI values were used to indicate obesity status. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of the association of the variables with the obesity status. Results showed that approximately 10.5% of aboriginal men and 14.5% of women compared to 4.1% and 3.5% of their non-aboriginal counterparts were obese (BMI > 30). An additional 45.1% of aboriginal men and 33.3% of women compared to 27.6% and 17.7% of their non-aboriginal counterparts were overweight (BMI 25-30). Regression analyses revealed few associations with increased risk of obesity in the aborigines. However, the aborigines and non-aborigines were distinctly different from each other in socio-economic status, lifestyle, environmental factors and attitude toward obesity. Results indicate that obesity is more prevalent among the aborigines but the causal reasons are not apparent. The public health authorities should develop more culturally appropriate community-based intervention strategies to promote the health of the aborigines. PMID:17704040

  14. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  15. Investigating the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of outreach case management in an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service: a mixed methods exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Deborah A.; Togni, Samantha J.; Schluter, Philip J.; Rogers, Lynne; Egert, Sonya; Potter, Nichola; Hayman, Noel E.; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex D. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The disparities in health and life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples compared to non-Indigenous Australians are well documented. Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to these disparities. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of a case management approach to chronic disease care integrated within an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service. Methods The Home-based, Outreach case Managem...

  16. An Aboriginal game plan - a plan for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation is included of some of the more intangible and hands-on types of advice that a corporation should consider when they decide to do business with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Although there are numerous areas of business concern (both legally and culturally) to consider when working with Aboriginal people and communities, developing a proactive strategy and approach to this segment of Canadian society is just as important and compelling as environmental or gender-related issues because they too can be seen to affect the company operations at any level. Having good corporate business relations with Aboriginal communities is going to take some thinking 'outside of the box,' but with committed understanding and focus on open communications, there is no reason why a company should not be able to develop a corporate-wide approach with relative ease. By being open to learning and listening, companies can begin to develop 'Aboriginal Relations' strategies that will become an automatic inclusion item at corporate strategy meetings and planning discussions. This would be in keeping with the corporation's choice to negotiate and not litigate

  17. Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3% of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01 and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04, and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06 in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia.

  18. Implementation of an optimal stomatal conductance model in the Australian Community Climate Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS1.3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We implement a new stomatal conductance model, based on the optimality approach, within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE land surface model. Coupled land-atmosphere simulations are then performed using CABLE within the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS with prescribed sea surface temperatures. As in most land surface models, the default stomatal conductance scheme only accounts for differences in model parameters in relation to the photosynthetic pathway, but not in relation to plant functional types. The new scheme allows model parameters to vary by plant functional type, based on a global synthesis of observations of stomatal conductance under different climate regimes over a wide range of species. We show that the new scheme reduces the latent heat flux from the land surface over the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer by 0.5 to 1.0 mm day-1. This leads to warmer daily maximum and minimum temperatures by up to 1.0 °C and warmer extreme maximum temperatures by up to 1.5 °C. These changes generally improve the climate model's climatology and improve existing biases by 10–20 %. The change in the surface energy balance also affects net primary productivity and the terrestrial carbon balance. We conclude that the improvements in the global climate model which result from the new stomatal scheme, constrained by a global synthesis of experimental data, provide a valuable advance in the long-term development of the ACCESS modelling system.

  19. Aboriginal fisher perspectives on use of biotelemetry technology to study adult Pacific salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen V. M.; Raby G. D.; Hinch S. G.; Cooke S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry has become a popular tool accepted by the scientific community as a reliable approach for studying wild fish. However, stakeholder perspectives on scientific techniques and the information they generate are not uniformly positive. Aboriginal groups in particular may have opposition or apprehension to telemetry as a research tool. To that end, we conducted a river-bank survey of 111 aboriginal First Nations fishers that target adult Pacific salmon in the lower Fraser River, Britis...

  20. Accountability and the separation of business and politics in corporate-aboriginal partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Matthew Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A case study approach is used to explore the hypothesis that variation in community resistance to corporate-Aboriginal partnerships is dependent upon First Nation governance processes. Following a systematic review of three forestry sector case studies, this study identifies tradeoffs that should be considered by First Nation leaders choosing from alternative processes for pursuing corporate-Aboriginal partnerships. While it is accepted that the appropriate mix of processes will vary across c...

  1. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  2. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  3. Reflecting the Lives of Aboriginal Women in Canadian Public Library Collection Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some, but not all, the core titles needed for developing a public library collection that would reflect the diversity and complexity of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada. The titles include major authors, essential titles, journals, magazines, indexes, databases, reference books, websites, film, music, and spoken word as well as some recommended collection sources. The works reveal an emerging literature and cultural production for, by, and about Aboriginal women that steers away from pathologizing their lives as discussed in the l998 Status of Women in Canada report Aboriginal Women in Canada: Strategic Research Directions for Policy Development. Library customers who are seeking a better understanding of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada, or Aboriginal women who are seeking materials that reflect the strengths, challenges, reality, and dreams of their lives, should be able to expect a core collection in the public libraries of the communities in which they live. This paper will outline some of the arguments for developing a core collection of work for, and about, Aboriginal women in Canada, and will suggest some criteria and selection sources critical for this collection. For this paper, Aboriginal women in Canada include women who identify themselves as First Nation, Inuit and Metis.

  4. Phenology of Australian temperate grasslands: linking near-surface phenology to C3/C4 community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is relatively well-studied in northern hemisphere temperate biomes, but limited research has been conducted on phenological drivers and responses in Australian temperate ecosystems. Australian temperate grasslands represent a broad range of plant communities from exotic pastures to native grasslands, but all are important for food security (livestock grazing) and biodiversity retention. Climate predictions for temperate Australia include higher temperatures, altered rainfall frequency/seasonality, increased drought severity and more regular wildfires. The ecosystem response to these climatic factors is unknown, and the need to improve the monitoring of these highly dynamic grassland systems at a landscape scale is acute. The aim of this research is to use high-frequency phenological data to improve the identification of grassland functional types and ultimately use this to improve the inter-annual monitoring of dynamic grassland systems. We use hourly repeat photography and the Green Chromatic Coordinate vegetation index to characterize the vegetative phenology of several native and exotic grassland communities. Monthly vegetation surveys allow us to correlate plant functional groups with indicator features on the phenology profile. C4-dominated grasslands are characterized by a consistent low greenness during winter, the commencement of greening in late spring/early summer and the retention of green vegetation throughout the summer. Exotic C4 grasslands can be distinguished from native ecosystems by their early-spring flush of annual grasses and forbs prior to the primary greening in late spring/early summer. Native C3 grasslands are more variable in response to rainfall and exhibit multiple greening/browning cycles within the year. They tend to green up earlier in the spring and brown off rapidly in response to high temperatures and low rainfall. Exotic C3 grasslands also green up in early spring but exhibit a more traditional unimodal

  5. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  6. Torres Strait Islanders and Australian Nationhood: Some Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. Reviews education on the Strait Islands from 1892 to 1985, focusing on issues related to educational standards, the inclusion of islanders within legislative provisions for Aborigines, immigration, and…

  7. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  8. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  9. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  10. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) – Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Law; Ziehn, T.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.; Chamberlain, M. A.; L. E. Stevens; Y. P. Wang; Srbinovsky, J.; Bi, D.; Yan, H; P. F. Vohralik

    2015-01-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS)-ESM1 that combines existing ocean and land carbon models into the physical climate model to simulate exchanges of carbon between the land, atmosphere and ocean. The land carbon model can optionally include both nitrogen and ...

  11. Influence of geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joel; Zammit, Carla M; Gregg, Adrienne L; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Andersen, Gary L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Links between microbial community assemblages and geogenic factors were assessed in 187 soil samples collected from four metal-rich provinces across Australia. Field-fresh soils and soils incubated with soluble Au(III) complexes were analysed using three-domain multiplex-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic (PhyloChip) and functional (GeoChip) microarrays. Geogenic factors of soils were determined using lithological-, geomorphological- and soil-mapping combined with analyses of 51 geochemical parameters. Microbial communities differed significantly between landforms, soil horizons, lithologies and also with the occurrence of underlying Au deposits. The strongest responses to these factors, and to amendment with soluble Au(III) complexes, was observed in bacterial communities. PhyloChip analyses revealed a greater abundance and diversity of Alphaproteobacteria (especially Sphingomonas spp.), and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp.) in Au-containing and Au(III)-amended soils. Analyses of potential function (GeoChip) revealed higher abundances of metal-resistance genes in metal-rich soils. For example, genes that hybridised with metal-resistance genes copA, chrA and czcA of a prevalent aurophillic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, occurred only in auriferous soils. These data help establish key links between geogenic factors and the phylogeny and function within soil microbial communities. In particular, the landform, which is a crucial factor in determining soil geochemistry, strongly affected microbial community structures. PMID:22673626

  12. Dietary habits of Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie A; Findlay, Leanne C; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-04-01

    Based on the results of Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey, this article presents an overview of how often First Nations children living off reserve, Métis children and Inuit children aged 2 to 5 consume various types of food, including foods considered traditional or country among Aboriginal people. The frequency with which First Nations children living off reserve and Métis children consumed items from major food groups tended to be similar. While lower percentages of Inuit children were reported to regularly consume items from these food groups, relatively high percentages of Inuit children consumed traditional or country foods. Around two-thirds of all Aboriginal children ate fast food and processed foods at least once a week, and just over half had salty snacks, sweets and desserts at least once a day. Consumption patterns varied, depending on whether children lived in a Census Metropolitan Area/Census Agglomeration. PMID:24258058

  13. The Cascade of Care for an Australian Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Wade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community.A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake.Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99% reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48% injected in the last month. Of 201 (72% patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47% were current injectors and 25 (45% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70% genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54% genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30-5.00, p = 0.006.Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia-benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available.

  14. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  15. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Phillips

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina.  The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education.  Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “special needs” attending schools on reserves throughout Canada.  There was also concern over difficulties with the current special education system, e.g., funding, assessment, and service issues.  It was believed that the Aboriginal worldview of students with special needs as having special gifts from the Creator was not integrated into the curriculum or into teaching practices.  The article concludes with suggestions for educators on how to address exceptionalities in Aboriginal communities. Keywords: Aboriginal education, Elders, exceptionality, special education, Aboriginal special   education.

  16. Color me healthy: food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-03-01

    Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. PMID:24434081

  17. Embedding Engagement in an Australian "Sandstone" University: From Community Service to University Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    There has been much recent interest and debate in Australia around the topics of university engagement, knowledge transfer, and engaged scholarship. Diverse responses relating to teaching and learning, research, and community service are evident in many institutions. However, there is a paucity of empirical research describing institutional…

  18. Being good neighbours : Current practices, barriers, and opportunities for community engagement in Australian plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Melissa; Schirmer, Jacki; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    Although community engagement (CE) is widely recognised as an essential element of sustainable management, few studies have evaluated CE at an industry-wide scale, i.e. in terms of the specific CE needs and best practice methods needed when addressing engagement issues that apply across more than on

  19. Associations between leaf structure, orientation, and sunlight exposure in five Western Australian communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five plant communities in Western Australia, as well as selected desert and Rocky Mountain species of the western USA, were surveyed to evaluate associations among leaf structure, orientational properties, and the sunlight exposure and precipitation characteristic of each community. Selected leaf structural features have been associated previously with photosynthetic function and included shape, thickness, the ratio of thickness to width, stomatal distribution, leaf surface coloration, and the number and distribution of palisade cell layers. Decreases in annual precipitation (<4 to over 15 cm/yr) and increases in total daily sunlight (4.2 to 29.2 mol photons/m1) corresponded strongly to an increase in the percentage of species in a given community with more inclined (more inclined than +/- 45 degrees from horizontal) or thicker leaf mesophyll (>0.4 mm) leaves. Also, the percentage of species with a leaf thickness to width ratio >0.1, which were amphistomatous, or which had palisade cell layers beneath both leaf surfaces, increased from >20% in the highest rainfall and lowest sunlight community to >80% in the community with least rainfall but greatest sunlight exposure. Over 70% of the species in the most mesic, shaded community had lighter abaxial than adaxial leaf surfaces (leaf bicoloration). All of the above structural features were positively associated with a more inclined leaf orientation (r2 = 0.79), except for leaf bicoloration, which was negatively associated (r2 = 0.75). The ratio of adaxial to abaxial light was more strongly associated with leaf bicoloration (r2 = 0.83) and the presence of multiple adaxial and isobilateral palisade cell layers(r2 = 0.80) than with total incident sunlight on just the adaxial leaf surface (r2 = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). These results provide field evidence that leaf orientation and structure may have evolved in concert to produce a photosynthetic symmetry in leaf structure in response to the amount of sunlight and

  20. Periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease among Aboriginal adults; an RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, Lisa; Skilton, Michael; Maple-Brown, Louise; Kapellas, Kostas; Askie, Lisa; Hughes, Jaqui; Arrow, Peter; Cherian, Sajiv; Fernandes, David; Pawar, Basant; Brown, Alex; Boffa, John; Hoy, Wendy; Harris, David; Mueller, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Aboriginal Australian adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and determine if intensive periodontal intervention improves cardiovascular health, progression of renal disease and periodontal health over a 24-month follow-up. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled trial. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits, with the delayed intervention group receiving periodontal trea...

  1. Aboriginal ‘resistance war’ tactics – ‘The Black War’ of southern Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Constant Kerkhove

    2015-01-01

    Frontier violence is now an accepted chapter of Australian history.  Indigenous resistance is central to this story, yet little examined as a military phenomenon (Connor 2004).  Indigenous military tactics and objectives are more often assumed than analysed. Building on Laurie’s and Cilento’s contentions (1959) that an alliance of Aboriginal groups staged a ‘Black War’ across southern Queensland between the 1840s and 1860s, the author seeks evidence for a historically definable conflict d...

  2. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  3. Community-based interventions for obesity prevention: lessons learned by Australian policy-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haby Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.

  4. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  5. Working Alliance and Its Relationship With Treatment Outcome in a Sample of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSorcy, Danielle R; Olver, Mark E; Wormith, J Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The relationship that develops between a client and therapist is arguably one of the most important factors toward achieving positive outcomes from therapy. The present study examined the therapeutic alliance, as measured by Horvath and Greenberg's Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), as a function of Aboriginal ancestry and the relationship of alliance to important program outcomes, in a Canadian correctional sample of 423 treated sexual offenders. The men rated their primary therapists on the WAI 3 months into treatment. Higher self-report ratings on the WAI and its Task, Bond, and Goal subscales were associated with lower rates of treatment non-completion and longer stay in treatment. Aboriginal men scored significantly lower on the WAI's Bond subscale (i.e., the emotional connection between client and therapist) than non-Aboriginal men, although by and large, the offender sample as a whole otherwise registered fairly high mean scores on the tool. Aboriginal men scoring below the median on WAI total score had the highest rates of treatment non-completion. WAI total score and scores on the three subscales were unrelated to post-program recidivism in the community. Cultural implications for correctional client engagement and service delivery within the context of the risk-needs-responsivity model are discussed. PMID:25381308

  6. Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

  7. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

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    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  8. Australian Rainforest Timbers as a Valuable Resource: Community Perceptions and Purchase Habits of Rainforest Timber Products

    OpenAIRE

    Smorfitt, D. B.; Herbohn, J. L.; Harrison, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    Australia has some of the highest quality cabinet timber species in the world, sourced primarily from tropical rainforests, and this has been a long tradition of using these to produce furniture. Cessation of logging of crown rainforest land has reduced resource supply, but there is now considerable interest in growing rainforest timbers on private land. In order to formulate reforestation policy and industry development, it is desirable to know how the community views these timbers. This stu...

  9. Granny Rights: Combatting the granny burnout syndrome among Australian Indigenous communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Hammill

    2001-01-01

    Jan Hammill argues that family dysfunction is widespread in contemporary western society but is even more so in impoverished Indigenous communities forcibly stripped of their cultural practices. Alcohol and illicit and prescription drugs have become coping elixirs for profound feelings of despair and hopelessness which is then manifested in high rates of child abuse and neglect, interpersonal violence, suicide and early death. Increasingly the impact is borne most heavily by those whose value...

  10. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

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    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  11. A local upwelling controls viral and microbial community structure in South Australian continental shelf waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, James S.; Nayar, Sasi; Mitchell, James G.; Seuront, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the role of viruses and heterotrophic bacteria in microbial dynamics and biogeochemical cycles, there is still a critical lack of information on their community composition and dynamics, especially in relation to upwellings. We investigated, within surface waters and the Deep Chlorophyll Max, the community composition and dynamics of flow cytometrically defined sub-populations of heterotrophic bacteria and virus-like particles in nearby water masses that were affected and unaffected by a localised wind-driven coastal upwelling. In contrast to previous studies we uniquely identified a 4-fold increase in total viral abundance and a decrease in bacterial abundance, from upwelled to offshore waters. Individual viral sub-populations were seen to correlate significantly to both bacterial populations and chlorophyll a, suggesting the possibility of individual viral populations infecting multiple host species rather than the often assumed single host species. The percentage of HDNA bacteria was high (84.3-93.4%) within upwelled waters, in accordance with the highest recorded values within an upwelling system, and decreased down to 35.5-42.6% away from the upwelling. Additionally, changes in the community composition of individual bacterial sub-populations suggest individual populations might be better adapted to distinct environments. We suggest that each flow cytometrically defined bacterial population may possess its own environmental niche where favourable conditions for that population result in an increase in abundance, cellular activity and productivity.

  12. Exploring domestic violence and social distress in Australian-Indian migrants through community theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Manjula; Colucci, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    In many parts of the world, young adult women have higher levels of common mental disorders than men. The exacerbation of domestic violence (DV) by migration is a salient social determinant of poor mental health. Ecological models describe factors contributing to DV as operating at individual, family, cultural, and societal levels. We explored the interplay among these factors in an Indian community living in Melbourne, Australia, in a qualitative participatory action research study using a modified Forum Theater approach. We here present findings on connections between migration, societal factors, and social/family/cultural factors in DV. The study captured the voices of women living in the community as they describe how DV contributes to their emotional difficulties. Improved understanding of the sociocultural dynamics of DV and the associated social distress in this migrant Indian community can be used to guide the development of culturally sensitive prevention and response programs to assist migrant women from the Indian subcontinent who present with psychopathology and suicidal behaviors associated with DV. PMID:26341404

  13. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities. PMID:26066816

  14. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

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    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  15. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  16. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): a long-term platform for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Darryl; Gordon, Raylene; Carr, Darren; Craig, Jonathan C; Banks, Emily; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wutzke, Sonia; Eades, Sandra J; Redman, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The full potential for research to improve Aboriginal health has not yet been realised. This paper describes an established long-term action partnership between Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs), the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AH&MRC), researchers and the Sax Institute, which is committed to using high-quality data to bring about health improvements through better services, policies and programs. The ACCHSs, in particular, have ensured that the driving purpose of the research conducted is to stimulate action to improve health for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This partnership established a cohort study of 1600 urban Aboriginal children and their caregivers, known as SEARCH (the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health), which is now having significant impacts on health, services and programs for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper describes some examples of the impacts of SEARCH, and reflects on the ways of working that have enabled these changes to occur, such as strong governance, a focus on improved health, AH&MRC and ACCHS leadership, and strategies to support the ACCHS use of data and to build Aboriginal capacity. PMID:27421347

  17. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

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    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  18. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  19. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  20. Piloting the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care multidisciplinary team: an Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Box Margaret

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the home is the most common setting for the provision of palliative care in Australia, a common problem encountered here is the inability of patient/carers to manage medications, which can lead to misadventure and hospitalisation. This can be averted through detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs by a pharmacist; however, they are rarely included as members of the palliative care team. The aim of this study was to pilot a model of care that supports the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care team. A component of the study was to develop a cost-effective model for continuing the inclusion of a pharmacist within a community palliative care service. Methods The study was undertaken (February March 2009-June 2010 in three phases. Development (Phase 1 involved a literature review; scoping the pharmacist's role; creating tools for recording DRPs and interventions, a communication and education strategy, a care pathway and evidence based patient information. These were then implemented in Phase 2. Evaluation (Phase 3 of the impact of the pharmacist's role from the perspectives of team members was undertaken using an online survey and focus group. Impact on clinical outcomes was determined by the number of patients screened to assess their risk of medication misadventure, as well as the number of medication reviews and interventions performed to resolve DRPs. Results The pharmacist screened most patients (88.4%, 373/422 referred to the palliative care service to assess their risk of medication misadventure, and undertook 52 home visits. Medication reviews were commonly conducted at the majority of home visits (88%, 46/52, and a variety of DRPs (113 were detected at this point, the most common being "patient requests drug information" (25%, 28/113 and "condition not adequately treated" (22%, 25/113. The pharmacist made 120 recommendations in relation to her interventions. Fifty percent of online