Sample records for australia

  1. Australia. (United States)


    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  2. Australia's uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampson, D.C.


    The subject is discussed as follows: structure of the uranium industry in Australia (export policies; development of mining programme; table of export contracts approved by Australian government, 1972; government policy towards the industry 1972-75 and since 1975); reserves (table of Australia's major uranium deposits; estimated world resources of uranium, excluding USSR, Eastern Europe and China; comparison of exploration expenditures and discovery of uranium in Australia and the USA); enrichment; resource potential; future demand (table of nuclear power reactors above 30 MW in operation or under construction, mid-1979; projection of Australian uranium production to 1990); government and union action. (U.K.)

  3. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  4. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  5. Laser Hydrography in Australia. (United States)



  6. Energy in Australia 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas-Cubria, C.; Schultz, A.; Petchey, R.; Beaini, F.; New, R.


    Securing access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is one of the great challenges facing governments around the world. The Australian Government is committed to ensuring the security of Australia's domestic energy systems as a fundamental part of Australia's social and economic prosperity. Energy in Australia 2011 is a key reference for anyone with an interest in Australian energy issues. It provides a detailed overview of energy in Australia from production to consumption, and serves as a useful resource to inform industry, government and the community.

  7. Online Training in Australia (United States)

    Kuzic, Joze


    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  8. Handbook on Australia. (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…


    seeking explanations of these phenomena. The reasons for wishing to make measurements in Australia are: (a) the trajectory of Black Knight provides a...other suitable firings in Australia provide better opportunity for optical observation than do firings on American ranges. (Author)

  10. Radiation processing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.


    Australia is a true pioneer in commercial irradiation processing as the first commercial irradiation processing plant in the world was commissioned in Melbourne in 1959. This talk will briefly discuss the establishment of the process in Australia. Steritech's three irradiation plants will be discussed in detail, especially the different engineering aspects and the effect that those differences have on irradiation performance and flexibility of operation.Steritech's new state of the art 'pallet irradiator' will be featured. The transportation and loading of Cobalt 60 into the plants will be demonstrated, and public opposition, and security issues since September 11th 2001, will be highlighted. The wide variety of products that are routinely processed at Steritechs plants will be revealed including some 'world firsts' for Australia. Finally, the talk will address the future of irradiation processing in Australia including the potential, or otherwise, of the irradiation of food items

  11. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  12. Uranium production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.G.


    The history of uranium mining and milling in Australia is briefly outlined, particular attention being given to the development of Australia's only two operating mills, Nabarlek and Ranger, and its only operating mine, Ranger. The latter project is used to illustrate the prerequisites for development of the industry and the complex roles of the various parties involved in establishing a new mine: equity holders, customers, financiers, the securities industry, trade unions, and the public. The moves currently being taken to resolve the future of the industry in Australia, particularly the examination of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle being conducted by the Australian Science and Technology Council, preclude any firm conclusions being drawn, but the various options open to the government are reviewed and the record of Australian governments and unions and the attitude of the Australian public are described. (Author) (3 tabs., fig.)

  13. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.


    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  14. Australia's uranium export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.


    In developing the policy framework for the export of uranium, successive governments have been keenly aware that, in Australia, as in most countries, there has been considerable community interest and controversy surrounding the subject of uranium. When the Australian Labor Government was elected in 1983, it commissioned the Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) to report on Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. In particular, the report examined: (i) Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements, giving particular attention to the effectiveness of the bilateral and multilateral agreements and to the scope for strengthening these agreements, (ii) the opportunities for Australia through the conditions of its involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle to further advance the cause of nuclear non-proliferation having regard to the policies and practices of recipient countries, (iii) the adequacy of existing technology for the handling and disposal of waste products by consuming countries, and the ways in which Australia could further contribute to the development of safe disposal methods. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young


    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  16. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    resurgence of cultural pride in Tasmanian Aboriginal descen- dants). The 20th century. By the start of the 20th ... administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand. College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 ... psychiatry in Australia followed suit, picking up new ideas and trends. After World War I this included fever ...

  17. Mathematical Sciences in Australia (United States)

    Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh


    This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…

  18. Australia: a continuing genocide? (United States)

    Short, Damien


    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory.

  19. Economy Profile of Australia


    World Bank Group


    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  20. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  1. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard


    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...... Australia when the authorities finally got around to approving the project....

  2. Lexicography in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This paper describes the current setting for lexirography in Australia by reviewing the place of English since the first British settlement began in 1788. The emergence of Australian. English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal lan- guages touched on. The greatest ...

  3. Banknote Quality in Australia


    Arianna Cowling; Monica Howlett


    The Reserve Bank aims to keep the quality of banknotes in circulation high to ensure that they meet the needs of the public and to make it more difficult for counterfeits to be passed or remain in circulation. This article discusses the quality of banknotes in Australia and Reserve Bank initiatives that have improved the quality of banknotes in recent years.

  4. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.


    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  5. Climate Change. Solutions for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, T.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Karoly, D.; Lowe, I.; McMichael, T.; Mitchell, C.; Pearman, G.; Scaife, P.; Reynolds, A. (eds.)


    The Australian Climate Group was convened in late 2003 by WWF Australia and the Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in response to the increasing need for action on climate change in Australia. This group proposes a set of solutions to lower the risk that climate change will reach a dangerous level.

  6. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.


    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  7. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  8. WAVFH delegates' reports: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, W.A.


    Radiation measuring and control before Chernobyl: Continuous measurements of fallout in different parts of Australia, including the food producing areas, have been made since the mid 1950s. Levels have decreased rapidly since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere in 1974 and in the Northern Hemisphere in 1980. Measurements of concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout were made for the major groups of foods affected by the radioactive contaminants, starting in the 1950s and continuing until concentrations were so low that further effort in measurement was not warranted, i.e., less than 0.1 Bq/kg or 0.1 Bq/l. Changes in the concentrations of radionuclides in foods follow the same trends as the fallout levels. Based on the low levels of fallout measured in Australia since the 1950s, and taking into account the extremely low levels during the past decade, the concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout in foods grown and processed in Australia are extremely small. Results from the fall-out from Chernobyl. Since the Chernobyl accident, measurements of the concentrations of 137 Cs in a variety of foodstuffs grown in Australia have been made, mainly for export purposes. A summary of the results of these measurements is given in Table 111 of Attachment 2. No 134 Cs has been detected, nor is it likely to be. By taking into account these measurements, the earlier measurements of foodstuffs, predictive modelling values and the very low levels of fall-out in deposit and in air, it is concluded that the concentrations of 137 Cs in all foodstuffs grown in Australia are extremely small. Accordingly, their consumption would result in no significant risk to the health of a population. With world atmospheric conditions being as they are, it will probably be 12 to 18 months before any fallout reaches Australia. Even if some fall-out does occur, it will be minimal and should not significantly increase our very low natural levels

  9. Australia's nuclear safeguards agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is a compilation of the bilateral agreements concluded by Australia concerning co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The publication also includes the agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the agreement with EURATOM on transfers of nuclear materials from Australia to the European Atomic Energy Community. The other agreements were concluded with the following countries: Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR, United Kingdom and United States. They concern transfers of nuclear materials and equipment, research and development, exchange of information, etc. All contain provisions on safeguards, physical protection and restrictions on exports to third countries [fr

  10. Australia Online; Borderless University


    ERDINC, Zeynep


    Around the world distance education is playing an important roll in the education sector. Many countries are in the process of developing and improving their distance education projects. One of the projects being online education has improved information delivery and development op International education. Distance education has been available in Australia for many years. More than 30 higher education institutions within the country now use the program. The purpose of the development of di...

  11. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.


    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  12. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.


    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  13. Psychiatry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kaplan


    Full Text Available Psychiatry has been practised in Australia in one form or another since the peopling of the continent, originally with the practices of the Aboriginal shamans, and later with the psychiatric treatment necessitated by convict transportation. Over most of the last half-century psychiatry has been administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 psychiatrists in Australia, and num- bers are expected to increase in future. As in many other countries, there is ongoing pressure between the private and public sectors, with endemic under- funding of public and community services. Despite its small number of practitioners and relative isola- tion from major centres, Australian psychiatry has a distin- guished record in the field of research. The most famous dis- covery, by John Cade, was the use of lithium for treatment of mania. Recently governments at state and federal level have acknowledged the effect of psychiatric illness on patients and their families. This has led to the development of pro- grammes to improve public information and eliminate preju- dice. It is anticipated that the practice of psychiatry will flourish in Australia and that the country will remain a leading centre of excellence in psychiatric research and training.

  14. Australia's polio risk. (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for

  15. Australia needs nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.


    A matter of increasing concern in Australian society is the absence of a Commonwealth Government policy on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The lack of University level teaching facilities in nuclear energy engineering is also perceived to be an issue of national importance which must be addressed. More and more Australians deeply regret the lack of informed realism and scientific integrity which goes into endless debates on the technical, environmental and societal aspects of nuclear energy. Within the Australian community such important issues as uranium mining in Kakadu National Park, research reactor operation at Lucas Heights, the establishment of an international nuclear waste repository in Western Australia or the domestic use of nuclear electricity generation to minimise Australia's greenhouse emissions are still being debated at the intellectual level of radio talkback programs. Decision making in such areas deserves the disciplines of appropriate tertiary education. The Australian community has a right to know the relative risks and the environmental impacts of various fuel cycles as well as the technical limitations, true costs and energy audits of the 'alternative' energy technologies. Presently the Commonwealth of Australia is without a single School of Nuclear Engineering operating at a University level. Such a situation is believed to be unprecedented amongst the developed countries of the world. It is viewed with a measure of incredulity by the academic, diplomatic and political communities of the 'developing' countries of East Asia and the Pacific Basin. Many of these have a massive investment in the growth of peaceful nuclear energy and nuclear science and technology within their borders. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Energy News

  16. Australia's approach to monetary policy


    Jane Sneddon Little


    According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.

  17. Australia and Gondwanaland (United States)

    Teichert, C.


    Along the western margin of the Australian continent there exist four major sedimentary basins, filled with predominantly marine rocks from Cambrian to Tertiary in age, and up to 40,000 feet thick. Seaward these basins continue into depressions recognizable in the continental shelf and even the continental slope. Their very presence, the nature of their sediments and the composition and relationships of their fossil faunas indicate the existence of an open ocean to the west of Australia since early Paleozoic time. Composition of the Australian fossil land vertebrate faunas suggests isolation of the Australian continent since at least Permian time. ?? 1959 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  18. Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In Australia, public exposure to ionizing radiation above background is considered to be negligible. Average occupational exposures are about 0.5 millisievert per year, although there are some specialized industries and professions where they are much higher. The National Health and Medical Research Council has therefore adopted a position similar to that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the moment, no revision of exposure limits is recommended, but users are remined of their responsibility to ensure that exposures are kept low, particularly in those workplaces where significant exposures take place

  19. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...

  20. Building nuclear skills in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.


    Demand for nuclear skills in Australia has traditionally been met by recruitment but as the nuclear industry grows worldwide, such skills are in demand. This paper discusses he likely numbers of skilled people needed for a nuclear industry in Australia and what initiatives have been, or could be in, taken to address the needs

  1. Lexicography in Australia | Delbridge | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of Australian English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal languages touched on. The greatest change in the language setting came with Australia's immigration policy in its post-World War II form. This resulted in the government's eventual recognition of Australia ...

  2. Astronomy in Australia (United States)

    Watson, F.; Couch, W.


    Australians have watched the sky for tens of thousands of years. The nineteenth century saw the foundation of government observatories in capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While early twentieth-century astronomy focused largely on solar physics, the advent of radio astronomy at the end of the Second World War enabled Australia to take a leading role in the new science, with particular emphasis on low-frequency studies. Today, the radio quietness of its outback interior provides an excellent location for the Australian core of the Square Kilometre Array. Australian optical astronomy has flourished since the 1960s, with the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope becoming the principal national facility in 1974. Access to ESO’s facilities at the La Silla Paranal Observatory is warmly welcomed by all Australian astronomers.

  3. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  4. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.


    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  5. Asian student migration to Australia. (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L


    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  6. Toward the Defence of Australia (United States)


    i~li tr - _y- ----Q QD . New York: Random House , 1987. Kerr, Pauline, " Australia -Indonesian Relations Developing.- FlifRi s_] rc~h, August 1989, pp...AD- A234 907Ol? RESEARCH REPORT 8 T(WILRD TVF DEFENCE OF AUSTRALIA O)T IC VZA P R 24 1 GROUP CAPTAIN BRENTON J. ESPELAND, AM ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR... AUSTRALIA by Group Captain B.J. Espeland, AM, RAAF A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY IN FULFILLMENT OF THE RESEARCH REQUIREMENT Research Advisor

  7. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (United States)


    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)


    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  9. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.


    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  10. Australia's unresolved nuclear problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.


    This paper examines three acts of monumental incompetence which have all but destroyed Australia's once great potential to play a leading role in nuclear technology in South East Asia. Political chicanery and monumental technological and economic foresight, professional weakness and vacillation in the engineering community and the vicious pseudo scientific propaganda of most branches of the media, the teaching profession and sadly, even the politicisation of our churches, has all but destroyed a potential Australian ''sunrise industry''. Over the next forty years the population of planet Earth will approximately double. Unless Australians realise that their children and grand-children, and future generations of our neighbouring third world countries will require nuclear technology for an equitable and acceptable shared life-style, they will continue to allow taxpayers' money to be wasted on costly, technically unacceptable and environmentally undesirable attempts to develop ''alternative'' or ''renewable'' energy sources. These are neither alternative nor renewable but politically trendy. The tragedy of such projects is that their limited applicability and suitability for small scale energy production by wealthy users in limited geographical locations will only increase the need for base load energy supplies of the conventional type. Unless this is nuclear, planet Earth faces environmental despolation of monumental proportions. (J.P.N.)

  11. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model (United States)

    Gould, Peter


    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  12. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander


    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  13. Tax Policy Formulation in Australia


    Rob Heferen; Nicole Mitchell; Ian Amalo


    This article discusses the tax policy making process in Australia. It outlines the role of key agencies in this process and highlights some of the key developments in governance and consultation arrangements that have occurred over the past decade.

  14. Australia: uranium and nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, R.


    Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)

  15. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia


    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  16. The nuclear industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.


    The history of the development of the nuclear industry in Australia is essentially the history of uranium mining. Australia is a significant exporter of uranium concentrate yellowcake, but no other nuclear power or fuel cycle activity exists on a commercial scale. Industrial radiation processing and the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceuticals are the only other endeavors. The uranium mining in early years and the second discovery period, the policy formulation in 1970s and the recent policy development are described. Australia's low cost reserve has risen to 474,000 t U, and in 1984, three mines produced around 4,400 t U as yellowcake. Once the Jervis Bay nuclear power plant with 500 MWe capacity was planned, but the project was postponed indefinitely. The Uranium Enrichment Group of Australia planned to build an enrichment plant as a joint venture with URENCO Ltd., but also this plan was interrupted. The lack of expansion into nuclear power and fuel cycle activities has been due to favorable fossil fuel resources and their distribution, population density and distribution, social factors and government policy in Australia. (Kako, I.)

  17. Practice nursing in rural Australia. (United States)

    Hegney, Desley


    Rural Australia faces unique issues in workforce management and health care delivery. This paper provides an integrated review of the existing literature describing the work of practice nurses in rural Australia and the perceptions of consumers. Distinct differences are evident in the role of the practice nurse between rural and metropolitan practices. A key difference is that the rural practice nurse is known within the community and plays an important role in care coordination. Findings from two studies of consumer perceptions of the role of PN in rural areas suggest that the more remotely located the consumer, the greater is their perception that the nurse works under the direct supervision of the doctor. Currently, remotely located residents do not support an expanded autonomous role for the nurse. Greater research is required to develop the role of the practice nurse in rural Australia.

  18. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.A.W.; Derborough, M.A.; Diesendorf, M.; Inall, E.K.; Peaslee, D.C.; Taylor, S.R.


    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  19. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski


    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  20. Measuring Research Impact in Australia (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael


    The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…

  1. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 1, 2013 ... Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones ..... plants in the Australian scenario and possess excellent attri- butes typical of the ..... rainforests: Past, present, and future (eds) E Bermingham,. CW Dick and C Moritz ...

  2. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today (United States)

    Cox, Robyn


    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  3. Improving Reading in Australia's Outback (United States)

    Sharratt, Lyn; Hayes, Peter; Coutts, James


    Ten years ago, six teachers established a program of literacy intervention and professional learning in remote northwestern Australia based on the Reading Recovery principles. This group of teachers was determined to learn what had to happen in order for them to make a difference with students and then to make it happen. Their work led to getting…

  4. Early College Entrance in Australia (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie; Gross, Miraca U. M.


    Early college entry is an educational intervention that is being increasingly used in Australia. Following a review of the current Australian literature on early college entry, an overview is provided of the characteristics of, and the procedures associated with, one formal Australian early college entry program (the Early Admission for…

  5. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 1, 2013 ... the pioneer succession species in areas such as land dis- turbed due to mining and earthquakes. ... Australia is one of the oldest land masses of the earth. As the smallest continent, it still has large .... some of them are rare and come under endangered category. Although species of this genus are found in ...

  6. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse


    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  7. Governing International Education in Australia (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder


    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  8. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.


    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  9. Firearms and suicide in Australia. (United States)

    Cantor, C H; Lewin, T


    Australia has a moderate overall suicide rate but an extremely high male firearm suicide rate. Using data covering the years 1961-1985, a series of multiple regression based analyses were performed. During this period, overall suicide rates fell but firearm suicides remained constant with a resulting increase in the proportion of suicides by firearms. There has been an increase in suicides in the young offset by a decline in the elderly. Young males showed the greatest proportional increase in the use of firearms. A limited regional analysis supported the hypothesis that lack of legislative restrictions on long guns in Queensland with a greater household prevalence of such weapons and different cultural attitudes were associated with higher overall and firearm suicide rates. Such findings are consistent with reports from North America, although trends in Australia are more modest. Reducing the availability and cultural acceptance of firearms is likely to decrease suicide rates, especially in males.

  10. Observing urban forests in Australia (United States)

    E.G. McPherson


    From February 13 to 28, 2009 I had the good fortune of visiting Australia, and touring urban forests in Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Melbourne. My visits were only a day or two in each city, so in no case did I get an in-depth view of the urban forest resource or its management. The following observations are based on rather superficial field assessments and brief...

  11. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.


    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  12. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (United States)


    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  13. Atomic Australia: 1944-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, Alice.


    This book tells how successive Australian governments pursued the elusive uranium dream. With Australian uranium committed to the West's atomic arsenals, Australia seemed set to become a nation powered by the atom. But by the mid-1950 the Australian government learnt that their expectations were premature, if not unrealistic. The background of the creation of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is also given along with the examination of the uranium controversies of the 1970s and 1980s. 150 refs

  14. Taxation of Gambling in Australia


    Alchin, T.


    This paper examines taxation of gambling in Australia and shows the proportions of taxation that each State receives. An interstate comparison of the components of gambling taxes is undertaken and some reasons for the differences between States are given such as the contributions to hospitals and the staid nature of residents of some other States. Taxation of gambling in NSW is examined in some depth and lottery revenue is used as an illustration of the growth, decline and resurgence of this ...

  15. Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Jim; Settle, Domenica


    This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.

  16. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David


    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  17. Nuclear power options for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony


    Australia is slowly transitioning to low emissions technologies for electricity generation. International pressure for greenhouse gas reductions and community expectations are starting to speed up this process. Nuclear power would make a useful contribution to low emissions generation in Australia, as it does in more than 30 countries, but deployment will have to take into account local factors. 1) Australia does not have any experience of nuclear power. For many people the image they have of nuclear is the explosion at Fukushima. Safety is a concern and a modern reactor type with full natural (passive) safety features using only gravity and natural circulation for ultimate cooling is more likely to be acceptable. 2) The unit size will have to be compatible with the existing generation system. The largest single unit in the NEM (National Electricity Market) is 750 MWe (Kogan Creek, Queensland) and in many States even 750 MWe is too large. A 600 MWe single unit could probably be accommodated in certain areas but Small Modular Reactor (SMR) units of up to 200 MWe would allow more choice of location. 3) The nuclear power plant will have to be capable of backing up the increasing non-scheduled generation from renewable energy sources particularly wind and solar. The turbine generator of a nuclear power plant provides the rotating inertia necessary for frequency control. SMRs can load follow at typically 10%/min. 4) Australia does not have experience of licensing a nuclear power plant. The time to complete the licensing process will be minimised if the nuclear power plant was of a type that has been extensively licensed worldwide, e.g. a PWR or BWR. It would also assist licensing if the reactor had a generic design approval. Molten salt reactors or fast neutron reactors have attractive features, but licensing in an Australian context would be more difficult. 5) The nuclear power plant has to be economically viable in the Australian electricity market. Due to the current

  18. Australia. (United States)

    Happel, Sue

    Designed for intermediate grade students, this 4-week unit contains 11 lessons on Australian culture and geography. Topics covered are: the map, history, geography, climate, economy, people, education, religion, recreation, government, cities, transportation, communication, wildlife, and plantlife. Each lesson includes text and questions on the…

  19. Australia: US Redoubt in Southeast Asia (United States)


    security, maternity and child care, sickness and unemployment benefits, and for the Health Service. There is no question that Australia today...THE COLLEGE FOR SUCH BENEFIT TO THE USER AS MAY ACCRUE. STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER HIH1P3 8 April 1966 AUSTRALIA : US REDOUBT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA By...LOG # of 8 Copies 66-4-136 U « • USAWC RESEARCH ELEMENT (Research Paper) Australia : US Redoubt in Southeast Asia by Lt Col William W. Gist III

  20. The new energy technologies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R.


    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.


    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)



  3. Population dynamics in rural South Australia. (United States)

    Hugo, G J; Smailes, P J


    The authors examine recent trends in Australia in turnaround migration, or the movement of the population from urban to rural areas. "The paper assesses the major changes which have occurred in population trends within the non-metropolitan sector of the nation, South Australia and, in particular, a study area in the lower north region of South Australia. The analysis of the case study region draws upon a survey undertaken in 1968-1970 and partially replicated in 1980 and 1990. It appears that for Australia in general and for the study area the turnaround is continuing but at a slower pace and in a more spatially concentrated pattern." excerpt

  4. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Robert


    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  5. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)


    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  6. Rural male suicide in Australia. (United States)

    Alston, Margaret


    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorentino, C.M.R.; Butler, R.D.; Thomas, C.M.; McIlveen, G.R.; Huxlin, M.E.


    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  8. Australia's uranium policy - produce for export only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.


    Australia's uranium policy is that the mining and export of uranium only be permitted from the Nabarlek, Ranger and Olympic Dam Mines subject to strict safeguard conditions. In addition, the government has decided against the development of further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia, resulting in all uranium production being for export only

  9. Feasibility of uranium enrichment in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Council considered that provided the balance between costs and markets was found to be acceptable, there was no valid reason against the Government proceeding with a study on the feasibility of, and perhaps participating in the establishment of a commercial uranium enrichment industry in Australia. Areas covered include technical expertise and industrial structure in Australia, environmental aspects and safeguards

  10. Focus on: Hendra virus in Australia. (United States)

    Hughes, Kristopher


    Cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in Australia have been seen regularly since the virus was first isolated in 1994. Kristopher Hughes, associate professor of equine medicine at Charles Sturt University in Australia, gives an overview of how knowledge of the virus has developed in the past 20 years. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Action toward wilderness protection in Australia (United States)

    Keith Muir


    In 1992, a National Forest Policy Statement created a political opportunity to protect wilderness across Australia. The following decade saw over a million hectares of wilderness reserved in the state of New South Wales (NSW) but, until recently, little progress was made elsewhere in Australia. The success in NSW, as opposed to other states, can largely be attributed...

  12. Skilled Migration: Australia. Working Paper No. 63 (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald


    Migration patterns to and from Australia are becoming complex with migration programmes increasingly targeted towards meeting the needs of the labour market and regional development. This paper provides an analysis of the permanent and temporary movements of people to and from Australia in the last three years and their impact on the skilled…

  13. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond


    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  14. Australia: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    white powder that was thought CRS-13 54 “Indonesia Ambassador Recalled Early from Australia ,” Dow Jones News, June 14, 2005. 55 Mathew Moore...relations between Australia and Indonesia, which had been recovering since Australia’s involvement in East Timor in 1999. The East Timor intervention was...

  15. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergas H


    Full Text Available Henry Ergas1,2, Francesco Paolucci31University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Deloitte Australia, Brindabella Business Park, Canberra Airport, ACT, Australia; 3Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop.Keywords: aged care, long-term care, sustainability, residential care, community care

  16. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wutzler, B.


    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  17. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel


    Background: Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also...... at increased risk of psychological distress. A better understanding of the motivators, behaviours and psychological well-being of young people with diabetes and their parents will inform improvement of resources for supporting self-management and reducing the burden of diabetes. The Diabetes MILES (Management...... and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Methods/design: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...

  18. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.


    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  19. Skin cancer prevention in Australia. (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P


    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded.

  20. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley


    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  1. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia. (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny


    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  2. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.


    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  3. Oil and Australia: forecasts 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This edition of Oil and Australia summarises the industry's forecasts of demand for petroleum products to the year 2004 and estimates the extent to which demand can be met from domestic production of crude oil, condensate and naturally occurring liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The demand forecasts represent the average of forecasts prepared for forward planning purposes, of the five refining and marketing company members of the Australian Institute of Petroleum Ltd - Ampol Ltd, BP Australia Limited, Caltex Australia Limited, Mobil Oil Australia Ltd and The Shell Company of Australia Limited. The assumptions underlying the forecasts are also presented. The forecasts are a long term, directional view and assume no major policy changes will occur over the forecast period. A section on natural gas is included to provide a broader picture of the outlook for hydrocarbon energy needs, supply and export potential for Australia. natural gas is an important and growing energy source, and provides an opportunity for Australia to increase its exports and improve its balance of payments situation. 26 tabs., 14 figs

  4. Women and Ultramodern Buddhism in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Halafoff


    Full Text Available Buddhists started arriving in Australia in large numbers during the mid-1800s, and the first Buddhist societies and centres began to be formed in the mid-late 1900s. This paper examines the role of women in bringing Buddhism to and establishing it in Australia. Women have featured prominently in a small amount of scholarship, including Paul Croucher’s (1989 Buddhism in Australia: 1848–1988 and Cristina Rocha and Michelle Barker’s (eds. 2011 edited volume on Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. This paper draws on these sources, but primarily on more recent digital oral histories of prominent Buddhist women and men in Australia, recorded as part of the first stage of the Buddhist Life Stories of Australia project in 2014–2015. These first-hand accounts bring the early female pioneers of Buddhism in Australia to life and provide a rich re-telling of this history with emphasis on women’s contributions to it. We also argue that these women’s experiences can best be understood through a framework of ‘ultramodern Buddhism,’ built upon theories of modern and post-modern Buddhism, as many of these women were trailblazers bridging dualisms of tradition and modernity, Asia and the West, and adhering to both feminist and Buddhist principles.

  5. New research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.


    HIFAR, Australia's major research reactor was commissioned in 1958 to test materials for an envisaged indigenous nuclear power industry. HIFAR is a Dido type reactor which is operated at 10 MW. With the decision in the early 1970's not to proceed to nuclear power, HIFAR was adapted to other uses and has served Australia well as a base for national nuclear competence; as a national facility for neutron scattering/beam research; as a source of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment; and as a source of export revenue from the neutron transmutation doping of silicon for the semiconductor industry. However, all of HIFAR's capabilities are becoming less than optimum by world and regional standards. Neutron beam facilities have been overtaken on the world scene by research reactors with increased neutron fluxes, cold sources, and improved beams and neutron guides. Radioisotope production capabilities, while adequate to meet Australia's needs, cannot be easily expanded to tap the growing world market in radiopharmaceuticals. Similarly, neutron transmutation doped silicon production, and export income from it, is limited at a time when the world market for this material is expanding. ANSTO has therefore embarked on a program to replace HIFAR with a new multi-purpose national facility for nuclear research and technology in the form of a reactor: a) for neutron beam research, - with a peak thermal flux of the order of three times higher than that from HIFAR, - with a cold neutron source, guides and beam hall, b) that has radioisotope production facilities that are as good as, or better than, those in HIFAR, c) that maximizes the potential for commercial irradiations to offset facility operating costs, d) that maximizes flexibility to accommodate variations in user requirements during the life of the facility. ANSTO's case for the new research reactor received significant support earlier this month with the tabling in Parliament of a report by the Australian Science

  6. Australia: The 'Good' Genocide Perpetrator? (United States)

    Tatz, Colin


    In 1949, federal parliamentarians were indignant when asked to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (hereafter, UNGC). We could not in any way be associated with ‘the unthinkable’ crime, senior members claimed, because we are ‘a moral people’ with a ‘clean record'. This essay assesses the ‘decent’ Australian democrats who, as the indelible records show, set out to kill the Aboriginal people they deemed ‘vermin’ and then later, decided to engage in a eugenicist fantasy to rid Australia of Aborigines by intermarriage or, failing that, forcibly removing their children in large numbers. The colonial frontier killings were justified as ‘dispersing kangaroos'. Child removals were done ‘in their best interests'. This essay attempts to gain an insight into the mindset of those who did commit ‘the unthinkable’ crime of genocide: killing, removal of children, and ‘causing serious bodily and mental harm'. Subsequent policies infantalised the Aboriginal and Islander population and denied them basic human rights.

  7. Mesothelioma in Australia: a review. (United States)

    Musk, Arthur Bill W; de Klerk, Nicholas; Brims, Fraser J


    The incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Australia is among the highest in the world as a result of widespread use of asbestos by industry and in construction throughout the 20th century. The risk of developing malignant mesothelioma after asbestos exposure is dose-related; a transient, low dose exposure confers a correspondingly very low risk of disease. Malignant mesothelioma is a heterogeneous disease, partly explaining the limited role of biomarkers in screening and diagnosis. The prognosis remains poor, and early advice on medico-legal compensation and a collaborative team approach to managing malignant mesothelioma are both essential. Chemotherapy can have a modest treatment effect in some people. New therapies, such as immunotherapy, do not yet have a defined role in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. As treatment options for malignant mesothelioma are limited and no cure is available, there is no established role for early detection or screening of at risk populations. A multidisciplinary approach to caring for patients with malignant mesothelioma and their carers is vital.

  8. Pycnogonida from south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    Twenty species of Pycnogonida are recorded from shallow waters of the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. Eight of these are new to science : Ammothea (Lecythorhynchus) ovatoides, Achelia transfugoides, Nymphon dubitabile, N. conirostrum, Pallenoides stylirostrum, Stylopallene

  9. Cogeneration in Australia. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented

  10. PET joint SPECT in Australia nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.


    This paper examines the scientific merit, clinical use and some historical aspects of the introduction and development of the positron emission tomography as a diagnostic technique in Australia. 4 refs

  11. Australia: uranium giant limps on export front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselhurst, D.


    Australia has large uranium reserves and uranium is now the country's tenth largest export earner. The two operating projects, at Ranger and Nabarlek, produce approximately 4000 t per year. Details are given of the extent of the copper/uranium/gold/silver deposit at Roxby Downs, South Australia. Trade is now moving in favour of the suppliers, but there is still opposition to the mining and export of uranium. The Australian Labor Party platform includes phasing out uranium mining

  12. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia


    Garvey, Mary


    The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation ...

  13. Migrant Families in Australia. Working Paper 3. (United States)

    Storer, Des

    Since 1947, some 3.5 million migrants have entered Australia, giving birth to 2.2 million children. Whereas, in 1947 only 9.8% of Australia's populace were of overseas birth and less than 3% were of non-Anglo Saxon origin, by 1976, some 20% were of overseas birth, some 39% had been born overseas or had a parent born overseas, and some 25% had been…

  14. L’italiano in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Campolo


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} L’articolo ricostruisce sinteticamente la storia della immigrazione italiana in Australia dai primi anni del 1800 ad oggi e descrive i tratti fondamentali che caratterizzano la presenza dell’italiano nel paese. Nonostante le prime difficoltà, rappresentate soprattutto dalla diffidenza e dall’ostilità con cui erano stati accolti i primi migranti, nel corso degli anni la comunità italiana è riuscita ad integrarsi  e a fondersi con quella australiana non solo nell’ambito del lavoro e dell’economia, ma anche sul piano sociale, linguistico e culturale, dando vita ad una vera e propria comunità italo-australiana con una sua specifica identità. Nel processo d’integrazione, pur rimanendo fedeli alle proprie origini linguistiche e culturali, gli immigrati italiani, soprattutto di seconda e terza generazione, si sono avvicinati all’inglese nella varietà linguistica chiamata italo-australiano, di cui si descrivono alcuni aspetti fondamentali messi in luce dalla ricerca linguistica.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article briefly reconstructs the history of Italian emigration to Australia from the beginning of 1800 up to the present and describes the basic features that have marked the presence of Italian

  15. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia. (United States)

    Atchison, J


    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  16. Examining supply changes in Australia's cocaine market. (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha


    Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Coral reproduction in Western Australia (United States)

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ


    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  19. Commercialisation of science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.


    and the business proposition have merit - government assistance (e.g. BIF, R and D Start, STI funding) and some type of relationship with Big Pharma/Big Biotech provide assurances. In the life sciences, durable and strong IP is critical. This presentation will focus on choice of commercialisation strategy (i.e. licensing vs. start up vs. joint venture etc); the hazards of 'expropriation' for the small end of town; little c versus big C commercialisation; creating value in the biopharmaceutical sector; and persistent restraints to innovation in Australia

  20. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.


    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  1. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.


    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  2. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia. (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John


    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  3. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia? (United States)

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb


    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  4. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.


    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia. (author)

  6. Australia and Galicia in Transnational Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lorenzo Modia


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the transnational features of narratives between Galicia and Australia from the year 1519 to the Present-day. Sailors like Pedro Fernandez de Quiros and Luis Váez de Torres, who reached Australia in the sixteenth century, will be considered as the starting point of a cultural dialogue still going on in today’s literature not only as regards the geography of the continent but also in the collective imagination of the country. Other connections between these countries are also established by contemporary novelists such as Peter Carey, Sally Morgan and Murray Bail, who use Galician history and places, filtered through British sources, to address Australia and its present-day characters and decolonizing conflicts. Finally, the works of other authors such as Robert Graves and Félix Calvino, who also deal with this literary dialogue in their fiction, are explored.

  7. Dermatology training and practice in Australia. (United States)

    Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Murrell, Dédée F


    Dermatology is a relatively young discipline in Australia compared to other specialities within the medical fraternity. From its humble beginnings, the profession has evolved significantly over the decades and is now represented by the Australasian College of Dermatologists which is charged with training the next generation of dermatologists and advocating for and advancing the profession. The authors reviewed and describe the history of dermatology training and practice in Australia. Despite the progress in education, there are only 415 dermatologists serving a population of 23.3 million (1 per 58 000) and yet it has the highest incidence and prevalence of skin cancer in the world. The scope of clinical practice is wide in Australia, with clinicians well versed in medical and procedural dermatology. It is hoped that Australian dermatology will continue to bolster the dermatology profession globally. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour


    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  9. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)

  10. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy


    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  11. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman


    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  12. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng


    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  13. A Case of Language Revitalisation in "Settled" Australia. (United States)

    Walsh, Michael


    Presents a case of language revitalisation in "settled" Australia, considers the nature of the language ecology in indigenous Australia, and advances some of the reasons for the success of this case of language revitalization. (Author/VWL)

  14. Seagrasses in tropical Australia, productive and abundant for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Cymodocea serrulata; photosynthetic characteristics; seagrass production; Thalassia hemprichii; tropical seagrass; Zostera muelleri ... Margaret Greenway2. Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan campus Q. 4111 Australia; School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan campus Q. 4111 Australia ...

  15. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.


    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  16. The Hibiscus panduriformis complex (Malvaceae) in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juswara, L.S.; Craven, L.A.


    The Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f. species complex in Australia is revised. Six species are recognised, of which one is the widespread H. panduriformis; one, H. austrinus, is based upon H. panduriformis var. australis; and four represent new species, H. apodus, H. calcicola, H. fluvialis, and H.

  17. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, ..... They were disbanded just as hard-won experience was turning ... At least one Australian at Colesberg behaved with the brutality Merriman denounced. In November 1899 Charles Cox, a captain from Sydney, ordered a Cape policeman ...

  18. Decreasing prevalence of social drinkers in Australia. (United States)

    Callinan, Sarah; Pennay, Amy; Livingston, Michael


    There has been a recent decrease in population level alcohol consumption in Australia, particularly in young people. Whether this is due to increasing abstinence or a shift in the way people think about alcohol is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate trends in self-identification of drinker types in Australia from 2001 to 2013 in light of shifting patterns of alcohol consumption in Australia. Five waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey from 2001 to 2013 (N=118,416) were used to assess trends in self-identification as a drinker type (non-, ex-, occasional, light, social, heavy and binge drinker). Consumption patterns and demographics of the self-identified groups were also examined. The pattern of self-identification has mostly remained steady over time. The two exceptions to this are a decrease in identification as a social drinker (28% to 22%) and a corresponding increase in identification as a non-drinker (from 19% to 27%). There are few changes over time in the demographic make-up of, or consumption patterns in, the social drinker category with the exception of those over 50, who continue to identify as social drinkers at the same rate. The recent increase in abstinence in Australia seems to be matched by a corresponding decrease in self-identified social drinkers, particularly among those under 50. This indicates that the decrease in consumption is not occurring in those most likely to experience harms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia. (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.


    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  20. The future of astronomy in Australia (United States)

    Sadler, Elaine M.


    Australian astronomy has a bright future, thanks largely to recent government investments in major new telescopes, instruments and research centres. There are some short-term challenges as Australia's focus continues to shift from the current (mainly) national facilities for radio and optical astronomy to new multinational and global facilities.

  1. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback (United States)

    Cradduck, Lucy


    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  2. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013. (United States)

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah


    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  3. Australia modifies resource rent, uranium mining policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed

  4. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.


    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  5. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, B.W.; Whillans, R.T.; Williams, R.M.; Doggett, M.D.


    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  6. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.


    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low,

  7. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Australia


    World Bank; International Finance Corporation


    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 thro...

  8. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Australia


    World Bank Group


    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing...

  9. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia (United States)

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn


    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  10. The Sandalwood industry in Australia: a history (United States)

    Pamela Statham


    From its inception in 1805, when it contributed to Sydney merchant incomes from whaling ventures, until today, when it earns several million dollars in export revenue, the sandalwood industry has played a small but significant part in Australia's economic development. The history of the industry falls into three major stages: first is the off-shore exploitation of...

  11. Depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Alex D.H.; Mentha, Ricky; Rowley, Kevin G.


    groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group...

  12. Australia and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K; Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Lucas Heights; Reynolds, J.; Western Mining Corporation, Western Australia


    The nuclear electricity industry based on uranium fuel is now well established in 31 countries. Nuclear's ability to provide large scale base load power at costs competitive with available and politically favoured alternatives is causing it to be increasingly selected for new capacity. The World Nuclear Association data shows that current new construction together with that planned and proposed as of December 2009, will bring world nuclear electricity generating capacity from the present 373 000 MW to 876 000 MWm an increase of 112 per cent. By comparison Australia's total generating capacity (mainly from coal) is 47 000 MW, or one eighth of existing world nuclear capacity. Nuclear growth can be expected to increase further, due to continuing world-wide energy supply security issues and politically driven climate change concerns. Australia has been mining uranium for 60 eventful years, much influenced by government policy changes. Australia's un-mined resources are now the largest in the world and it is already a major supplier to the nuclear fueld cycle, in a growing market. This situation offers long term opportunities for Australia to benefit more fully and at the same time contribute to global security by further participation in the uranium-based nuclear electricity industry fuel cycle

  13. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia. (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica


    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  14. Documentation--Refugees and Mass Migration: Australia. (United States)

    Price, Charles A.


    Since World War II, Australia has been a major country of refugee settlement. This article traces its immigrant policy and resulting population from its interest in encouraging immigration for its own population growth and development to its current commitment to help refugees and Special Humanitarian Program (SHP) cases. (ETS)

  15. Atomic energy: agreement between Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This agreement provides for the exchange of nuclear materials and equipment between Canada and Australia and specifies the safeguards and other protective measures that shall be employed to ensure the peaceful use of the nuclear technology shared between the two countries

  16. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings. (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma


    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  17. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana


    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  18. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.


    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  19. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  20. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia. (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P


    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  1. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid


    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  2. New Focus for Space Research in Australia (United States)

    Cairns, Iver

    Australia was the fourth nation to launch a spacecraft into orbit from its own territory, in 1967. Its second satellite followed 35 years later, when FedSat was launched in December 2002. Australia had and continues to have world experts in many areas of space science and technology. Several of these have participated in international missions, even sometimes with government support and funding to collaborate on designing and building an instrument for an international mission (e.g., AATSR on ESA's Envisat). Despite this Australia has no coordinated national space effort or dedicated funding for space research. Few linkages existed between Universities, Government units, and industry or across the field. This talk describes efforts to change this situation by developing the first Decadal Plan for Australian Space Science. The Plan's vision is "World-leading innovative space science and technology, strong domestic capability, and international collaborations that build Australia a long term, productive presence in Space". The talk describes the process and summarises the recommendations of the Australian space science community. These include creation of a national coordination committee (ACCSS), scientific themes and goals, and the science, education, and outreach projects necessary to accomplish them. The science projects involve ground-based assets, spacecraft missions, theory/modelling programs, and technology development and testing.

  3. Modelling the determinants of international tourism demand to Australia


    Lim, Christine; MacAleer, Michael


    Prior to the recent Asian currency and economic crises, tourism from Asia had rapidly become Australia's major tourism export industry. Tourists from Singapore, which is Australia's fifth major market, represented 6% of international tourist arrivals to Australia in 1996. The average annual growth rate of tourist arrivals from Singapore of around 20% over 1990-96 far exceeded the 10.5% average annual percentage growth rate of all tourist arrivals to Australia over the same period (Australian ...

  4. Beyond White Australia: Sri Lankan-born migration to Australia since 1947


    Sherrard, Sharmini


    This thesis examines the history of Sri Lankan-born migration to Australia, which commenced in 1947 during the height of the White Australia policy. Its objective is to increase understanding of these immigrants. It examines the reasons for their departure, the impact of changes in intake policy on the ethnicity of the immigrants, and their settlement experiences. Intake policy has favoured people with occupational skills and English language proficiency. Skills and English language ability h...

  5. Intergenerational Differences in Acculturation Orientations of Turkish Speakers in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagmur, K.


    In this paper, acculturation and language orientations among Turkish speakers in Australia (n = 283) are discussed. Compared to West European countries, the Turkish community in Australia is much smaller. Given the prevalent pluralism ideology in Australia, a high level of sociocultural adjustment

  6. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee


    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  7. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly


    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  8. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia (United States)


    ... Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are... Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a condition of entry, the litchi fruit... protection organization of Australia and treated with irradiation at a dose of 400 gray for plant pests of...

  9. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.D.


    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U 3 O 8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U 3 O 8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U 3 O 8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U 3 O 8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U 3 O 8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U 3 O 8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U 3 O 8

  10. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey


    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  11. Australia slaps duties on PVC imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.


    The Australian Anti-Dumping Authority (ADA0) has imposed dumping duties on imports of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin from seven countries and on certain expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads from Korea and Singapore. The decisions come at the end of two separate investigations begun earlier this year. In its first finding, the ADA concluded that there has been dumping of PVC resin from Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand, which has caused and threatens to cause material injury to the domestic PVC industry. An eighth country, Romania, was found not to have been exporting PVC to Australia. The case is the second of its kind in Australia focusing on PVC. In December 1991 the ADA found in favor of local producer sin a dumping complaint against Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US

  12. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training (United States)

    Davidson, Jim


    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  13. Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Victoria (Australia). (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Szywilewska-Szczykutowicz, Anetta


    A list of 37 species of ptyctimous mites from the State of Victoria, Australia, is provided. Seven species new for science are described and further seven are recorded for the first time in Victoria. The genus Arphthicarus has been discovered in Victoria and is represented by two new species. Zoogeographical distribution of each species is provided. Analysis of the ptyctimous fauna from four Victorian areas (Otway Ranges, Yarra Ranges, Errinundra Plateau and Strzelecki Ranges) has revealed that four species occur in a large number of specimens in one of the areas. Similarity analyses indicate that the faunas of Errinundra Plateau and Yarra Ranges are the most similar. An overview of state of knowledge on the ptyctimous mites from State of Victoria, Australia and Australasian Region is presented.

  14. Northern Australia energy arc - Timor Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, G.


    Early this year new Timor Gap Treaty arrangements were concluded between Australia and East Timor -with the blessing of Indonesia -and it was once again 'business as usual' in the Timor Sea. This was quickly confirmed in February when the US$1.4 billion (A$2.4 billion at current exchange rates) Stage 1 of the Bayu Undan Project was approved by the Timor Gap Zone of Co-operation Joint Authority. This meant the green light for the project, which involves the extraction and export of condensate (a light oil) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) from the Bayu Undan fields, 500 km north west of Darwin. The proposed development would involve a total investment of $5 billion in offshore and onshore gas production and processing facilities, pipelines, petrochemical facilities and other customer developments. Royalties from Bayu Undan will be shared equally between Australia and east Timor, thus providing significant revenue to underpin the economic development of East Timor

  15. A “Funa” in Australia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read


    Full Text Available A Funa in Chile is a public denunciation of a person identified as associated with crimes against humanity during the Pinochet regime. It begins as a web site notice of a planned procession, to be followed by a peaceful rally and demonstration, Some involve no more than thirty people, others, particularly those directed at notorious figures, have attracted thousands. My questions are: What is the effect of Funas in Chile?Could a Funa occur in Australia? Against whom? Who would organise it? For what reason? What would be the consequences? In discussing the question I will draw upon my recent work in reconciliation studies both in Chile and Aboriginal Australia

  16. Travel and Health Research in Australia. (United States)

    Wilks; Grenfell


    Travel and tourism is a major industry in Australia, employing 6.9% of the nation's workforce (535,600 persons) and generating AUS$46.9 billion in 1993-94.1 While economic and marketing analyses have traditionally dominated the field of tourism research in Australia, health and safety issues that impact on the business of tourism are now emerging.2 Travel medicine is still a small specialty area, though it has established a legitimate role within the tourism industry by providing services in prevention and treatment. To date, little attention has been given to empirical research, even though field studies are a critical component in the provision of accurate medical advice for patients. This paper reviews the Australian research that is available and identifies areas where further work should be conducted.

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, D.R.


    It is unlikely that Australia will operate nuclear power stations in the next few decades unless small, cheap and inherently safe stations were successfully developed overseas. Even then it would probably not proceed because of the low cost and availability of black coal in the east, brown coal in the south, gas in the west and the political problems in such an initiative. On the other hand, Australia has the largest known deposits of cheap uranium (∼ 500,000 tonnes), has a stable political system, a good technology base and an imbalance of trade problem. It would be sensible to consider development of the uranium resource with a fully-integrated (vertically diversified) industry in order to both beneficiate the mineral for profit and control the hazards implicit in the end products. This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each step in the fuel cycle from an Australian engineering standpoint

  18. The history of psychoanalysis in Australia.


    Ellingsen, Peter John


    Rather than interrogated, as Freud suggested in the paper he sent to Sydney a century ago, psychoanalysis in Australia has largely been taken as a given. This has lent it an empty coherence that is suggestive of a lie: an "almost-ness" that sharpens the outline of truth. It is my thesis that, by failing to conceptualise what psychoanalysis is, analysts and those who historicised psychoanalysis have joined in a larger Australian indifference to subversive discourses of the self....

  19. The Growth Effects of Education in Australia.


    Antonio Paradiso; Saten Kumar; B. Bhaskara Rao


    In this paper we estimate the growth effects of human capital with country-specific time series data for Australia. Previous empirical studies, based on international data, have been inconclusive, in terms of the extent of the contribution of human capital to growth. We extend the Solow (1956) growth model by using educational attainment as a measure of human capital, as developed by Barro and Lee (2010). The extended Solow (1956) model performs well after allowing for the presence of structu...

  20. Children's Environmental Health Indicators in Australia. (United States)

    Sly, J Leith; Moore, Sophie E; Gore, Fiona; Brune, Marie Noel; Neira, Maria; Jagals, Paul; Sly, Peter D


    Adverse environmental exposures in early life increase the risk of chronic disease but do not attract the attention nor receive the public health priority warranted. A safe and healthy environment is essential for children's health and development, yet absent in many countries. A framework that aids in understanding the link between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes are environmental health indicators-numerical estimates of hazards and outcomes that can be applied at a population level. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a set of children's environmental health indicators (CEHI) for physical injuries, insect-borne disease, diarrheal diseases, perinatal diseases, and respiratory diseases; however, uptake of steps necessary to apply these indicators across the WHO regions has been incomplete. A first indication of such uptake is the management of data required to measure CEHI. The present study was undertaken to determine whether Australia has accurate up-to-date, publicly available, and readily accessible data on each CEHI for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian children. Data were not readily accessible for many of the exposure indicators, and much of the available data were not child specific or were only available for Australia's indigenous population. Readily accessible data were available for all but one of the outcome indicators and generally for both indigenous and nonindigenous children. Although Australia regularly collects data on key national indicators of child health, development, and well-being in several domains mostly thought to be of more relevance to Australians and Australian policy makers, these differ substantially from the WHO CEHI. The present study suggests that the majority of these WHO exposure and outcome indicators are relevant and important for monitoring Australian children's environmental health and establishing public health interventions at a local and national level and collection of appropriate

  1. Moderation in Australia-Policy and Achievements




    Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60 % of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and ...

  2. Artificial Intelligence Research in Australia -- A Profile


    Smith, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, John


    Does the United States have a 51st state called Australia? A superficial look at the artificial intelligence (AI) research being done here could give that impression. A look beneath the surface, though, indicates some fundamental differences and reveals a dynamic and rapidly expanding AI community. General awareness of the Australian AI research community has been growing slowly for some time. AI was once considered a bit esoteric -- the domain of an almost lunatic fringe- but the large gover...

  3. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia (United States)


    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  4. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  5. Development of Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Lokan, K.H.


    Australia is revising its existing recommendations concerning radiation protection in the light of guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Publication 60 and the International Atomic Energy Agency's revision of its Basic Safety Standards. The paper discusses the major refinements of the ICRP's recommendations and the additional guidance on its practical implementation offered by the IAEA's new Basic Safety Standards. Following public comment, the revised Australian recommendations are expected to be adopted by the end of 1994. 15 refs

  6. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre


    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  7. Socioeconomic differentials in life satisfaction in Australia




    This thesis focuses on the relationship between life satisfaction and a range of social, health, economic and demographic indicators. The data used in this study was collected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Results showed variables such as job satisfaction, marital status, as well as indicators of health and communication participation, to be associated with higher satisfaction rates. By contrast, education, income, and number of children were unre...

  8. Spatial clusters of suicide in Australia. (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Hu, Wenbiao; Page, Andrew; Tong, Shilu


    Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA) level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated at the SLA level, and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to investigate the geographical distribution of suicides and detect clusters of high risk in Australia. Male suicide incidence was relatively high in the northeast of Australia, and parts of the east coast, central and southeast inland, compared with the national average. Among the total male population and males aged 15 to 34, Mornington Shire had the whole or a part of primary high risk cluster for suicide, followed by the Bathurst-Melville area, one of the secondary clusters in the north coastal area of the Northern Territory. Other secondary clusters changed with the selection of cluster radius and age group. For males aged 35 to 54 years, only one cluster in the east of the country was identified. There was only one significant female suicide cluster near Melbourne while other SLAs had very few female suicide cases and were not identified as clusters. Male suicide clusters had a higher proportion of Indigenous population and lower median socio-economic index for area (SEIFA) than the national average, but their shapes changed with selection of maximum cluster radii setting. This study found high suicide risk clusters at the SLA level in Australia, which appeared to be associated with lower median socio-economic status and higher proportion of Indigenous population. Future suicide prevention programs should focus on these high risk areas.

  9. Spatial clusters of suicide in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. Methods National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR were calculated at the SLA level, and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were applied to investigate the geographical distribution of suicides and detect clusters of high risk in Australia. Results Male suicide incidence was relatively high in the northeast of Australia, and parts of the east coast, central and southeast inland, compared with the national average. Among the total male population and males aged 15 to 34, Mornington Shire had the whole or a part of primary high risk cluster for suicide, followed by the Bathurst-Melville area, one of the secondary clusters in the north coastal area of the Northern Territory. Other secondary clusters changed with the selection of cluster radius and age group. For males aged 35 to 54 years, only one cluster in the east of the country was identified. There was only one significant female suicide cluster near Melbourne while other SLAs had very few female suicide cases and were not identified as clusters. Male suicide clusters had a higher proportion of Indigenous population and lower median socio-economic index for area (SEIFA than the national average, but their shapes changed with selection of maximum cluster radii setting. Conclusion This study found high suicide risk clusters at the SLA level in Australia, which appeared to be associated with lower median socio-economic status and higher proportion of Indigenous population. Future suicide prevention programs should focus on these high risk areas.

  10. Disaggregated Models of Unemployment in Australia


    Jeff Borland


    This paper reviews evidence on causes of unemployment in Australia from disaggregated modelling of the labour market. Three main types of modelling are considered. First, information on unemployment rates of labour force participants with different skills is presented, and analyses that seek to explain why unemployment varies between skill groups are described. Second, descriptive evidence on unemployment rates by state and neighbourhood is presented, and possible causes of regional differenc...

  11. Asymmetric unemployment rate dynamics in Australia


    Gunnar Bardsen; Stan Hurn; Zoe McHugh


    The unemployment rate in Australia is modelled as an asymmetric and nonlinear function of aggregate demand, productivity, real interest rates, the replacement ratio and the real exchange rate. If changes in unemployment are big, the management of of demand, real interest rates and the replacement ratio will be good instruments to start bringing it down. The model is developed by exploiting recent developments in automated model-selection procedures.

  12. Planning Australia’s Defense Forces (United States)


    methods of grazing and agriculture, however, Australia’s agricultural sector consistently produces quantities of meat, wool and cereal grains large enough...over his annexation of the former Dutch colony in Western New Guinea and his threats against formation of the new nation of Malaysia . Many in PNG... Malaysia , Singapore, The Philippines and Brunei. Papua-New Guinea holds non-voting "observer" status in the organization. 100 emphasize that external avents

  13. Mining, regional Australia and the economic multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cleary


    Full Text Available Mining in Australia has traditionally delivered a strong development multiplier for regional communities where most mines are based. This relationship has weakened in recent decades as a result of the introduction of mobile workforces - typically known as fly in, fly out. Political parties have responded with policies known as ‘royalties for regions’, though in designing them they overlooked long established Indigenous arrangements for sharing benefits with areas affected directly by mining.

  14. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L


    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia. (United States)

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa


    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Asians: the New Metics of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissa Cheng


    Full Text Available The Asian immigration debate has become one of the most contentious topics of debate in Australia. Little about the debate is new and most of the arguments, both in favour and against, begin with demographic considerations, then move on to the economic consequences of immigration and the social and cultural ramifications. Delving deeper into the debate, one will realize that there is an underlying assumption of the economic theory of laissez-faire, which is the driving force of the debate. The new realities of global electronic commerce with laissez-faire economic theory have been transposed onto Australia's immigration policy. The government welcomes the "elite" of the knowledge workers because they are the real generators of wealth. However, the government is also aware that maximizing its benefit out of these immigrants, it must minimize the costs associated with them, such as maintenance cost of their sponsored parents. The analysis, while dispelling the myth of increasing immigration costs, confirmed the urgent need to shift the focus of societal pluralism from an economic one that is rooted in competition and self-interest individualism, to pluralism that is rooted in social organization. This is where society is seen as cooperative units rather than of competing units, that is Asians and non-Asians contributing to Australia as a cooperative group of people. The government promotion of division in society with its archaic politics to instill the 'metic' status for new immigrants may prove detrimental to its effort to attract elite wealth generator migrants.

  17. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo


    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  18. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner


    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  19. Nuclear regulation in Australia - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J.


    Australia's current nuclear regulatory arrangements reflect two major factors: that we are a federation, with a constitutional division of powers between the Commonwealth and the States, and that we have no nuclear industry, other than uranium mining. Australia's only nuclear facilities are operated by a Commonwealth instrumentality, ANSTO. Current Commonwealth regulatory arrangements are a response to international treaty commitments -principally the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) -and to the commencement of commercial uranium mining and export in the late 1970's. Although at present no nuclear industry activities, other than mining, are in prospect, this might not always be the case, and with the establishment of ARPANSA (the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) it is timely to give some thought to regulatory arrangements which might be appropriate to Australia's future circumstances. This paper will discuss the regulation activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle , i e activities involved with the production and use of nuclear materials (uranium, thorium and plutonium) for the generation of energy through nuclear fission

  20. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, David R.


    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  1. Developments in Australia : native title and reconciliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, F. [National Native Title Tribunal, Perth, WA (Australia)


    Until 1992, there was no recognition in the Australian legal system of property or other laws recognizing Indigenous rights concerning European colonial settlement and beyond. Native title was first recognized in 1992. This paper presented an outline of the history leading up to the creation of the National Native Title Tribunal in Perth, Australia, an organization whose aims are to create recognition of native title in Australia. The objects of the Native Title Act of 1993 were discussed, as well as attempts to reconcile indigenous and non-indigenous interests. Particular attention was drawn to the mining industry, as a practical example of the paradigm change in relation to indigenous rights, with an outline of the mining industry's values underlying principles concerning indigenous relations. It was concluded that while there are stringent limits on what is available through the native title process, mediation procedures mean that opportunities for agreement exist. Although reconciliation is in its infancy in Australia, there is a growing acceptance that Aboriginal rights must be considered. The agreement making which is encouraged by the native title process is an acknowledgment of a new relationship in which indigenous people are stakeholders. 72 refs., 5 figs.

  2. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie


    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  3. Climate change in Australia: technical report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment of observed climate change over Australia, the likely causes, and projections of future changes to Australia's climate. It also provides information on how to apply the projections in impact studies and in risk assessments. The two main strategies for managing climate risk are mitigation (net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) to slow climate change and adaptation to climate impacts that are unavoidable. A number of major advances have been made since the last report on climate change projections in Australia (CSIRO 2001) including: a much larger number of climate and ocean variables are projected (21 and 6 respectively); a much larger number (23) of climate models are used; the provision of probabilistic information on some of the projections, including the probability of exceeding the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles; greater emphasis on projections from models that are better able to simulate observed Australian climate; a detailed assessment of observed changes in Australian climate and likely causes; and information on risk assessment, to provide guidance for using climate projections in impact studies

  4. Australia/Japan thermal coal settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.


    After prolonged negotiations, Australian suppliers and Japanese buyers have reached agreement on the benchmark thermal coal prices for the Japanese financial year 2000 (April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001). The benchmark price as negotiated with the Chubu and Tohoku power utilities is about US$1.20 down on last year's price of $29.95. The actual price change to each supplier varies slightly depending on the calorific value of each product as calculated against a benchmark value of 6700kcal/kg on a gross air-dried basis. It is strange, but the Australians and Japanese both have some reason to crow about the outcome of the negotiation. In US dollar terms, compared with April 1, 1999, the suppliers have secured a price rise from A$45.39 to A$47.97; while the Japanese can point to having achieved a price reduction from Y3551/t to Y3162/t. The joys of exchange rate fluctuations. The result can only be seen as a good one for Australia, especially as it is alleged that one of the Australian suppliers opened negotiations by putting a US$1 price reduction on the table. It is worth noting that the significance of the benchmark coal price is waning, with the annual negotiations in Japan covering only 14Mt of a total seaborne trade of some 450Mt. Consequently, few tonnes are marketed at the benchmark price and Australia finds itself in fierce competition with suppliers from Indonesia, China and Russia for huge, short-term tenders at FOB prices. Recent winning Australian bids have been barely over US$20/t FOBT ex east coast Australia-nearly 30% below the new US$28.75 benchmark price. Finally, on the negotiating table will come the settlements for the semi coking coals. This is where Australia should hold the trump card. Japan simply cannot replace, from other countries, the near 30Mt of high quality coal it purchases each year from Australia. But already the whiff of a US$1.45-US$1.50 price reduction hangs in the air. Copyright (2000) Australian Journal of Mining

  5. Media and Australia's replacement reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, Pamela


    In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported

  6. Supporting peritoneal dialysis in remote Australia. (United States)

    Carruthers, Dale; Warr, Kevin


    Peritoneal dialysis is usually considered a first-choice treatment for end-stage renal disease for patients living in remote areas. The advantages of peritoneal dialysis over haemodialysis are that peritoneal dialysis preserves the residual renal function for longer, provides patients with more independence and gives patients a greater opportunity to return home quickly. In Australia, Aboriginal people suffer end-stage renal failure at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. Given that many Aboriginal people live in remote communities a task of peritoneal dialysis units is to ensure the successful setting up and maintenance of peritoneal dialysis programmes in the outback. This paper examines how peritoneal dialysis units located in the city are able to deliver peritoneal dialysis to patients located often hundreds of kilometres and at times thousands of kilometres away in very remote communities. In preparing this paper interviews were conducted with renal and remote community-based health professionals in Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and with peritoneal dialysis patients in Western Australia. The success of remote peritoneal dialysis programmes relies on many elements, most importantly an integrated approach to care by all members of the peritoneal dialysis team. The peritoneal dialysis team included not just health professionals but also patients, their families, their communities and other support people such as those involved in the transport of peritoneal dialysis supplies to the outback. Careful communication, a willingness to participate, friendliness and delivering care and supplies with a smile are essential ingredients to a winning program. Without all of these ingredients dialysis in the bush may fail.

  7. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 (United States)


    networks are disrupted and the prospects for a long-term political solution are enhanced. 22 Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030...the part of the coalition of nations, which includes Australia , assisting Afghanistan. 4.46 Any solution to the problems faced by Afghanistan will...Austr-alian Govcrnmcnl Department of Ikfence DEFENDING AUSTRALIA IN THE ASIA PACIFIC CENTURY: FORCE 2030 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB

  8. U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress (United States)


    Howard Berman and Ranking Member Ileana Ros-Lehtinen introduced H.J.Res. 88, which provides for the approval of the U.S.- Australia agreement. The House ... Australia .6 6 House Foreign Affairs Committee Hearing, “Nuclear Cooperation After Iran and Khan: Are...Committee,” Washington, DC, November 5, 2009. 8 “National Security Strategy, The White House , Washington, DC, May 2010. U.S.- Australia Civilian Nuclear

  9. Forward Deployment of U.S. Naval Forces to Australia (United States)


    potential. Beyond mere financial considerations, Australia -based ships would provide increased crisis -response capability to the theater commander...FORWARD DEPLOYMENT OF U.S. NAVAL FORCES TO AUSTRALIA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General...5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Forward Deployment of U.S. Naval Forces to Australia 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  10. Climate Change Policies in Australia: Gender Equality, Power and Knowledge


    Thomas K. Wanner


    This paper examines the link between gender equality and climate change policies in Australia. It critically analyses the extent to which gender mainstreaming and gender dimensions have been taken into account in the national policy processes for climate change in Australia. The paper argues that climate change adaptation and mitigation policies in Australia neglect gender dimensions. This endangers the advances made in gender equality and works against socially equitable...

  11. [New Guinea and Australia: their common pathology]. (United States)

    Nozais, J P


    New Guinea and Australia have been joined together during several hundred millions of years. Inhabited by men 40,000 years ago, these populations (papous and aborigenes) have been separated of the others during several millenaries. The first invaders brought with them plasmodiums, Necator americanus, Wuchereria bancrofti and Dengue virus. Brugia malayi, because lack of primates, took non root in New Guinea; the virus of Murray Valley encephalitis is autochthonous; the high frequency of Burkitt lymphoma in New Guinea is, perhaps, a racial feature.

  12. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  13. Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, J.


    Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

  14. Adolescent school-based vaccination in Australia. (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Bachelor, Michael; Bryant, Vicki; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue; Newbound, Angela; Scully, Megan; Webby, Rosalind; McIntyre, Peter B


    Adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination in Australia and other developed countries. Over the past decade, voluntary school-based vaccination programs have evolved to become the primary method of delivering adolescent vaccines funded under Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP). These programs operate at a state and territory level and offer NIP vaccines to adolescents in specific school grades using local teams of trained vaccine providers. This paper summarises the current operation of voluntary school-based vaccination programs in Australia. Information was obtained through a literature review, semi-structured interviews with those managing and implementing school-based vaccination programs in each jurisdiction and a review of program resources. Available coverage data was obtained from each state or territory. Vaccines are delivered at the school, during school hours, and typically target late primary or early secondary school grades. Written parental consent is required for any vaccine to be administered. Operation of the programs is influenced by various factors at the school and provider level. Despite variability in program implementation, collection and analysis of coverage data, comparable coverage has been achieved across all states and territories. Coverage is higher than that reported by other countries where adolescent vaccines are mandated for school entry or available only through community vaccination providers. Voluntary school-based vaccination programs are an established mechanism for the delivery of adolescent vaccines in Australia and vaccines offered will continue to evolve in light of national recommendations. Current gaps in evidence include a detailed understanding of the influence of procedural factors on uptake, the best ways to maximise consent form return and, standardisation of coverage data reporting. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968

  15. Plutonium isotope measurements from across continental Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, Stephen G.; Fifield, L. Keith; Hancock, Gary J.; Lal, Rajeev R.; Hoo, Wee T.


    The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio of the global plutonium fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing is typically in the range 0.17–0.19. However, the influence of regional nuclear installations or nearby weapons test sites can lead to local values outside this range. We report 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios at 14 representative sites across Australian continent, and find that the weapons tests carried out in Australia appear to have made a significant contribution to the total fallout in the center of the continent, despite their relatively small explosive yield.

  16. Plutonium isotope measurements from across continental Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tims, Stephen G., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Fifield, L. Keith [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hancock, Gary J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Black Mountain Laboratories, GPO Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Lal, Rajeev R.; Hoo, Wee T. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio of the global plutonium fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing is typically in the range 0.17-0.19. However, the influence of regional nuclear installations or nearby weapons test sites can lead to local values outside this range. We report {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios at 14 representative sites across Australian continent, and find that the weapons tests carried out in Australia appear to have made a significant contribution to the total fallout in the center of the continent, despite their relatively small explosive yield.

  17. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.


    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  18. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les


    in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown......Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...

  19. Two new species of Celtis (Celtidaceae) from Australia and Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattarian, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.


    Celtis australiensis Sattarian is described from Australia and Celtis madagascariensis Sattarian is new for Madagascar. Both new Celtidaceae (formerly Ulmaceae–Celtidoideae) are illustrated with a photograph.

  20. Experiences of Overseas Trained Teachers Seeking Public School Positions in Western Australia and South Australia (United States)

    Roy, Sushmitta Datta; Lavery, Shane


    Many overseas trained teachers migrate to Australia in search of different lifestyles. In their endeavour to find suitable teaching positions in public secondary schools, overseas trained teachers often confront multiple challenges. This study explored the different issues that 12 overseas trained teachers experienced before obtaining a teaching…

  1. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 8: Modern Greek. (United States)

    Tamis, A. M.; And Others

    The status of modern Greek in Australian society and education are detailed in this report. Chapters include discussion of these issues: the history of modern Greek in Australia (Greek immigration and settlement, public and private domains of use, language maintenance and shift, and language quality); the functions of modern Greek in Australia…

  2. Millipedes from Australia, 1: Antichiropodini from South Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.


    Descriptions of two new species: Antichiropus mammillifer n.sp., the first species of the genus recorded from outside Western Australia, related to A. minimus Attems and A. sulcatus Attems, and Tridactylogonus obscurus n.g., n.sp., a small species, taxonomically rather isolated, and perhaps related

  3. Skilling Australia for the Future? A Study of Quality Assurance in Australia's Vocational Education and Training (United States)

    Agbola, Frank Wogbe; Lambert, Daniel Kenneth


    From the end of World War II until the early 1970s, vocational education and training (VET) in Australia was surprisingly static and resilient to government-led reform, due to the dominance of industry and union power. Following the oil shocks of 1973 and associated unemployment and declining union power, there have been calls on the federal and…

  4. HIV criminalisation and sex work in Australia. (United States)

    Jeffreys, Elena; Matthews, Kane; Thomas, Alina


    In 2008, Scarlet Alliance, the Australian Sex Workers Association, carried out a needs assessment among sex workers living with HIV in Australia. The research showed that HIV positive sex workers experience discrimination from within the community, are criminalised for sex work and subject to disclosure laws in some states and territories, and face stigma perpetrated by the media. Supported by legislation, they have an almost insurmountable lack of access to policy development due to disclosure and confidentiality issues, and have expressed ongoing frustration at the lack of leadership on the intersecting issues of HIV and sex work. A high profile prosecution of a sex worker living with HIV coincided with the duration of the needs assessment project. The research gave a voice to sex workers living with HIV and highlighted the levels of institutionalised marginalisation and stigmatisation they experience. Criminalisation of sex work, of people living with HIV, and of sex workers living with HIV is at the core of this discrimination and must be challenged. Scarlet Alliance advocates for the decriminalisation of sex work across all jurisdictions in Australia. This will deliver rights to sex workers living with HIV and create a more equitable and productive environment for HIV prevention and public health generally. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainability in Australia, past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sligar, J.


    Over the last 50 years Australia has generally maintained adequate energy supplies to its population in an increasingly efficient and sustainable manner It has also been able to help sustain other economies in supplying energy resources of coal, gas and uranium. This provides 20% of Australia's export income, contributing to the quality of life experienced by Australians.Presently the reserve margin in the electricity power system is adequate and, with the exception of oil, ample local energy resources are available. Over the same period the doubling in energy generation efficiency has matched the population growth in NSW The same contributions by technology and population can be expected over the next 50 years. The growth in demand has however increased by a factor of about five.Sensible demand management could reduce this to a more acceptable figure over the next 50 years as shown in two possible scenarios. This, coupled with ongoing energy exports will help sustain the quality of life in this economy

  6. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin


    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  7. Temporal Aspects of Child Homicide in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber C McKinley


    Full Text Available Using National Homicide Monitoring Program data from 1989 to 2012, this study examined the temporal aspects of child homicide in Australia. It was hypothesised that there would be daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the late afternoon, evening, and early hours of the morning and on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. It was also hypothesised that the number of child homicides would be evenly distributed across seasons. The sample consisted of 916 children (aged 0– 17 killed in 802 homicide incidents in Australia between 1989 to 2012. Data relating to time of day, and day of the week, were analysed using a chi-square test, followed with calculations of incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data relating to season of the year were examined descriptively, due to uncontrollable factors preventing significance testing. Results partially supported the hypotheses. There was daily and weekly variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with peaks in the evening hours and on Saturdays; however, no peaks were observed on Fridays and Sundays. Additionally, the hypothesis that child homicides peak in the late afternoon and early hours of the morning was unable to be accepted or rejected due to grouping issues. The study also found slight seasonal variation in the occurrence of child homicide, with a slight peak in spring; however, whether this peak is significant is unknown.

  8. Metadata Laws, Journalism and Resistance in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Brevini


    Full Text Available The intelligence leaks from Edward Snowden in 2013 unveiled the sophistication and extent of data collection by the United States’ National Security Agency and major global digital firms prompting domestic and international debates about the balance between security and privacy, openness and enclosure, accountability and secrecy. It is difficult not to see a clear connection with the Snowden leaks in the sharp acceleration of new national security legislations in Australia, a long term member of the Five Eyes Alliance. In October 2015, the Australian federal government passed controversial laws that require telecommunications companies to retain the metadata of their customers for a period of two years. The new acts pose serious threats for the profession of journalism as they enable government agencies to easily identify and pursue journalists’ sources. Bulk data collections of this type of information deter future whistleblowers from approaching journalists, making the performance of the latter’s democratic role a challenge. After situating this debate within the scholarly literature at the intersection between surveillance studies and communication studies, this article discusses the political context in which journalists are operating and working in Australia; assesses how metadata laws have affected journalism practices and addresses the possibility for resistance.

  9. Moderation in Australia-Policy and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60 % of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990_cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year

  10. Developments in uranium solution mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.


    The last five years have seen rapid developments in uranium solution mining in Australia, with one deposit brought into production (Beverley, 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 ) and another close to receiving development approval (Honeymoon, 500 expanding to 1,000 tpa U 3 O 8 proposed). The deposits were discovered during extensive exploration of the Frome Basin in South Australia in the early 1970s and were mothballed from 1983 to 1996 due to Government policies. Uranium mineralisation at Beverley, Honeymoon and other related prospects is hosted in unconsolidated coarse grained quartz sands which are sealed in buried palaeovalleys. Both projects have successfully trialled acid leaching methods and have confirmed high permeability and confinement of the target sands. At Beverley an ion exchange process has been adopted, whereas at Honeymoon solvent extraction has been trialled and is proposed for future production Australian production economics compare favourably with US counterparts and are likely to be within the lower quartile of world costs

  11. The Cost of Youth Suicide in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kinchin


    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among Australians between 15 and 24 years of age. This study seeks to estimate the economic cost of youth suicide (15–24 years old for Australia using 2014 as a reference year. The main outcome measure is monetized burden of youth suicide. Costs, in 2014 AU$, are measured and valued as direct costs, such as coronial inquiry, police, ambulance, and funeral expenses; indirect costs, such as lost economic productivity; and intangible costs, such as bereavement. In 2014, 307 young Australians lost their lives to suicide (82 females and 225 males. The average age at time of death was 20.4 years, representing an average loss of 62 years of life and close to 46 years of productive capacity. The average cost per youth suicide is valued at $2,884,426, including $9721 in direct costs, $2,788,245 as the value of lost productivity, and $86,460 as the cost of bereavement. The total economic loss of youth suicide in Australia is estimated at $22 billion a year (equivalent to US$ 17 billion, ranging from $20 to $25 billion. These findings can assist decision-makers understand the magnitude of adverse outcomes associated with youth suicide and the potential benefits to be achieved by investing in effective suicide prevention strategies.

  12. Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business? (United States)

    Parker, Rhian


    Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.

  13. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.


    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  14. Contamination of freezing soils: Australia's Antarctic opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.


    Last month, the Federal government announced that millions of dollars were to be spent cleaning up Antarctica, for which Australia has special responsibilities. Australia's largesse is especially interesting in a world context. Antarctica, by international agreement, is free of any industrial development - mining, storage of wastes, or any other profit-making activity that would disturb the environment (tourism is allowed under increasingly controlled conditions). The importance of the more or less pristine frigid environment lies in the wide range of scientific research that is carried out there. Sophisticated techniques to improve environmental quality are evidently in the early development stage. That cold-loving organisms can thrive in frozen ground in Antarctica and the Arctic was a discovery so unexpected that few people could grasp its importance. Only later was it found that these bugs can eat up contaminants - and the discovery assumed enormous practical significance. Little is known about how to clean up contamination in freezing soils even though there is a pressing need to solve the growing problem with military, industrial and nuclear waste in the Northern Hemisphere

  15. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history. (United States)

    Baird, Barbara


    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Wilderness in Australia: what's happening in a world context (United States)

    Ralf Buckley


    Wilderness in Australia has no formal legal designation at a national level as it does in the United States. In addition, new federal environmental legislation abdicates responsibility almost entirely to the States. A national wilderness inventory has recently been completed, but abandoned by the current federal government. Almost all wilderness recreation in Australia...

  17. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014 (United States)

    Mayer, Diane


    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  18. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future (United States)

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie


    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  19. How Accessible Is IB Schooling? Evidence from Australia (United States)

    Dickson, Anisah; Perry, Laura B.; Ledger, Susan


    This study examines access to International Baccalaureate schools in Australia. It is important to examine whether, as a highly regarded form of rigorous academic education, IB programmes are available to a wide range of students. We examine the location of schools in Australia that offer one or more of the IB Primary Years Programme, Middle Years…

  20. A revision of Oryza (Gramineae) in Malesia and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Helena


    In Malesia and Australia there are nine species of Oryza L. (Gramineae). Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. & Mor.) Baillon has two varieties. Oryza schlechteri Pilg. is only known from Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea). Oryza australiensis Dom. and O. meridionalis Ng are endemic to Australia. The numerous

  1. Big News: The Indian Media and Student Attacks in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Wade


    Full Text Available By any measure, 2009 was a big year for news in India. And yet the safety of Indian students in Australia ranked among the major news events in India that year. The India-Australia Poll 2013 found 65 per cent of respondents believed the Indian media had accurately reported the problems faced by Indian students in Australia in 2009-10. That implies two-thirds of Indians accepted the Indian media’s mostly negative depictions of Australia. Those who believed the media reporting about Australia had been accurate were more likely to be from large cities, be tertiary educated and have relatively high-incomes. The poll found 62 per cent of respondents thought Australia was a dangerous place for Indian students and that 61 per cent believed attacks on Indian students were motivated by racism. The results suggest negative perceptions about Australia created by the media’s portrayal of the student attacks linger in the Indian community. The timing of the initial attacks, and the imagery associated with them, helped attract and sustain media attention on the issue. The diplomatic tensions created by the crisis highlighted the growing influence of the broadcast media on India’s foreign relations. But the episode also exposed a deep lack of understanding about India in Australia. Governments were slow to comprehend how much damage media coverage of student attacks could do to Australia’s reputation in India.

  2. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn


    Kartika Sari K.A.


    Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  3. Project Skippy explores the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John


    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband

  4. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada. (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael


    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  5. A New Era for Research Education in Australia? (United States)

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry


    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  6. A new focus of scrub typhus in tropical Australia. (United States)

    Currie, B; O'Connor, L; Dwyer, B


    A new focus of scrub typhus (Rickettsia tsutsugamushi) is described in a remote rain forest region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Five serologically confirmed cases, two near fatal with multisystem involvement, have occurred since the area became accessible to tourists. As tourism increases, other remote foci of vectors and organisms may also be recognized in tropical Australia.

  7. A Case Study of the MBA Market in Western Australia. (United States)

    Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.


    The Western Australia market for master's-level business administration education (MBA) is examined, particularly relating to the University of Western Australia. An overview of current Australian MBA market conditions is given; and the history, competitive environment, structure, admission policy, tuition, and student financial aid of the…

  8. Pathways to Marriage: Learning for Married Life in Australia. (United States)

    Simons, Michele; And Others

    In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…

  9. Management of radio frequency radiation exposures in telecom Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Hocking, B.


    Telecom Australia is the largest non-military user of radio frequency radiation (RFR) in Australia and the management of risks to health from RFR exposure are discussed. The Australian RFR Exposure Standard forms that basis of risk assessment. Risk assessment and control procedures including the health surveillance of workers, other special occupational groups and members of the general public are outlined. (author)

  10. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)


    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Art Museums in Australia: A Personal Retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas


    Full Text Available A survey of, and reflections on, the growth of art museums in Australia based on personal experience and involvement. It starts with the early art collections and state galleries and their organisation. It looks at changing patterns of leadership and governance. It considers the roles of inter-state competition, the varying patters of organisation and support and the impact of federal institutions. It reflects on factors of race, gender and ethnicity and also the situation of Australian exhibitions and collections in the Global Village. It considers the effects of popularisation, commercialisation and celebrity culture on exhibition practices. It concludes that Australia’s art museums, more perhaps than any others, have become unusually well-suited to a post-European or post-North Atlantic age.

  12. Management of Ciguatoxin Risk in Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Farrell


    Full Text Available Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP, involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers.

  13. Management of Ciguatoxin Risk in Eastern Australia. (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Murray, Shauna A; Zammit, Anthony; Edwards, Alan W


    Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel ( Scomberomorus commerson ) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers.

  14. Australia's uranium: worth a fresh look?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggins, J.


    Australia's uranium production in l988 is less than 4 300 tonnes U annually - about 11% of World outside Communist areas (Woca) production, yet the country apparently possesses the largest uranium resources in the world. The political background, influenced by environmental and social considerations and a strong anti-uranium lobby, is perceived as the chief factor in limiting commercial exploitation of these resources. Prospects for a future expansion of production commensurate with the scale of the resources, depend on whether a new uranium policy will emerge. Such a policy would have to put the issues of development priority and production capacity in the hands of the market, reserving for the government the proper issues of safeguards and general trade policy. All this, however, would be subject to the reaction of the world market. (author)

  15. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  16. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.


    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  17. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.


    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the 131 I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others

  18. Abortion in Australia: access versus protest. (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca Elizabeth; Allanson, Susie


    Currently in Australia anti-choice protesters' right to freedom of speech and freedom to protest is privileged over a woman's right to privacy and to access a health service safely, free from harassment, intimidation and obstruction. This article considers how this situation is played out daily at one Victorian abortion-providing clinic. The Fertility Control Clinic was thrown into the spotlight after the murder of its security guard by an anti-choice crusader in July 2001. Australian common law appears not to offer women protection from anti-choice protesters. By contrast, United States and Canadian "bubble" legislation sits comfortably with key constitutional rights. It would be a useful development if Australian governments passed legislation to ensure the rights, wellbeing and safety of Australian women accessing health services. Such legislation would be another step away from the misogynistic and androcentric values once central to our legislative framework.

  19. Prison privatization and HIV prevention in Australia. (United States)

    Cregan, J

    Prison privatization is being increasingly discussed as an alternative that might help drive down the cost of corrections in Canada. An Australian conference recently addressed prison privatization. Australia has a long history with privatizing corrections and historically being the site of private penal colonies. Private and State-owned corporations own and manage Australian prisons and the balance of private and public sector activity within the prisons is discussed. HIV/AIDS care and prevention programs provide bleach distribution, education programs for staff and inmates, and safety training. Moral issues debating how much time and money is allocated to HIV/AIDS are addressed. Private operators of prisons have no financial incentive to educate, rehabilitate, or release prisoners.

  20. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  1. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly N Woodward

    Full Text Available Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  2. Home care in Australia: an integrative review. (United States)

    Palesy, Debra; Jakimowicz, Samantha; Saunders, Carla; Lewis, Joanne


    The home care sector comprises one of Australia's fastest growing workforces, yet few papers capture the overall landscape of Australian home care. This integrative review investigates home care with the aim of better understanding care recipients and their needs, funding, and regulation; care worker skills, tasks, demographics, employment conditions, and training needs. Over 2,700 pieces of literature were analyzed to inform this review. Results suggest sector fragmentation and a home care workforce who, although well-placed to improve outcomes for care recipients, are in need of better training and employment support. Suggestions for future research regarding Australian home care include studies that combine both aged and disability aspects of care, more research around care recipients, priority needs and strategies for addressing them, and how best to prepare home care workers for their roles.

  3. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height (United States)


    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier. The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.) Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea. The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of

  4. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs. (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia


    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  5. Issues in nano technologies for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegart, G.


    The Australian Government in late 2005 created a National Nano technology Taskforce that produced a paper, 'Options for a National Nano technology Strategy', in November last year. As an input to the National Nano technology Strategy Taskforce, in early 2006 the National Academies Forum was contracted by the Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources to produce a report Environmental, Social, Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Development of Nano technologies in Australia (which is available at The report drew on the expertise of Fellows from the four academies in workshops in Melbourne and Sydney and from discussions with other experts, and expressed its outcomes as a set of opinions to assist in developing guidelines for a National Nano technology Strategy

  6. Clocks for quaternary environments in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.


    The Australian continent offers a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored, including sediment cores, tree rings, rock surfaces and corals. Rock varnish, mud-wasp nests and pack-rat middens provide alternative archives for vegetation and environmental change in arid areas, where continuous sedimentary sequences or trees are not available. Each of these media contain specific information on past climatic conditions but we must determine their chronology and decipher the relevant environmental parameters. Cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al and 36 Cl, analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry, provide valuable radiometric clocks to establish an absolute time scale for the environmental events of the Quaternary. U-series, potassium-argon, argonargon and optically stimulated luminescence are other dating methods used in palaeoenvironmental studies. ANSTO supports the Quaternary science community in Australia providing the analysis of long-lived radionuclides: some significant projects from this program will be illustrated. (author)

  7. Northern Australia's energy arc - North West Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millhouse, R.


    One of the world's great sources of natural gas is promising immense opportunities for the development of feedstock for petrochemical industries. The lures for new players to Western Australia are world-class offshore natural gas fields that already supply major Australian and international customers, and close proximity to Asian markets. It produces a wide range of hydrocarbon products, ranging from more than 7.5 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas a year, to more than 50 million barrels of oil and condensate and 650,000 tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas a year and 4.5 bcm (500 million standard cubic feet) of piped natural gas for local markets per day. The development of this wide range of products began with establishment of the venture's first offshore gas and condensate production platform, then the biggest in the world, in the mid - 1980s

  8. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.


    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  9. World salinization with emphasis on Australia. (United States)

    Rengasamy, Pichu


    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement.

  10. Public policy in a multicultural Australia. (United States)

    Zubrzycki, J


    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit.

  11. Australia and the world nuclear situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Ron


    Nuclear energy remains the only large dispatchable source of low-carbon electricity, other than hydropower, which is in short supply. Each major analysis of world energy futures predicts increased use of nuclear power especially in developing countries and where greenhouse gas mitigation is a policy objective. For governments, it enhances security of supply, particularly in countries which have few indigenous resources or isolated grid systems. However do the economics of nuclear make sense, especially in Australia, and can nuclear overcome the major public concerns raised by nuclear accidents? This paper presents some of the actual and predicted uses of nuclear power and the associated challenges and opportunities. It considers the competing pressures on governments to provide secure, low-carbon and affordable energy and how different governments have responded to these pressures. It considers the economics of electricity generation – not just through plant level costs, but the costs to the electricity system of each source of large-scale production and how this assessment changes the economic choices available to governments. Such system impacts have become an issue of major concern due to the introduction of significant amounts of wind and solar energy, whose intermittency fundamentally affects the structure and the working of electricity systems. The paper takes a new look at the role and competitiveness of nuclear power in the light of the new realities of power markets in OECD countries. Finally, it outlines what role nuclear might play in Australia by reference to how nuclear is being developed in other countries and how electricity market reform or innovative financing can be used to allow the development of high capital-intensive but secure forms of electricity generation.

  12. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland. (United States)

    Hamilton, D G


    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  13. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering


    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  14. Co-evolution of Plant Biodiversity and Pedogeochemistry in Australia (United States)

    Bui, E. N.; Gonzalez-Orozco, C.; Miller, J.


    With the geostatistical package geoR (Ribeiro and Diggle 2001), we used the National Geochemical Survey of Australia's 1315 reported total elemental concentrations for aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), all in mg kg-1, for the fine earth (soil:water) and EC1:5 (soil:water) (de Caritat and Cooper 2011) to predict pedogeochemistry at 127,259 sites, representing presence data for 1020 Acacia species across Australia. Species in the genus Acacia are widely distributed across Australia. Here we show that strong associations exist between plant communities, individual species, and pedogeochemistry. Acacia communities in southern Australia are associated with high pH and high electrical conductivity, high total Mg on greenstone-derived soils, and high total Ca and Mg concentrations on calcareous and saline soils. Many species that tolerate extreme pedogeochemical conditions are range restricted. Both Acacia distribution and pedogeochemistry reflect climatic conditions. Species with strong correlation to local edaphic conditions present a higher potential for loss resulting from climate change, due to abiotic constraints. References de Caritat, P. & Cooper, M. (2011). National Geochemical Survey of Australia: The Geochemical Atlas of Australia. Geoscience Australia, Record 2011/20 (2 Volumes), 557 pp. Ribeiro, P.J. & Diggle, P.J. (2001). geoR: A package for geostatistical analysis. R-News Vol 1, No 2. Available at:

  15. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM


    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  16. United States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade (United States)


    more industry, energy, housing , services, and just about everything. l"Consider Australia ," The Economist, 30 May 1964, p. 967. 16 The availability of...BENEFIT TO THE USER AS MAY ACCRUE. 8 April 1966 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD AUSTRALIA IN THE NEXT DECADE By 2) i:ob i . 1RMY WAR COLI.IGF LOUIS J...States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade by Lt Col Louis J. Schelter, Jr. Infantry US Army War College Carlisle Barracks

  17. Australia-Indonesia Relations: Getting Beyond East Timor (United States)


    revoked the AMS. The East Timor crisis caused a near meltdown of relations between Australia and Indonesia. R E L A T I O N S P O S T – E A S T T I M O...between Australia and Indonesia had grown by leaps and bounds until it leveled off in the financial crisis . From 1988 to 1998 trade rose from A$1.2 billion...reports for his less-than-exemplary role in the East Timor crisis —raises the possibility of a leader who has criticized Australia in the past. The

  18. Serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern Australia. (United States)

    King, J S; Vaughan, J L; Windsor, P A


    The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern Australia. Serum samples from 100 alpacas were collected from four farms. All serum samples were screened for N. caninum antibodies using a commercially available competitive ELISA. Of the 100 alpacas sampled, 3 were suspect seropositive for N. caninum. There is natural N. caninum seroprevalence in alpacas in south-eastern Australia; however, it remains undetermined whether or not this infection is currently contributing to reproductive failure in alpacas in Australia. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram


    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  20. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina


    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  1. The Physical Oceanography of Australia's Sunshine Coast (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim


    Australia's Sunshine coast is located to the south of the Great Barrier Reef and Fraser Island between about 25 oS to 28 oS. With a width of nearly 70-80 km, the eastern Australian continental shelf is at its widest here. The shelf region is referred to as the Southeast Queensland Marine Coastal Zone due to its unique physical oceanographic characteristics. The most prominent large-scale oceanic feature is the southward flowing East Australian Current (EAC). It forms to the north of Fraser Island from Coral Sea outflows, intensifies, and follows the continental shelf as a swift continental shelf hugging current but variable in strength; stronger in the southern hemisphere summer and weaker in winter. Little attention has been paid to the physical oceanography of this region, although important physical processes take place that drive regional marine environmental conditions, drive cross-shelf exchanges and interactions with the EAC, and that represent marine connectivity processes significant to the larger scale eastern Australian fisheries. This presentation reviews recent discoveries that include the Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System, the Fraser Island Gyre, and document the role of cyclonic mesoscale eddies in driving cross-shelf exchanges and contribute to the formation of the Fraser Island Gyre. The Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System appears to be predominately driven by the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf leading to the establishment of one of eight important marine ecological hotspots along the east Australian coast. The Fraser Island Gyre is most prominent during the southern hemisphere autumn and winter months. It is characterised by on-shelf northerly flow, turning eastward south of Fraser Island before joining the EAC. It emerges that cyclonic eddy formation as well as the south-easterly trade winds drive the gyre's establishment and strength. A census of short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic eddies, the first for any western

  2. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia (United States)


    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to 121 within

  3. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture


    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  4. Regulatory aspects of criticality control in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, Sergei


    With the creation of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) the Australian approach to criticality safety was revisited. Consistency with international best practices is required by the Act that created ARPANSA and this was applied to practices in criticality safety adopted in other countries. This required extensive regulatory efforts both in auditing the major Australian Nuclear Operator, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), and assessing the existing in Australia criticality safety practices and implementing the required changes using the new legislative power of ARPANSA. The adopted regulatory approach is formulated through both the issued by ARPANSA licenses for nuclear installations (including reactors, fuel stores and radioactive waste stores) and the string of new regulatory documents, including the Regulatory Assessment Principles and the Regulatory Assessment Guidelines for criticality safety. The main features of the adopted regulation include the requirements of independent peer-review, ongoing refresher training coupled with annual accreditation and the reliance on the safe design rather than on an administrative control. (author)

  5. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary


    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  6. Oral health of schoolchildren in Western Australia. (United States)

    Arrow, P


    The West Australian School Dental Service (SDS) provides free, statewide, primary dental care to schoolchildren aged 5-17 years. This study reports on an evaluation of the oral health of children examined during the 2014 calendar year. Children were sampled, based on their date of birth, and SDS clinicians collected the clinical information. Weighted mean values of caries experience were presented. Negative binomial regression modelling was undertaken to test for factors of significance in the rate of caries occurrence. Data from children aged 5-15 years were used (girls = 4616, boys = 4900). Mean dmft (5-10-year-olds), 1.42 SE 0.03; mean DMFT (6-15-year-olds), 0.51 SE 0.01. Negative binomial regression model of permanent tooth caries found higher rates of caries in children who were from non-fluoridated areas (RR 2.1); Aboriginal (RR 2.4); had gingival inflammation (RR 1.5); lower ICSEA level (RR 1.4); and recalled at more than 24-month interval (RR 1.8). The study highlighted poor dental health associated with living in non-fluoridated areas, Aboriginal identity, poor oral hygiene, lower socioeconomic level and having extended intervals between dental checkups. Timely assessments and preventive measures targeted at groups, including extending community water fluoridation, may assist in further improving the oral health of children in Western Australia. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Radiation doses from mammography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Young, B.F.; Young, J.G.; Tingey, D.R.C.


    During 1989-90 the Australian Radiation Laboratory conducted a postal survey of at least 90% of the mammographic facilities in Australia. The primary aim of the survey was to measure the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the X-ray beam half value layer (HVL) for a typical mammograph. The MGD and HVL were measured with a specially designed tissue equivalent monitor. In all, 258 mammographic centres were surveyed. It was found that for centres using film-screen imaging, the average mean glandular dose was 1.83 mGy for centres using grids and 0.84 mGy for centres not using grids. In addition to the MGD and HVL, comprehensive statistical information was collected and data is presented on the types of equipment and techniques used, the number and age of patients and demographic distribution of centres. Results indicate that the use of a grid is the major factor determining dose and several other factors appear to have minor effects. In view of the distribution of MGD, it is recommended that the mean glandular dose per image, for a 5 cm compressed breast thickness, should not exceed 2.0 mGy when a grid is used and 1.0 mGy without a grid. 63 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs


    Freckelton, Ian


    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  9. Humans, water, and the colonization of Australia (United States)

    O’Grady, Damien


    The Pleistocene global dispersal of modern humans required the transit of arid and semiarid regions where the distribution of potable water provided a primary constraint on dispersal pathways. Here, we provide a spatially explicit continental-scale assessment of the opportunities for Pleistocene human occupation of Australia, the driest inhabited continent on Earth. We establish the location and connectedness of persistent water in the landscape using the Australian Water Observations from Space dataset combined with the distribution of small permanent water bodies (springs, gnammas, native wells, waterholes, and rockholes). Results demonstrate a high degree of directed landscape connectivity during wet periods and a high density of permanent water points widely but unevenly distributed across the continental interior. A connected network representing the least-cost distance between water bodies and graded according to terrain cost shows that 84% of archaeological sites >30,000 y old are within 20 km of modern permanent water. We further show that multiple, well-watered routes into the semiarid and arid continental interior were available throughout the period of early human occupation. Depletion of high-ranked resources over time in these paleohydrological corridors potentially drove a wave of dispersal farther along well-watered routes to patches with higher foraging returns. PMID:27671630

  10. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah


    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  11. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies


    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  12. Occupational health and safety in Australia. (United States)

    Macdonald, Wendy; Driscoll, Tim; Stuckey, Rwth; Oakman, Jodi


    The focus of OHS in Australia is on workplace-based prevention rather than individual health care. Over the past decade, workers' compensation data have shown continuous improvement in work-related deaths, serious injuries and diseases. Injuries from work-related vehicle incidents are the leading cause of fatalities. There is a high incidence of on-road incidents in light vehicles; this problem is under-recognised, and better incidence data are required to support more effective interventions. Rates of many long-latency diseases such as cancers are underestimated, and again more reliable information is needed, particularly on work-related exposures to carcinogens. Disease-related deaths are largely confined to older workers. Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are the most frequent and costly OHS problem, constituting a large majority of non-fatal injuries and diseases. There is growing recognition that their risk management should be more evidence based, integrating assessment and control of psychosocial and 'manual handling' hazards. A high rate of population ageing is increasing risk of chronic diseases, including musculoskeletal disorders, which is helping to raise awareness of the importance of protecting and promoting workforce health. Strategies to achieve this have been developed but implementation is at an early stage.

  13. Youth Joblessness in Australia: The Problem Behind the Problem. (United States)

    Wurzburg, Gregory


    Examines how serious youth employment is in Australia as well as factors responsible for unemployment among these and other individuals (such as girls and young women). Also examines youth policies, focusing on educational and training concerns and issues. (JN)

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Tropical Australia and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gordon


    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect 2 billion people worldwide including significant numbers in South-East Asia (SEA. In Australia, STH are of less concern; however, indigenous communities are endemic for STH, including Strongyloides stercoralis, as well as for serious clinical infections due to other helminths such as Toxocara spp. The zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum is also present in Australia and SEA, and may contribute to human infections particularly among pet owners. High human immigration rates to Australia from SEA, which is highly endemic for STH Strongyloides and Toxocara, has resulted in a high prevalence of these helminthic infections in immigrant communities, particularly since such individuals are not screened for worm infections upon entry. In this review, we consider the current state of STH infections in Australia and SEA.

  15. Australia's National Defence Strategy - Old Wine in New Bottles?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Stephen


    .... Although contemplated throughout the 1970s, this strategy was first articulated in 1986, and was most recently reinforced through the release of the 1994 Defence White Paper "Defending Australia...

  16. Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET): an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Anthony; Mercer, David


    In June 2004, the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, released the long-awaited government blueprint for the favoured policy direction for the country's energy sector, Securing Australia's Energy Future. In part this document was a response to a review of the operation of Australia's mandatory renewable energy target (MRET), a regime that started in April 2001. MRET was put under detailed scrutiny from March 2003 onwards by a four-person panel (the Tambling Committee), appointed by the Howard coalition (conservative) government, that received 248 detailed submissions and finally released its findings to the public in January 2004. This paper presents an overview of (i) the range of opinions on MRET presented to the Tambling Inquiry; (ii) the recommendations of that Committee; (iii) the final judgement on MRET enunciated in Securing Australia's Energy Future; and (iv) the response of the States

  17. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 1. Leptospirosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Lau, C L; Graham, G C


    Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance that causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing nations. In this review, the history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and treatment of this disease, and its impact in Australia, are discus...

  18. The opportunities for uranium development in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, N.


    The opportunities for uranium development in South Australia are discussed. The author outlines the likely development of three known uranium deposits, shows the world energy and uranium requirements and makes some observations on uranium enrichment

  19. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  20. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)


    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  1. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014. (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared


    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  2. Partners in ecocide: Australia's complicity in the uranium cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, V.G.


    In 1972 uranium producers from France, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain and Canada organized an international cartel to control the production and sale of uranium. The complicity of Australia in the manipulation of the market by and on behalf of C.R.A., Mary Kathleen Uranium, Pancontinental and Queensland Mines is discussed. The roles of both governments and companies and the antitrust implications of the cartel are considered

  3. Lingue e migrazione. Un caso di studio: l’Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter focuses upon two contrasting features of the linguistic situation in Australia. On the one hand, together with nationhood, the past hundred or so years have seen the evolution of a distinct national variety of English in Australia recognizable also outside Australia. On the other, Australia, though a young nation, has been continuously inhabited by the various Aborigine and Torre Strait Islander communities for thousands of years. These have traditionally spoken a wide variety of different languages, some of which of great interest to linguists due to their peculiarity. Increasingly, although the use of Aborigine languages has until very recently been in steady decline, since the 1950s in particular, diverse ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages, both European and Asian, have settled in Australia. The National Policy on Languages (1987 formally directed Australia towards multilingualism and the teaching of English as a first and second language is promoted together with that of Aborigine and community languages. Consequently, Australia has been one of the first nations to try to capitalise on its own linguistic diversity, both as a means of strengthening links with the outside world and as a way of promoting a multiethnic and multicultural society at home. Australia presents then an interesting case study for those working with discourse in immigration domains who are concerned with the way that language policy (or the lack of one may effect social harmony and serve not only as an indicator of the way that migrants are received and treated, but also a catalyst in itself for greater mutual respect.

  4. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Sari K.A.


    Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  5. Nuclear energy in the Pacific: an overview of Australia's interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.


    Australia's commercial, energy policy and proliferation interests and interest conflicts are discussed. Recent developments which effect public opinion and government policy are the reduced importance of Australia's uranium, increased awareness of the limitations of the existing international non-proliferation and safeguards arrangements and difficulties in implementing the Australian bilateral safeguards policy. Issues relevant to the question of nuclear power in the Pacific are enrichment, waste disposal, reprocessing and breeder reactors

  6. Pengaruh Geostrategi Celah Timor Terhadap Hubungan Kerjasama Timor Leste- Australia???,


    Muin, Murni


    Murni Muin, E 131 05 010, dengan skripsi berjudul, ???Pengaruh Geostrategi Celah Timor Terhadap Hubungan Kerjasama Timor Leste- Australia???, di bawah bimbingan J. Salusu, selaku pembimbing I dan S.M. Noor selaku pembimbing II. Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi minyak dan gas alam di Celah Timor dalam mempengaruhi hubungan kerjasama Timor Leste-Australia Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penulisan skripsi ini adalah tipe penelitian deskriptif-eksplanatif yang membe...

  7. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia. (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela


    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Park

    Full Text Available Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria, in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  9. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia. (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony


    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  10. Australia's uranium resources and production in the world context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.; Lambert, I.; Miezitis, Y.


    Australia has 654 000 tonnes uranium (U) in Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) recoverable at ≤US$40/kg U, which is the largest of all national resource estimates reported in this category. Australia also has the world's largest resources in RAR recoverable at ≤US$80/kg U, with 29% of world resources in this category. Other countries that have large resources in this category include Kazakhstan (19%), Canada (14%), South Africa (10%), Brazil (7%), Namibia (6%), Russian Federation (6%), and United States (5%). In 2000, the main developments in Australia's uranium mining industry were that production reached a record level of 8937 t U 3 O 8 (7579 t U), and commercial operations commenced at the new in situ leach operation at Beverley during November. Australia's total production for 2000 was 27% higher than for 1999. Uranium oxide was produced at the Olympic Dam (4500 t U 3 O 8 ), Ranger (4437 t U 3 O 8 ) and Beverley operations, although production from Beverley for the year was not reported. Australia's share of the world's annual uranium production has increased steadily from about 10.8% (3,712 tonnes U) in 1995 to 21.9% in 2000. Throughout this period Australia has maintained its position as the world's second-largest producer of uranium, behind Canada

  11. Factors influencing midwifery migration from the United Kingdom to Australia. (United States)

    Sidebotham, M; Ahern, K


    Within the current literature on the globalization of the healthcare workforce, it is difficult to separate the migration experience of nurses from that of midwives. As more countries are moving to offer direct entry educational programmes and provide separate registration for midwives, information specific to that professional group will be required to guide workforce planners and inform employment practice. This qualitative study tracks the migration experience of midwives moving between the UK and Australia. A purposeful sample of 18 midwives who had migrated from the UK to one state in Australia was interviewed within a descriptive phenomenological framework. Data were analysed using thematic coding within Nvivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). The strongest motivator for migration was to improve the family's lifestyle. Push factors included disillusionment with working conditions, standard of living in the UK and national politics. The majority of midwives had organized their own entry visa and employment. Most midwives had occupied senior positions in the UK but accepted employment initially within entry-level positions in Australia. Despite both countries offering similar standards of living, the majority of midwives expected to achieve an improvement in family lifestyle in Australia. Midwives indicated they were prepared to lose professional status and seniority of position to gain a better overall lifestyle for their family. To examine the long-term sustainability of international recruitment processes, further research is indicated to examine the ongoing experience and integration of migrant midwives into the workforce in Australia. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010. (United States)

    Turner, Aj


    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. The Honeymoon project: Australia`s first in situ leach uranium project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackland, M.C. [Southern Cross Resources Inc. Toowond, QLD (Australia)


    The Honeymoon uranium deposit is one of several roll front uranium deposits in South Australia. It was discovered in 1971, the project developed in the 1970`s, and was ready for demonstration of the In Situ Leaching (ISL) production techniques by January 1983, when the project was stopped, despite it having met the environmental approvals to proceed, due to the Australian Labour Party`s `three mines policy`. From 1983 until March 1996 the project was mothballed. In late 1996 Southern Cross Resources Inc. (SCRI) reached agreement with Mount Isa Mining (MIM) to purchase its uranium interests in Honeymoon, Goulds Dam and EL 2310 whilst simultaneously acquiring Sedimentary Holdings NL`s interests in EL 2310. By April 1997 these interests were consolidated in SCRI`s wholly owned subsidiary, Southern Cross Resources Australia Ply Ltd which is the operating company. Activities are presently underway to rehabilitate the existing treatment plant and continue the program that was outlined in the approved 1981 Honeymoon Environmental Impact Statement. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. TSN Database Australia, a new tool to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Australia. (United States)

    Turnidge, John; McCarthy, Laurence R; Master, Ronald N; Kepner, Douglas E; Weslock, James


    An electronic network of Australian microbiology laboratories was established to monitor the emergence and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among clinically relevant bacteria. It is believed that the data network collected approximately 42 per cent of all antibacterial susceptibility test results generated by Australian laboratories. The network comprised 94 hospitals and 9 private commercial laboratories. Selected data elements were extracted and electronically transmitted to a central location. Upon receipt, all data were first normalised and thereafter examined for errors. Duplicate results for the same patient were identified to prevent skewing of the data toward resistance. All data passing quality assessment was staged for release of a new database release that occurred monthly. Unusual test results were first validated prior to their inclusion into the database. Using an Internet-based query tool, individual institutions could query their own data, but could only query aggregated data for other regional or national analyses. Individual patient results could be examined nor could the results of any individual institution other than their own. As of March 2002, TSN Database Australia contained 14,648,752 test results, from 2,000,394 strains (453 different taxa) and 1,213,605 patients. Since the same database concept has been established in 10 other countries (United States of America, Europe, and Canada), observations made in Australia may be compared to those observed elsewhere in the world. This article will describe TSN in greater detail, describe the query tool and some of the analyses that are possible.

  15. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, M.H.


    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  16. Motivasi Australia Memberikan Bantuan Pendidikan Kepada Madrasah di Indonesia melalui Program Ausaid Tahun 2011-2014


    Tjarsono, Idjang; Risasta, Bella


    This paper aims to explain the motivation of Australia in providing foreign aid, especially aid to Indonesia in Islamic education sub-sector. Australia provides assistance to Indonesia through the International donor agencies namely Australia Agency for International Development (AusAID), which is currently under arrangements Ministry Foreign Affairs and Trade of Australia. Through AusAID, Australia has provided assistance to the sub-sectors of madrasa education in the form of block grants an...

  17. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia (United States)

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine


    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  18. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.


    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  19. Airborne geophysics in Australia: the government contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.


    Airborne geophysical data sets provide important cost-effective information for resource exploration and land management. Improved techniques, developed recently, now enable high-resolution aeromagnetic and gamma-ray surveys to be used extensively by the resource industries to improve the cost effectiveness of exploration and by governments to encourage resource development and sustainable management of natural resources. Although airborne geophysical techniques have been used extensively and are now used almost routinely by mineral explorers, it is only in the last few years that governments have been involved as major players in the acquisition of data. The exploration industry pioneered the imaging of high-resolution airborne geophysical data sets in the early 1980s and, at the same time, the Northern Territory Government started a modest program of flying the Northern Territory, at 500 m flight-line spacing, to attract mineral exploration. After the start of the National Geoscience Mapping Accord in 1990, the then BMR and its State/Territory counterparts used the new high-resolution data as an essential ingredient to underpin mapping programs. These new data sets proved so valuable that, starting in 1992/93, the annual expenditure by the Commonwealth and States/Northern Territory increased from roughly $2 million per year to a massive $10 million per year. These investments by governments, although unlikely to be permanently sustainable, have been made to encourage and expand exploration activity by providing new high-quality data sets in industry at very low cost. There are now approximately 11 million line-km of airborne geophysical data available in databases held by the Commonwealth, States and Northern Territory. The results so far have seen a significant increase in exploration activity in States that have embarked on this course (e.g. South Australia and Victoria), and the information provided from these surveys is proving crucial to understanding the

  20. Japan's energy future: implications for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.


    In April this year, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources published a report outlining the dilemmas facing Japan's energy industry in the post-Kyoto environment with particular reference to the effect it would have on Australia's fuel exports. The following article is based on information in that report. In summary, the extent to which the Japanese government's current climate change response policy (the long term energy forecast) is realised will depend on a complex interaction of competing considerations: 1. whether, in the event of US non ratification, the government maintains its Kyoto commitment or opts for a partial step back from its 8% commitment (and the extent of that draw back); 2. in the event that it does maintain its Kyoto commitment: a) the extent to which it takes advantage of the flexible mechanism provisions to ease the abatement burden on the energy system; b) the level of success in securing additional nuclear power stations and higher load ratios from nuclear power; c) the degree to which renewable and recycling energy sources can be brought on line; d) the extent to which the Japanese people are willing to meet the costs of switching to new technology and changing lifestyles to conserve energy; e) the timing of new initiatives such as emissions trading; the extent to which Japanese industry is able to achieve very strict energy conservation targets; f) the extent to which Japan's economic recovery leads to increased electricity demand as well as g) the extent to which electricity deregulation reduces prices and promotes increased consumption

  1. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky


    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  2. Obesity and health expenditures: evidence from Australia. (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Johar, Meliyanni


    Rising rates of obesity are a public health concern in every industrialized country. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and health care expenditure in Australia, where the rate of obesity has tripled in the last three decades. Now one in four Australians is considered obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of 30 or over. The analysis is based on a random sample survey of over 240,000 adults aged 45 and over that is linked at the individual-level to comprehensive administrative health care claims for the period 2006-2009. This sub-population group has an obesity rate that is nearly 30% and is a major consumer of health services. Relative to the average annual health expenditures of those with normal weight, we find that the health expenditures of those with a BMI between 30 and 35 (obese type I) are 19% higher and expenditures of those with BMI greater than 35 (obese type II/III) are 51% higher. We find large and significant differences in all types of care: inpatient, emergency department, outpatient and prescription drugs. The obesity-related health expenditures are higher for obese type I women than men, but in the obese type II/III state, obesity-related expenditures are higher for men. When we stratify further by age groups, we find that obesity has the largest impact among men over age 75 and women aged 60-74 years old. In addition, we find that obesity impacts health expenditures not only through its link to chronic diseases, but also because it increases the cost of recovery from acute health shocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The introduction and subsequent extinction of the camel tick Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) dromedarii (Acari, Ixodidae) in Australia, with a review of the introduction of foreign ticks to Australia. (United States)

    Kwak, Mackenzie L


    Historically, several tick taxonomists have reported Hyalomma aegyptium within Australia due to misidentifications. This has resulted in confusion relating to the occurrence of the genus Hyalomma within Australia. Based on the recent discovery of museum specimens of Hyalomma dromedarii, misidentified as H. aegyptium, the historical occurrence of H. dromedarii is reported for the first time within Australia, along with its apparent subsequent extinction. The introduction and naturalisation of foreign tick species into Australia is also reviewed.

  4. Australia's Uranium and thorium resources and their global significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.; Miezitis, Y.


    Full text: Full text: Australia's world-leading uranium endowment appears to result from the emplacement of uranium enriched felsic igneous rocks in three major periods during the geological evolution of the continent. Australia has over 27% of the world's total reasonably assured uranium resources (RAR) recoverable at < US$80/kgU (which approximates recent uranium spot prices). Olympic Dam is the largest known uranium deposit, containing approximately 19% of global RAR (and over 40% of global inferred resources) recoverable at < US$80/kg U; the uranium is present at low concentrations and the viability of its recovery is underpinned by co-production of copper and gold. Most of Australia's other identified resources are within Ranger, Jabiluka, Koongarra, Kintyre and Yeelirrie, the last four of which are not currently accessible for mining. In 2004, Australia's three operating uranium mines - Ranger, Olympic Dam, and Beverley -produced 22% of global production. Canada was the only country to produce more uranium (29%) and Kazakhstan (9%) ranked third. Considerably increased uranium production has been recently foreshadowed from Australia (through developing a large open pit at Olympic Dam), Canada (mainly through opening of the Cigar Lake mine), and Kazakhstan (developing several new in situ leach mines). These increases should go a long way towards satisfying demand from about 2010. Olympic Dam has sufficient resources to sustain such increased production over many decades. Thorium is expected to be used in some future generations of nuclear reactors. Australia also has major (but incompletely quantified) resources of this commodity, mainly in heavy mineral sands deposits and associated with alkaline igneous rocks. It is inevitable that the international community will be looking increasingly to Australia to sustain its vital role in providing fuels for future nuclear power generation, given its world-leading identified resources, considerable potential for new

  5. The sexual behaviour of British backpackers in Australia. (United States)

    Hughes, K; Downing, J; Bellis, M A; Dillon, P; Copeland, J


    To explore sexual behaviour and risk-taking among British backpackers in Australia and to investigate the influence of substance use and social settings on sexual behaviour abroad. A cross-sectional design was used. The questionnaire gathered information on sexual and substance use behaviour in the 12 months prior to leaving the UK and during backpackers' stays in Australia. A total of 1008 backpackers, recruited in hostels in Sydney and Cairns, were included in the study. In total, 73.2% had sex during their stay in Australia, including 68.9% of those who arrived without a partner. Across all backpackers, mean number of sexual partners increased from 0.3 per 4-week period in the UK in the 12 months prior to the trip to 1.0 per 4-week period spent in Australia. Over a third (39.7%) had multiple partners in Australia, increasing to 45.7% in those arriving single. Of those arriving single and having sex, 40.9% reported inconsistent condom use and 24.0% had unprotected sex with multiple partners. Number of sexual partners in the UK, length of stay in Australia at time of interview, planned length of stay, frequent visits to bars/clubs, high frequency of alcohol intake and use of illicit substances in Australia were indicators for risky sexual behaviour. Backpackers are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections and other negative sexual health outcomes. Multi-agency sexual health promotion strategies that address the relationship between sex, drugs and alcohol should be targeted at backpackers prior to, and during, their travels.

  6. Will Wallace's Line Save Australia from Avian Influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish I. McCallum


    Full Text Available Australia is separated from the Asian faunal realm by Wallace's Line, across which there is relatively little avian migration. Although this does diminish the risk of high pathogenicity avian influenza of Asian origin arriving with migratory birds, the barrier is not complete. Migratory shorebirds, as well as a few landbirds, move through the region on annual migrations to and from Southeast Asia and destinations further north, although the frequency of infection of avian influenza in these groups is low. Nonetheless, high pathogenicity H5N1 has recently been recorded on the island of New Guinea in West Papua in domestic poultry. This event increases interest in the movements of birds between Wallacea in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia, particularly by waterbirds. There are frequent but irregular movements of ducks, geese, and other waterbirds across Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, including movements to regions in which H5N1 has occurred in the recent past. Although the likelihood of avian influenza entering Australia via an avian vector is presumed to be low, the nature and extent of bird movements in this region is poorly known. There have been five recorded outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza in Australian poultry flocks, all of the H7 subtype. To date, Australia is the only inhabited continent not to have recorded high pathogenicity avian influenza since 1997, and H5N1 has never been recorded. The ability to map risk from high pathogenicity avian influenza to Australia is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on the extent of bird movements between Australia and its northern neighbors. Recently developed techniques offer the promise to fill this knowledge gap.

  7. Bronchial thermoplasty in severe asthma in Australia. (United States)

    Langton, David; Sha, Joy; Ing, Alvin; Fielding, David; Wood, Erica


    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an approved bronchoscopic intervention for the treatment of severe asthma. However, limited published experience exists outside of clinical trials regarding patient selection and outcomes achieved. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of BT in patients with severe asthma encountered in clinical practice. This is a retrospective analysis of the first 'real world' data from Australia. The following outcomes were measured prior to, and 6 months following BT: spirometry, Asthma Control Questionnaire-5 (ACQ-5) score, reliever and preventer medication use and exacerbation history. Twenty patients were treated from June 2014 to December 2015 at three university teaching hospitals. All subjects met the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society definition of severe asthma. Mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 62.8 ± 16.6% predicted (range: 33-95%). All patients were being treated with high dose inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta 2 agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists. Ten patients (50%) were taking maintenance oral prednisolone. Most subjects also required at least one of montelukast (65%), omalizumab (30%) and methotrexate (20%). ACQ-5 improved from 3.6 ± 1.1 at baseline to 1.6 ± 1.2 at 6 months, P < 0.001. Short-acting reliever use decreased from a median of 8.0-0.25 puffs/day, P < 0.001, and exacerbations requiring corticosteroids also significantly reduced. Five of 10 patients completely discontinued maintenance oral corticosteroids. Ten patients with a baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s of <60% predicted significantly improved from 49.2 ± 9.6% to 61.8 ± 17.6%, P < 0.05. Only two procedures required hospitalisation beyond the planned overnight admission. BT is a safe procedure which can achieve clinical improvement in those with uncontrolled symptoms and severe airflow obstruction. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.


    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  9. Soil organic carbon in eastern Australia (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Baldock, J.; Hua, Q.; Wilson, B.


    We investigated the drivers of SOC dynamics and depth distribution across eastern Australia using laboratory analyses (CN, fractionation, radiocarbon) coupled with modelling and machine learning. At over 1400 sites, surface SOC storage was driven by precipitation, whereas SOC depth distribution (0-30 cm) was influenced by land-use. Based upon these findings, 100 sites were selected for profile analysis (up to 1 m) of SOC and its component fractions - particulate (POC), humus (HOC) and resistant (ROC) organic carbon. Profile SOC content was modelled using an exponential model describing surface SOC content, SOC depth distribution and residual SOC at depth and the drivers of these parameters investigated via machine learning. Corroborating previous findings, surface SOC content was highly influenced by rainfall, whereas SOC depth distribution was influenced by land-use. At depth, site properties were the most important predictors of SOC. Cropped sites had significantly lower SOC content than native and grazed sites at depth, indicating that land-use influences SOC content throughout the profile. The machine learning algorithms identified depth as the key control on the proportion of all three fractions down the profile: POC decreased whereas HOC increased with increasing depth. POC was strongly linked with total SOC but HOC and ROC were driven more by climate and soil physico-chemical properties. Human influences (land-use and management) were not important to the fractions, implying that the controls humans can exert on SOC stability may be limited. A subset of 12 soil profiles was analysed for 14C. Radiocarbon content was affected strongly by land-use, with effects most pronounced at depth. Native systems had the youngest carbon down the profile, cropped systems had the oldest SOC. All fractions reacted to land-use change down the soil profile, indicating a lack of stability when the whole profile is viewed. These results indicate that natural systems act as a

  10. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia. (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A


    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  11. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia. (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn


    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. Triptan use in Australia 1997-2015: A pharmacoepidemiological study. (United States)

    Eyre, B L K D; Eadie, M J; van Driel, M L; Ross-Lee, L; Hollingworth, S A


    This study examined the use of triptan derivatives in Australia between 1997 and 2015, based on a national drug reimbursement database, and compared patterns of use with available international data. We obtained publically available data on the number of prescriptions for triptans marketed in Australia (sumatriptan, eletriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan). Dispensed use was measured as defined daily dose (DDD per 1000 population per day) for Australia's concessional beneficiaries (low-income earners, people with disabilities, and seniors). Total triptan use increased at an average annual rate of 112% over the 18-year period. Sumatriptan was the preferred triptan throughout (average annual increase 45%). Zolmitriptan and naratriptan use peaked in 2004, then decreased. Rizatriptan and eletriptan became available in 2010. There were 3.2-fold and 5.9-fold annual increases in their use from 2011 to 2105. There was some evidence suggesting that pattern of triptan use in concessional beneficiaries probably reflected pattern of overall triptan use in Australia. The use of triptan derivatives in Australia per head of population for treating migraine attacks continued to increase over the 18-year period studied, with use of recently introduced derivatives more than substituting for decreased use of older triptans. This suggests that the available treatments of migraine attacks had achieved what were considered less than adequate therapeutic outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States (United States)

    Solomon, Russell


    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  14. Pioneering developments of marine renewable energy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Manasseh


    Full Text Available The history of ocean renewable energy developments in Australia is reviewed. A layperson’s description of the physical operating principle is given for the main classes of technology that have been tested in Australian waters. The Australian marine domain possesses among the world’s most energetic wave-energy resources, driven by powerful mid-latitude westerly winds. The northern coast of Western Australia has tidal ranges significant on a global scale, and some geographical features around the continent have local tidal resonances. The East Australian Current, one of the world’s major western boundary currents, runs along the eastern Australian seaboard, offering potential for ocean-current energy. Sea-water temperatures in the tropical north-east of Australia may permit ocean thermal energy conversion. While this abundance of resources makes Australia an ideal location for technology development, the population is highly concentrated in a few large cities, and transmission infrastructure has developed over a century to supply cities from traditional power plants. Several wave-power developments have resulted in demonstration of deployments in Australian waters, three of which have been grid connected. Trials of tidal devices have also occurred, while other classes of ocean renewable energy have not yet been trialled. The prospects for marine renewable energy in Australia are discussed including non-traditional applications such as coastal protection and energy export.

  15. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions. (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy


    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards. (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip


    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn


    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  18. Epidemiology of coronial deaths from pesticide ingestion in Australia. (United States)

    Osborne, Nicholas J; Cairns, Rose; Dawson, Andrew H; Chitty, Kate M; Buckley, Nicholas A


    Pesticides in Australia are tightly regulated but it is unknown how this may affect the distribution of misuse and self-harm across Australia, both spatially and within subgroups in the population. We performed an observational study to examine spatial differences in suicide/deliberate poisonings with pesticides in Australia. We examined Coronial inquest cases of self-harm by pesticide ingestion for the years 2001-2013 (n=209). Coronial cases were older, more likely to be male, have lower SES status and live in outer regional areas as opposed to cities when compared to the general population. Case densities (cases/100,000 population) were lower in large capital cities and higher in agricultural areas: despite this half the cases occurred in major cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.


    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  20. Public Health Response to Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007 (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary; Moran, Rodney; Brown, Lynne; Meagher, Julian; Roberts, Jason A.; Thorley, Bruce R.


    Australia, along with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region, was declared free of poliomyelitis by the World Health Organization in October 2000. Yet, the persistence of wild poliovirus in the 4 remaining polio-endemic countries—Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan—poses a risk for its importation into all countries declared polio free. We describe the public health response and outcomes resulting from the importation of a wild poliovirus infection in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2007. This response, based on an assessment of the risk for transmission, included offering vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine to the contacts and placing the index patient in isolation and the household contacts in quarantine until consecutive fecal specimens were negative for poliovirus by culture. The experience gained from the polio importation event in Australia may assist other polio-free countries to prepare for, and respond to, a similar event. No secondary clinical cases resulted from this importation. PMID:19891859

  1. New unidentate jumping spider genera (Araneae: Salticidae) from Australia. (United States)

    Richardson, Barry J


    The Australian fauna includes large numbers of undescribed, tiny, litter-living, jumping spiders. In this paper four monotypic new genera (Ananeon howardensis n. g. n. sp., Barraina anfracta n. g. n.sp., Frewena maculata n.g. n.s., and Pungalina weiri n.g, n.sp.) are described. Two species (Neon taylori n.sp. and Neon australis n. sp.) representing the two distinctive morphological patterns found in Australian species of this genus are also described. The former, similar in the morphology of the palp and genitalia to that found in many species from eastern Australia, is most similar in morphology to N. sumatranus Logunov 1998 from Indonesia and N. kovblyuki Logunov 2004 from the Crimea. The latter, and other similar species from South Australia and Western Australia, has palp morphology and fringing on L1 very similar to that seen in N. nojimai Ikeda 1995 from Japan.

  2. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience. (United States)

    McNamara, Patricia M


    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  3. Non-traditional uranium exploration targets in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, M.C.; Wilson, T.; Dhu, T.; Gouthas, G.; Heath, P.; Bosman, S.A.; Card, C.D.


    South Australia hosts two of Australia's three operating uranium mines with another two anticipated to begin production in the near future. Traditionally exploration has largely focused on Iron oxide copper gold + uranium (c.f. Olympic Dam style) or sandstone-hosted (c.f. Beverley style) uranium targets. However, due to the ubiquitous uranium anomalism through the Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement in eastern South Australia, process-driven target generation indicates high potential for contemporary hybrids of different types, as well as younger unconformity-related or calcrete-hosted deposits. Translation of key mineralising processes into mappable criteria allows innovative targeting strategies to be developed for explorers in Greenfield areas. (author)

  4. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation. (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed


    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  5. Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.; Maier, W.


    Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and consists of a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. They are hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. This is based on the low sulphur, low Cu and Platinum element content of the mineralization. The mineralization is spatially (at the edge) and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar continental flood basalt province in the East and constrains a number of early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is temporally and genetically related to the Karoo igneous province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo igneous provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was responsible for the break up of eastern Gondwana at ca 180 Ma. Despite of timeframe differences between the Avebury Ni deposits and the Ferrar LIP emplacement, similar geological settings to the Avebury could be duplicated along the Ferrar LIP. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province indicate that this LIP could represent a possible exploration target for Ni hydrothermal deposits. Based on this background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni

  6. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.


    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  7. Australia's role as an energy exporter: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.


    Australia is a sparsely populated country that is well endowed with energy resources. Currently, it is the world's major coal exporter and has the potential to become - subject to political constraints - a leading uranium exporting nation. In addition, the development of the North West Shelf natural gas fields promises to provide substantial supplies for export. In contrast, Australia's indigenous production of crude oil is not expected to be sufficient to meet projected domestic demand after the mid-1980s, and the current, relatively minor, level of crude oil exports is expected to decline rapidly over the next decade. (author)

  8. No impediments to introducing LTCC to Australia: researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    China has achieved significant production improvements in coal mining as a result of development and application of the Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method. The University of New South Wales has reviewed potential sites in Australia where LTCC could find application and is currently conducting research aimed at better geotechnical site characterization. Major benefits of the method include: operating cost reductions; resource recovery, mine financial performance and mine safety. The geological factors considered to be most important for implementation of LTCC in Australia are: coal seam capability/fragmentation; the effect of massive strata units in immediate/near seam roof; and the effect of high horizontal stress ratios. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  9. Australia's uranium resources in the Pacific Basin context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.J.


    Australia's role as an uranium producer is central to the Pacific Basin nuclear industry. Australia's low cost reserves are the world's largest, perhaps up to two times greater than those of her closest competitor, Canada. In the domain of actual production, however, the nation's uranium output is currently limited by government policy. Nonetheless, in view of the Pacific Basin nations' increasing focus on nuclear energy as an efficient and clean energy source, it is likely that Australian producers will, over the next decades, be long term suppliers of uranium concentrates to Pacific Basin markets such as Japan, Korea, China/Hong Kong, Indonesia, China-Taipei, the USA and even Canada. 1 fig

  10. Current Behaviours and Attitudes Towards Texting While Driving in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Beasley, Keiran

    This paper aims to understand the behaviour of texting and driving among the broader driving public in Australia and uncover whether attitudes are congruent with behaviours. Recent studies have generally been focussing on the behaviours of 18-24 year olds suggesting that the practice is mainly...... confined to people in this age bracket. Findings from an anonymous online survey show that the practice of texting and driving is widespread in Australia and not just confined to the younger demographic. Additionally, evidence suggests smart phone users are more likely to engage in texting while driving...

  11. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.


    Australia has almost twenty per cent of the Western World's low-cost uranium reserves, located mostly in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory. At present, only one uranium mill is operating in Australia, but a number of new mills are planned for the early 1980s. Details are given of Australian uranium mining and milling proposals and the measures taken to minimize their environmental impact. Major factors affecting environmental impact are discussed, including treatment of liquid wastes, water management, control of radon and other airborne releases, and disposal of tailings. (auth)

  12. Diabetes Australia position statement. A new language for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speight, J.; Conn, J.; Dunning, T.


    . Words do more than reflect people's reality: they create reality and affect how people view the world and their diabetes. Language needs to engage people with diabetes and support their self-care efforts. Importantly, language that de-motivates or induces fear, guilt or distress needs to be avoided...... and countered. Diabetes Australia believes optimal communication increases the motivation, health and well-being of people with diabetes, and that careless or negative language can be de-motivating, is often inaccurate, and can be harmful. Diabetes Australia developed this position statement to encourage...... greater awareness of the language surrounding diabetes and provide recommendations for more careful and positive language use....

  13. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.


    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A program is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  14. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.


    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A programme is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  15. Management of waste from uranium mining and milling in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.; Levins, D.; Ring, B.; Zuk, W.


    Australia has a long history of uranium mining. Most of the early production came from Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory and Mary Kathleen in Queensland. The second generation of uranium mines (Ranger, Nabarlek and Olympic Dam) came on line in the 1970s and 1980s at a time of increased environmental awareness and public scrutiny. The waste management practices at these mines are in accordance with best practicable technology for the uranium mining industry. This paper describes Australia's experience in managing the front end of the fuel cycle; uranium mining and ore processing. (orig.)

  16. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete


    Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....

  17. Policy issues in U.S. transportation public-private partnerships lessons from Australia. (United States)


    In this report, the authors examine Australias experience with transportation public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the lessons that experience holds for the use of PPPs in the United States. Australia now has decades of experience in PPP use in ...

  18. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers (United States)

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea


    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  19. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.


    and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  20. The Art of Being an English Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Loyden, Grace


    The role of the English teacher in Australia is constantly being negotiated and with every ideological development teachers are positioned to question their professional values and practices. Much attention has been afforded to this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an analysis of the evolution of the art of being an English…

  1. Biomass harvesting in Eucalyptus plantations in Western Australia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia is at an early stage of exploring the use of forest biomass to generate energy. This study evaluated the biomass yield and the productivity rates of equipment for harvesting biomass in a poor-quality eucalypt plantation. The operation consisted of a tracked feller-buncher, grapple skidder and mobile chipper.

  2. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian John


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  3. School Health Programs in Australia - A Special Insert. (United States)

    Nader, Philip R.; Rissel, Chris; Rowling, Louise; Marshall, Bernard J.; Sheehan, Margaret M.; Northfield, Jeff R.; Maher, Shelley; Carlisle, Rachel; St. Leger, Lawrence H.; Stewart, Donald E.; Parker, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Amaya; Stokes, Helen; Mukherjee, Dev; Nutbeam, Don; Mitchell, Anne; Ollis, Debbie; Watson, Jan


    Eight papers on Australia's school health programs discuss: creating health promoting schools in the United States; intersectoral collaboration for developing a national framework for health promoting schools; school-based health promotion nationwide; auditing health promoting schools policy documentation; the nature of health service/school…

  4. Managing smoke from wildfires and prescribed burning in southern Australia (United States)

    Alan Wain; Graham Mills; Lachlan McCaw; Timothy Brown


    In Australia the responsibility for management of forests and other public lands rests largely with state governments, and multiple government agencies may be involved in fire management. Whether resulting from wildfire, fuel reduction, or silvicultural operations, biomass burning often stimulates community concerns about hazards from fine particulates and chemical...

  5. Young Pedestrians' Gendering of Mathematics: Australia and Spain (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma


    People aged 20-39 were stopped in the streets of Victoria (Australia) and Madrid (Spain) to gauge their views on the gendering of mathematics. The findings suggested that for respondents from both countries, if stereotyped beliefs are held they were more strongly associated with the traditional male stereotype, that is, that males are considered…

  6. The Changing Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus in Australia (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A.


    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses, with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks of disease in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North America. A strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), is endemic in northern Australia and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However in early 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis in horses occurred in south-eastern Australia, resulting in mortality in approximately 10%–15% of infected horses. A WNV-like virus (WNVNSW2011) was isolated and found to be most closely related to the indigenous WNVKUN, rather than other exotic WNV strains. Furthermore, at least two amino acid changes associated with increased virulence of the North American New York 99 strain (WNVNY99) compared to the prototype WNVKUN were present in the WNVNSW2011 sequence. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNVKUN and how the epidemiology and ecology of this virus has changed. Analysis of virulence determinants of contemporary WNVKUN isolates will provide clues on where virulent strains have emerged in Australia. A better understanding of the changing ecology and epidemiology associated with the emergence of virulent strains is essential to prepare for future outbreaks of WNV disease in Australia. PMID:24287851

  7. Australia's South African war 1899-19021 | Wilcox | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to ...

  8. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia (United States)

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman


    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  9. Constructing an Academic Identity in Australia: An Autoethnographic Narrative (United States)

    Ai, Bin


    This paper examines the process of academic identity construction experienced by a Chinese PhD student in an Australian university from 2010 to 2014. The researcher draws on his diaries written in Australia and uses some stories of the relationships with his supervisors and other scholars to unfold the process of his academic identity construction…

  10. Dustman, Milliner and Watchcase Maker: Skilling Australia. Conference Paper (United States)

    Beddie, Francesca


    This paper was presented at the Professional Historians Association (NSW) Islands of History conference held on Norfolk Island in July 2010. It argues that the reliance on overseas workers to address skills shortages has been present ever since the first white settlement of Australia, which has, in turn, shaped attitudes to the governance of…

  11. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally


    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  12. Specialist nurses in Australia: the ICN and international regulation. (United States)

    Whyte, S


    This article focuses on the relationship between specialist nurses in Victoria (Australia) and the International Council of Nurses (ICN). A major consideration is whether international standards can be applied across international boundaries. The ICN has represented the worldwide nursing community for the past 100 years. In 1997 the Royal College of Nursing (Australia) gained membership to the ICN and to its Regulation Network. With growing interest about internationalization, a key question is whether Australian nurses will accept the Council recommendations on regulation. In a report on specialist nurse education in Australia, recommendations were made that included the adoption of the ICN definition for specialist practice. A survey of the opinions of 75 nurses practicing in Victoria, toward a selection of recommendations from the report, showed strong agreement on definition and much less agreement on minimum credentials. Findings from the survey are discussed in relation to the international profile that is now expected of specialist nurses in Australia and a potential future role for professional organizations.

  13. Research Update 2010: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew


    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records 17 incidents not previously recorded in papers in this series (Brookes, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2007), in which 15 participants, two supervisors or teachers, and one member of the public died. Eleven of the incidents occurred since…

  14. Patterns of Cultural Adjustment among Young Migrants to Australia (United States)

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.


    In response to appeals for empirical data on culture-specific differences and developmental pathways of acculturative stress among young migrants and refugees, the present study examines the cultural adjustment patterns of ethnically diverse migrants to Australia. Two hundred and seventy three primary and high school students (comprised of…

  15. Enfranchising the Profession through Evaluation: A Story from Australia (United States)

    Clinton, Janet; Dawson, Georgia


    Educational reform in Australia recognizes the need for an effective teacher evaluation system but has fallen short of actually prescribing one. Current practice does not align to policy intent, with teacher evaluation largely an exercise in compliance around performance management as opposed to a process that promotes evaluative thinking,…

  16. Overcoming barriers to wind project finance in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kann, Shayle


    The wind power industry in Australia is expected to grow rapidly over the next decade, primarily due to a forthcoming expanded national renewable energy target (RET) which will mandate that renewable sources provide approximately 20% of Australia's electricity production by 2020. However, development of new wind generation in Australia has stalled as a result of several barriers to project finance, the mechanism through which most wind farms have been developed historically. This paper provides an overview of wind power financing in Australia in light of recent political and financial trends. Drawing upon existing literature and a series of stakeholder interviews, it identifies three primary barriers to project finance: regulatory risk surrounding legislation of the RET, semi-privatization of electricity retailers in New South Wales, and limited capital availability resulting from the recent global credit crisis. The paper concludes that the confluence of these barriers limits the availability of long-term contracts that provide revenue certainty for pre-construction wind projects, while simultaneously making these contracts a necessity in order to obtain project finance. In an attempt to mitigate these effects, this paper identifies four alternative development strategies that can be pursued.

  17. Panis populi--bread and public health in Australia. (United States)

    Pearn, J


    The 'standard loaf, 680 gm, white, supermarket-purchased' as expressed in the Consumer Price Index, is but the basic form of bread sold to the Australian public. In the public health context, three themes have been intimately associated with bread--quality control, price control and bread used as a vehicle for supplementary nutritive agents important in preventive medicine. Price control, through assizing, has been a feature of bread marketing in western communities for seven centuries; and bread remains the last item on which price control (although seldom enforced) exists in Australia. Quality control, for public health, is determined both by regulation and by the force of increasingly literate consumers, of whom women occupy the most important determinant. From the preventive medicine point of view, important themes in bread quality, such as its use to reduce laxative sales on the one hand and to reduce the demographic incidence of colonic cancer on the other, remains outside formal regulation. Australia is a relatively conservative nation in the context of nutritional additives. It was not until 1953 that the National Health and Medical Research Council approved the addition of extra B vitamins to bread. Currently, folic acid is added as a discretion to selected high-premium breakfast cereals in Australia in one attempt to reduce the incidence to neural tube defects. The addition of such ingredients to bread remains an unrealised, but potentially important aspect of preventive medicine in Australia.

  18. Evolution and Contingency: Poetry, Curriculum and Culture in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Weaven, Mary; Clark, Tom


    This article explores the changing place of poetry studies in the broader English curriculum of Victoria, Australia. Its focus is on how students learning to become English teachers engage with poetry studies. Setting this problem within the context of pedagogical theory and evidence about the evolving Victorian curriculum, we have interviewed six…

  19. Curriculum Policies for Students with Special Needs in Australia (United States)

    Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy


    The curriculum policies for students with special needs across Australia have been reviewed. The Curriculum Framework in the Australian Capital Territory is used to inform their school based curriculum. The Northern Territory Curriculum Framework describes what learners are expected to achieve and what learners have achieved. The New South Wales…

  20. Managing Language Diversity and Second Language Programmes in Australia. (United States)

    Clyne, Michael


    Discusses the status of community languages and school language programs in Australia, amid changing public policy, makes suggestions for managing linguistic diversity, and considers what happens when a community language becomes a desired commodity for the whole population. Considers historical context for development of pluralistic policies in…

  1. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire


    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  2. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia (United States)

    Minson, D. J.


    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  3. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Stephens


    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  4. A Review of Roof Harvested Rainwater in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirhakarhula E. Chubaka


    Full Text Available To address concern regarding water sustainability, the Australian Federal Government and many state governments have implemented regulatory mechanisms and incentives to support households to purchase and install rainwater harvesting systems. This has led to an increase in rainwater harvesting in regional and urban Australia. This review examines the implementation of the regulatory mechanisms across Australia. In addition, the literature investigating the potential health consequences of rainwater consumption in Australia was explored. Studies demonstrated that although trace metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and iron were present in Australian rainwater, these metallic elements were generally found below the health limit guideline, except in high industrial areas. In addition, pathogenic or indicator microorganisms that include, but are not limited to, Escherichia coli, total and faecal coliforms, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Legionella, Pseudomonas, Cryptosporidium, Enterococci, Giardia, Aeromonas, and Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC have been detected in rainwater collected in Australia. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that drinking rainwater does not increase the risk of gastrointestinal disease. It was also identified that there is a need for further research investigating the potential for rainwater to be a source of infection for opportunistic pathogens.

  5. Reflection os some aspects of pasture development in Australia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey is made of some pasture developments in Australia and New Zealand with particular reference to sod-seeding techniques, lucerne grazing management, aerial oversowing and overdrilling of natural veld, and pastures of African grasses associated with tropical legumes. Pasture development with special reference ...

  6. The regulation of market manipulation in Australia: a historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation ...

  7. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.


    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  8. Early medical abortion: legal and medical developments in Australia. (United States)

    Petersen, Kerry A


    Mifepristone is a safe, effective and relatively cheap drug that plays an important role in women's health care and is widely used for early medical abortion in many countries. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) can authorise mifepristone to be imported into and marketed in Australia. To date, no pharmaceutical company has applied to register mifepristone in Australia. The TGA can also permit medical practitioners to prescribe medicine that is not approved for marketing in Australia under the Authorised Prescribers scheme. The number of approvals for mifepristone has gradually increased, in spite of a complicated and protracted application process. Approval under the Authorised Prescribers scheme requires medical practitioners to comply with state or territory legislation. Abortion laws in Australia vary between jurisdictions, and in some states the law is unclear and confusing. The decriminalisation of abortion in all Australian jurisdictions would protect medical practitioners from criminal liability, promote the health interests of Australian women, and discourage the illegal importation of abortifacients that are being used without quality controls or medical supervision. The Victorian Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 is one legislative model for this.

  9. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.


    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  10. National Innovation Policy and Public Science in Australia (United States)

    Carter, Lyn


    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science…

  11. Dermatophilus congolensis Infection in Platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus ), Tasmania, Australia, 2015. (United States)

    Lunn, Tamika; Macgregor, James; Munks, Sarah; Carver, Scott


    We report disease due to Dermatophilus congolensis infection in three of 13 (23%) platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus ) from a catchment in Tasmania, Australia. This pathogen has not previously been reported in platypuses. Two of the three infected platypuses had extensive scab formations, but no substantial hair loss was apparent.

  12. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.


    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in

  13. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia (United States)

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.


    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  14. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story? (United States)

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill


    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  15. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations. (United States)

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal


    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  16. Home mechanical ventilation in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Garner, Daniel J; Berlowitz, David J; Douglas, James; Harkness, Nick; Howard, Mark; McArdle, Nigel; Naughton, Matthew T; Neill, Alister; Piper, Amanda; Yeo, Aeneas; Young, Alan


    This study aims to describe the pattern of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) usage in Australia and New Zealand. 34 centres providing HMV in the region were identified and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding centre demographics, patient diagnoses, HMV equipment and settings, staffing levels and methods employed to implement and follow-up therapy. 28 (82%) centres responded, providing data on 2,725 patients. The minimum prevalence of HMV usage was 9.9 patients per 100,000 population in Australia and 12.0 patients per 100,000 population in New Zealand. Variation existed across Australian states (range 4-13 patients per 100,000 population) correlating with population density (r=0.82; pNew Zealand, in smaller, newer centres, whilst NMD was more likely to be treated in Australia, in larger, older centres. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an uncommon indication (8.0%). No consensus on indications for commencing treatment was found. In conclusion, the prevalence of HMV usage varies across Australia and New Zealand according to centre location, size and experience. These findings can assist HMV service planning locally and highlight trends in usage that may be relevant in other countries.

  17. Australia's First Prime Ministerial Library: Past and Future (United States)

    Carman-Brown, Lesley; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Wallace, Lesley


    In creating Australia's first prime ministerial library, a new cultural institution was developed which blends professional practice from the fields of librarianship, education, archives, journalism and museums. The John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library honours the contribution of wartime prime minister John Curtin, works towards the advancement…

  18. School-Leaving Decisions in Australia: A Cohort Analysis (United States)

    Le, Anh T.; Miller, Paul W.


    The decision to invest in education is influenced by a large number of economic, social, family, personal and institutional factors. Many of these changed in Australia during the 1970s and 1980s. Several of the more important of these changes, such as the Equal Pay for Equal Work decision of 1969, the Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value decision of…

  19. The Experience of an International University Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Abayadeera, Nadana


    Accounting and Business schools in Australia have a considerable number of international academic staff, and the teaching effectiveness of such staff is an increasingly salient issue. Many international teachers are non-native English speakers and have different teaching approaches and styles, often reflecting their own experiences as a learner in…

  20. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out? (United States)

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.


    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  1. Forecasting Housing Approvals in Australia: Do Forecasters Herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke


    Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...

  2. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S


    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  3. Modelling the Balassa-Samuelson Effect in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshed Chowdhury


    Full Text Available This paper examines the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis in Australia using the ARDL cointegrationframework. Evidence was found of a significant long-run relationship between real exchange rate andAustralia-US productivity differential during the period of 1950-2003. The results indicate that a one per centincrease in labour productivity in Australia relative to the US will lead to 5.6 per cent appreciation in the realexchange rate of Australia. The estimated coefficient for the error correction term is -0.1983 and is highlysignificant, indicating that the deviation from the long term real exchange rate equilibrium path is correctedby nearly 20 per cent over the following year. The Author suspects that the elasticity coefficient is “overestimated”due to the exclusion of relevant explanatory variables in the analytical model. The real exchangerate movements are affected by real fundamentals and policy-induced shifts in its real fundamentals. Thefundamentals include the terms of trade, government expenditure, real interest rate differentials, net foreignliabilities among others along with labour productivity differential.

  4. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape (United States)

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  5. Financing and Regulating Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Australia (United States)

    Burke, Gerald


    Australia has made significant changes in the ways it regulates and funds vocational education and training (VET), with increased emphasis on competition to promote efficient delivery of the type of programs that students and employers want. National, state and territory governments have increased the role of employers by basing nationally…

  6. Qualifications and the Future Labour Market in Australia (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald


    This report has been prepared for the National Training Reform Taskforce to report on the future supply of, and requirements for, vocational education and training (VET) qualifications in Australia. It is intended to inform the next stages of reform of the sector to be considered by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). The report…

  7. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R


    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the huma...

  8. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future (United States)

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles


    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  9. Post-migration screening for active tuberculosis in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Flynn, M; Brown, L; Tesfai, A; Lauer, T


    Tuberculosis (TB) screening clinic. To determine TB prevalence at entry, screening yield and incidence in immigrants on a TB health undertaking (TBU) who were selected for post-migration screening due to an abnormal chest radiograph (CXR) in Victoria, Australia, in the years 1996-2006. Rates of notified TB calculated from linkage of a screening programme database with the Victorian TB database. Prevalence at entry (cases notified between arrival in Australia and 6 months after the screening registration date) was 505 per 100,000 population; yield at entry (prevalent cases detected by the screening programme) was 420/100,000, and incidence (cases notified between 6 and 12 months after screening registration date) was 160/100,000 person-years. Persons issued a TBU after applying from within Australia (on-shore) had a prevalence of 1876/100,000, seven-fold higher than those issued a TBU outside Australia (off-shore, 254/100,000). The combination of an abnormal CXR and a tuberculin skin test ≥ 15 mm carried a prevalence of notified TB of 2907/100,000. Selective post-migration screening can achieve a high yield of notified TB.

  10. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy


    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  11. Role Salience on Three Continents (Australia, Europe and North America). (United States)

    Nevill, Dorothy D.; Perrotta, Joyce M.

    A study compared the attitudes of high school students from three countries--Australia, Portugal, and the United States--concerning the importance of work, home, and family in their lives. By administering appropriate national versions of the Salience Inventory and the Career Development Inventory to 114 Australian, 158 Portuguese, and 204…

  12. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950 (United States)

    Monk, Lee-Ann


    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  13. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine


    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  14. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia (United States)

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert


    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  15. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy


    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  16. History Teaching, Historiography, and the Politics of Pedagogy in Australia (United States)

    Clark, Anna


    This article examines debates over teaching Australian history in schools and notes a pervasive anxiety about what "our children" should know. The article sketches some of these debates, and while noting the politics of history teaching both in Australia and abroad, argues that its heavily politicized discourse has been further…

  17. Positioning Young Refugees in Australia: Media Discourse and Social Exclusion (United States)

    MacDonald, Fiona


    The aim of this article was to examine how media attention affects the social exclusion of young refugees negotiating their way towards settlement in Australia. Emerging stereotypes and prejudices against young male refugees require new ways of understanding the impact of global, national and local issues on their social exclusion. The article…

  18. Seagrasses in tropical Australia, productive and abundant for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 22, 2013 ... Z,T,Ho. Figure 1. The distribution of the seagrasses in Cairns Harbour in 1987 from ground-truthing. Note: study site is above the zero datum contour. .... (Ik) and compensation light intensity (Ic). Station 2 (0.85 m above datum) for summer. Seagrasses in tropical Australia. 161. J. Biosci. 38(1), March 2013 ...

  19. The Governance of Australia. Civics and Citizenship Learning Circle Kit. (United States)

    Gow, Neil

    This kit, the first of four learning circles on civics and citizenship, addresses a series of broad issues about the way in which Australia is governed. Introductory materials include a synopsis of the six sessions; lists of 51 references, 29 Internet sites, and 13 videos and CDs; glossary; and list of 19 resource materials. Session guides are…

  20. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia (United States)


    .... Participating in an official U.S. industry delegation, rather than traveling to Australia independently, will... will be offered. Participation in the mission will include the following: Pre-travel briefings/webinar... October 29 through November 2, 2012. October 29 Melbourne Arrive Melbourne. Day at leisure. Early evening...

  1. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia (United States)

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish


    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  2. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue


    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  3. Immigrant Women in Australia: Resources, Family, and Work. (United States)

    Evans, M. D. R.


    Presents a broad overview of Australia's diverse immigrant population, with focus placed on the work experiences of females. Analyzes census data to describe the following characteristics more specifically: education, English proficiency, labor force involvement, occupational niche, unemployment, entrepreneurship, and income. Reports that, with a…

  4. Adult Retraining and Reskilling in Australia and South Korea. (United States)

    Ball, Katrina; Lee, Young-Hyun; Phan, Oanh; Ra, Young-Sun

    A study explored the mechanisms used by adults in Australia and Korea to keep their skills current or to enhance their range of skills. Data were gathered through recent research reports and unpublished unemployment and training data. The study identified areas of the vocational education and training systems in the two countries that are…

  5. Psychostimulant Use for Children with ADHD in Australia. (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Prosser, Brenton


    This study presents data from Australia on psychostimulant production and prescription rates for children with attention-deficit disorders and analyzes data from one city. Results indicate that medication use is increasing at a rate similar to that in the United States and that prescription rates may vary by income and unemployment. (Author/CR)

  6. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy


    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  7. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding


    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  8. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.


    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  9. Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellings, P.


    This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

  10. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John


    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  11. Final year engineering projects in Australia and Europe (United States)

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.


    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons. However, it can be argued that all European universities run individual projects. In most cases, whether it is in Australia or Europe, the total load for final year engineering projects is about 6.25% of the load of engineering programmes. Assessment methods were also described. They were all different whether in Australia or Europe but not very significant. It was discovered that literature reviews, oral presentations and written reports or dissertations were important elements in the assessment schemes. Many university staff, in both continents, encouraged students to publish their work in international conferences and journals if the originality of the projects was high. It can be argued that the individual project is most effective in learning outcome; however, the cost involved is also very high and its sustainability in smaller universities in Australia is in doubt.

  12. Dalcroze Eurhythmics: Interaction in Australia in the 1920s (United States)

    Pope, Joan


    Although musical, rhythmical and aural training aspects are at the heart of the Dalcroze approach it was physical educators rather than music educators in Australia who showed more interest. Lillian Mills and Ella Gormley, inaugural supervisors of physical training in WA and NSW respectively, contributed to the awareness of its benefits.…

  13. A Review of Roof Harvested Rainwater in Australia (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Edwards, John W.; Ross, Kirstin E.


    To address concern regarding water sustainability, the Australian Federal Government and many state governments have implemented regulatory mechanisms and incentives to support households to purchase and install rainwater harvesting systems. This has led to an increase in rainwater harvesting in regional and urban Australia. This review examines the implementation of the regulatory mechanisms across Australia. In addition, the literature investigating the potential health consequences of rainwater consumption in Australia was explored. Studies demonstrated that although trace metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and iron were present in Australian rainwater, these metallic elements were generally found below the health limit guideline, except in high industrial areas. In addition, pathogenic or indicator microorganisms that include, but are not limited to, Escherichia coli, total and faecal coliforms, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Legionella, Pseudomonas, Cryptosporidium, Enterococci, Giardia, Aeromonas, and Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) have been detected in rainwater collected in Australia. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that drinking rainwater does not increase the risk of gastrointestinal disease. It was also identified that there is a need for further research investigating the potential for rainwater to be a source of infection for opportunistic pathogens.

  14. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia (United States)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam


    Land cover information is critical for national reporting and decision making in Australia. A review of information requirements for reporting on national environmental indicators identified the need for consistent land cover information to be compared against a baseline. A Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) for Australia has been developed by Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) recently, to provide a comprehensive and consistent land cover information baseline to enable monitoring and reporting for sustainable farming practices, water resource management, soil erosion, and forests at national and regional scales. The DLCD was produced from the analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data at 250-metre resolution derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period from 2000 to 2008. The EVI time series data for each pixel was modelled as 12 coefficients based on the statistical, phenological and seasonal characteristics. The time series were then clustered in coefficients spaces and labelled using ancillary information on vegetation and land use at the catchment scale. The accuracy of the DLCD was assessed using field survey data over 25,000 locations provided by vegetation and land management agencies in State and Territory jurisdictions, and by ABARES. The DLCD is seen as the first in a series of steps to build a framework for national land cover monitoring in Australia. A robust methodology to provide annual updates to the DLCD is currently being developed at Geoscience Australia. There is also a growing demand from the user community for land cover information at better spatial resolution than currently available through the DLCD. Global land cover mapping initiatives that rely on Earth observation data offer many opportunities for national and international programs to work in concert and deliver better outcomes by streamlining efforts on development and

  15. Three new Macropsini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) leafhopper species from Australia. (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin


    Three new species, Macropsella recta, Toropsis minuspina and Varicopsella apecurvata spp. nov. are described and illustrated from Australia.       Leafhoppers of the subfamily Macropsinae are found abundantly in the Holarctic, Oriental and Australian regions (Linnavuori, 1978) and have been collected from around the world, except for Antarctica, Oceania and South America (Hamilton, 1980). Both Hamilton (1980) and Evans (1966) suggested that there were likely a myriad of uncollected and undescribed species in Australia alone and Evans (1971) commented that the Macropsinae are possibly more abundant in Australia than anywhere else in the world. Day and Fletcher (1994) listed 45 macropsine species in eight genera and mentioned that the Australian fauna needs "a thorough examination to establish the generic affinities of the species…". In her unpublished doctoral dissertation, Semeraro (2014) recently completed a revision and phylogeny of the Australian fauna, documenting an additional 50 undescribed species and proposing changes to the generic classification, but this work has not yet been published. The new Australian species described herein, representing three genera, one not previously recorded in Australia, were not included in Semeraro's (2014) dissertation.Study of samples recently collected from Australia revealed the presence of 3 new species, representing the genera Macropsella Hamilton, Toropsis Hamilton and Varicopsella Hamilton.Macropsella was established by Hamilton (1980) with Macropsis saidora Evans, 1971 as the type species. Five Macropsis species describeded by Evans (1971), one Macropsis species described by Kirkaldy (1907) and new species Macropsella complicata Hamilton (1980) were previously included in this genus. The seven species of this genus are known only from New Guinea and Northern Australia. Members of this genus can be distinguished by their usually white spotted tegminal veins, tapered male pygofer and laterally directed short

  16. Australia-Papua New Guinea Relations: New Pacific Way or Neocolonialism? (United States)


    domestic political will for direct action by Australia seemed absent. However, international events after the September 11 attacks on the United States...military assistance to prevent the escalation of violence on Guadalcanal, but Australia in 2000 was hesitant to act so directly in the Solomons...received domestic support in Australia if not international approval. It is clear that Australia intends to play a larger role in Oceania than it has

  17. Human Security in the Asia-Pacific: In Australia’s National Interests? (United States)


    political left, since the late 1990s. During the tenure of John Howard as Prime Minister of Australia , the policy debate over the ‘arc of instability...updates consecutively moved Australia further away from the Defense of Australia policy 21 foundation of the 1987 White Paper. The direct impacts of...literature review identified changes to Australian defense policy throughout the past 25 years, with the competing doctrines of Defense of Australia

  18. Uranium mining, processing and nuclear energy - opportunities for Australia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On 6 June 2006, the Prime Minister announced the appointment of a taskforce to undertake an objective, scientific and comprehensive review of uranium mining, value-added processing and the contribution of nuclear energy in Australia in the longer term. This is known as the Review of Uranium Mining Processing and Nuclear Energy in Australia, referred to in this report as the Review. The Prime Minister asked the Review to report by the end of 2006. A draft report was released for public comment on 21 November 2006 and was also reviewed by an expert panel chaired by the Chief Scientist (see Appendix F). The Review is grateful for comments provided on the draft report by members of the public. The report has been modified in the light of those comments. In response to its initial call for public comment in August 2006 the Review received over 230 submissions from interested parties. It also conducted a wide range of consultations with organisations and individuals in Australia and overseas, and commissioned specialist studies on various aspects of the nuclear industry. Participating in the nuclear fuel cycle is a difficult issue for many Australians and can elicit strong views. This report is intended to provide a factual base and an analytical framework to encourage informed community discussion. Australia's demand for electricity will more than double before 2050. Over this period, more than two-thirds of existing electricity generation will need to be substantially upgraded or replaced and new capacity added. The additional capacity will need to be near-zero greenhouse gas emitting technology if Australia is just to keep greenhouse gas emissions at today's levels. Many countries confront similar circumstances and have therefore considered the use of nuclear power for some of the following reasons: the relative cost competitiveness of nuclear power versus the alternatives; security of supply and independence from fossil fuel energy imports; diversity of domestic

  19. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective. (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam


    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  20. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons


    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  1. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  2. Climate and geochemistry as drivers of eucalypt diversification in Australia. (United States)

    Bui, E N; Thornhill, A H; González-Orozco, C E; Knerr, N; Miller, J T


    Eucalypts cover most of Australia. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of climate and geochemistry to the distribution and diversity of eucalypts. Using geostatistics, we estimate major element concentrations, pH, and electrical conductivity at sites where eucalypts have been recorded. We compare the median predicted geochemistry and reported substrate for individual species that appear associated with extreme conditions; this provides a partial evaluation of the predictions. We generate a site-by-species matrix by aggregating observations to the centroids of 100-km-wide grid cells, calculate diversity indices, and use numerical ecology methods (ordination, variation partitioning) to investigate the ecology of eucalypts and their response to climatic and geochemical gradients. We find that β-diversity coincides with variations in climatic and geochemical patterns. Climate and geochemistry together account for less than half of the variation in eucalypt species assemblages across Australia but for greater than 80% in areas of high species richness. Climate is more important than geochemistry in explaining eucalypts species distribution and change in assemblages across Australia as a whole but there are correlations between the two sets of environmental variables. Many individual eucalypt species and entire taxonomic sections (Aromatica, Longistylus of subgenus Eucalyptus, Dumaria, and Liberivalvae of subgenus Symphyomyrtus) have distributions affected strongly by geochemistry. We conclude that eucalypt diversity is driven by steep geochemical gradients that have arisen as climate patterns have fluctuated over Australia over the Cenozoic, generally aridifying since the Miocene. The diversification of eucalypts across Australia is thus an excellent example of co-evolution of landscapes and biota in space and time and challenges accepted notions of macroecology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessing the threat of chikungunya virus emergence in Australia. (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Knope, Katrina; Faddy, Helen M; Williams, Craig R; Harley, David


    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety. Cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2002 to 2012 were analysed by place, month of acquisition, and place of residence. Rates of chikungunya importation were estimated based on reported cases and on the numbers of short-term movements. Between 2002 and 2012, there were 168 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) imported into Australia. Victoria and New South Wales had the largest number of notifications. The main sources were Indonesia, India and Malaysia. The number of cases increased from 2008 to reach a peak in 2010 (n=64; 40%). Although Indonesia accounted for the majority of CHIKV notifications in Australia, travel from India had the highest CHIKV importation rate (number of imported cases per 100,000 travellers). The Australian population is increasingly at risk from CHIKV. Arrivals from endemic countries have increased concurrently with vector incursions via imported goods, as well as via local movement from the Torres Strait to North Queensland ports. An outbreak of CHIKV could have a significant impact on health, the safety of the blood supply and on tourism. Case and vector surveillance as well as population health responses are crucial for minimising any potential impact of CHIKV establishment in Australia. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General

  4. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of SS220 and Deet Against Mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia (United States)


    methylpiperindinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide] against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia , were conducted. In the laboratory, both compounds provided...carboxa- mide], mosquito repellents, Culex annulirostris, Australia INTRODUCTION The use of personal protection measures, particularly the application...Queensland, Australia . MATERIALS AND METHODS Test mosquitoes Female mosquitoes used in the laboratory evaluation study were Ae. aegypti (Townsville

  5. The Hidden Topography of Australia's Arts Nation: The Contribution of Universities to the Artistic Landscape (United States)

    Wilson, Jenny


    In "Arts Nation" 2015, the Australia Council documented the current landscape of artistic endeavour in Australia, acknowledging that there are still gaps that need to be filled to build a greater public understanding of the arts in Australia. The contribution of Australian universities to the arts is one such lacuna. This paper seeks to…

  6. A Comparison of Perceived Parental Influence on Mathematics Learning among Students in China and Australia (United States)

    Cao, Zhongjun; Forgasz, Helen; Bishop, Alan


    This paper explores levels of perceived parental influence on mathematics learning among over 700 students in China and Australia. Students in China had stronger perceived parental influences than students in Australia, and while students in China, Chinese speaking students in Australia, and other language speaking students in Australia…

  7. 76 FR 56730 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia; Request for Comments (United States)


    ... Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0088] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia... are advising the public that we have received a request from the Government of Australia to recognize... has received a request from the Government of Australia to recognize new areas of that country as...

  8. 76 FR 56099 - Implementation of a Decision Adopted Under the Australia Group (AG) Intersessional Silent... (United States)


    .... 110222155-1110-01] RIN 0694-AF14 Implementation of a Decision Adopted Under the Australia Group (AG... proposal that was discussed at the 2010 Australia Group (AG) Plenary and adopted under the AG... under the Australia Group (AG) intersessional silent approval procedures in November 2010. The AG is a...

  9. 20 CFR 25.201 - How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (United States)


    ... employees in Australia? 25.201 Section 25.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (a) The special schedule of compensation established by subpart B of this part shall apply in Australia with the modifications or additions...

  10. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore (United States)


    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  11. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia... (United States)


    ... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia; Announcement of... Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia,'' published on April 11, 2013...

  12. 78 FR 54269 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia and China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews (United States)


    ... Manganese Dioxide From Australia and China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia... electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia and China (73 FR 58537-58539). The Commission is conducting...

  13. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia (United States)


    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0140] Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia AGENCY... Australia into the United States. These new treatments will continue to prevent the introduction or... from Australia into the United States. We also proposed to establish an approved irradiation dose for...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  15. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (United States)


    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the comprehensive...

  16. 75 FR 13672 - Implementation of Both the Understandings Reached at the 2009 Australia Group (AG) Plenary... (United States)


    ...-01] RIN 0694-AE85 Implementation of Both the Understandings Reached at the 2009 Australia Group (AG... implement the understandings reached at the September 2009 plenary meeting of the Australia Group (AG). This... understandings reached at the annual plenary meeting of the Australia Group (AG) that was held in Paris, France...

  17. Is Ips grandicollis disrupting the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia? (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie; Andrew D. Loch


    Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) is considered one of the most serious threats to exotic Pinus radiata plantations in Australia. This exotic wasp has been established in Australia for more than six decades. The most significant outbreak occurred in the Green Triangle region of southeastern South Australia-western Victoria in the...

  18. Poverty and Education in Australia. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Poverty in Australia--December 1976. Document 31. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ronald T.

    The Commission of Inquiry into Poverty in Australia investigated the relationship between poverty and education. Specifically, the Commission was concerned with cultural disadvantages among the poor, the poverty cycle, and adequacy of existing education and cultural services for the poor. The Commission maintained that improved education for…

  19. Review of the White Paper on Language Policy in Australia: Australia's Language--The Australian Language and Literacy Policy. (United States)

    Ingram, David


    Discusses the extent to which the Australian language policy "White Paper" meets the real needs of the Australian people, and the quality of Australia's on-going performance in and commitment to well-articulated language and language education policymaking relating to languages other than English. (GLR)

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In Australia most exploration for uranium has been conducted by companies and individuals. The geological mapping and airborne radiometric surveying conducted by the BMR is made available to interested persons. Exploration for uranium in Australia can be divided into two periods - 1947 to 1961 and 1966-1977. During the first period the Commonwealth Government introduced measures to encourage uranium exploration including a system of rewards for the discovery of uranium ore. This reward system resulted in extensive activity by prospectors particularly in the known mineral fields. Equipped with a Geiger counter or scintillometer, individuals with little or no experience in prospecting could compete with experienced prospectors and geologists. During this period several relative small uranium deposits were discovered generally by prospectors who found outcropping mineralisation. The second phase of uranium exploration in Australia began in 1966 at which time reserves amounted to only 6,200 tonnes of uranium and by 3 977 reserves had been increased to 289,000 tonnes. Most of the exploration was done by companies with substantial exploration budgets utilising more advanced geological and geophysical techniques. In the field of airborne radiometer the development of multi-channel gamma ray spectrometers with large volume crystal detectors increased the sensitivity of the tool as a uranium detector and resulted in several major discoveries. Expenditure or exploration for uranium increased from 1966 to 1971 but has declines in recent years. After listing the major geological elements of Australia, its uranium production and resources are discussed. During the period 1954-71 the total production of uranium concentrate in Australia amounted to 7,780 tonnes of uranium, and was derived from deposits at Rum Jungle (2,990 tonnes U) and the South Alligator River (610 tonnes U) in the Northern Territory, Mary Kathleen (3,460 tonnes U) in Queensland and Radium Hill (720 tonnes U

  1. Increased Severity and Spread of Mycobacterium ulcerans, Southeastern Australia. (United States)

    Tai, Alex Y C; Athan, Eugene; Friedman, N Deborah; Hughes, Andrew; Walton, Aaron; O'Brien, Daniel P


    Reported cases of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) have been increasing in southeastern Australia and spreading into new geographic areas. We analyzed 426 cases of M. ulcerans disease during January 1998-May 2017 in the established disease-endemic region of the Bellarine Peninsula and the emerging endemic region of the Mornington Peninsula. A total of 20.4% of cases-patients had severe disease. Over time, there has been an increase in the number of cases managed per year and the proportion associated with severe disease. Risk factors associated with severe disease included age, time period (range of years of diagnosis), and location of lesions over a joint. We highlight the changing epidemiology and pathogenicity of M. ulcerans disease in Australia. Further research, including genomic studies of emergent strains with increased pathogenicity, are urgently needed to improve the understanding of disease to facilitate implementation of effective public health measures to halt its spread.

  2. Regulation of alcohol advertising: Policy options for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Jones


    Full Text Available A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify all refereed papers published between 1990 and 2012 on the regulation of alcohol advertising in Australia and three comparison countries (New Zealand, Canada and the UK. This paper reviews the codes that apply to alcohol advertising in each of the four countries, research into the effectiveness of these codes, and the small body of research into consumer attitudes towards alcohol advertising regulation. This review adduces considerable evidence that alcohol advertising influences drinking behaviours, and that current regulatory systems based on co-regulation and voluntary regulation (as is the case in Australia are ineffective. Recommendations are provided regarding the three pillars of regulation: volume restrictions, content restrictions, and infrastructure to support the regulatory environment.

  3. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson


    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  4. Mapping Progress : Human Rights and International Students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jakubowicz


    Full Text Available The rapid growth in international student numbers in Australia in the first decade of the  2000s was accompanied by a series of public crises. The most important of these was the outbreak in Melbourne Victoria and elsewhere of physical attacks on the students. Investigations at the time also pointed to cases of gross exploitation, an array of threats that severely compromised their human rights. This paper reviews and pursues the outcomes of a report prepared by the authors in 2010 for Universities Australia and the Human Rights Commission. The report reviewed social science research and proposed a series of priorities for human rights interventions that were part of the Human Rights Commission’s considerations.  New activity, following the innovation of having international students specifically considered by the Human Rights Commission, points to initiatives that have not fully addressed the wide range of questions at state.

  5. Barriers to the use of renewable energy in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, F.; Stocker, L.; Walker, I.; Stirling, M.


    Public attitudes towards renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy is examined through a survey of water heating in the metropolitan area, energy supply and use on pastoral leases in Western Australia. The private costs of water heating systems was assessed in a way which may give guidance to manufacturers on improving the economics of solar water heating systems, and to policy makers for facilitating the use of solar water heating systems. The policies currently in place in Western Australia which act as barriers to the greater use of renewable energy were also outlined. The cost data, together with the attitudes of consumers as revealed in the surveys, indicate that manufacturers and suppliers of renewable energy equipment need to reduce costs and improve the actual and perceived capability, performance and reliability of their equipment. 96 refs., 30 tabs., 38 figs

  6. The environmental impact assessment of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvell, G.


    Federal environmental impact assessment legislation has existed in Australia since 1974. A number of uranium mines have been developed in this time, utilizing a range of mining techniques, including opencut, underground and in-situ leach. Projects have also been undertaken in a variety of geographical areas requiring consideration of diverse biodiversity, cultural heritage and social impact issues. Assessment of uranium mining proposals in Australia is also conducted in a climate of political opposition from a cross section of the Australian community. This paper outlines some of the key issues that arose during recent assessments and which provide a lead to the role of environmental impact assessment in environmental policy development. Issues are also relevant to recent assessments on a replacement nuclear reactor, shipments of waste for reprocessing and proposed assessments on proposals for low and intermediate level nuclear waste facilities. (author)

  7. The Honeymoon project: Australia's first in situ leach uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackland, M.C.


    The Honeymoon uranium deposit is one of several roll front uranium deposits in South Australia. It was discovered in 1971, the project developed in the 1970's, and was ready for demonstration of the In Situ Leaching (ISL) production techniques by January 1983, when the project was stopped, despite it having met the environmental approvals to proceed, due to the Australian Labour Party's 'three mines policy'. From 1983 until March 1996 the project was mothballed. In late 1996 Southern Cross Resources Inc. (SCRI) reached agreement with Mount Isa Mining (MIM) to purchase its uranium interests in Honeymoon, Goulds Dam and EL 2310 whilst simultaneously acquiring Sedimentary Holdings NL's interests in EL 2310. By April 1997 these interests were consolidated in SCRI's wholly owned subsidiary, Southern Cross Resources Australia Ply Ltd which is the operating company. Activities are presently underway to rehabilitate the existing treatment plant and continue the program that was outlined in the approved 1981 Honeymoon Environmental Impact Statement

  8. Migration of nurses in Australia: where and why? (United States)

    Ohr, Se Ok; Parker, Vicki; Jeong, Sarah; Joyce, Terry


    The Australian health care workforce has benefited from an increasing migration of nurses over the past decades. The nursing profession is the largest single health profession, making up over half of the Australian health care workforce. Migration ofnurses into the Australian nursing workforce impacts significantly on the size ofthe workforce and the capacity to provide health care to the Australian multicultural community. Migration of nurses plays an important role in providing a solution to the ongoing challenges of workforce attraction and retention, hence an understanding of the factors contributing to nurse migration is important. This paper will critically analyse factors reported to impact on migration of nurses to Australia, in particular in relation to: (1) globalisation; (2) Australian society and nursing workforce; and (3) personal reasons. The current and potential implications of nurse migration are not limited to the Australian health care workforce, but also extend to political, socioeconomic and other aspects in Australia.

  9. Asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources in Australia. (United States)

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Hallgren, Willow


    Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation - canonical and Modoki - on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia's energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.

  10. Prolonged coexistence of humans and megafauna in Pleistocene Australia. (United States)

    Trueman, Clive N G; Field, Judith H; Dortch, Joe; Charles, Bethan; Wroe, Stephen


    Recent claims for continent wide disappearance of megafauna at 46.5 thousand calendar years ago (ka) in Australia have been used to support a "blitzkrieg" model, which explains extinctions as the result of rapid overkill by human colonizers. A number of key sites with megafauna remains that significantly postdate 46.5 ka have been excluded from consideration because of questions regarding their stratigraphic integrity. Of these sites, Cuddie Springs is the only locality in Australia where megafauna and cultural remains are found together in sequential stratigraphic horizons, dated from 36-30 ka. Verifying the stratigraphic associations found here would effectively refute the rapid-overkill model and necessitate reconsideration of the regional impacts of global climatic change on megafauna and humans in the lead up to the last glacial maximum. Here, we present geochemical evidence that demonstrates the coexistence of humans and now-extinct megafaunal species on the Australian continent for a minimum of 15 ka.

  11. History of immunology in Australia: events and identities. (United States)

    Mackay, I R


    Immunology originated in Europe during the latter 1900s, and applications can be discerned in colonial Australia. The actual beginnings of immunology in Australia followed Burnet's enunciation of two fundamental principles: natural immune tolerance as an acquired characteristic in 1948 and clonal selection theory in 1957. Laboratory and clinical immunology flourished at various centres from the 1950s. The Australian Society of Immunology was founded in 1971. The merger of clinical immunology with allergy in 1991 created the Australian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, exemplary for the reamalgamation of these related specialties. Australian immunology over the past 50 years has become recognized nationally and abroad as a highly visible component of the academic, research and biomedical scene and is still on a rising trajectory.

  12. The introduction of clinical magnetic resonance imaging in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorby, W.; Baddeley, H.


    Magnetic resonance imaging is a new, but expensive, modality that is being introduced into clinical use in Australia. While it promises increased safety and accuracy in many situations, its precise role when compared with computed tomography and other modalities is not fully established. Therefore, a Government financed evaluation of costs and efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging units in five teaching hospitals is to be conducted over two years (1986-1988). Experience with the introduction of computed tomography to Australia and other nations has revealed difficulties in the evaluation by conventional methods of a diagnostic technology that is improving rapidly; it is to be hoped that a systematic evaluation of the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging will be more achievable and useful

  13. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.


    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99m Tc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64 Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE


    Full Text Available This research examines, from a qualitative perspective, some public opinion related to issues associated with the management of a tensed situation. In that process, it identifies some of the subtle differences in the Anglo-Latino cultural expectations. Martin, an Argentine tourist, contracted the Gullien-Barre syndrome in Australia, while enjoying his honeymoon vacation on a Tasmanian island with his partner Carolina. With the passing of days, Martin lost his mobility and was finally hospitalized in emergency. Doctors induced Martin into a coma temporarily because his muscles were paralyzed by the action of the virus. Health costs were more expensive than the family could absorb in Australia. The family had to request the intervention of the Argentine embassy and chancellery for help. In other words, this incident contrasts two world views: hospitality as the institution that historically developed to care and protect travelers versus hospitality as the commercial practice of exploitation.

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Why Australia needs to define obesity as a chronic condition


    Opie, C. A.; Haines, H. M.; Ervin, K. E.; Glenister, K.; Pierce, D.


    Abstract Background In Australia people with a diagnosed chronic condition can be managed on unique funded care plans that allow the recruitment of a multidisciplinary team to assist in setting treatment goals and adequate follow up. In contrast to the World Health Organisation, the North American and European Medical Associations, the Australian Medical Association does not recognise obesity as a chronic condition, therefore excluding a diagnosis of obesity from qualifying for a structured a...

  17. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James


    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  18. The case for enrichment of uranium in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.W.


    Information is presented on the number of nuclear power plants in operation and under construction and on the extent of the use of uranium. The case for enrichment of uranium in Australia is then considered in detail and the status of feasbility studies being carried out is discussed. Arguments to support an enrichment industry include: the need for additional enrichment capacity; added value; potential profitability; increased employment and industrial opportunities; and retention of depleted uranium

  19. Veterinary parasitology in Australia--a short history. (United States)

    Beveridge, I; Besier, R B


    As an important producer and exporter of livestock products, animal health has always been of major significance to the Australian economy, and research into efficient parasite control has continued since the 1800s. With substantial research achievements also involving parasites of companion animals and wildlife, Australian parasitologists have made numerous contributions of global significance. This summary outlines the development of investigations into parasite biology and parasitic disease in Australia. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. India-Australia energy cooperation: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rahul


    Energy ties between India and Australia are centuries old and can be traced back to the days of East India Company of the British-Indian era. From the first commercial export in the form of a shipment of coal to India from Australia in 1797, energy cooperation has come a long way. For instance, apart from making unswerving attempts to get Australian yellowcake, attempts have been made by India to ensure greater supply of coal and natural gas. Both the countries are also trying to find ways and means to work jointly on increasing the production of geo-thermal and solar energy as also to enhance clean-energy technology cooperation among other things. Energy forms the core of a nation's national security as a country's economy is fuelled by energy resources and India is no exception in this respect. It holds a prime position as the Indian economy has been growing at a rate of six to seven per cent in the past few years. There is no denying that India has come a long way since independence in the energy sector. However greater levels of consumption, both industrial and domestic have led to a stage where the supply of energy falls short of the demand. The main focus of the government of late has been on capacity-building of the economy. Energy-intensive projects such as infrastructure development are the top priorities of the government; something which had been neglected in most parts of independent India. And this is where the importance of Australia for India lies, given its abundant energy resources. Indian companies are interested in investing in coal mining and oil and gas exploration in Australia. The five action plans that were signed in November 2008 with the Ministries of Power, Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Mines, and New and Renewable Energy are the buildings blocks to build on and to take forward the bilateral engagement in the energy sector

  1. Forms of Memory in Post-colonial Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn McCredden


    Full Text Available there are many forms of memory in post-colonial Australia, and many kinds of haunting. This paper investigates the poetry of contemporary Indigenous poets Sam Wagan Watson and Tony Birch, and reads the script of the Federal Government’s February 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, asking how and why the nation should be haunted – historically and imaginatively - into the future.

  2. Nuclear powered subs for Australia - the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.J.; Stewart, N.S.; Grover, J.


    Three papers are presented from a mini-symposium on the issue of nuclear submarines for Australia. The first by Admiral A.J. Robertson discusses the operational attributes of both modern conventional diesel-powered and nuclear-powered vessels. The second by Commander N.S. Stewart discusses technical aspects of nuclear submarines. The third paper by John Grover argues for the French Navy's 2400 T RUBIS class submarine

  3. Uranium occurences in calcrete and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Horwitz, R.C.; Mann, A.W.


    The report is a compilation of data pertaining to the occurence and distribution of uranium mineralization in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia and contains brief descriptions of many of the calcrete-uranium occurences, including some of the most minor. Virtually all calcretes in the region are liable to contain traces of uranium mineralization, visible as coatings of carnotite. The locations of the uranium occurences are shown on a map which features the distribution of calcrete

  4. Proceedings of radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akber, R.A. [Environmental Research Inst. of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT (Australia); Harris, F. [eds.] [Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region, Canberra, ACT (Australia)


    This publication contain papers presented at a symposium on radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia, held in Canberra on 18 February 1994. The emphasis was on results of measurements in different exposure situations, however information on methodology and techniques was also included. The scope of the symposium expanded through participation by scientists from China, French Polynesia and New Zealand. A list of participants and their organizations is included at the end of the proceedings. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia


    MINSON, D. J.


    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1993.00008.x

  6. Chinese visitors at Australia wineries: Preferences, motivations, and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily (Jintao Ma


    Full Text Available China has become Australia’s most important source market and there are growing number of visitors participated in wine tourism. Using in-depth interviews, the study looked into Chinese tourists’ preferences, motivations and barriers to participate in wineries tours in Australia. The study enriched to literature on wine tourism. It offered practical implications for wineries and destinations to better understand and accommodate Chinese wine tourists’ needs and preferences.

  7. Australia's Economic Policies in an Era of Globalisation


    Tisdell, Clement A.


    Outlines changes in Australian economic policies that have occurred in recent decades in response to growing economic globalisation. It considers microeconomic reforms in Australia and changes to its industry policy (including important changes in national competition policy) its financial reforms (exchange rate and banking reforms), its liberalisation of international trade and of foreign investment, both inward and outward. Furthermore, particular consideration is given to Australia’s polic...

  8. Taxation of uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.W.


    The objective of this paper is to compare the nature of the taxation schemes facing uranium mine operators in Australia's Northern Territory and in Canada's Province of Saskatchewan. The findings demonstrate that, although the Canadian system appropriates up to 85% of incremental sales revenue, it is extremely sensitive to industry profitability. Its Australian counterpart is, in contrast, a regressive scheme which, at the current selling price of yellowcake, captures a significantly larger proportion of available economic rent. (author)

  9. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E; Houssami, Nehmat; Turner, Robin M; Boyages, John


    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes

  10. Proceedings of radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Harris, F.


    This publication contain papers presented at a symposium on radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia, held in Canberra on 18 February 1994. The emphasis was on results of measurements in different exposure situations, however information on methodology and techniques was also included. The scope of the symposium expanded through participation by scientists from China, French Polynesia and New Zealand. A list of participants and their organizations is included at the end of the proceedings. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Trends in Extreme Rainfall Events in Tasmania, Australia


    Orpita U. Laz; Ataur Rahman


    Climate change will affect various aspects of hydrological cycle such as rainfall. A change in rainfall will affect flood magnitude and frequency in future which will affect the design and operation of hydraulic structures. In this paper, trends in subhourly, sub-daily, and daily extreme rainfall events from 18 rainfall stations located in Tasmania, Australia are examined. Two nonparametric tests (Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s Rho) are applied to detect trends at 10%, 5%, a...

  12. Incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Bukhari, Wajih; Prain, Kerri M; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; O'Gorman, Cullen M; Clarke, Laura; Silvestrini, Roger A; Bundell, Christine S; Abernethy, David; Bhuta, Sandeep; Blum, Stefan; Boggild, Mike; Boundy, Karyn; Brew, Bruce J; Brown, Matthew; Brownlee, Wallace J; Butzkueven, Helmut; Carroll, William M; Chen, Celia; Coulthard, Alan; Dale, Russell C; Das, Chandi; Dear, Keith; Fabis-Pedrini, Marzena J; Fulcher, David; Gillis, David; Hawke, Simon; Heard, Robert; Henderson, Andrew P D; Heshmat, Saman; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Jimenez-Sanchez, Sofia; Killpatrick, Trevor; King, John; Kneebone, Christopher; Kornberg, Andrew J; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lynch, Christpher; Macdonell, Richard; Mason, Deborah F; McCombe, Pamela A; Pender, Michael P; Pereira, Jennifer A; Pollard, John D; Reddel, Stephen W; Shaw, Cameron; Spies, Judith; Stankovich, James; Sutton, Ian; Vucic, Steve; Walsh, Michael; Wong, Richard C; Yiu, Eppie M; Barnett, Michael H; Kermode, Allan G; Marriott, Mark P; Parratt, John D E; Slee, Mark; Taylor, Bruce V; Willoughby, Ernest; Wilson, Robert J; Vincent, Angela; Broadley, Simon A


    We have undertaken a clinic-based survey of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in Australia and New Zealand to establish incidence and prevalence across the region and in populations of differing ancestry. NMOSD is a recently defined demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand has not been established. Centres managing patients with demyelinating disease of the CNS across Australia and New Zealand reported patients with clinical and laboratory features that were suspicious for NMOSD. Testing for aquaporin 4 antibodies was undertaken in all suspected cases. From this group, cases were identified who fulfilled the 2015 Wingerchuk diagnostic criteria for NMOSD. A capture-recapture methodology was used to estimate incidence and prevalence, based on additional laboratory identified cases. NMOSD was confirmed in 81/170 (48%) cases referred. Capture-recapture analysis gave an adjusted incidence estimate of 0.37 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.39) per million per year and a prevalence estimate for NMOSD of 0.70 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.78) per 100 000. NMOSD was three times more common in the Asian population (1.57 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.98) per 100 000) compared with the remainder of the population (0.57 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.65) per 100 000). The latitudinal gradient evident in multiple sclerosis was not seen in NMOSD. NMOSD incidence and prevalence in Australia and New Zealand are comparable with figures from other populations of largely European ancestry. We found NMOSD to be more common in the population with Asian ancestry. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia. (United States)

    Simmons, G S; Young, P R; Hanger, J J; Jones, K; Clarke, D; McKee, J J; Meers, J


    To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas. Blood or tissue samples from 708 koalas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia were tested for KoRV pol provirus gene using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Prevalence of KoRV provirus-positive koalas was 100% in four regions of Queensland and New South Wales, 72.2% in mainland Victoria, 26.6% on four Victorian islands and 14.8% on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Estimated proviral copy number per cell in four groups of koalas from Queensland and Victoria showed marked variation, ranging from a mean of 165 copies per cell in the Queensland group to 1.29 × 10(-4) copies per cell in one group of Victorian koalas. The higher prevalence of KoRV-positive koalas in the north of Australia and high proviral loads in Queensland koalas may indicate KoRV entered and became endogenous in the north and is spreading southwards. It is also possible there are genetic differences between koalas in northern and southern Australia that affect susceptibility to KoRV infection or endogenisation, or that environmental factors affecting transmission in northern states are absent or uncommon in southern regions. Although further studies are required, the finding of proviral copy numbers orders of magnitude lower than what would be expected for the presence of a single copy in every cell for many Victorian animals suggests that KoRV is not endogenous in these animals and likely reflects ongoing exogenous infection. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Bringing endocrine nursing to rural and outback Australia. (United States)

    Nery, M L


    Australia is a country with a large outback area where more than one-third of its residents live in areas outside metropolitan regions. It is a significant challenge to deliver adequate and effective specialist referral services to people in these rural and remote communities. In the tradition of the world-renowned Royal Flying Doctor Service, specialist outreach clinics were initiated in an attempt to improve access to health services.

  15. New Porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand. (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Fechner, Nigel; Arora, David; Soytong, Kasem; Dentinger, Bryn T M


    Boletus albobrunnescens and B. austroedulis are described as new species in section Boletus from Thailand and Australia respectively. The former is easily characterized by the pure white basidiomata that stain brown. Boletus austroedulis has a gray-brown, slightly rugulose pileus with hymeniform pileipellis producing pileocystidia, and the stipe is only apically reticulate if at all. These new species represent ancient lineages inferred from prior molecular phylogenetic analyses. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Mapping Research Capacity in North-Western Tropical Australia


    Stephen T. Garnett; Jennifer Haydon


    Research capacity in two jurisdictions in tropical northwestern Australia was mapped to a searchable website. The website provides ready access to all research organisations in the region with the underlying database providing a baseline against which developments in research and research networks can be measured. Of 202 research entities entered into the database, 38 were businesses, 12 civil society organisations, five cooperative research centres, 10 government research institutes, 64 gove...

  17. Concerned scientists, pragmatic politics and Australia's green drought


    Sarah Bell


    The Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists formed in Australia in 2002 in response to calls to ‘drought-proof’ the continent. Their model of engagement between science and public policy involves: clear simple science communication, which keeps scientific uncertainty and debate out of public view; pragmatic politics, which works within rather than challenges the dominant political agenda; and a focus on providing solutions rather than describing problems. This model has been successful in ach...

  18. Will drought erode the competitiveness of Australia's wine industry?


    Glyn Wittwer


    Australia's 2007 vintage was smaller than the previous few vintages as a consequence of drought and frost in 2006. Then the worst happened in the following year with an unprecedented second year of drought that resulted in severe cuts to water allocations for irrigators in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. This paper examines the medium-term prospects for the Australian wine industry using global projections to 2016 with the World Wine Model. The international growth prospects of commercial-...





    This paper investigates the nature of money supply in Australia over two separate monetary policy regimes: monetary and inflation targeting. The post-Keynesian theory on endogenous money was tested with the aim of investigating whether endogenous money supply, if it did exist, followed the accomodationist, structuralist or liquidity preference viewpoints. Data used are quarterly series from 1977 to 2007 and we used vector error-correction model for long-run and short-run causality tests. We f...

  20. Conservation as development in Northern Australia: from policies to ethnography


    Fache, Élodie


    Introduction Since the mid-1990s, “ranger” jobs, groups and programs have been established in many indigenous communities of Northern Australia. “Rangers” form a new category of Aboriginal social actors who are employed and paid to deliver environmental services through their activities that are generally described as “natural (and cultural) resource management”. Their role is presented as based on the formalisation and professionalisation of “traditional” responsibilities towards the land an...