Sample records for australia decapoda atyidae

  1. Shrimps down under: evolutionary relationships of subterranean crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris.

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    Timothy J Page

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George, 1962) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae) from coast of Australia. (United States)

    Kim, Gyungryul; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Jung Youn; Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo


    We characterized the total mitochondrial genome of Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George, 1962), which is found along the western coast of Australia. Total mitochondrial genome length of P. cygnus was 15 724 bp, in which 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative control region were encoded. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. According to the phylogenetic analysis, P. cygnus was most closely related to Panulirus japonicus among the compared six species belonging to Palinuridae. Although overall gene organization was the same, the putative control region (between SrRNA gene and tRNA(Ilel)) is least similar to one another among mitochondrial genomes from the compared six species belonging to Palinuridae.

  3. Australia. (United States)


    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  4. Aspectos reprodutivos de Potimirim glabra (Kingsley (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana Valverde Lima


    Full Text Available The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 were studied from September 1997 to February 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sieves, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the end of telson with precision callipers. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was measured with calibrated stereomicroscope. A total of 3281 shrimps were collected, among which, 47% male, 46% female (13.4% ovigerous females and 7% young shrimps. The Sex ratio was 1:1. Ovigerous females were present during all seasons, but the reproductive peak occurred in spring. The ovigerous female showed total lenght from 9.5 to 26.0 mm and carapace lenght from 1.6 to 7.3 mm. The mean fecundity was 545 eggs per female, with a minimun of 223 eggs and a maximum of 860 eggs. The first sexual maturation probably occur at 9.5 mm total lenght. The mean diameter of the eggs size was 0.32 mm (minor and 0.53 mm (major.

  5. Aspectos reprodutivos de Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


    Giovana Valverde Lima; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro


    The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878) were studied from September 1997 to February 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sieves, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the end of telson with precision callipers. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was me...

  6. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae) (United States)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (7 dph and 40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  7. Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Freshwater Shrimps of the Genus Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae in Lake Lindu, Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to reveal ecological preferences and distribution of all species of Caridina found in Lake Lindu and their catchment area. Specimens from 39 sampling sites were caught using tray net and hand net. There are three species of Caridina found in the lake system, i.e. Caridina linduensis, Caridina kaili and Caridina dali. There is no overlapping distribution among the species. Caridina kaili is a true riverine species and it is never encountered sympatric with C. dali nor C. linduensis. This species is abundant in streams and ditches with moderate flow running water and gravel–cobble substrate. It is mainly spread within streams west to the lake. Both C. dali and C. linduensis can be found in the lake and streams with very slow current to almost stagnant water, muddy sand substrate and associated with roots of water plants and leaf litter. However, C. dali is never occurred together with C. linduensis and they are less abundant compare to C. kaili. Distribution of Caridina spp. in Lake Lindu is probably affected by the temperature of their habitats and the occurrence of introduced fish such as Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and an alien riceland prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri. These introduced and alien species can have the potency to become predators or competitors for the Caridina spp. It is also the first record for M. lanchesteri present in Lake Lindu.

  8. The Crustacea Decapoda of Cyprus

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    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.


    An account of the species of Crustacea Decapoda so far known from Cyprus, based on (1) material collected during the 1967-1970 Hebrew University - Smithsonian Institution Joint Program "Biota of the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean", (2) Cyprus material from other sources, and (3) published rec

  9. Reproductive aspects of the caridean shrimp Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 (Decapoda: Atyidae in São Sebastião Island, southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

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    Juliana Herrera-Correal


    Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.

  10. Three new species of Caridina (Decapoda: Atyidae) from Central Sulawesi and Buton Island, Indonesia, and a checklist of the islands' endemic species. (United States)

    Klotz, Werner; Von Rintelen, Kristina


    Three atyid shrimp species of the genus Caridina Milne Edwards, 1837, Caridina boehmei n. sp., C. laroeha and C. butonensis n. sp., are described from the Indonesian islands Sulawesi and Buton. Caridina boehinei n. sp. differs from its apparently next congener C. sulawesi Cai & Ng, 2009 by the shape of the spinulation of the male sexual appendages. Caridina laroeha resembles C. mahalona and C. opaensis, but can be distinguished by the length and armature of the rostrum, the length ratio of segments of the third maxilliped and the number of spinules on the uropodal diaeresis. Caridina butonensis n. sp. resembles to C. boehmei n. sp. and C. opaensis but can be distinguished by its peculiar truncated rostrum and by a more reduced podobranch on the second maxilliped.

  11. The recent genera of the Caridean and Stenopodidean shrimps (class Crustacea, order Decapoda, supersection Natantia) with keys for their determination

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    Holthuis, L.B.


    CONTENTS Introduction.......... 1 Supersection Natantia ...... 2 Section Caridea....... . 7 Superfamily Oplophoroida ... 12 Family Oplophoridae .... 12 Family Nematocarcinidae . . 17 Family Atyidae ..... 18 Superfamily Stylodactyloida . . 31 Family Stylodactylidae ... 31 Superfamily Pasiphaeoida . .

  12. Estrutura populacional dos camarões simpátricos Potimirim glabra e Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no rio Sahy, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Populational structure of the sympatric freshwater shrimps Potimirim glabra and Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae in the Sahy River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana V. Lima


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter conhecimento sobre a estrutura populacional de dois camarões de água doce simpátricos, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 e Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 no rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de setembro de 1997 a fevereiro de 1999 utilizando-se peneiras, que foram passadas sob a vegetação marginal, superfície de rochas e pequenas poças d'água, num esforço de 15 minutos por coletor. Os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo e mensurados em relação ao comprimento total e do cefalotórax. Um total de 4.889 indivíduos foram coletados no rio Sahy: 3.281 P. glabra e 1.608 P. potimirim. A razão sexual observada foi de 1:1 para P. glabra e 1:2,3 para P. potimirim. Em ambas populações, cinco estágios de maturidade sexual foram determinados, sendo as populações constituídas principalmente por camarões adultos. O recrutamento de juvenis apresentou diferenças em ambas as espécies. O recrutamento de P. glabra ocorreu durante todo o período de estudo, exceto na primavera, enquanto que P. potimirim foi registrado somente no outono. A distribuição sazonal de fêmeas ovígeras de P. glabra é similar ao de P. potimirim, com reprodução na primavera e no verão.The aim of this work was to get some knowledge about the populational structure of the two sympatric freshwater shrimp species, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 in the Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimens were sampled monthly from September 1997 to February 1999 by sieving the marginal vegetation, on rocky surface and among litter on river bottom, with 15-minute effort per sampling period. The animals were sorted sexed and their total and cephalothoracic length were measured. A total of 4,889 individuals were collected in Sahy river: 3,281 P. glabra and 1,608 P. potimirim. The sex ratio for all collected individuals was 1:1 for P. glabra and 1:2.3 for P. potimirim. In both populations, five sexual maturity stages were determined and the populations were constituted mainly of adult freshwater shrimps. This study shows the difference between the recruitment of juveniles along these species. The recruitment for P. glabra occurs throughout the year, except in Spring, while P. potimirim was recorded only in Autumn. The seasonal distribution of ovigerous females of P. glabra is similar to P. potimirim, with reproduction on Spring and Summer.

  13. Descrição de um Novo Decapoda (Natantia, Malacostraca, Crustacea

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    Márcia Aparecida Fernandes dos Reis


    Full Text Available A “lobster” fossil from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Sub-basin, is here described and placed in the Decapoda, Infraorder Palinura, based on the flattened carapace and the well-developed abdomen. The specimen is characterized by a dorsal median keel and a keel in each margin of the carapace and abdomen. Field data and petrographic studies suggest that the environment in which the Decapoda lived was probably a place with waves and moderate currents, located behind a sand barrier or in within a lagoon. Apparently, the carbonization process was responsible for specimen preservation.

  14. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  15. en Australia

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    Stephen Bell


    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.


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    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  17. Typtonomenaeusformosanus gen. et sp. nov., a new sponge-associated pontoniine shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) from northern Taiwan. (United States)

    Marin, Ivan; Chan, Tin-Yam


    A new genus and species of sponge-associated pontoniine shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) is described from northern part of Formosa Island (Taiwan). The new species can be clearly recognized by convex robust nail-like apices on dactyli of both pereiopods II--a unique morphological structure among pontoniine shrimps. Morphological differences from all known sponge-associated pontoniine genera are discussed.

  18. On some species of the genus Nephrops (Crustacea Decapoda)

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    Holthuis, L.B.


    The present note is based in the first place on the Nephropsid material collected by the Australian Fisheries Steamer "Endeavour" in the waters of South and East Australia, while also the West Indian Nephrops specimens in the collections of the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., and the Rijksmu

  19. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  20. First stage larva of the mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained in the laboratory. (United States)

    Korn, Olga M; Kornienko, Elena S; Golubinskaya, Darya D


    First stage larva of a new mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained from the ovigerous female is described and illustrated for the first time. The first zoea of N. makarovi is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. japonica and N. petalura, sympatric callianassid species inhabiting Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, only by the greater size and by the presence of two terminal setae on the antennal endopod.

  1. Water Recycling in Australia

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    Ross Young


    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  2. Australia's polio risk. (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  3. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  4. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

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    Jock Collins


    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  5. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus. (United States)

    Gabriel, M.


    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  6. Australia in the Pacific. (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian


    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  7. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray


    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  8. Year book Australia 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castles, I. (comp.)


    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all asepcts of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence, international relations, culture and environment. The first Official Year Book was published early in 1908. This is the seventieth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1984 to 1985. More detailed, and in most cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications.

  9. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

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    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  10. Melville Island, Australia (United States)


    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  11. American Outlaws in Australia



    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  12. The regolith in Australia (United States)

    Ollier, C. D.


    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  13. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

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    Lin Feng-Jiau


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea, Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea. All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome

  14. Is Western Australia. (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom


    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  15. Electromagnetic induction in Australia (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  16. Fresh Ideas for Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With Kevin Rudd at the helm,Australia seems poised to embrace major changesAustralia’s prime minister-elect Kevin Rudd has caught the atten- tion of the Chinese with his modest appearance,fluent Mandarin and personal bonds with China. Rudd,50,graduated from the Australian National University in Canberra, where he majored in Chinese language and history.He is the first Mandarin-speaking leader from an English-speaking country and is known in China by the elegant name Lu Kewen.As a diplomat,he worked in the Australian Embassy in Beijing in the 1980s.

  17. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández


    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  18. Australia's marine virtual laboratory (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe


    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  19. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...... central for race ideologier, som skabte den australske nation. Denne bog forfølger fundamenterne af hvide Australien på tværs af forskellige lokaliteter. Den placerer også  udviklingen af Australisk hvidhed som led i den bredere kejserlige og globale indflydelse. Som den seneste Undskyldning til Stjålne...

  20. New distribution ranges and records of caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the west coast of Mexico Nuevos intervalos de distribución y registros de camarones carideos (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx


    Full Text Available Geographic records are presented for 24 species of Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda along Pacific coast of Mexico, in the East Pacific. New records are presented for Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (from Peru to Mexico, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900, and Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (within the Gulf of California, and Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Aditional records are given that establish the presence of species at intermediate localities within the Gulf of California and along the southwestern coast of Mexico.Se recolectaron especímenes de 24 especies de Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda en la costa del Pacífico de México, en el Pacífico Este. Nuevos registros geográficos son señalados para Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (desde Perú hasta México, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900 y Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (en el Golfo de California y para Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (del Golfo de California hasta el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Se proporciona información adicional acerca de la presencia de algunas especies en localidades intermedias en el Golfo de California y a lo largo de la costa suroeste de México.

  1. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs. (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong


    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  2. On some Aphyllophorales from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jülich, W.


    A collection of Aphyllophorales from Australia and Tasmania has been studied. Fifteen species have been identified and the following new taxa are described: Amaurohydnum flavidum gen. et spec. nov., Amauromyces pallidus gen. et spec. nov., Hyphoderma cinnamomeum, Lindtneria pellicularis, Resinicium

  3. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander


    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  4. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)


    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  5. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy


    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  6. Review of Australia's polio surveillance. (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  7. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski


    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  8. Desenvolvimento e morfologia funcional dos estÃmagos de larvas e pÃs-larvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda


    Marlon Aguiar Melo


    O conhecimento sobre o correto regime alimentar das larvas e pÃslarvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda à considerado essencial para o sucesso no cultivo larval. InformaÃÃes sobre o desenvolvimento e morfologia dos apÃndices bucais e estÃmago destes crustÃceos tÃm auxiliado na identificaÃÃo de alimentos e condiÃÃes de cultivo satisfatÃrias para o aumento da sobrevivÃncia e do crescimento durante o desenvolvimento larval. O desenvolvimento da estrutura do estÃmago e da funÃÃo digestiva f...

  9. Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total

  10. Governing International Education in Australia (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder


    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  11. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse


    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  12. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today (United States)

    Cox, Robyn


    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  13. Surveillance of Space in Australia (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  14. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia. (United States)

    March, Lynette M; Bagga, Hanish


    Arthritis affects around 3 million people in Australia, representing about 15% of the population. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Osteoarthritis is the third leading cause of life-years lost due to disability. Obesity and joint injury are important potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Obesity is also an important predictor of progression of osteoarthritis. Currently, about 19000 hip and 20000 knee replacements are performed for osteoarthritis in Australia each year. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and the need for total joint replacement surgery are likely to increase because of a combination of increasing risk factors (age, obesity, injury), increasing expectations for improved quality of life, and improved surgical and anaesthetic techniques making surgery possible for more people. Services to provide these cost-effective procedures need to be increased. Primary and secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing obesity, preventing injury and improving rehabilitation and physical activity are urgently required.

  15. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver


    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  16. Crustacea Decapoda captured through a passive collection in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro Teixeira


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to carry out, through passive collection, a survey of Crustacea Decapoda species present in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil, during spring season of 2009. The collections were carried out in five sites, distributed over the final 10km of the river, using traps containing biological bait left underwater for 15h. To assess the abiotic variables, temperature, pH, and conductivity values were measured. A total of 135 individuals was registered, belonging to three species: the shrimps Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 and M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836, besides the crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828. In addition to these, two other crab species were collected: Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 and Panopeus lacustris Desbonne, 1867. The highest values were registered in P4 (34.07% of individuals, P1 (23.70%, and P3 (22.96%. Temperature and pH presented a small variation throughout the analyses (respectively, 5.1-5.8 and 25.7-29.1°C. In turn, conductivity differed the estuary point (P5 from the other ones (respectively, 886mS and 41-48mS. No individual was registered in P2. The distribution of species was related to the type of microhabitat and the habit of each of them.

  17. Modelling Australia's Retail Mortgage Rate


    Abbas Valadkhani; Sajid Anwar


    There is an ongoing controversy over whether banks’ mortgage rates rise more readily than they fall due to their asymmetric responses to changes in the cash rate. This paper examines the dynamic interplay between the cash rate and the variable mortgage rate using monthly data in the post-1989 era. Unlike previous studies for Australia, our proposed threshold and asymmetric error-correction models account for both the amount and adjustment asymmetries. We found thatrate rises have much larger ...

  18. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David


    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  19. Descripción y distribución geográfica de una nueva especie para el archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda, Calappidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Retamal


    Full Text Available Se identifica una nueva especie en aguas del archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (Decapoda, Calappidae, ampliándose su distribución geográfica conocida en el hemisferio sur. Se entrega una diagnosis de la especie y se actualiza el status taxonómico de otras tres especies de decápodos en este archipiélago.

  20. Immigration and unemployment in Australia. (United States)

    Tsokhas, K


    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  1. Composição e distribuição dos Crustácea (Decapoda na Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and distribution of Crustácea (Decapoda from Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santos


    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe ("Peixe's Lagoon" is located between Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa dos Patos and is 30 Km long and 0,5-2,0 Km wide (31º13'S, 50º55'W -31º26'S, 51º09'. For one year, the composition and distribution of Crustácea Decapoda were analyzed monthly (from July/1994 to June/1995, in seven subareas (terrestrial border and aquatic area and physical and chemical parameters (depth, salinity, sediment texture, oxygen in water, organic material of sediment and water temperature were registered. Decapoda from the families Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Portunidae (Brachyura, Diogenidae (Anomura and Penaeidae (Penaeidea were captured. Chasmagnathus granulata Dana 1851 was found ali months near the canal connecting Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa do Peixe, but inside the lagoon it was collected only in October/94 and June/95, and in extreme subareas it was sampled in February/95 when the salinity was 31 ‰ at these sites. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 were captured throughout the year, except October/94 and April/95, respectively. Both species were found in ali áreas of sample, indicating a high plasticity in relation to the factors analyzed in this study. Another species captured probably come in the lagoon in specific months, when the environment provides ideal conditions for their develo-pments.

  2. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rólier Lara


    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  3. Skilled Migration: Australia. Working Paper No. 63 (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald


    Migration patterns to and from Australia are becoming complex with migration programmes increasingly targeted towards meeting the needs of the labour market and regional development. This paper provides an analysis of the permanent and temporary movements of people to and from Australia in the last three years and their impact on the skilled…

  4. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond


    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  5. Myristica lancifolia Poiret (Myristicaceae) new to Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessup, L.W.; Wilde, de W.J.J.O.


    Material of a Myristica recently collected in the Northern Territory of Australia appeared to belong to M. lancifolia Poiret, a species known from the Moluccas, not previously recorded for Australia. It is described as a new subspecies, M. lancifolia Poiret subsp. australiana Jessup & de Wilde, and

  6. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte) (United States)

    Poupin, J.


    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  7. A review of Epipenaeon ingens Nobili, 1906 (Isopoda: Bopyridae) host species and documentation of a new host, Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Alcock, 1905) (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We collected 3 596 Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the southeast coast of India between January and December 2007. Sixty three specimens (43 females and 18 males) were parasitized by the bopyrid isopod Epipenaeon ingens (Isopoda: Bopyridae). This is the first report of the occurrence of E. ingens in this host; therefore, it was considered as a new host record. The highest level of infestation (3.2%) occurred in October 2007, coincident with observations of gravid females (9). The total prevalence and presence of gravid females were 17.46% and 28%, respectively. Infestation caused a characteristic bulge of the branchial chamber, growth retardation, and degeneration of the sex organs, but had no effect on the host weight.

  8. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel


    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also...... at increased risk of psychological distress. A better understanding of the motivators, behaviours and psychological well-being of young people with diabetes and their parents will inform improvement of resources for supporting self-management and reducing the burden of diabetes. The Diabetes MILES (Management...... and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...

  9. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley


    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  10. Agricultural Innovation System In Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Arumapperuma


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document agricultural innovation systems (AIS in Australia. We identified eleven broad categories (actors in terms of their activities, namely: policy, education, finance and credit, marketing, input supply, research, extension and information, logistics, processing and storage, farmers and farm organisations and consumers. Survey results reveal that 11 kinds of innovation-related activities of research and education organisations with corresponding percentage weight are directly involved in innovation diffusion. Twelve pre-identified goals of innovation related activities of the above organisations surveyed with their corresponding percentage weight have also been revealed. The study reveals that the majority of funding (more than 80% for innovation activities comes from the Federal Government and funding bodies. Finally survey results indicate that the main constrains/incentives are other issues such as funding, lack of qualified staff, equipment, environmental and Government policy issues etc.

  11. Mesozoic/Cenozoic tectonic events around Australia (United States)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Gaina, Carmen; Tikku, Anahita; Mihut, Dona; Cande, Steven C.; Stock, Joann M.

    We use an absolute and relative plate motion model for the plates around Australia to identify major plate tectonic events, evaluate their causes, and investigate their effects on anomalous intraplate subsidence or uplift and on the history of oceanic crustal accretion. An event at ˜136 Ma is marked by the onset of sea floor spreading between Greater India and Australia. At about this time long-lived subduction east of Australia ceased, probably due to subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge, changing this plate boundary to a transform margin. Between 130 and 80 Ma, Australia and East Antarctica moved eastward in the Atlantic-Indian mantle hotspot reference frame. This can be plausibly linked to ridge push from the NW-SE oriented spreading center NW of Australia and to the inferred geometry and continued subduction of the Phoenix plate beneath the West Antarctic margin. A drastic change in spreading direction between the Indian and Australian plates from NE-SW to N-S occurred at about 99 Ma, possibly caused by a change in absolute motion of the Pacific Plate. Chron 27 (˜61 Ma) marks the onset of relative motion between East and West Antarctica, and a change in the relative motion between Australia and Antarctica. It may be linked to the subduction of a segment of the Neo-Tethyan Ridge. Both events caused anomalous subsidence on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. The almost stationary position of Australia w.r.t. the mantle from ˜80 Ma to ˜40 Ma may reflect the progressive subduction of the Pacific-Phoenix ridge to the east of New Zealand preceding 80 Ma, resulting in a diminished trench suction force east of Australia. Preliminary reconstructions to close the Pacific-Australian plate circuit based on recently collected geophysical data indicate that a tectonic event at 43 Ma may mark the onset of renewed subduction east of Australia. At the same time spreading in the Wharton Basin between India and Australia ceased, and tectonic reactivation is

  12. Climate change and wind power in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millais, C. [Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Sydney (Australia)


    The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given.

  13. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts? (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.


    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  14. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia


    John van Kooy


    The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  15. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van Kooy


    Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  16. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie


    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  17. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  18. Clean energy scenarios for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, H. [Energy Strategies Pty Ltd., Manuka (Australia); Diesendorf, M. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Institute of Environmental Studies; Denniss, R. [Parliament House, Canberra (Australia). Office of Senator Bob Brown


    Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a 'fossil-fuel dependent' country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting and backcasting methods, under conditions of continuing economic growth and a restriction to the use of existing commercial technologies with small improvements. The principal scenario achieves the above target by implementing on the demand-side a medium-level of efficient energy use and substantial solar hot water together with a supply side combination of mainly natural gas, bioenergy and wind power. In doing so the scenario also achieves a 78% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity. Within the large uncertainties in future prices, it is possible that the economic savings from efficient energy use could pay for all or a large part of the additional costs of renewable energy. (author)

  19. Return migration from Australia: a case study. (United States)

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P


    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  20. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  1. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae: implications for developing aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Carter


    Full Text Available The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11, avoidance (6 and others (12. Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  2. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture. (United States)

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig


    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  3. Toward a sustainable energy future in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinrade, P. [Melbourne Univ., VIC (Australia). School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies; Marsden Jacob Associates, Camberwell, VIC (Australia)


    Envisioning Australia's energy future through a 'strong sustainability' framework would see a future that is based on the efficient and equitable use of energy, sourced from a diverse range of renewable, distributed energy systems. Supply and use of this energy would produce low or zero greenhouse gases and other emissions. A sustainable energy future in Australia would also see a shift in focus to meeting energy service needs (rather increased energy consumption). Importantly, energy users would be empowered, being knowledgeable and active participants in energy markets. In reality, Australia currently stands a long way from this vision: energy-related greenhouse gas emissions are growing rapidly; take up of renewable energy is slow, particularly of distributed energy forms such as solar photovoltaics; and energy intensity of the economy is declining at a slower rate than many other OECD economies. Furthermore, Australians consume far more energy than is required to meet the service needs of even modern lifestyles. If Australia is to move towards a sustainable energy future, then significant barriers must be overcome including aspects of Australia's economic structure, a misdirected energy market reform process and a lack of visionary thinking by decision makers. Hope comes in the form of the broader Australian community who intuitively support a sustainable energy vision but currently lack the institutional, market and regulatory support to make it happen. [Author].

  4. Multiculturalism and transcultural nursing in Australia. (United States)

    Gorman, D


    The author looks at Australia's multicultural society and identifies the failure of the nursing profession to provide nursing services that meet the commitment of Australia to preserve the cultural backgrounds and meet the needs of the people nurses serve. The author suggests ways in which this problem can be addressed. It is argued that there is a need to ensure that transcultural nursing services are recognized and made accessible to people from diverse cultural backgrounds. Nurses need educational preparation to provide them with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to work with people from different cultures. Moreover, the cultural profile of the nursing profession should approximate those served. Nurses today must recognize these critical needs and be committed to provide transcultural nursing care that is so essential in Australia's multicultural society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the main restrictions of sustainable development. We examine whether or not freight transport is sensitive of the environment in Australia, particularly in the state of Victoria. Because, freight transports is one of the significant factors of environmental pollution. In the study we discuss the decision taken by the government of Victoria; and what kind of measurement is applied by the government. We also discuss which policy should be followed to achieve green transportation. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of environmental measurement on growing of the transport sector. The economics of Australia has a structure growing fast, in order to parallel the increasing growth of the transport sector. It tries to apply Kyoto protocol to the transport sector. In conclusion, the environmental pollution and CO2 emissions decrease in Australia although the transport sector grows day by day.

  6. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia. (United States)

    Wong, S


    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration."

  7. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman


    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  8. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J


    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  9. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy


    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  10. Sacculina nectocarcini, a new species of rhizocephalan, a new species of rhizocephalan(Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitising the red rock crabNectocarcinus integrifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)(Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Robert H.; Rybakov, Alexey V.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald


    The parasitic barnacles, Rhizocephala, are a little known group within Australia with only seven described species from a coastline stretching approximately 59763 km. This study describes a new species of Rhizocephala, Sacculina nectocarcini. The description is based on a unique combination...

  11. Sacculina nectocarcini, a new species of rhizocephalan, a new species of rhizocephalan(Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitising the red rock crabNectocarcinus integrifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)(Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Robert H.; Rybakov, Alexey V.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald;


    The parasitic barnacles, Rhizocephala, are a little known group within Australia with only seven described species from a coastline stretching approximately 59763 km. This study describes a new species of Rhizocephala, Sacculina nectocarcini. The description is based on a unique combination...

  12. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Annual Conference Of Australia Sister Cities Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Australia Sister Cities Association(ASCA),the CPAFFC delegation visited Australia and attended the Annual Conference of ASCA in Devonport of Tasmania State from November 11 to 22,2006.

  13. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  14. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda. (United States)

    Vogt, Günter


    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  15. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee


    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  16. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly


    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  17. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback (United States)

    Cradduck, Lucy


    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  18. Conservation status of bryophytes in eastern Australia


    Streimann, Heinar


    No bryophyte conservation programs are in place in Australia as the knowledge of bryophytes is poor, especially of their habitat preferences and distribution. The conservation of species against habitats is discussed and it is maintained on present evidence that areas conserved for vascular plants and/or animal habitats, as national parks and forest reserves, in most cases would adequately conserve bryophytes.

  19. Lantern Festival —— Canberra, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol Keil


    <正>Each year, for the last 21 years, the ACT Branch of the Australia China Friendship Society has celebrated the Lantern Festival on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. In preparation for the Festival we hold a lantern-making workshop for the general public

  20. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia. (United States)

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia


    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  1. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle


    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  2. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C


    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Australia's international health relations in 2003. (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon


    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  4. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia. (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn


    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  5. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen


    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  6. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen E.


    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  7. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia. (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P


    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  8. Australia's Universities--Through the Looking Glass. (United States)

    Penington, David


    Upheaval in Australia's university system in recent years can be attributed in large part to two influences dating to 1987: accession of John Dawkins to the Ministry of Employment, Education, and Training and the advent of federal regulation of industrial relations in education, which has undermined the collegial decision-making tradition. (MSE)

  9. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.


    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  10. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.


    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possib

  11. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia. (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally


    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.

  12. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana


    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  13. Eritrea: Lessons for Australia's Language Policy. (United States)

    Andreoni, Helen


    Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…

  14. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna


    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  15. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia



    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the l...

  16. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training (United States)

    Davidson, Jim


    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  17. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey


    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  18. A New Solar Thermal Facility in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W.; Imenes, A.; Hinkley, J.; Benito, R.; McEvoy, S.; Hart, G.; McGregor, J.; Chensee, M.; Wong, K.; Wong, J.; Bolling, R.


    The abundance of high quality solar radiation in Australia has long fuelled activity in solar energy, particularly CSP. The National Solar Energy Centre is being established in Australia as a centre to promote all facets of concentrating solar thermal technology, from fundamental R and D to active demonstrations and testing platforms. The Centre comprises a 550kW solar tower with very high heliostat packing density, linear concentrators that will drive both an organic Rankine cycle and solar chiller, and eventually a dish concentrator. Other papers in these conference proceedings discuss in detail particular aspects of design, fabrication and testing of components of the tower. This paper provides an overview of the intended activities of the Centre and particularly the opportunities for international collaboration, including high temperature receiver design and testing, medium temperature receivers, solarized Brayton cycles, thermochemical reactors and materials for solar hydrogen production, and improved small solar trough technology. (Author)

  19. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre


    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  20. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?


    Kingwell, Ross S.


    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  1. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in Australia


    Ric Battellino; John Broadbent; Philip Lowe


    In January 1990, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) began announcing and explaining changes in the target cash rate. This has increased public understanding of monetary policy and, by increasing the attention given to changes in interest rates, has affected the way in which changes in policy are transmitted to the economy. In addition, the discipline of having to announce and explain changes in the target cash rate to the public has led to a clearer focus on the objectives of monetary policy...

  2. Happy New Year from Queensland, Australia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet


    I hope you enjoyed a magical celebration. I have had an exciting time here.In Australia, we celebrate New Year’s Eve with champagne and parties. At 10seconds to midnight, everyone stops to count in the new year at full volume, beforeshouting" Happy New Year", kissing the nearest person, and breaking into araucous (沙哑的) version of "Auld Lang Syne". Loud cheers resound in hotels,halls, nightclubs and backyards across the country.

  3. Heroin users in Australia: population trends. (United States)

    Kaya, C Yalçin; Tugai, Yuliya; Filar, Jerzy A; Agrawal, Manju R; Ali, Robert L; Gowing, Linda R; Cooke, Richard


    The aim of this paper is to identify certain important population trends among heroin users in Australia for the period 1971 - 97, such as: population growth, initiation, i.e. the number who were initiated to heroin in a given year, and quitting, i.e. the number that quit using heroin. For this purpose, we summarize and extract relevant characteristics from data from National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS 1998) conducted in Australia in 1998. We devise a systematic procedure to estimate historical trends from questions concerning past events. It is observed from our findings that the size of the heroin user population in Australia is in a sharp increase, especially from the early 1980s onwards. The general trend obtained for the period 1971 - 97 is strikingly similar to that obtained by Hall et al. (2000) for the dependent heroin user population in Australia, even though their study was based on different datasets and a different methodology. In our reconstruction of the time history we also detect a levelling-off prior to 1990. Initiation is also observed to be on a sharp increase. The latter trend is accompanied by a similar trend of quitting, perhaps indicating a relatively short heroin use career. A sharp decrease in both initiation and quitting is observed after 1990. In conclusion, in the case of the trend in the population of heroin users a high rate of growth has been identified that is consistent with the existing literature. In the process, we demonstrated that even a static survey such as NDSHS 1998 can, sometimes, be used to extract historical (dynamic) trends of certain important variables.

  4. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  5. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.

  6. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.……

  7. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner


    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  8. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo


    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  9. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, L.


    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  10. Symptomotology and Racial Politics in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Buchanan


    Full Text Available Jindabyne (a movie directed by Ray Lawrence, 2006 begins with the murder of a young aboriginal woman, but its real focus is the way people respond to this murder. In doing so, it tells several interesting truths about race relations in Australia today. I want to suggest that Jindabyne can usefully be read as a national allegory (in Jameson’s sense of the word. It maps or diagrams the cultural and political tropes of the present moment in history. My basic hypothesis is that it cannot be a coincidence that Jindabyne should give such prominence to the cultural problematic of the apology at this particular juncture in Australia’s history. Although this aspect of the film is scarcely mentioned in any of the reviews that accompanied the film’s premier, it strikes me that the timing is symptomatic: it is a topic that as Deleuze once said about difference was very much in the air. Produced only two years before the official national apology the Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd made to the Indigenous peoples of Australia on February 13, 2008, Jindabyne responds to a complex assemblage of cultural problematics that have been on the national political agenda ever since the release in 1995 of Bringing Them Home, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission’s report on its national inquiry into the so-called “Stolen Generation”.

  11. The Deep Ocean Sound Channel in Areas Around Australia, (United States)



  12. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang


    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  13. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  14. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia. (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E


    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  15. Millipedes from Australia, 1: Antichiropodini from South Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.


    Descriptions of two new species: Antichiropus mammillifer n.sp., the first species of the genus recorded from outside Western Australia, related to A. minimus Attems and A. sulcatus Attems, and Tridactylogonus obscurus n.g., n.sp., a small species, taxonomically rather isolated, and perhaps related

  16. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia


    Abbas Valadkhani


    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  17. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  18. Advice to speak English in Australia


    Martín, Mario Daniel


    Abstract This article addresses the issue of advice given to immigrant parents to speak English only with their children in Australia, as reflected in the Spanish-speaking community. The article shows that something that appears to be down to chance, i.e. whether this advice is given or not, has a social explanation. This social explanation is based on understanding several social variables such as the ethnic identity of the adviser and the year in which the advice was given, as we...

  19. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu


    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUKY M.


    Full Text Available The publication of the European Crayfish Atlas within the framework of the CRAYNET programme is a major breakthrough in Decapoda mapping in Europe. The current data base contains information from approximately 60-70% of the 50 km × 50 km squares covering the continent. A new method to improve this situation further is the use of photo identification involving volunteers in the collection of distribution data. The crayfish identification ability of two potential user groups, astacologists and biology teachers/students, was tested using the questionnaire given in Figure 2. One picture (Astacus leptodactylus male was correctly identified by everyone, the others were recognised by 59-94% (astacologists and 30-88% (non-crayfish specialised biology teachers and students. The first European Decapoda photo identification survey proved that the necessary expertise exists in the continent to determine crayfish species from pictures and also that the quality of the pictures is less important than the presence of key details. Photo identification is a low cost and environmental-friendly approach but it also needs special considerations. Volunteers need to be supported in several ways, such as by providing precise and interesting educational material in an easily understandable language describing e.g. the key parts of the body to photograph. However, the general use of digital cameras and even mobile phones/cameras and the Internet is an effective way to launch such surveys as it gives, on one hand, an opportunity for the specialists to check, and if necessary correct, the field identification of less experienced people and, on the other hand, it provides a much larger data base than what is available now by using the data collected by students, conservationists, scouts or other volunteers.

  1. The accreditation of nursing education in Australia. (United States)

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne


    This paper aims to explore and discuss the role that ANMAC and the accreditation standards play in pre-registration nursing education nationally. The context of the discussion is situated in the continuum of events that mark the accreditation of nursing education in Australia. The National Registration and Accreditation Scheme has given rise to significant challenges related to the accreditation of nursing programs of education in Australia. Given the importance of accreditation to the quality of nursing education, ANMAC in its appointed role as accrediting authority, must fill the position rather than occupy it. Enhancing transparency and effectiveness is central to ensuring accreditation facilitates quality in nursing education. Given ANMAC's key position, further work is needed in developing a broad base of expertise by fostering scholarly output in the substantive area of nursing accreditation. There is a concerning lack of research centred on the accreditation of programs of nursing education along with the processes associated with it. This problem is not restricted to the Australian context but also extends internationally. In this context, the expertise of accreditors ought to be questioned along with the processes ANMAC use to identify individual capability. As such, the selection of experts needs to be articulated clearly by ANMAC along with the ownership of introducing a research culture into accreditation.

  2. Determinants of Business Exits in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li


    Full Text Available The annually increasing firm exits have significant financial, legal and social impacts on productivity, employment and economic growth in Australia. However, evidence of the impacts of firm exits is sparse. This paper undertakes a first-ever study that empirically investigates the determinants and their impacts on firm churn. This paper is innovative to the literature in four aspects: (1 Local Region Areas (LGAs data, rarely available in other countries, has been used for the analysis; (2 using LGAs as the basic analytical unit is able to eliminate the heterogeneity problems encountered by other studies which are based on national and cross-national data; (3 panel data modelling techniques identify robust evidence; (4 systematic statistical tests guarantees the robustness of the results. The dataset, provided by Australia Bureau of Statistics, include 3462 observations of 577 Local Government Areas (LGAs during 2004-2009. The research identifies variables positively and negatively affecting the exits and finds that size matters in determining business exits. The last section concludes with a discussion of limitations and future research directions.

  3. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia. (United States)

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K


    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  4. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wilcox


    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  5. Moderation in Australia-policy and achievements. (United States)

    Stockley, Creina


    Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60% of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990-cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year.

  6. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.


    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism p

  7. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future (United States)

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie


    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  8. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada. (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael


    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  9. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014 (United States)

    Mayer, Diane


    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  10. Harmonising and Matching IPR Holders at IP Australia


    T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse


    This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.

  11. Pathways to Marriage: Learning for Married Life in Australia. (United States)

    Simons, Michele; And Others

    In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…

  12. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les


    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  13. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)


    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering


    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  15. Homicide-suicide in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Milroy, C M; Dratsas, M; Ranson, D L


    Thirty-nine incidents of homicide-suicide occurring in Victoria, Australia between 1985 and 1989 were examined. In 33 cases the assailants were men. The victims were spouses or women living in a de facto marriage. The majority of the victims were shot, and this was also the most frequent method of suicide. Breakdown in a relationship was the most frequent reason for killing. Mental illness of the assailant accounted for the killing in approximately 20% of cases. Physical ill health and financial stress were identified as important associative factors, particularly in the elderly. The pattern of homicide-suicide in Victoria is similar to that observed in other jurisdictions and represents an important and distinct subgroup of homicide.

  16. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie


    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  17. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs. (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia


    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley


    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  19. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign. (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter


    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  20. Art Museums in Australia: A Personal Retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas


    Full Text Available A survey of, and reflections on, the growth of art museums in Australia based on personal experience and involvement. It starts with the early art collections and state galleries and their organisation. It looks at changing patterns of leadership and governance. It considers the roles of inter-state competition, the varying patters of organisation and support and the impact of federal institutions. It reflects on factors of race, gender and ethnicity and also the situation of Australian exhibitions and collections in the Global Village. It considers the effects of popularisation, commercialisation and celebrity culture on exhibition practices. It concludes that Australia’s art museums, more perhaps than any others, have become unusually well-suited to a post-European or post-North Atlantic age.

  1. Public policy in a multicultural Australia. (United States)

    Zubrzycki, J


    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit.

  2. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM


    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  3. Exploring Themes in the Movie Australia on Culture Identity Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Gathering the history and emotions of the nation of Australia, the movie Australia not only reflects Australians’exer-tion to construct an equal harmonious diversified new Australia but also incarnates Australian people ’s nisus to pursue the sense of belonging internally and seek international recognition externally. In order to expand the perspective of researching this movie and give enlightenment on constructing an equal harmonious diversified international community, based on culture identity theo-ries, this paper tries exploring the themes of this movie.

  4. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram


    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  5. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina


    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  6. Testing Potential New Sites for Optical Telescopes in Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hotan, Claire E; Glazebrook, Karl


    In coming years, Australia may find the need to build new optical telescopes to continue local programmes, contribute to global survey projects, and form a local multi-wavelength connection for the new radio telescopes being built. In this study, we refine possible locations for a new optical telescope by studying remotely sensed meteorological infrared data to ascertain expected cloud coverage rates across Australia, and combine these data with a Digital Elevation Model using a Geographic Information System. We find that the best sites within Australia for building optical telescopes are likely to be on the highest mountains in the Hamersley Range in Northwest Western Australia, while the MacDonnell Ranges in the Northern Territory may also be appropriate. We believe that similar seeing values to Siding Spring should be obtainable and with significantly more observing time at the identified sites. We expect to find twice as many clear nights as at current telescope sites. These sites are thus prime locations...

  7. Generalized Geology of Australia and New Zealand (geo3cl) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and rock type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Australia...

  8. The Special Broadcasting Service and Australia's Ethnic Broadcasting Activities. (United States)

    Sklovsky, G.A.


    Broadcasting services for non-English speaking peoples in Australia are reviewed both for radio and television. Broadcasting criteria for ethnic groups, funding levels, and current facilities are discussed. (RAO)

  9. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)


    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  10. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  11. Overview on the European green crab Carcinus spp. (Portunidae, Decapoda), one of the most famous marine invaders and ecotoxicological models. (United States)

    Leignel, V; Stillman, J H; Baringou, S; Thabet, R; Metais, I


    Green crabs (Carcinus, Portunidae) include two species native to Europe--Carcinus aestuarii (Mediterranean species) and Carcinus maenas (Atlantic species). These small shore crabs (maximal length carapace, approximately 10 cm) show rapid growth, high fecundity, and long planktonic larval stages that facilitate broad dispersion. Carcinus spp. have a high tolerance to fluctuations of environmental factors including oxygen, salinity, temperature, xenobiotic compounds, and others. Shipping of Carcinus spp. over the past centuries has resulted in its invasions of America, Asia, and Australia. Classified as one of the world's 100 worst invaders by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Carcinus spp. are the most widely distributed intertidal crabs in the world. Their voracious predatory activity makes them strong interactors in local communities, and they are recognized as a model for invasiveness in marine systems as well as a sentinel species in ecotoxicology. This review shows an exhaustive analysis of the literature on the life cycle, diversity, physiological tolerance, genomic investigations, ecotoxicological use, historical invasion, control programs, and putative economical valorization of shore crabs.

  12. Distance Education in Australia : Past, Present and Future


    Mavis, Kelly


    Compared with most other countries, Distance Education in Australia has a long history, spanning most of this century and is now used at all levels of education from elementary school to postgraduate courses as well as in vocational and in-service training in business and industry. In this paper, which focuses mainly on Distance Education at the post-secondary level, the author first outlines the current pattern of provision in the light of Australia's geography, population distribution and t...

  13. Lingue e migrazione. Un caso di studio: l’Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter focuses upon two contrasting features of the linguistic situation in Australia. On the one hand, together with nationhood, the past hundred or so years have seen the evolution of a distinct national variety of English in Australia recognizable also outside Australia. On the other, Australia, though a young nation, has been continuously inhabited by the various Aborigine and Torre Strait Islander communities for thousands of years. These have traditionally spoken a wide variety of different languages, some of which of great interest to linguists due to their peculiarity. Increasingly, although the use of Aborigine languages has until very recently been in steady decline, since the 1950s in particular, diverse ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages, both European and Asian, have settled in Australia. The National Policy on Languages (1987 formally directed Australia towards multilingualism and the teaching of English as a first and second language is promoted together with that of Aborigine and community languages. Consequently, Australia has been one of the first nations to try to capitalise on its own linguistic diversity, both as a means of strengthening links with the outside world and as a way of promoting a multiethnic and multicultural society at home. Australia presents then an interesting case study for those working with discourse in immigration domains who are concerned with the way that language policy (or the lack of one may effect social harmony and serve not only as an indicator of the way that migrants are received and treated, but also a catalyst in itself for greater mutual respect.

  14. Demand for Wine in Australia: Systems Versus Single Equation Approach


    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Bettington, Nicholas


    The objective of the study is to estimate demand for wine in Australia, based on both the systems approach and the single equation approach. Both approaches consider demand for three categories of alcoholic drinks (beer, wine and spirits) in a seemingly unrelated regression framework to take account of cross-equation correlations. Time series data on retail price indexes and apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages for Australia for the period 1975/76 to 1998/99 are used for eco...

  15. The autoimmune blistering diseases in Australia: status and services. (United States)

    Daniel, Benjamin S; Dermawan, Andrew; Murrell, Dédée F


    The exact epidemiology of autoimmune bullous disorders in Australia is unknown. This article describes the establishment of a registry and support group to serve patients with these disorders. The registry aids research in Australia by providing epidemiologic data and maintaining an up-to-date database with patient contact details. The support group caters to the needs of patients and/or caregivers. Teledermatology, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune bullous disease are briefly reviewed.

  16. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship So-ciety, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantong, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chi

  17. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies


    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  18. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia. (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake


    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

  19. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah


    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  20. Nocturnal haemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Agar, John W M


    Although early experience in Australia and New Zealand confirmed home haemodialysis to be well tolerated, effective and with lower morbidity and mortality compared with centre-based haemodialysis, the advent of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 'satellite' haemodialysis has led to a steadily declining home haemodialysis population. However, the emergence of nocturnal haemodialysis, as a safe and highly effective therapy, has added to the modality choices now available and offers a new, highly attractive home-based option with many advantages over centre-based dialysis. For the patient, nocturnal haemodialysis means fluid and dietary freedom, less antihypertensive medication, the abolition of phosphate binders, the return of daytime freedom and the capacity for full-time employment. Potential biochemical benefits include normalization of the blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, beta(2) microglobulin, homocysteine and triglyceride levels and other nutritional markers. Improved quality of life and sleep patterns and a resolution of sleep apnoea have been shown. Left ventricular function has also shown marked improvement. For the provider, nocturnal home haemodialysis offers clear cost advantages by avoiding high-cost nursing and infrastructure expenditure. Although consumable and equipment costs are higher, the savings on wage and infrastructure far outweigh this added expenditure. These combined factors make nocturnal haemodialysis an irresistible addition to comprehensive dialysis services, both from a clinical outcome and fiscal perspective.

  1. Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia. (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I; Sangster, N C; Coleman, G


    There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward this objective by providing a "snap-shot" of the veterinary parasitology courses at the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland in eastern Australia. It includes a description of the veterinary science curriculum in each institution, and provides an outline of its veterinary parasitology course, including objectives, topics covered, course delivery, student examination procedures and course evaluation. Student contact time in veterinary parasitology during the curriculum is currently higher in Melbourne (183 h) compared with Sydney and Queensland (106-110 h). In the teaching of parasitology, Melbourne adopts a taxonomic approach (in the pre-clinical period) followed by a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach in the clinical semesters, whereas both Sydney and Queensland focus more on presenting parasites on a host species-basis followed by a problem-based approach.


    Freckelton, Ian


    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  3. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering


    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia (United States)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.


    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  5. An Australia telescope survey for CMB anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, R; Ekers, R D; Sinclair, M; Silk, J


    We have surveyed six distinct `empty fields' using the Australia TelescopeCompact Array in an ultra-compact configuration with the aim of imaging, with ahigh brightness sensitivity, any arcmin-scale brightness-temperatureanisotropies in the background radio sky. The six well-separated regions wereobserved at a frequency of 8.7 GHz and the survey regions were limited by theATCA primary beams which have a full width at half maximum of 6 arcmin at thisfrequency; all fields were observed with a resolution of 2 arcmin and an rmsthermal noise of 24 microJy/beam. After subtracting foreground confusiondetected in higher resolution images of the fields, residual fluctuations inStokes I images are consistent with the expectations from thermal noise andweaker (unidentified) foreground sources; the Stokes Q and U images areconsistent with expectations from thermal noise. Within the sensitivity of our observations, we have no reason to believe thatthere are any Sunyaev-Zeldovich holes in the microwave sky surveyed. Assumi...

  6. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia. (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela


    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  7. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Park

    Full Text Available Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria, in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  8. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia. (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony


    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  9. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010. (United States)

    Turner, Aj


    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions.

  10. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

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    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  11. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  12. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.


    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  13. Evolution of vocational rehabilitation competencies in Australia. (United States)

    Matthews, Lynda R; Buys, Nicholas; Randall, Christine; Biggs, Herbert; Hazelwood, Zoe


    Over the past decade, there has been growth in the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services globally, as countries seek to control disability-related expenditure, yet there has been minimal research outside the United States on competencies required to work in this area. This study reports on research conducted in Australia to determine current job function and knowledge areas in terms of their importance and frequency of use in the provision of vocational rehabilitation. A survey comprising items from the Rehabilitation Skills Inventory-Amended and International Survey of Disability Management was completed by 149 rehabilitation counselors and items submitted to factor analysis. T-tests and analyses of variance were used to determine differences between scores of importance and frequency and differences in scores based on work setting and professional training. Six factors were identified as important and frequently used: (i) vocational counseling, (ii) professional practice, (iii) personal counseling, (iv) rehabilitation case management, (v) workplace disability case management, and (vi) workplace intervention and program management. Vocational counseling, professional practice and personal counseling were significantly more important and performed more frequently by respondents in vocational rehabilitation settings than those in compensation settings. These same three factors were rated significantly higher in importance and frequency by those with rehabilitation counselor training when compared with those with other training. In conclusion, although 'traditional' knowledge and skill areas such as vocational counseling, professional practice, and personal counseling were identified as central to vocational rehabilitation practice in Australian rehabilitation agencies, mean ratings suggest a growing emphasis on knowledge and skills associated with disability management practice.

  14. Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

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    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reduced rainfall in southeast Australia has placed this region's urban and rural communities on escalating water restrictions, with anthropogenic climate change forecasts suggesting that this drying trend will continue. To mitigate the stress this may place on domestic water supply, governments have encouraged the installation of large domestic water tanks in towns and cities throughout this region. These prospective stable mosquito larval sites create the possibility of the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, where it remains endemic, back into New South Wales and other populated centres in Australia, along with the associated emerging and re-emerging dengue risk if the virus was to be introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having collated the known distribution of Ae. aegypti in Australia, we built distributional models using a genetic algorithm to project Ae. aegypti's distribution under today's climate and under climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2050 and compared the outputs to published theoretical temperature limits. Incongruence identified between the models and theoretical temperature limits highlighted the difficulty of using point occurrence data to study a species whose distribution is mediated more by human activity than by climate. Synthesis of this data with dengue transmission climate limits in Australia derived from historical dengue epidemics suggested that a proliferation of domestic water storage tanks in Australia could result in another range expansion of Ae. aegypti which would present a risk of dengue transmission in most major cities during their warm summer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the debate of the role climate change will play in the future range of dengue in Australia, we conclude that the increased risk of an Ae. aegypti range expansion in Australia would be due not directly to climate change but rather to human adaptation to the current and forecasted regional drying

  15. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia. (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A


    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  16. Responses of Quaternary rainforest vertebrates to climate change in Australia (United States)

    Hocknull, Scott A.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Webb, Gregory E.


    A new middle Pleistocene vertebrate fossil record from eastern Australia, dated by U disequilibrium series, records the first Quaternary record of an Australian tropical rainforest fauna. This exceptionally rich fauna underwent extinction after a long period of relative faunal stability, spanning several glacial cycles, and persisted probably until 280 000 years ago. Some time between 280 000 and 205 000 years ago the rainforest fauna was replaced by a xeric-adapted fauna. Since that time, the xeric-adapted fauna was replaced by a mesic-adapted fauna which was established by the Holocene. This is the first vertebrate faunal evidence in Australia of the middle Pleistocene Mid-Brunhes Climatic Event (MBE), a major climatic reorganisation that led to increased aridity in northern Australia from around 300 000 years ago. Several independent palaeoclimate proxies suggest that the climatic shift to aridity was due to increased climatic variability and weakened northern monsoons, which may be manifested in the extinction of the aseasonal rainforest fauna and its replacement by an arid-adapted fauna. We extend the temporal ranges of several taxa from the Pliocene into the middle Pleistocene. We also reveal a longer palaeobiogeographic connection of rainforest taxa and lineages shared between New Guinea and Australia than was previously thought and show that their extinction on mainland Australia occurred sometime after 280 000 years ago.

  17. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.


    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  18. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards. (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip


    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  19. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia. (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn


    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  20. Mucormycosis in Australia: contemporary epidemiology and outcomes. (United States)

    Kennedy, K J; Daveson, K; Slavin, M A; van Hal, S J; Sorrell, T C; Lee, A; Marriott, D J; Chapman, B; Halliday, C L; Hajkowicz, K; Athan, E; Bak, N; Cheong, E; Heath, C H; Morrissey, C O; Kidd, S; Beresford, R; Blyth, C; Korman, T M; Robinson, J O; Meyer, W; Chen, S C-A


    Mucormycosis is the second most common cause of invasive mould infection and causes disease in diverse hosts, including those who are immuno-competent. We conducted a multicentre retrospective study of proven and probable cases of mucormycosis diagnosed between 2004-2012 to determine the epidemiology and outcome determinants in Australia. Seventy-four cases were identified (63 proven, 11 probable). The majority (54.1%) were caused by Rhizopus spp. Patients who sustained trauma were more likely to have non-Rhizopus infections relative to patients without trauma (OR 9.0, p 0.001, 95% CI 2.1-42.8). Haematological malignancy (48.6%), chemotherapy (42.9%), corticosteroids (52.7%), diabetes mellitus (27%) and trauma (22.9%) were the most common co-morbidities or risk factors. Rheumatological/autoimmune disorders occurred in nine (12.1%) instances. Eight (10.8%) cases had no underlying co-morbidity and were more likely to have associated trauma (7/8; 87.5% versus 10/66; 15.2%; p <0.001). Disseminated infection was common (39.2%). Apophysomyces spp. and Saksenaea spp. caused infection in immuno-competent hosts, most frequently associated with trauma and affected sites other than lung and sinuses. The 180-day mortality was 56.7%. The strongest predictors of mortality were rheumatological/autoimmune disorder (OR = 24.0, p 0.038 95% CI 1.2-481.4), haematological malignancy (OR = 7.7, p 0.001, 95% CI 2.3-25.2) and admission to intensive care unit (OR = 4.2, p 0.02, 95% CI 1.3-13.8). Most deaths occurred within one month. Thereafter we observed divergence in survival between the haematological and non-haematological populations (p 0.006). The mortality of mucormycosis remains particularly high in the immuno-compromised host. Underlying rheumatological/autoimmune disorders are a previously under-appreciated risk for infection and poor outcome.

  1. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2005. (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Bartlett, Mark; Coleman, David; Davis, Craig; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke


    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2005 with comparative data available since 2001. There were 1,680 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2005; a notification rate of 8.3 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (41 cases per 100,000 population) and in 1-year-old children (36.5 cases per 100,000 population). Enhanced data provided additional information on 1,015 (60%) of all notified cases. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 8.6 times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians. There were 126 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 7.5%. While the rate of IPD in the Indigenous under 2-year-old population decreased from 219 cases per 100,000 population since targeted introduction of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) in 2001, the rate in 2005 (94 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (20.4 cases per 100,000 population). Rates of disease in all children aged less than 2 years, caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV decreased by 75% between 2004 and 2005 as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. There is no evidence of replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. Serotypes were identified in 90% of all notified cases, with 61% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 88% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). Reduced penicillin susceptibility

  2. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2006. (United States)

    Roche, Paul W; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Barralet, Jenny; Coleman, David; Sweeny, Amy; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke; Brown, Mitchell; Gilbert, Lyn; Hogg, Geoff; Murphy, Denise


    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2006 with comprehensive comparative data available since 2002. There were 1,445 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2006; a notification rate of 7 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (30.8 cases per 100,000 population) and in children aged one year (26.5 cases per 100,000 population). There were 130 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 9%. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 4.3 times the rate in non-indigenous Australians. The rate of IPD in the under two years population continued to fall in 2006, but the rate in Indigenous children (73 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (21 cases per 100,000 population). The rates of disease caused by serotypes in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) decreased between 2002 and 2006 by 78% in children aged under two years as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. Rates of disease caused by non-7vPCV in the same periods were little changed. Serotypes were identified in 94% of all notified cases, with 43% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 85% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remains low and reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins is rare.

  3. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael


    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  4. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky


    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  5. Padrão de deslocamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae nas fases clara e escura ao longo de 24 horas Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes


    Full Text Available O padrão diário de atividade de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae é ainda pouco entendido. Com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios para otimizar o manejo nas fazendas de cultivo através do estudo do comportamento deste animal, foram desenvolvidos experimentos com juvenis (7,57 ± 1,01 g, mantidos em aquários (30 l. Para registro da atividade, os aquários foram submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial (fase do claro e do escuro, 12h:12 h, sendo monitorados 16 camarões (33 m² em cada fase, durante 20 dias, em janelas de 15 min a cada hora. A alimentação foi fornecida em horários aleatórios, sendo registrados os deslocamentos horizontal e vertical (focal contínuo e os comportamentos de natação e exploração (focal instantâneo. Os deslocamentos horizontal e vertical dos camarões foram mais acentuados na fase escura, predominando o comportamento de natação. A exploração do substrato ocorreu em ambas fases, acentuando-se entre cinco e sete horas após o acendimento das luzes.Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior, experiments were performed with juvenile (7.57 ± 1.01, which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l. To record activity, the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases, 12h:12 h, with 16 shrimp (33 m² monitored in each phase for 20 days, for 15-minute periods every hour. Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal, swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal. The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase, with a predominance of the swimming behavior. Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases, with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on.

  6. Vegemite and chocolate sprinkles: Dutch medical students in rural Australia. (United States)

    Cals, Jochen; Joyner, Peter; Tuffley, Robert J; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) working group of the Department of General Practice of Maastricht University in the Netherlands was founded in 1998 specifically to introduce students to patient care, research and education in primary health care settings outside the Netherlands. Rural health care in Australia is appealing to international medical students because of its unique setting. In the past 5 years, 42 medical students from Maastricht University have pursued a medical elective in rural Australia, supervised by the PHC working group. Doctors and coordinators in primary care clinics across Australia have welcomed and supervised students from Maastricht and exposed them to the reality of rural health care. Future collaboration with other Australian primary care clinics is welcomed.

  7. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience. (United States)

    McNamara, Patricia M


    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  8. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.


    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  9. Life on the beach for a sand crab (Emerita rathbunae (Decapoda, Hippidae: parasite-induced mortality of females in populations of the Pacific sand crab caused by Microphallus nicolli (Microphallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Violante-González


    Full Text Available Parasites, by definition, can affect mortality of their host, making parasitism an important biotic determinant of animal population dynamics and community structure. Reduction in the number of larger, reproductive age females in populations of the Pacific sand crab, Emerita rathbunae (Decapoda, Hippidae, was observed in studies of the helminth community of this host. The aim of this study was to determine if high abundance of the metacercaria of the trematode, Microphallus nicolli (Microphallidae, causes mortality in this host. Females of E. rathbunae were collected from four sandy beaches in Guerrero State, Mexico, and helminths were collected from each crab. An analysis of variance (Anova was applied to these data in order to identify differences in abundance between sizes of crabs, and an analysis of covariance (Ancova was applied to identify differences in the abundance of metacercariae between locations. Parasite-related mortality was inferred by a decrease in abundance in older hosts. Linear and polynomial regressions of mean abundance of helminths (log x+1 transformed data vs. cephalothorax length of crabs were significant for the four populations of E. rathbunae, indicating increased mortality of older, more heavily infected female crabs and resultant removal from the population. Encapsulation and melanization of cysts by crabs was observed, indicating that an immune response by crabs also killed a portion of the cysts from subsequent exposures. Mortality of hosts through behavioral modification favoring transmission of highly infected crabs was suggested as the driving force behind this process.

  10. Australia's southern margin: a product of oblique extension (United States)

    Willcox, J. B.; Stagg, H. M. J.


    Recently developed detachment models of continental margin formation interpret the southern margin of Australia to have formed when the lower-plate Australian margin was pulled out from beneath the upper-plate Antarctic margin. Data now available and summarised in this paper, point very strongly to a generally NW-SE direction of initial continental extension for the southern margin, in contrast to the widely held picture of simple N-S rifting. The evidence for this extension direction comes from the analysis of deep Seismic data acquired by the Bureau of Mineral Resources in 1986 in the central Great Australian Bight (GAB), the gravity field of the GAB, Seismic and magnetic basement structures in the Eyre Sub-basin, Polda Trough, Ceduna Depocentre and Duntroon Basin and from the analysis of the magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies produced during the slow first phase of drifting between Australia and Antarctica. Further, it is now believed that the formation of the southern margin of Australia can be described in terms of three phases of continental extension (El to E3) and two phases of drifting (D1 and D2). In summary, these phases were as follows. E1: approximately 300 km of Late Jurassic (?or older) to Early Cretaceous NW-SE-oriented extension in the GAB, with strike-slip motion in the nascent Otway Basin and along the Tasmanian margin. E2: 120 km of Early Cretaceous NNE-SSW-oriented extension which formed the basins of southeastern Australia (Otway, Bass, Gippsland) and which probably produced a structural overprinting in the GAB Basin. E3/D1: minor continental extension and the first 500 km of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica on an azimuth of 165°; wrenching on the Tasmanian margin. D2: 2600 km of fast drifting between Australia and Antarctica on a N-S azimuth.

  11. Acupuncture in Australia: regulation, education, practice, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zheng


    Full Text Available Acupuncture was introduced to Australia as early as in the 1880s, and is a form of complementary and alternative medicine in this country. In the past 2 decades since the 1990s, acupuncture has experienced a rapid growth. Today, nearly 4000 acupuncturists are registered with the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. “Acupuncturist,” “Oriental medicine practitioner,” and “Chinese medicine practitioners” are protected titles for registered acupuncturists. A bachelor's degree of 4 years in related fields is the minimal requirement for registration in Australia. Three public universities and three major private colleges offer nine undergraduate and three postgraduate programs that are approved by the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. Those three universities also offer Master-degree and Doctor of Philosophy programs. Acupuncture is well accepted by the Australians, with 10% having received this treatment and 80% general medical practitioners referring their patients to acupuncture service. All private health insurance schemes provide rebates to patients receiving acupuncture treatment, and third-party payment is also available in six of eight Australian states and territories. Research output in acupuncture has increased greatly since 2000. A majority of research focuses on acupuncture and Tai Chi as treatment modalities, and mainly investigates their mechanism of action, associated pain, and gynecological and respiratory conditions. The future direction of acupuncture in Australia is to introduce this medicine in hospitals and gain access to the medical benefit scheme so that acupuncture can be accessed by a wider community, in particular those who come from a disadvantaged background. In conclusion, improved education, regulation, and research of acupuncture in Australia put this country in a leading position among Western countries with respect to acupuncture services.

  12. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia. (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter


    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.

  13. Maverick Firms: An Exploratory Analysis of Mortgage Providers in Australia


    Robert Breunig; Flavio Menezes


    This paper develops an empirical strategy to measure maverick-like behaviour. It applies the strategy to a dataset that contains interest rates charged by mortgage providers in Australia from January 2003 to October 2006. The Reserve Bank of Australia raised its cash rate five times in this period, which provides a natural setting to observe suppliers� responses. We examine suppliers� behaviour both in terms of the rates they charge and the time it takes them to change their rates as a re...

  14. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia. (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una


    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.

  15. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.


    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  16. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete;


    Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....

  17. Do Accredited Undergraduate Accounting Programmes in Australia Meet the Needs and Expectations of the Accounting Profession? (United States)

    Bayerlein, Leopold; Timpson, Mel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the overall alignment of undergraduate accounting degree programmes from all Certified Practicing Accountants Australia and Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand accredited higher education providers in Australia with the profession's minimum educational expectations (MEEs).…

  18. Senate Inquiry into the Role of Libraries in the Online Environment: Submission from Public Libraries Australia (United States)

    Australian Library Journal, 2006


    This submission represents the views of a newly formed organisation known as Public Libraries Australia. Formed to aggregate the political, service and infrastructure capacity of Australia's 1510 (ABS June 2000) public libraries, Public Libraries Australia will support and represent public libraries on a national basis. Networked across Australia…

  19. The Crisis Discourse of a Wicked Policy Problem: Vocational Skills Training in Australia (United States)

    Garrick, Barbara


    In 2007 the Rudd Labor government in Australia introduced significant changes to education policy for the nation. The "Skilling Australia's Future" (Rudd et al. "Skilling Australia for the future. Election 2007 policy document," 2007) policy was meant to redress a perceived failure by the previous Howard federal Liberal-National Coalition…

  20. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (United States)


    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members... authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

  1. Dengue Fever-Associated Maculopathy and Panuveitis in Australia. (United States)

    Ooi, K G-J; Inglis, H; Paramanathan, N; Downie, J A; Hennessy, M P


    Purpose. To describe a case of dengue fever-associated maculopathy and panuveitis to raise awareness of these ophthalmic complications of dengue in Australia in the light of recent increasing numbers of outbreaks from equatorial through to tropical Australia. Case Report. A 37-year-old Caucasian Australian male returning from Cambodia presented with a bilateral dengue fever-associated maculopathy with left panuveitis diagnosed clinically and haematologically. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral paracentral scotomas while optical coherence tomography demonstrated the maculopathies to be of the diffuse retinal thickening type in the right eye and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) type in the left eye. He was treated conservatively with only topical steroids and cycloplegia and made a full clinical visual recovery. Conclusion. Our case study underscores the importance of the awareness of the ophthalmic complications of dengue fever as despite their rarity they can be potentially sight threatening. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise in Australia with increased global warming and the distribution of Aedes aegypti into subtropical Australia.

  2. Teacher Workforce Data and Planning Processes in Australia (United States)

    Owen, Susanne; Kos, Julie; McKenzie, Phillip


    Workforce planning is essential to ensure sufficient numbers of well-qualified teachers and leaders to meet the emerging needs of schools in the 21st century. Given the current ageing workforce profile in Australia, there are concerns about teacher shortage, especially in some specialist subject areas, in rural and remote locations and in…

  3. Senior Secondary Workplace Learning and Transition Success in Australia (United States)

    Gemici, Sinan; Curtis, David D.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of participation in workplace learning among senior secondary students in Australia. Work placements are deemed to be effective if they meet policy objectives of improving student transitions by (a) enhancing Year 12 completion rates and (b) increasing the engagement of…

  4. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue


    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  5. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future (United States)

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles


    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  6. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.


    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  7. Bibliography of Education Theses in Australia. Number 20. (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.

    This document is a collection of 483 abstracts of theses in the field of education from institutions of higher education in Australia. Introductory information includes explanatory material, a sample abstract, and listings of subject coverage for the included theses, Australian universities and the higher degrees they offer, and thesis authors by…

  8. Multi-triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infections in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidd, S.E.; Goeman, E.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Slavin, M.A.; Verweij, P.E.


    The emergence of triazole resistance, including multi-triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is being reported around the world, but there has been little evidence of this problem to date in Australia. Here we describe a retrospective search of antifungal susceptibility results of all Australian c

  9. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding


    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  10. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian John


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  11. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice (United States)

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue


    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  12. School Health Programs in Australia - A Special Insert. (United States)

    Nader, Philip R.; Rissel, Chris; Rowling, Louise; Marshall, Bernard J.; Sheehan, Margaret M.; Northfield, Jeff R.; Maher, Shelley; Carlisle, Rachel; St. Leger, Lawrence H.; Stewart, Donald E.; Parker, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Amaya; Stokes, Helen; Mukherjee, Dev; Nutbeam, Don; Mitchell, Anne; Ollis, Debbie; Watson, Jan


    Eight papers on Australia's school health programs discuss: creating health promoting schools in the United States; intersectoral collaboration for developing a national framework for health promoting schools; school-based health promotion nationwide; auditing health promoting schools policy documentation; the nature of health service/school…

  13. A brief history of solar-terrestrial physics in Australia (United States)

    Fraser, B. J.


    Solar-terrestrial physics research in Australia began in 1792 when de Rossel measured the southern hemisphere geomagnetic field at Recherche Bay on the southern tip of Tasmania, proving the field magnitude and direction varied with latitude. This was the time when the French and British were competing to chart and explore the new world. From the early twentieth century Australian solar-terrestrial physics research concentrated on radio wave propagation and communication, which by the 1950s fed into the International Geophysical Year in the areas of atmosphere and ionosphere physics, and geomagnetism, with some concentration on Antarctic research. This was also the era of increased studies of solar activity and the discovery of the magnetosphere and the beginning of the space age. In the 1960s, Australia became a world leader in solar physics which led to radio astronomy discoveries. This paper outlines the historical development of solar-terrestrial physics in Australia and its international connections over the years and concludes with examples of specific research areas where Australia has excelled.

  14. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools (United States)

    Hamann, Berta


    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  15. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy


    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  16. The Art of Being an English Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Loyden, Grace


    The role of the English teacher in Australia is constantly being negotiated and with every ideological development teachers are positioned to question their professional values and practices. Much attention has been afforded to this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an analysis of the evolution of the art of being an English…

  17. Anti-Nuclear Attitudes in New Zealand and Australia, (United States)


    the English language shall be depos- ited in the Archives of the Government of Australia. Duly certified copies thereof will be transmitted by that Gov...OYRESOLUT oN TESI HR Lw ANTI-NUIFAR AITIIuIIms IN Niw ZIAtANI AN[) AUsIRAIIA Composed with text and display lines in Optima Cover art by Laszlo [. Bodrogi

  18. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.


    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  19. Dengue Fever-Associated Maculopathy and Panuveitis in Australia (United States)

    Inglis, H.; Paramanathan, N.; Downie, J. A.; Hennessy, M. P.


    Purpose. To describe a case of dengue fever-associated maculopathy and panuveitis to raise awareness of these ophthalmic complications of dengue in Australia in the light of recent increasing numbers of outbreaks from equatorial through to tropical Australia. Case Report. A 37-year-old Caucasian Australian male returning from Cambodia presented with a bilateral dengue fever-associated maculopathy with left panuveitis diagnosed clinically and haematologically. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral paracentral scotomas while optical coherence tomography demonstrated the maculopathies to be of the diffuse retinal thickening type in the right eye and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) type in the left eye. He was treated conservatively with only topical steroids and cycloplegia and made a full clinical visual recovery. Conclusion. Our case study underscores the importance of the awareness of the ophthalmic complications of dengue fever as despite their rarity they can be potentially sight threatening. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise in Australia with increased global warming and the distribution of Aedes aegypti into subtropical Australia. PMID:28078150

  20. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers (United States)

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea


    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  1. Framing the Framework: Discourses in Australia's National Values Education Policy (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany Mary


    In the past, many Australian state schools avoided teaching about values explicitly. However, the Australian government released Australia's first official values education policy in 2005: the "National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools" (NFVEAS). This framework represents a local manifestation of the recent…

  2. Net settler migration to Australia by birthplace: 1947-98. (United States)

    Price, C A


    "Between 1947 and 1998 there was a net inflow of 4.8 million migrants to Australia. Only 29.6 per cent were born in Britain and Ireland. Other surprising findings are that more were born in Indo China than Greece and Cyprus and that more were born in New Zealand than Italy."

  3. Mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang; Offenberg, Hans Joachim;


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) and to clarify the factors that related to the nuptial flight. The nuptial flight was investigated over three seasons in the Darwin area, Australia, in which a total of 19 swarmings were observed...

  4. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, Suhella


    , chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses, the introduction of exotic vectors, and the potential range expansion of key Australian vectors. Environmental and anthropogenic influences provide additional uncertainty regarding the future impact of mosquito-borne pathogens in Australia. This review discusses...

  5. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out? (United States)

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.


    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  6. Language Attrition, Language Shift, and Ethnolinguistic Vitality in Australia. (United States)

    Yagmur, Kutlay; de Bot, Kees; Korzilius, Hubert


    Presents findings of research investigating first-language attrition of Turkish speakers in Australia and the role of subjunctive ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions in that process. Examines the relationship between societal factors and individuals' perceptions of the language contact situation as reflected in their speech behavior. (Author/VWL)

  7. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.


    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in Australi

  8. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies (United States)

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.


    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  9. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia (United States)

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman


    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  10. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John


    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  11. A new species of Austrothaumalea Tonnoir from Australia (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). (United States)

    Pivar, Robert J; Moulton, John K; Sinclair, Bradley J


    Austrothaumalea spiculata sp. nov. is described from Grampians National Park, in southwest Victoria (Australia). It is known only from the type series and is the second species of Thaumaleidae recorded from the Park. Illustrations of the male terminalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided. Phylogenetic affinities are hypothesized and an updated species identification key is offered.

  12. Australia looks to small hydro for greenhouse gas reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Apress release, issued by the government of the state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, says water releases from the state's dams could be used to provide renewable, pollution-free electricity,as well as eliminate the production of more than 260,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year.

  13. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy


    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  14. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's Major Trading Partners across the GFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financ

  15. Australia Won First Contract to Supply LPG to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corp.(CNOOC)declared on August 8, 2002 that Australia Liquefied Natural Gas Company (ALNG) affiliated to Woodside Petroleum Corporation has been accepted as the supplier of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for its LNG distribution station in Guangdong Province.

  16. Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  17. Leaning Too Far? PISA, Policy and Australia's "Top Five" Ambitions (United States)

    Gorur, Radhika; Wu, Margaret


    Australia has declared its ambition to be within the "top five" in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by 2025. So serious is it about this ambition, that the Australian Government has incorporated it into the "Australian Education Act, 2013". Given this focus on PISA results and rankings, we go beyond…

  18. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally


    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  19. Livistona palms in Australia: ancient relics or opportunistic immigrants? (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D; Isagi, Yuji; Kato, Yohei; Cook, Lyn G; Bowman, David M J S


    Eighteen of the 34 species of the fan palm genus Livistona (Arecaceae) are restricted to Australia and southern New Guinea, east of Wallace's Line, an ancient biogeographic boundary between the former supercontinents Laurasia and Gondwana. The remaining species extend from SE Asia to Africa, west of Wallace's Line. Competing hypotheses contend that Livistona is (a) ancient, its current distribution a relict of the supercontinents, or (b) a Miocene immigrant from the north into Australia as it drifted towards Asia. We have tested these hypotheses using Bayesian and penalized likelihood molecular dating based on 4Kb of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences with multiple fossil calibration points. Ancestral areas and biomes were reconstructed using parsimony and maximum likelihood. We found strong support for the second hypothesis, that a single Livistona ancestor colonized Australia from the north about 10-17Ma. Spread and diversification of the genus within Australia was likely favoured by a transition from the aseasonal wet to monsoonal biome, to which it could have been preadapted by fire-tolerance.

  20. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S


    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  1. Universal Service in a Participatory Democracy: A Perspective from Australia. (United States)

    de Reuck, John; Joseph, Richard


    Discusses universal service policy in telecommunications in Australia in an historical context. Maintains that given the dynamic growth in information technologies, universal service should be reconceptualized within a knowledge-based discourse critically linked to considerations for deepening participatory democracy and that funding should be…

  2. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s. (United States)

    Lamb, Stephen


    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  3. The Economics of a Multicultural Australia: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Stanton, P. J.; And Others


    The growth of a multicultural Australia is generating debate on the economic effects of multiculturalism. This paper examines the extent to which competing claims can draw support from the literature and the extent to which economic issues arising from the growth of a multicultural Australian society have been identified and assessed.(30…

  4. Towards 2000: Directions for Australia’s Military Strategy (United States)


    citing Australia’s low population density as evidence of the attractiveness of the continent to the overpopulated * nations to her the United States test the MX missile. Yesterday the Victorian labour Unity faction, the support base for Mr Bob Hawke, the Prime Minister

  5. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian


    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  6. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia (United States)


    ... litchi fruit with up to 5 millimeters of stem into the continental United States from Australia. The threshold allowing for a maximum of 5 millimeters of stem on the imported litchi fruit was included in... punctiferalis). Litchi fruit moth (Cryptophlebia ombrodelta). Orange fruit borer (Isotenes miserana). The...

  7. Mitigating the Risk of Transfusion-Transmitted Dengue in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rooks


    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV 1–4 are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT cases reported globally. DENV 1–4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia. Plasma samples were collected from blood donors during local dengue outbreaks. All samples were tested for the presence of DENV RNA and selected samples were tested for DENV antigen (nonstructural protein 1, NS1 with two assays. No donors residing in high risk areas had detectable levels of DENV RNA or NS1 and no cases of DENV viremia were detected in blood donors residing in areas of Australia experiencing DENV outbreaks. Definitive conclusions could not be drawn from this study; however, the lack of detection of DENV RNA or antigen in donations suggests that the current risk of TT-DENV is low and maintaining the fresh component restriction for “at-risk” donors is appropriate.

  8. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations. (United States)

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal


    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  9. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009


    Staff, Michael; Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie


    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface.

  10. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009 (United States)

    Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie


    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface. PMID:22709539

  11. Patterns of Cultural Adjustment among Young Migrants to Australia (United States)

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.


    In response to appeals for empirical data on culture-specific differences and developmental pathways of acculturative stress among young migrants and refugees, the present study examines the cultural adjustment patterns of ethnically diverse migrants to Australia. Two hundred and seventy three primary and high school students (comprised of…

  12. Soils Governance in Australia: challenges of cooperative federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Williams


    Full Text Available This paper analyses soil governance in Australia and the challenges facing sustainable natural resource management within the context of a cooperative system of federation and a globalised market economy. With only 6 per cent of the Australian landmass considered arable, one would assume that protecting Australia’s valuable soil resource would be of national significance. However, Australia currently lacks nationally consistent policies and legal instruments to ensure that its soil is protected, maintained and enhanced for future generations. While recognising that soil governance is a broad discipline encompassing many areas of soil science and management, this discussion will only focus on the soil conservation aspects of sustainable ecosystems and sustainable food and fibre in Australia; it will not explore in depth issues of soil contamination and other pollution related areas. The paper discusses: the state of Australian soils and the managers of these resources; current soil governance in Australia (based on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations definition; and a case study example of an Australian state approach to landuse conflict and the protection of agricultural lands. The paper highlights policies and institutional arrangements required for the protection of Australian soil and the very communities that are attempting to steward these resources for future generations.

  13. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia (United States)


    ... Mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae) Fungi Cytosphaera mangiferae Fusarium spp. complex... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD52 Importation of Mangoes From... importation of fresh mangoes from Australia into the continental United States. As a condition of entry,...

  14. Modelling the Balassa-Samuelson Effect in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshed Chowdhury


    Full Text Available This paper examines the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis in Australia using the ARDL cointegrationframework. Evidence was found of a significant long-run relationship between real exchange rate andAustralia-US productivity differential during the period of 1950-2003. The results indicate that a one per centincrease in labour productivity in Australia relative to the US will lead to 5.6 per cent appreciation in the realexchange rate of Australia. The estimated coefficient for the error correction term is -0.1983 and is highlysignificant, indicating that the deviation from the long term real exchange rate equilibrium path is correctedby nearly 20 per cent over the following year. The Author suspects that the elasticity coefficient is “overestimated”due to the exclusion of relevant explanatory variables in the analytical model. The real exchangerate movements are affected by real fundamentals and policy-induced shifts in its real fundamentals. Thefundamentals include the terms of trade, government expenditure, real interest rate differentials, net foreignliabilities among others along with labour productivity differential.

  15. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia (United States)

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert


    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  16. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine


    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  17. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective. (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam


    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  18. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons


    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  19. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  20. A discussion of multiculturalism in Australia from educators' perspective. (United States)

    Arasaratnam, Lily A


    This study is an exploration of the views of non-indigenous Australian tertiary educators (N = 22) on multiculturalism and its effects on Australian society. Thematic analysis was used to identify four dominant themes in interviews conducted with the participants. The results are discussed within the themes of Australian identity, attitudes toward multiculturalism, the role of education/educators in multiculturalism, and the future of multicultural Australia. The results reveal that, while there are strong concerns about current policies, tertiary educators have favourable views toward multiculturalism and believe that multicultural views should be integrated into the curriculum from primary education onwards. Despite growing cultural diversity, results further indicate that there is a gap between the ideology and the practice of multiculturalism in Australia.

  1. A Pilot Tsunami Inundation Forecast System for Australia (United States)

    Allen, Stewart C. R.; Greenslade, Diana J. M.


    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JATWC) provides a tsunami warning service for Australia. Warnings are currently issued according to a technique that does not include explicit modelling at the coastline, including any potential coastal inundation. This paper investigates the feasibility of developing and implementing tsunami inundation modelling as part of the JATWC warning system. An inundation model was developed for a site in Southeast Australia, on the basis of the availability of bathymetric and topographic data and observations of past tsunamis. The model was forced using data from T2, the operational deep-water tsunami scenario database currently used for generating warnings. The model was evaluated not only for its accuracy but also for its computational speed, particularly with respect to operational applications. Limitations of the proposed forecast processes in the Australian context and areas requiring future improvement are discussed.

  2. An Impact Crater in Palm Valley, Central Australia?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; O'Neill, Craig; Britton, Tui R


    We explore the origin of a ~280 m wide, heavily eroded circular depression in Palm Valley, Northern Territory, Australia using gravity, morphological, and mineralogical data collected from a field survey in September 2009. From the analysis of the survey, we debate probable formation processes, namely erosion and impact, as no evidence of volcanism is found in the region or reported in the literature. We argue that the depression was not formed by erosion and consider an impact origin, although we acknowledge that diagnostics required to identify it as such (e.g. meteorite fragments, shatter cones, shocked quartz) are lacking, leaving the formation process uncertain. We encourage further discussion of the depression's origin and stress a need to develop recognition criteria that can help identify small, ancient impact craters. We also encourage systematic searches for impact craters in Central Australia as it is probable that many more remain to be discovered.

  3. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia. (United States)

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting


    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  4. Foodborne illness, Australia, circa 2000 and circa 2010. (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn; Ford, Laura; Glass, Kathryn; Hall, Gillian


    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred, and circa 2000, 4.3 million cases occurred. Circa 2010, contaminated food was estimated to be responsible for 30,840 gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations, 76 associated deaths, and 5,140 nongastrointestinal illnesses. Cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis increased from 2000 to 2010 and were the leading causes of gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations; Listeria monocytogenes and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. infections were the leading causes of death. Although the overall incidence of foodborne illnesses declined over time in Australia, cases of foodborne gastroenteritis are still common.

  5. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R


    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human...... cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein...... gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  6. On the "hidden" phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves (United States)

    Kämpf, Jochen; Kavi, Ankit


    Phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves are revisited using satellite-derived monthly data of chlorophyll a concentrations for the period 2003-2015. It is known that the region hosts a seasonal coastal upwelling system that develops in austral summer (January-March) with chlorophyll a concentrations of >2 mg/m3. While this summer upwelling is spatially limited to a few hot spots, here we show that widespread phytoplankton blooms of moderate ( 1 mg/m3) chlorophyll a concentrations develop during autumn and early winter on most of Australia's extensive southern shelves—from the vast shelves of the Great Australian Bight (GAB) in the west to Bass Strait in the east. This surprising finding disproves the widespread belief that shelf waters of the GAB are generally oligotrophic and may explain the relatively high abundance of both forage fish (sardines) and upper trophic-level predators (e.g., tuna and whales) in the region.

  7. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson


    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE


    Full Text Available This research examines, from a qualitative perspective, some public opinion related to issues associated with the management of a tensed situation. In that process, it identifies some of the subtle differences in the Anglo-Latino cultural expectations. Martin, an Argentine tourist, contracted the Gullien-Barre syndrome in Australia, while enjoying his honeymoon vacation on a Tasmanian island with his partner Carolina. With the passing of days, Martin lost his mobility and was finally hospitalized in emergency. Doctors induced Martin into a coma temporarily because his muscles were paralyzed by the action of the virus. Health costs were more expensive than the family could absorb in Australia. The family had to request the intervention of the Argentine embassy and chancellery for help. In other words, this incident contrasts two world views: hospitality as the institution that historically developed to care and protect travelers versus hospitality as the commercial practice of exploitation.

  9. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia. (United States)

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J


    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  10. Current Behaviours and Attitudes Towards Texting While Driving in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Beasley, Keiran


    This paper aims to understand the behaviour of texting and driving among the broader driving public in Australia and uncover whether attitudes are congruent with behaviours. Recent studies have generally been focussing on the behaviours of 18-24 year olds suggesting that the practice is mainly...... confined to people in this age bracket. Findings from an anonymous online survey show that the practice of texting and driving is widespread in Australia and not just confined to the younger demographic. Additionally, evidence suggests smart phone users are more likely to engage in texting while driving....... The paper also reveals that a majority of people continue to text and drive despite having strong views on the dangers associated with the practice....

  11. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James


    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  12. Disease control during the colonial period in Australia. (United States)

    Turner, A J


    The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian.

  13. First case of Francisella bacteraemia in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Aravena-Román


    Full Text Available Francisella species are Gram-negative, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccobacilli, facultative intracellular fastidious bacteria. We report the isolation of a Francisella-like species from a blood culture collected from a 44-year-old bacteraemic patient in Perth, Western Australia. The organism was identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing and by fatty acid methyl esters analysis. The strain genotypically resembled Francisella hispaniensis, a species previously isolated from human blood in Spain.

  14. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia. (United States)

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Mirtschin, Peter; Pearn, John


    It was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by Bancroft in Queensland and Martin in Sydney and Melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of Australian toxinology. This Australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from Europe and the Americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. The subsequent systematic study of Australian venoms and toxins through to the 1930s and beyond, by Tidswell, Fairley, Ross, Kellaway and Cleland, set the foundation for Australia's leading reputation in venom research. As elsewhere, this development was to revolutionise the medical management of those victims who in the past had died in Australia from our venomous and toxic fauna. Morgan, Graydon, Weiner, Lane and Baxter at the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories emphasised the importance of cooperation between those expert at catching and milking the venomous creatures and those developing the antivenoms. Commercial antivenom manufacture began in Australia in 1930 with the tiger snake antivenom. This was followed by other antivenoms for the other important species (1955: taipan; 1956: brown snake; 1958: death adder; 1959: Papuan black snake; 1961: sea snake; 1962: polyvalent) including the first marine antivenoms in the world (1956: stonefish antivenom; 1970: box jellyfish) culminating, in 1980, with the release of the funnel web spider antivenom. More recent activity has focused on veterinary antivenoms and production of new generation human antivenoms for export (CroFab and ViperaTAB). This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century.

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Veterinary parasitology in Australia--a short history. (United States)

    Beveridge, I; Besier, R B


    As an important producer and exporter of livestock products, animal health has always been of major significance to the Australian economy, and research into efficient parasite control has continued since the 1800s. With substantial research achievements also involving parasites of companion animals and wildlife, Australian parasitologists have made numerous contributions of global significance. This summary outlines the development of investigations into parasite biology and parasitic disease in Australia.

  17. Trading in Treasury Bond Futures Contracts and Bonds in Australia


    Belinda Cheung


    Treasury bond futures are a key financial product in Australia, with turnover in Treasury bond futures contracts significantly larger than turnover in the market for Commonwealth Government securities (CGS). Treasury bond futures contracts provide a wide variety of market participants with the ability to hedge against, or gain exposure to, interest rate risk. This article discusses some of the features of the Treasury bond futures contract, and how the contract is used to facilitate hedging a...

  18. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia. (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A


    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  19. Forms of Memory in Post-colonial Australia

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    Lyn McCredden


    Full Text Available there are many forms of memory in post-colonial Australia, and many kinds of haunting. This paper investigates the poetry of contemporary Indigenous poets Sam Wagan Watson and Tony Birch, and reads the script of the Federal Government’s February 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, asking how and why the nation should be haunted – historically and imaginatively - into the future.

  20. Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; McMahon, Jamie L.; Harrower, Bruce J; Constantino, Tanya R; van den Hurk, Andrew F


    Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine. Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage. Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region. PMID:27679739

  1. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand



    Purpose of the review: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are.Recent findings: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgrad...

  2. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

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    Debono, Josephine C, E-mail: [Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Poulos, Ann E [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Houssami, Nehmat [Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health (A27), Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Turner, Robin M [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Boyages, John [Macquarie University Cancer Institute, Macquarie University Hospital, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia)


    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.





    This paper investigates the nature of money supply in Australia over two separate monetary policy regimes: monetary and inflation targeting. The post-Keynesian theory on endogenous money was tested with the aim of investigating whether endogenous money supply, if it did exist, followed the accomodationist, structuralist or liquidity preference viewpoints. Data used are quarterly series from 1977 to 2007 and we used vector error-correction model for long-run and short-run causality tests. We f...

  4. Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming Offset Obstacles

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    James Fitzsimons


    Full Text Available Biodiversity offsets can be an important tool for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite negative environmental impacts. There are now approximately 45 compensatory mitigation programs for biodiversity impacts worldwide, with another 27 programs in development. While offsets have great potential as a conservation tool, their establishment requires overcoming a number of conceptual and methodological hurdles. In Australia, new policy changes at the national and state (i.e., Western Australia level require that offsets follow a set of general principles: (1 Environmental offsets may not be appropriate for all projects and will only be considered after avoidance and mitigation options have been pursued; (2 Environmental offsets will be based on sound environmental information and knowledge; (3 Establishing goals for offsets requires an estimate of expected direct and indirect impacts; (4 Environmental offsets will be focused on longer term strategic outcomes; (5 Environmental offsets will be cost-effective, as well as relevant and proportionate to the significance of the environmental value being impacted. Here we focus on the challenges of determining and implementing offsets using a real world example from a voluntary offset process undertaken for Barrick Gold’s Kanowna Belle mine site in Western Australia to highlight those challenges and potential solutions.

  5. Pharmaceuticals in Australia: developments in regulation and governance. (United States)

    Lofgren, Hans; Boer, Rebecca de


    The pharmaceutical domain represents a type of internationalised policy network theorised in recent writings on neo-liberalism, neo-corporatism and governance. This article presents an analysis of developments in prescription drug regulation in Australia. A relatively stable, state-managed pattern of interaction has been superseded by less closed exchange, and the government itself has fragmented into agencies pursuing different objectives. Developments in the three core regulatory areas are described: safety and efficacy controls, social policy (access and equity), and state support for industry (economic) development. Consensus-building occurs within the context of the National Medicines Policy. The pharmaceutical industry, represented by Medicines Australia, has a stake in all aspects of pharmaceutical policy and regulation, and draws upon unique resources (expertise and lobbying capacity). The context for the developments described is Australia's abandonment of a protectionist version of the Keynesian welfare national state in favour of the model of the competition state, which is oriented towards support for the growth of high technology industries such as pharmaceuticals, premised on partnerships with business.

  6. Geodynamic evolution of early Mesozoic sedimentary basins in eastern Australia (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Babaahmadi, A.; Esterle, J.


    Eastern Australia is covered by a series of continental sedimentary basins deposited during the Triassic and Jurassic, but the geodynamic context of these basins is not fully understood. Using gridded aeromagnetic data, seismic reflection data, geological maps, digital elevation models, and field observations, we conducted a structural synthesis aimed at characterizing major structures and deformation style in the Triassic-Jurassic sedimentary basins of eastern Australia. Our results show evidence for four alternating episodes of rifting and contractional events during the Triassic. Two major episodes of rifting, characterized by syn-sedimentary steep normal faults and bimodal volcanism, resulted in the development of the Early-Middle Triassic Esk-Nymboida Rift System and the early Late Triassic Ipswich Basin. Faults in the Esk-Nymboida Rift System have been controlled by a pre-existing oroclinal structure. Each phase of rifting was followed by a contractional event, which produced folds, reverse faults and unconformities in the basins. Since the latest Late Triassic, thermal subsidence led to the deposition of continental sediments in the Clarence-Moreton Basin, which continued until the Early Cretaceous. We suggest that the geodynamic control on the alternating episodes of rifting and contraction during the Triassic in eastern Australia was ultimately related to plate boundary migration and switches between trench retreat and advance.


    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva


    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.

  8. A national programme for mastitis control in Australia: Countdown Downunder

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    Brightling PB


    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, Countdown Downunder, Australia's national mastitis and cell count control programme, was created. With funding from the country's leading dairy organisation, Dairy Australia, this programme was originally intended to run for three years but is now in its tenth year. As it was the first time Australia had attempted a national approach to mastitis control on the farm, the first three years of the programme were largely concerned with the development of resources to be used by farmers and service providers. The second three years were devoted to training with both groups. Since that time, Countdown Downunder has entered into a second resource development phase. The goal of the programme was to achieve a reduction in the bulk milk somatic cell count from the Australian dairy herd. To achieve this, the programme had to develop resources with clear and consistent messages around mastitis and somatic cell count control on farms. It was determined that progress toward the goals would be made more rapidly if service providers were trained in the use of these resources prior to farmers. This paper reviews the Countdown Downunder programme from 1998 to 2007.

  9. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia. (United States)

    Glass, K; Fearnley, E; Hocking, H; Raupach, J; Veitch, M; Ford, L; Kirk, M D


    Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. We adopt a Bayesian source attribution model to estimate the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010, together with 95% credible intervals (CrI). We excluded known travel associated cases and those of rare subtypes (fewer than 20 human cases or fewer than 10 isolates from included sources over the 11-year period), and the remaining 76% of cases were classified as sporadic or outbreak associated. Source-related parameters were included to allow for different handling and consumption practices. We attributed 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. A comparison of alternative model assumptions indicated that biases due to possible clustering of samples from sources had relatively minor effects on these estimates. Analysis of source-related parameters showed higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from contaminated chicken meat, suggesting that consumption and handling practices potentially play a bigger role in illness due to eggs, considering low Salmonella prevalence on eggs. Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia.

  10. Implementing a Process for Integration Research: Ecosystem Services Project, Australia

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    Steven J. Cork


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and implementation of a multi-phase interactive process among a set of scientists, policy makers, land managers, and community representatives, so as to facilitate communication, mutual understanding, and participative decision making. This was part of the Ecosystem Services Project in Australia. The project sought to broaden public understanding about the natural ecosystems in Australia. The study reported here pertains to one of the project sites--the Goulburn Broken catchment, a highly productive agricultural watershed in the south-east of Australia. The paper demonstrates how, starting from a condition of diversity of ideas and interests among the participants, systematic dialogue and mutual learning could be generated, leading to identification of options for more sustainable land management practices. The concept of “ecosystem services” was used as an integrative tool across disciplines and community perspectives. The concept of scenarios was used to encourage future-focussed thinking among the participants. The idea of “stakeholder jury” was used to promote deliberation. A process of multi-criteria evaluation was used to facilitate convergence of viewpoints, through informed trade-offs and compromises. This experience led to the development of a process for integration research, which helped in harmonising across diverse understandings and values in a transparent and structured manner.

  11. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia. (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T


    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  12. AIRSAR deployment in Australia, September 1993: Management and objectives (United States)

    Milne, A. K.; Tapley, I. J.


    Past co-operation between the NASA Earth Science and Applications Division and the CSIRO and Australian university researchers has led to a number of mutually beneficial activities. These include the deployment of the C-130 aircraft with TIMS, AIS, and NS001 sensors in Australia in 1985; collaboration between scientists from the USA and Australia in soils research which has extended for the past decade; and in the development of imaging spectroscopy where DSIRO and NASA have worked closely together and regularly exchanged visiting scientists. In May this year TIMS was flown in eastern Australia on board a CSIRO-owned aircraft together with a CSIRO-designed CO2 laser spectrometer. The Science Investigation Team for the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIRC-C) Program includes one Australian Principal Investigator and ten Australian co-investigators who will work on nine projects related to studying land and near-shore surfaces after the Shuttle flight scheduled for April 1994. This long-term continued joint collaboration was progressed further with the deployment of AIRSAR downunder in September 1993. During a five week period, the DC-8 aircraft flew in all Australian states and collected data from some 65 individual test sites.

  13. The increasing financial impact of chronic kidney disease in australia. (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Kingsley, Michael I; Morton, R Hugh; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J


    The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal replacement therapy (RRT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation prior to analysis. Between 2012 and 2020, prevalence, per-patient expenditure, and total disease expenditure associated with CKD and RRT are estimated to increase significantly more rapidly than CVD. RRT prevalence is estimated to increase by 29%, compared to 7% in CVD. Average annual RRT per-patient expenditure is estimated to increase by 16%, compared to 8% in CVD. Total CKD- and RRT-related expenditure had been estimated to increase by 37%, compared to 14% in CVD. Per-patient, CKD produces a considerably greater financial impact on Australia's healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.

  14. The remittances of migrant Tongan and Samoan nurses from Australia

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    Brown Richard PC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and remittances are of considerable importance in the small Pacific island states. There has been a significant migration of skilled health workers in recent decades to metropolitan fringe states, including Australia and New Zealand. This paper reports the findings of a re-analysis of survey of Samoan and Tongan migrants in Australia where the sample is split between nurse households and others. Methods The study analyzes the survey data with a view to comparing the remittance behaviour and determinants of remittances for nurses and other migrant households, using both descriptive, cross-tabulations and appropriate econometric methods. Results It is found that a significantly higher proportion of nurse households sent remittances home, and, on average remitted more. Remittances of nurse households did not decline significantly over time contrary to what has generally been predicted. This was in contrast to other migrant households in the sample, for whom remittances showed a sharp decline after 15 years absence. Remittances contribute much more to the income of migrant sending countries, than the cost of the additional human capital in nurse training. Conclusions Given the shortage of nurses in Australia and New Zealand, and therefore the high demand for immigrant nurses, investment by Pacific island governments and families in nurse training constitutes a rational use of economic resources. Policies encouraging investment in home countries may be more effective than policies directly discouraging brain drain in contributing to national development.

  15. The Status of Industrial Ecology in Australia: Barriers and Enablers

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    Glen D. Corder


    Full Text Available Drawing on current international industrial ecology thinking and experiences with Australian initiatives, this article critically overviews the current status of industrial ecology in Australia and examines the barriers and potential strategies to realise greater uptake and application of the concept. The analysis is conducted across three categories: heavy industrial areas (including Kwinana and Gladstone, mixed industrial parks (Wagga Wagga and Port Melbourne, and waste exchange networks, and identifies the past and future significance of seven different types of barriers—regulation, information, community, economic, technical, cooperation and trust, commitment to sustainable development—for each of the three categories. The outcomes from this analysis highlight that regulation, information, and economic barriers for heavy industrial area and mixed industrial parks, and economic and technical barriers for waste exchange networks are the current and future focus for industrial ecology applications in Australia. These findings appear to be consistent with recently published frameworks and learnings. The authors propose key questions that could enhance greater adoption of industrial ecology applications in Australia and acknowledge that international research and experiences, while partly providing answers to these questions, need to be adapted and refined for the Australian context.

  16. The Predictive Power of Financial Variables: New Evidence from Australia

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    Piyadasa Edirisuriya


    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to examine the predictive power of financial variables for numerous countries, but rarely does such research focus on future economic activities with respect to Australia. Financial variables are used to predict future economic events primarily because these variables are the closest indicators of the expectations and activities of investors and other economic agents. The recent global financial crisis (GFC stemming from the subprime crisis shows that financial markets significantly influence global macroeconomic activities. In this study, we use major financial variables, such as the 90-day Treasury bill rate, 10-year Treasury bond rate, interest rate spread, and Australian stock index data. Similar to the housing prices in some other countries, those in Australia play a key role in future economic activities. In addition to financial variables, housing stock data is incorporated into our model for more realistic results, which are obtained by probit maximum likelihood estimation. We also use a general model for forecasting Australia’s GDP growth until the third quarter of 2012. The results support previous research findings, indicating that financial variables are a useful tool for forecasting future economic activities in Australia.

  17. Phytophilous caridean shrimps (Atyidae and Palaemonidae in Salsa river (Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

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    Lucas Rezende Penido Paschoal

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the role of three species of macrophytes in the population of caridean shrimps in the Salsa river (Northeastern of Brazil. Results revealed that macrophytes have important functions and directly responsible for modulating the spatial distribution of these shrimp species.

  18. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences. (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L


    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  19. Assistive technology pricing in Australia: is it efficient and equitable? (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George


    Objective To examine available systematically collected evidence regarding prices for assistive technology (AT; e.g. disability aids and equipment) in Australia with other comparable countries. Issues of appropriate AT pricing are coming to the fore as a consequence of efforts to move to consumer-centric purchasing decisions with the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and also in the recent aged care reforms.Methods We identified and present three sets of AT price comparisons. Two comparisons were based solely on the lowest prices advertised on the internet, and one comparison examined recommended retail prices. Variables essential to ensuring accurate comparisons, as well as significant supply-chain issues were also examined and considered in the analyses.Results The first internet-only price comparison found that overall AT prices were 38% higher in Australia compared to other countries, but did not factor in shipping and other related costs that are essential to include given that most AT is imported. The second internet-only price comparison found that overall Australian prices were 24% lower when shipping and related costs were included. The recommended retail price comparisons found that Australian prices were between 14% and 27% lower. Prices for internet-only retailers (those with no bricks-and-mortar presence) are consistently lower for all products than those sold by retailers with actual shop-fronts. Further, there is no evidence of suppliers earning supranormal profits in Australia.Conclusions The results indicate that AT prices in Australia are efficient and equitable, with no significant indicators of market failure which would require government intervention. Efforts to reduce prices through the excessive use of large-scale government procurement programs are likely to reduce diversity and innovation in AT and raise AT prices over time. Open markets and competition with centralised tracking of purchases and providers to minimise possible

  20. Public beliefs about treatment and outcome of mental disorders: a comparison of Australia and Japan


    Yoshioka Kumiko; Christensen Helen; Nakane Yoshibumi; Jorm Anthony F; Griffiths Kathleen M; Wata Yuji


    Abstract Background Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health literacy can limit the optimal use of treatment services. Australia and Japan are countries with very different mental health care systems, with Japan emphasising hospital care and Australia more oriented to community care. Japan is also more collectivist and Australia mo...

  1. Development of High Fructose Syrup in the US and its Implications for Australia


    Niall, D. Jane; Smith, Rhonda L.


    Sugar is an important agricultural export for Australia, hence developments affecting the world market are of concern. Alternative sweeteners, in particular High Fructose Syrups, are making inroads into the United States sugar market, one of the traditional destinations for Australia sugar exports. With sugar currently in oversupply on the world market Australia is affected by this development both through erosion of her markets and through lower prices. In this paper the development of the H...

  2. Countering the Resource Curse: A Comparative Analysis of Political Economy for Chile and Australia (United States)


    changed all that, and Australia now is the largest exporter of iron ore in the world. Mining operations in Australia form a complex legislative web in...101 Bell and Hindmoor, “Structural power of business and the Australian mining tax,” 471. 102 Kelly, Paul, “ Deep hole of her own...attempts to explain how advanced economies with large mining sectors, like those of Australia and Chile, have managed to avoid the “resource curse

  3. Politics of a Different Kind: Chinese in Immigration Litigation in the Post White Australia Era

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    Jia Gao


    Full Text Available The first mass Chinese immigration to Australia occurred in the 19th century, with approximately 100,000 Chinese arriving between the 1840s and 1901 (Fitzgerald 2007; Ho 2007, during which questions were raised both in relation to the Chinese rights of migration and settlement in Australia, and the validity of the government's actions against the Chinese. The latter question was in fact considered in the colonial courts (Cronin 1993; Lake and Reynolds 2008. Since then, the Chinese in Australia have never shied away from taking various legal actions, although they are normally seen as people who keep to themselves. Australia abandoned its 'White Australia' policy in 1974, and lately Australia has placed more emphasis on skilled and business migration. As a result, many believe that Chinese migrants have come to Australia under its normal skilled, business or family migration programs, which ignores the fact that a high proportion of them have obtained their chance to stay in Australia directly or indirectly through a series of legal battles. This paper contributes to the discussion of the Chinese in Australian political life by looking at how the Chinese have fought in the Courts in the post-White Australia era in past decades, and the key features of their unique experiences. This is a different type of political activism, characterising the lives of many Australian Chinese, their engagement with the Australian political system, and becoming part of the background of their identity, transnationality, socio-political attitudes and behaviour and many other traits.

  4. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.L.


    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  5. The complex isostatic equilibration of Australia's deep crust. (United States)

    Aitken, Alan; Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan


    A recent study, using a new finite-element based gravity inversion method has modelled in high-resolution the density and pressure fields for the Australian continent. Here we analyse the pressure results to consider how Australia's lower-crust and Moho contribute to the isostatic equilibration of topography and crustal masses. We find that the situation is more complex than the commonly applied model of isostatic compensation through crustal thickness variations. Key differences include low pressure-variability at ca. 30-35 km, suggesting that the thickness of the felsic-intermediate crust equilibrates most of the upper-crustal loads; increasing pressure-variability between 30-50 km, suggesting that positively buoyant deep-crustal roots generate disequilibrium. These large roots have previously been inferred to represent mafic underplates. Pressure-variability in the uppermost lithospheric mantle reduces to a minimum at ~125 km depth, suggesting that these loads are compensated by dense mantle at ~100 km depth, rather than by crustal loads or topography. This raises the notion that Australia's lithosphere is isostatically compensated at two levels: Crustal compensation involving topography and the felsic to intermediate crust; and deep-lithosphere compensation involving the mafic lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Rather than its traditional role of compensating for crustal masses, the Moho in this case appears to be a source of isostatic disequilibrium, acting in a separate cell with lithospheric mantle density sources. These results imply that, for cratonised continents like Australia, the notion of crustal isostasy is a poor descriptor of the system.

  6. Application of the survey protocol for chytridiomycosis to Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Skerratt, Lee F; McDonald, Keith R; Hines, Harry B; Berger, Lee; Mendez, Diana; Phillott, Andrea D; Cashins, Scott D; Murray, Kris A; Speare, Richard


    Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes chytridiomycosis, has resulted in the extinction of frogs, but the distribution of Bd is incompletely known. We trialled the survey protocol for Bd by attempting to systematically map its distribution in Queensland, Australia. Bd was easily detected in known infected areas, such as the Wet Tropics and South East Queensland. It was not detected in bioregions adjacent to, but inland from or to the north of, infected regions: Einasleigh Uplands and Cape York adjacent to the infected Wet Tropics; and Brigalow Belt South adjacent to the infected South East Queensland bioregion. These regions where Bd was not detected have bordered infected regions for between 15 yr (in northern Queensland) and 30 yr (in southern Queensland), and so they define the geographical limits of Bd with regard to the long-term environmental conditions in Queensland. The Gulf Plains, a bioregion distant from infected bioregions, was also negative. Bd was confined to rainforest and bordering habitats, such as wet eucalypt forests. Infections were largely confined to permanent water-associated species, consistent with this being an important cause of this group having the greatest declines. Our data supports biogeographic climatic models that show much of inland and northern Australia to be too hot and dry to support Bd. As there is limited opportunity for Bd to spread further in Queensland, the priority for management is reducing the impact of Bd in affected populations and assisting frogs to disperse into their former distributions. Given that the survey protocol has been applied successfully in Australia it may be useful for mapping the distribution of Bd in other parts of the world.

  7. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia. (United States)

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A


    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  8. Consumption metrics of chardonnay wine consumers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ


    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba,1 Johan Bruwer,2 Jasmine B MacDonald1 1School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, 2School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: There is a dearth of information in the knowledge base about who the chardonnay consumer is, what their wine-consumption metrics are, what sensory characteristics they associate chardonnay with, and who influenced their perceptions. This study examines the consumer engagement with chardonnay, and contributes evidence-based research to inform future wine-business strategy. A population sample was recruited to be representative of Australian consumers. An online survey of 2,024 Australian wine consumers was conducted, 1,533 (76% of whom actually consumed chardonnay. This paper focuses only on those who consumed chardonnay. Males purchased and consumed larger quantities of chardonnay, although marginally more females consumed it. Chardonnay is considered to be characterized by full, lingering, and fruity flavors, as well as yellow color. Chardonnay is associated with dinner parties and at-home consumption. The vast majority of participants liked and had a positive perception of chardonnay. The target market for chardonnay is not only females; in fact, males appear to be the main consumers of this varietal by volume. Marketing and promotion campaigns should leverage the findings to retain current and win back other consumers. This is the first research to provide empirical explanations of consumer engagement with chardonnay, and to contribute evidence-based research in this regard.Keywords: chardonnay, consumer behavior, wine style, wine consumption, Australia

  9. Eating the Asian Other? Pedagogies of Food Multiculturalism in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Flowers


    Full Text Available Public pedagogies in tourism and education in Australia suggest that food is a medium through which we learn more about each other’s cultures: in other words food is a pedagogy of multiculturalism. Drawing on a white Anglo Australian man’s memories of food in different intercultural encounters, this paper prises open the concept of eating the Other. There has been trenchant critique of food multiculturalism and the consuming cosmopolitan in Australia (Hage 1997; Probyn 2004; Duruz 2010. Thus, several writers critique the prevailing idea that eating ethnic food is a sign of cosmopolitanism, and even anti-racism, in individuals and cities in Australia (Hage 1997; Sheridan 2002; Duruz 2010. Hence, the notion of eating the Other has been taken up to discuss how ethnicity becomes an object of enrichment for white people through the eating of ethnic food in restaurants (Hage 1997 and cooking ethnic food at home (Heldke 2003. In this paper we present an ‘entangled’ story of Frank which includes white expatriate masculinity, multiculturalism with ethnics and what Heldke calls ‘colonial food adventuring’. Drawing on a close reading of Frank’s story, we argue that an evaluation of food multiculturalism needs to historicise, gender and racialise inter-cultural food encounters. Thus, we argue that there are ethnic food socialities other than those of home-building or restaurant multiculturalisms. We suggest that culturalist and political economy pedagogies of food multiculturalism could be augmented by one that attends to the production of whiteness and gender.

  10. Water: Drought, Crisis and Governance in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sousa Júnior


    Full Text Available Despite huge differences in population, household income and development levels, Australia and Brazil have some temporal convergences in their water governance systems. Over the last 20 years, both countries have significantly reformed their water policies and practices by introducing a legal foundation for more integrated and participatory catchment/basin management based on the best information available. A critical test of any water reform is how effective it is in meeting the challenges of extreme and unpredictable conditions of drought and floods, which are expected to increase under climate changes scenarios. This paper compared the contemporary water governance frameworks of Australia and Brazil in relation to three elements of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM: integration, participation, and information/knowledge. We focused on insights from Brazil’s recent drought and Australia’s fluctuating water crises to derive lessons and recommendations for future changes. Among the main recommendations, we stress the need for both systems to improve effective participation and to embrace a more comprehensive approach to cope with water scarcity in future scenarios. Furthermore, water related decisions should be based on a transparent and well informed process, and take into account the lessons from similar situations worldwide in order to avoid unnecessary or ineffective measures. As demonstrated in the Australian case during the Millennium Drought, the most effective initiatives were those involving government, the private sector and society to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern in all sectors. There is much to learn from the Brazilian and Australia experiences in water reforms and crises, but it is imperative to understand the social, economic and environmental context within which these took place. Continuing to develop the capacity and willingness of researchers and policy makers to work together can make an

  11. Evaluating integrated urban water systems alternatives for Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Mitchell, G; Gray, S; Shipton, B; Woolley, R; Erbacher, J; Egerton, G; McKnoulty, J


    The Brazil Development Study investigates the feasibility of alternative approaches to providing sustainable water services to a 226 ha mixed residential and industrial greenfield development within the city of Brisbane, Australia. The alternatives include techniques such a the use of rainwater tanks, water use efficiency, a local wastewater treatment plant for recycling of reclaimed water and composting toilets amongst others. This paper evaluates a series of urban development scenarios against the objectives of the study. The insights gained into the drivers for cost and environmental impact for this particular site are discussed as well as a number of issues of concern and challenges to Council and the community.

  12. Emotions in early mission encounters in colonial Greenland and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise


    This chapter uses the concept of affective circuits to analyse the emotional dynamics of Christian mission in two eighteenth-century colonial contexts: Greenland (1721-1736) and Australia (1788-1791). McLisky argues that the first missionaries in each setting—the Lutheran minister Hans Egede and ...... affective circuits which would intensify these ‘positive’ emotions in all parties, thereby stimulating support for the mission and strengthening the faith of all involved. Diverse colonial contexts, however, meant that their attempts to foster such circuits had very different outcomes....

  13. Sex definitions and gender practices. An update from Australia. (United States)

    Cregan, Kate


    In recent years the Australian parliament has been considering the rights to protection from discrimination of intersex and gender identity disorder (GID) people. In 2013 such protections were made law in the amendment to the Sex Discrimination Act 1984, which in turn has influenced Senate inquiries into the medical treatment of intersex people. This year's Australian report describes the purview and the potential ramifications of the inquiry of the Senate Standing Committees on Community Affairs, published in October 2013, into the involuntary or coerced sterilization of intersex people in Australia.

  14. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat


    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided.

  15. The strange history of polarised neutrons in Australia (United States)

    Hicks, T. J.


    The history of polarised neutrons in Australia is unusual firstly because of the particular access that individuals in universities had to the facilities at the reactor site and because this resulted in the experiments being done almost all being with polarisation analysis. Two instruments were initially available. One was a conventional instrument albeit with a tilting counter. The other was a primitive polarisation analysis instrument purpose built for diffuse scattering. This latter instrument evolved over more than thirty years and produced results ranging from the separation of magnetic and nuclear diffuse scattering, for which it was conceived, to the isolation of magnetic features in inelastic spectra.

  16. Mercury in shark in western Australia: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, D.A.; Edmonds, J.S.; Edinger, J.J.


    Linear and curvilinear regressions relating mercury concentration and size were used in conjunction with catch data to estimate the average concentration in the three major shark species in the Western Australia fishery industry. The three species were whiskery (Furgaleus ventralis), bronze whaler (Carcharhinus obscurus) and gummy (Emissola antarctica) sharks. The averge mercury concentration for the 3 species was found to be approximately 0.75 ppM. The relevance of this to Public Health regulations was discussed and the need for information on consumption of shark stressed.

  17. A model for an inland port in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T.K. Toh


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of an inland port particular to the outer regions of Melbourne, Australia. In this study, it has been experienced that the broad use of terminology, in the Melbourne context, has been a stumbling block. In its particular context, this has provided the impetus for the development of a model for an inland port that is unambiguous. It is clear from international examples that such a development acts as a significant potential nucleus for regional economic growth, but the lack of a facilitated discussion is an impediment. This model is offered as a facilitator and a useful tool in the construction of a common understanding.

  18. Azaria's antecedents: stereotyping infanticide in late nineteenth-century Australia. (United States)

    Kociumbas, J


    Recent historical studies have reconsidered the plight of white women accused of infanticide in Australia, casting new light especially on the motives of single women and mothers of large families. Still unredeemed and largely unanalysed, however, is the baby-farmer. This article explores stereotypes of this bête noire of the nineteenth-century city, addressing concurrent medicalisation of the maternal body, child-birth, infant feeding and foster care. In so doing it also analyses representations of the midwife and the wet-nurse, along with their essentialised opposite, the good mother, who abided by the newly defined "rights of the child".

  19. Meteoritics and cosmology among the Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W


    The night sky played an important role in the social structure, oral traditions, and cosmology of the Arrernte and Luritja Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia. A component of this cosmology relates to meteors, meteorites, and impact craters. This paper discusses the role of meteoritic phenomena in Arrernte and Luritja cosmology, showing not only that these groups incorporated this phenomenon in their cultural traditions, but that their oral traditions regarding the relationship between meteors, meteorites and impact structures suggests the Arrernte and Luritja understood that they are directly related.

  20. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species. (United States)

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki


    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  1. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa. (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter


    it is lost in all other raninoid extant members. New evidence shows that the abdominal holding was an early occurrence for a brachyuran crab. The Raninoidea, sister to Palaeocorystoidea, is characterised by gymnopleurity, a condition that results from the lifting of the carapace and thus the exposure of several pleurites. The narrowing of the body and thoracic sternum, almost certainly associated with their burrowing behaviour, is a diagnostic feature of raninoid evolution, in contrast to the widening observed in the remaining Brachyura. The monophyly of Heterotremata is discussed. Although the correct assignment of the coxal male gonopore and sternal female gonopore (vulva) at the base of Decapoda and Eubrachyura, respectively, left no synapomorphies to support the Heterotremata, the group nevertheless should be regarded as the sister group to Thoracotremata. The controversial monophyly of Podotremata is discussed and arguments are presented against the suppression of this taxon. The distinction of Homoloidia from Dromioidia is argued, and a classification of Podotremata, which considers the fossil record whenever possible, is presented. The earliest brachyurans are re-examined, and a new interpretation of the phylogeny of several basal eubrachyuran groups (Dorippoidea, Inachoididae, Palicoidea, Retroplumoidea) is proposed. Stenorhynchus shares a number of characters with the Inachoididae that differentiate them from Inachidae, and also has some distinctive features that warrants its assignment to a separate inachoidid subfamily, Stenorhynchinae, which is resurrected. The concealment strategies among Brachyura are documented and discussed. Podotremes use carrying behaviour, often combined with burying and concealment under substrates, whereas living within a host, burying, and decoration are used by heterotremes, burrowing being essentially a thoracotreme strategy. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  2. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle. (United States)

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G


    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared.

  3. Advances in drug metabolism and pharmacogenetics research in Australia. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Peter I; Somogyi, Andrew A; Miners, John O


    Metabolism facilitates the elimination, detoxification and excretion in urine or bile (as biotransformation products) of a myriad of structurally diverse drugs and other chemicals. The metabolism of drugs, non-drug xenobiotics and many endogenous compounds is catalyzed by families of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). These include the hemoprotein-containing cytochromes P450, which function predominantly as monooxygenases, and conjugation enzymes that transfer a sugar, sulfate, acetate or glutathione moiety to substrates containing a suitable acceptor functional group. Drug and chemical metabolism, especially the enzymes that catalyse these reactions, has been the research focus of several groups in Australia for over four decades. In this review, we highlight the role of recent and current drug metabolism research in Australia, including elucidation of the structure and function of enzymes from the various DME families, factors that modulate enzyme activity in humans (e.g. drug-drug interactions, gene expression and genetic polymorphism) and the application of in vitro approaches for the prediction of drug metabolism parameters in humans, along with the broader pharmacological/clinical pharmacological and toxicological significance of drug metabolism and DMEs and their relevance to drug discovery and development, and to clinical practice.

  4. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia. (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad


    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  5. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz Survey: The Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Tara; Ekers, Ronald D; Massardi, Marcella; Hancock, Paul J; Mahony, Elizabeth; Ricci, Roberto; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Calabretta, Mark; Chhetri, Rajan; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Edwards, Philip G; Ekers, Jennifer A; Jackson, Carole A; Kesteven, Michael J; Lindley, Emma; Newton-McGee, Katherine; Phillips, Chris; Roberts, Paul; Sault, Robert J; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Walker, Mark A; Wilson, Warwick E


    We present the full source catalogue from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) Survey. The AT20G is a blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) from 2004 to 2008, and covers the whole sky south of declination 0 deg. The AT20G source catalogue presented here is an order of magnitude larger than any previous catalogue of high-frequency radio sources, and includes 5890 sources above a 20 GHz flux-density limit of 40 mJy. All AT20G sources have total intensity and polarisation measured at 20 GHz, and most sources south of declination -15 deg also have near-simultaneous flux-density measurements at 5 and 8 GHz. A total of 1559 sources were detected in polarised total intensity at one or more of the three frequencies. We detect a small but significant population of non-thermal sources that are either undetected or have only weak detections in low-frequency catalogues. We introduce the term Ultra-Inverted Spectrum (UIS) to describe these radio sources, which have a ...

  6. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal


    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012 and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  7. Dose received by radiation workers in Australia, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.


    Exposure to radiation can cause genetic defects or cancer. People who use sources of radiation as part of their employment are potentially at a greater risk than others owing to the possibility of their being continually exposed to small radiation doses over a long period. In Australia, the National Health and Medical Research Council has established radiation protection standards and set annual effective dose limits for radiation workers in order to minimise the chance of adverse effects occurring. These standards are based on the the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1990). In order to ensure that the prescribed limits are not exceeded and to ensure that doses are kept to a minimum, some sort of monitoring is necessary. The primary purpose of this report is to provide data on the distribution of effective doses for different occupational categories of radiation worker in Australia. The total collective effective dose was found to be of the order of 4.9 Sv for a total of 34750 workers. 9 refs., 16 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Timing of Administration: For Commonly-Prescribed Medicines in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur


    Full Text Available Chronotherapy involves the administration of medication in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to maximise therapeutic effectiveness and minimise/avoid adverse effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the “time of administration” recommendations on chronotherapy for commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia. This study also aimed to explore the quality of information on the timing of administration presented in drug information sources, such as consumer medicine information (CMI and approved product information (PI. Databases were searched for original research studies reporting on the impact of “time of administration” of the 30 most commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia for 2014. Further, time of administration recommendations from drug information sources were compared to the evidence from chronotherapy trials. Our search revealed 27 research studies, matching the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In 56% (n = 15 of the research studies, the therapeutic effect of the medicine varied with the time of administration, i.e., supported chronotherapy. For some medicines (e.g., simvastatin, circadian-based optimal administration time was evident in the information sources. Overall, dedicated studies on the timing of administration of medicines are sparse, and more studies are required. As it stands, information provision to consumers and health professionals about the optimal “time” to take medications lags behind emerging evidence.

  9. The Increasing Financial Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD, renal replacement therapy (RRT, and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation prior to analysis. Between 2012 and 2020, prevalence, per-patient expenditure, and total disease expenditure associated with CKD and RRT are estimated to increase significantly more rapidly than CVD. RRT prevalence is estimated to increase by 29%, compared to 7% in CVD. Average annual RRT per-patient expenditure is estimated to increase by 16%, compared to 8% in CVD. Total CKD- and RRT-related expenditure had been estimated to increase by 37%, compared to 14% in CVD. Per-patient, CKD produces a considerably greater financial impact on Australia’s healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.

  10. Channel response to a new hydrological regime in southwestern Australia (United States)

    Callow, J. N.; Smettem, K. R. J.


    The Kent River flows from semi-arid headwaters in the agricultural (wheatbelt) region of Western Australia to a wetter and forested lower-catchment. It is set in an atypical fluvial environment, with rainfall decreasing inland towards a low-relief upper catchment. Replacement of native deep-rooted perennial vegetation with shallow-rooted seasonal crops has altered the hydrology of the upper catchment. Clearing for agriculture has also increased recharge of regional groundwater systems causing groundwater to rise and mobilise salt stores. This has increased stream salinity which has degradation riparian vegetation and decreased flow resistance. Elevated groundwater has also affected streamflow, increasing flow duration and annual discharge. The altered hydrological regime has affected geomorphic stability, resulting in channel responses that include incision and removal of uncohesive material. Channel response is variable, showing a high dependence on channel morphotype, channel boundary material and severity of salinity (degree of vegetation degradation). Response in confined reaches bounded by sandy material has been characterised by minor lateral bank erosion. In the fine-grained, wider, low-gradient reaches, mid-channel islands have been stripped of sandy sediment where vegetation has degraded. Following an initial period of high erosion rates in these reaches, the channel is now slowly adjusting to a new set of boundary conditions. The variable response has significant implications for management of salt affected rivers in southwestern Australia.

  11. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate


    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  12. Earthquake Monitoring in Australia Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lin-lin; E. Cheng; D. Polonska; C. Rizos; C. Collins; C. Smith


    Are there any earthquakes in Australia? Although most Australians are not as familiar with earthquakes as citizens in countries such as Japan, there are some quakes on the Australian continent every year. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been widely used in recent years for monitoring crustal deformation due to earthquakes, volcanoes, underground mining, oil extraction,and so on. Hence the follow-on question is, can repeat-pass satellite DInSAR be used in Australian regions to monitor earthquakes? Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar images of the Burakin region in Western Australia were used to form the InSAR pairs.Twenty-two InSAR pairs were formed and were used to study the temporal decorrelation characteristics in the Burakin area. It was found that good coherence could be maintained all over the full scene for a pair spanning 211 d. The repeat cycles of RADARSAT and ERS (all C-band SAR missions) are 24 and 35 drespectively, Furthermore it is easier to maintain good coherence in L-band SAR images (e.g. the JERS-1 mission has a 44 d repeat cycle). Therefore the authors are confident that repeat-pass differential InSAR can be used to monitor ground deformation due to earthquakes in the Burakin region.

  13. Increasing Incidence of Salmonella in Australia, 2000-2013 (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Veitch, Mark; Wardell, Rebecca; Polkinghorne, Ben; Dobbins, Timothy; Lal, Aparna; Kirk, Martyn D.


    Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia and case numbers are increasing. We used negative binomial regression to analyze national surveillance data for 2000–2013, for Salmonella Typhimurium and non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars. We estimated incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age to show trends over time. Almost all states and territories had significantly increasing trends of reported infection for S. Typhimurium, with states and territories reporting annual increases as high as 12% (95% confidence interval 10–14%) for S. Typhimurium in the Australian Capital Territory and 6% (95% CI 5–7%) for non-Typhimurium Salmonella in Victoria. S. Typhimurium notification rates were higher than non-Typhimurium Salmonella rates in most age groups in the south eastern states of Australia, while non-Typhimurium rates were higher in most age groups elsewhere. The S. Typhimurium notification rate peaked at 12–23 months of age and the non-Typhimurium Salmonella notification rate peaked at 0–11 months of age. The age-specific pattern of S. Typhimurium cases suggests a foodborne origin, while the age and geographic pattern for non-Typhimurium may indicate that other transmission routes play a key role for these serovars. PMID:27732615

  14. Adoption of Internet Shopping: Cultural Considerations in India and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Adapa


    Full Text Available The current research paper examines the adoption of internet shopping patterns exhibited by Indian women currently residing in India and Australia emphasizing on the prevailing cultural dimensions. A conceptual framework has been developed based on the theoretical background which links intention to shop over internet and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to adoption of internet shopping. In order to test the stated hypotheses, the proposed relationships between the variables were empirically verified. A web based survey was employed by using online questionnaire as a research instrument and the respondents were approached by posting the questionnaire to various newsgroups. The results of the study reveal that intention of int ernet shopping as measured with the perceived attributes significantly influences the actual adoption of internet shopping. With regard to the prevailing cultural dimensions in the country of origin (India, the results obtained are as expected and signifi cantly influence the internet purchases. Where as with regard to the prevailing cultural dimensions in the country of residence (Australia, most of the results obtained are as predicted except for the dimension masculinity versus femininity.

  15. Injury patterns and features of cycling fatalities in South Australia. (United States)

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Langlois, Neil E I


    There has been an increase in cycling in Australia. This means that more cyclists are at risk of injuries, which account for a proportion of transport-related fatalities. In this study, all cyclist fatalities from 2002 to 2013 in South Australia where post-mortem examinations were performed were investigated. There were 42 deaths representing 3% of the total road fatalities over the same time. Of this total number of cases, 13 deaths (31%) involved collapse (mostly natural causes from an underlying medical condition) and 29 (69%) resulted from trauma. There were no cases of hyperthermia. Of the decedents 95% were male, and the mean age at death was 47 years. Fatal incidents were more likely to occur during April and November, and on a Monday. However, statistical analysis was not possible due to the small number of cases. Fatalities (traumatic and collapse) predominantly occurred whilst the cyclist was riding (86%). The majority of riding fatalities were as a result of collision with vehicles (81%). Drugs (including alcohol) were detected in two (15%) of the 13 cases of the collapses, and in seven (26%) of the 27 trauma cases tested. In trauma cases, death was most often due to multiple injuries. The most frequent area for injury was the head (found in 90% of traumatic deaths). Despite the increasing numbers of cyclists on South Australian roads over the last decade, death rates have trended downwards suggesting that road safety campaigns and the provision of more dedicated bicycle lanes have had a positive outcome.

  16. Flood Risk in Australia: Whose Responsibility Is It, Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van den Honert


    Full Text Available This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES, and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. Key informant interviews were conducted in four locations—Brisbane and Emerald, in Queensland, Dora Creek, in New South Wales, and Benalla, in Victoria. We find that understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder varied considerably between research participants. Insurance representatives felt their concerns about increasing flood risk costs were unheeded until the 2010–2011 floods made them the “canary in the coal mine”. Councils felt they had limited options for reducing flood risk. SES representatives felt they were too relied upon for event response, with requests for assistance outstripping their capacity to assist, and many residents were uncertain how to prepare for flood, relying on emergency agencies and the local council to protect them. Key lessons for flood risk management in Australia are (a an urgent need for all stakeholders to better understand each others’ roles and responsibilities; and (b residents must take greater responsibility for their own personal protection. Only then can the vision of shared responsibility presented by the 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience be achieved.

  17. “Whole Language” and Moral Panic in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gannon


    Full Text Available This paper examines the media and political landscapes within which “whole language” is currently constituted in Australia. Through surveying the themes and rhetoric deployed in media texts over recent years, we consider how “whole language” has been taken up as part of a wider media campaign around education generally. We consider how this campaign has been instrumental in constructing a moral panic around literacy education in particular. We begin with an overview of how the literacy standards of Australia's young people compare on international measures with young people elsewhere. We consider how the media has bundled these with populist concerns about literacy pedagogy and other educational issues to create a sense of national crisis about education. We argue that the sociological concept of "moral panic" provides a useful and systematic theoretical framework for reading these discursive tactics of the media. Finally, we examine how a National Inquiry into literacy responded to this panic by reinscribing a familiar – and unhelpful - binary between “whole language” and phonics-based instruction. In the title and in the body of the paper we keep “whole language” in quotation marks to remind the readers that use of the term in the media texts that are analysed differs widely from its usage by literacy specialists.

  18. Patterns of Sponge Biodiversity in the Pilbara, Northwestern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Fromont


    Full Text Available This study assessed the biodiversity of sponges within the Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia (IMCRA bioregions of the Pilbara using datasets amalgamated from the Western Australian Museum and the Atlas of Living Australia. The Pilbara accounts for a total of 1164 Linnean and morphospecies. A high level of “apparent endemism” was recorded with 78% of species found in only one of six bioregions, with less than 10% confirmed as widely distributed. The Ningaloo, Pilbara Nearshore and Pilbara Offshore bioregions are biodiversity hotspots (>250 species and are recognised as having the highest conservation value, followed by North West Shelf containing 232 species. Species compositions differed between bioregions, with those that are less spatially separated sharing more species. Notably, the North West Province bioregion (110 species exhibited the most distinct species composition, highlighting it as a unique habitat within the Pilbara. While sponge biodiversity is apparently high, incomplete sampling effort for the region was identified, with only two sampling events recorded for the Central West Transition bioregion. Furthermore, only 15% of records in the dataset are presently described (Linnean species, highlighting the continuing need for taxonomic expertise for the conservation and management of marine biodiversity resources.

  19. Australia: Climate-Ecosystem Variability and Impacts on Disease (United States)

    Gustafson, K. C.; Diabate, M.; Anyamba, A.


    Climate variability in Australia is largely driven by an atmospheric phenomenon called the Southern Oscillation (SO), which involves a see-saw like behavior between low and high pressure systems within the equatorial Pacific regions. The interaction of SO with abnormally high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) - El Niño - or abnormally low SSTs - La Niña ("anti-El Niño") - creates extreme drought or extreme flooding respectively throughout the Australian continent. These El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have significant impacts on Australia's landscape, ecosystems, agriculture production, and, as this report show, human health. The teleconnection between ENSO and human health is straight forward but not obvious. During La Niña years, when ENSO events are characterized by increased rainfall and consequential flooding, Australia's tropical, warm climate in addition to an associated increase in vegetation growth from the increased rainfall creates an ideal habitat for mosquito population increase. Certain species of Australian mosquitoes [Culux annulirostris] are carriers of Murray Valley Encephalitis (MVE) virus which is a rare but potentially fatal infection that attacks neurological and muscular functioning. It is hypothesized that a widespread increase in vegetation indicates an expansion of ideal mosquito production habitats and will translate to an increased risk of MVE contraction. The objective of this research is to show if a correlation exists between the ENSO-driven climate- and consequential ecosystem- changes and MVE outbreaks throughout Australia. To do so, this study makes use of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor operating on NASA's Terra satellite to obtain monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. It is assumed in this research that an anomalous increase in NDVI values - indicative of vegetation growth - occurs as a result of increased rainfall. Due to Australia's tropical positioning and

  20. Australia and India: Facing the Twenty-First Century Skills Challenge. Conference Paper (United States)

    Beddie, Francesca M.


    The governments of India and Australia are working to enhance cooperation on training, at both official and industry level. As part of the exchange of ideas, Francesca Beddie, General Manager, Research, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, visited India in August 2009 at the invitation of the Australia-India Council. This paper…

  1. Improving the International Student Experience in Australia through Embedded Peer Mentoring (United States)

    Outhred, Tim; Chester, Andrea


    As Australia endeavors to sustain growth of its international education industry, there have been major concerns regarding the experience of international students. This review examines the international student experience in Australia, particularly issues surrounding study-work-life balance (SWLB), acculturation, health, and well-being. The…

  2. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine


    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  3. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. (United States)

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information…

  4. Cetacean morbillivirus in coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, Western Australia. (United States)

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P; Holyoake, Carly


    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  5. Maximizing the Impact of Telepractice through a Multifaceted Service Delivery Model at The Shepherd Centre, Australia (United States)

    Davis, Aleisha; Hopkins, Tracy; Abrahams, Yetta


    The Shepherd Centre is a nonprofit early intervention program in New South Wales, Australia, providing listening and spoken language services through an interdisciplinary team approach to children with hearing loss and their families. The program has been providing distance services to families in rural and remote areas of Australia and in other…

  6. Learning to Be Literate: Issues of Pedagogy for Recently Arrived Refugee Youth in Australia (United States)

    Woods, Annette


    This paper focuses on issues of access to productive literacy learning as part of socially just schooling for recently arrived refugee youth within Australia. It argues that a sole reliance on traditional ESL pedagogy is failing this vulnerable group of students, who differ significantly from past refugees who have settled in Australia. Many have…

  7. Governing through Early Childhood Curriculum, "the Child," and "Community": Ideologies of Socialist Hungary and Neoliberal Australia (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa


    This article examines the role of state ideology in the formation of kindergarten curriculum documents in socialist Hungary during the 1970s and in contemporary neoliberal Australia. The study explores two landmark curriculum documents, of Hungary and Australia, respectively, comparing the ways in which "the child" is conceptualized in…

  8. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  9. "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia" (United States)

    de Lange, Paul; Watty, Kim


    Of the various reports released in 2010, two purport to examine the state of accounting education in Australia. These are "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia". Both were released as collaborations of the leading academic organisation, the Accounting and Finance…

  10. Abrupt vegetation change after the Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction in southeastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes dos Santos, R.A.; De Deckker, P.; Hopmans, E.C.; Magee, J.W.; Mets, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.


    A substantial extinction of megafauna occurred in Australia between 50 and 45 kyr ago(1,2), a period that coincides with human colonization of Australia(3). Large shifts in vegetation also occurred around this time, but it is unclear whether the vegetation changes were driven by the human use of fir

  11. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia (United States)

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin


    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  12. 75 FR 81632 - Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic Certification System (eCERT) (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic... certification requirement for imports of beef from Australia subject to quantitative restraints will be... approval of the United States Government. DATES: The use of the eCERT process for all Australian...

  13. From Extraction to Knowledge Reproduction: The Impact of Australia's Development Awards on Uganda and Mozambique (United States)

    Amazan, Rose C.; Negin, Joel; Howie, Leanne; Wood, Julian


    With the renewed emphasis on higher education as an agent for development and economic growth, Australia has joined other Western countries in contributing to increasing the intellectual workforce of Africa[1]. While Australia has provided scholarships to Africans for more than three decades, since 2005, the Australian Government has dramatically…

  14. Advice to travelers on topical insect repellent use against dengue mosquitoes in Far North Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C


    Dengue outbreaks occur annually in Far North Queensland, Australia. Advice on topical insect repellents provided by health authorities rarely addresses the wide range of formulations and active ingredients currently registered for use in Australia. Recommendations on the use of registered products require review.

  15. Evolving ASEAN-Australia Relations in Higher Education. Towards a Regional Knowledge Network? (United States)

    Welch, Anthony


    Australia's attitude towards ASEAN has waxed and waned over recent decades, including in higher education. In part a reflection of tensions between its geography and history, it highlighted the question of the extent to which Australia saw itself as an Asian country (an uncertainty shared by a number of its ASEAN neighbours). Reviewing changes in…

  16. Food Security in Australia in an Era of Neoliberalism, Productivism and Climate Change (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoffrey; Richards, Carol; Lyons, Kristen


    For over 150 years Australia has exported bulk, undifferentiated, commodities such as wool, wheat, meat and sugar to the UK and more recently to Japan, Korea, and the Middle East. It is estimated that, each year, Australia's farming system feeds a domestic population of some 22 million people, while exporting enough food to feed another 40…

  17. Report of the technical review of the sixth national communication of Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buendia, Leandro; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Sempos, Ioannis;

    The review took place from 7 to 12 October 2014 in Canberra, Australia, and was conducted by the following team of nominated experts from the UNFCCC roster of experts......The review took place from 7 to 12 October 2014 in Canberra, Australia, and was conducted by the following team of nominated experts from the UNFCCC roster of experts...

  18. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia (United States)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna


    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale

  19. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia. (United States)

    Iredale, R


    In 1986, 21.3% of the population of Australia had been born overseas; currently, foreign born workers comprise 25% of the labor force. The level of skilled immigration has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In the past, most English-speaking migrants gained recognition of their overseas qualifications, but about half of those from non-English speaking countries have never been able to return to their pre-migration occupations. Beginning with the medical field, occupational regulating gradually grew with state autonomy being a marked feature. Australia has 1 of the most highly regulated labor markets in the world, with hundreds of bodies to determine entry criteria. The Council of Overseas Professional Qualifications, established in 1969, guides selection and tests professionals both overseas and already resident in Australia. The Tradesmen's Rights Regulation Act recognizes acceptable tradesmen. Aside from these 2 bodies, the majority of qualifications are assessed at the state or local level. Problems skilled immigrants have encountered in attempting to gain recognition of their overseas qualifications include 1) preference for locally trained workers or discrimination against non-British/non-Australian qualifications; 2) lack of adequate information about assessment procedures; 3) inadequate use of interpreting and translating services; 4) language difficulties in tests; and 5) frequent assessment only on formal qualifications, with skills and experience not being evaluated. The 2 basic models for assessing occupational suitability are the valuation of qualifications approach and the valuation of skills approach. To illustrate the operation of various models of assessment, the author discusses these occupations: medicine, nursing, engineering, computing, and electrical trades. The major factors that are essential for an overall strategy of change include 1) less occupational regulation in the labor market; 2) national registration and licensing systems

  20. Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia. (United States)

    Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V


    Despite increasing infection rates, Clostridium difficile is not currently routinely tested for in all diarrhoeal faecal specimens in Australia. In July 2014, all diarrhoeal specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Western Australia were surveyed to determine the true prevalence of C. difficile. In total, 1010 diarrhoeal non-duplicate faecal specimens were received during the month. Testing for C. difficile was requested, or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were met, for 678 specimens which were investigated by PCR for the tcdB gene using the BD MAX platform, followed by toxigenic culture on PCR-positive samples. The remaining 332 specimens, with either no C. difficile test request or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were not met, were examined by toxigenic culture. All isolates were PCR ribotyped. C. difficile was the most commonly detected diarrhoeal pathogen among all specimens. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in all 1010 specimens was 6.4%; 7.2% in the routinely tested group, and 4.8% in the non-requested group. The proportion of non-requested positive detections among all cases was 24.6%. Community-onset infection was present in 50.8% of all cases. The median age of all CDI cases was 60.0 years and the age range in CDI patients in the routine group was 0.6-96.6 years (median 72.7 years), compared to 0.2-2.3 years (median 0.8 years) in the non-requested group. The most common ribotype (RT) found was RT 014/020 (34.1% in the routine group, 43.8% in the non-requested group), followed by RTs 002, 056, 005 and 018. While the routine testing group and the non-requested group differed markedly in age and patient classification, C. difficile was the most common cause of diarrhoea in hospitals and the community in Western Australia. The significance of finding C. difficile in the community paediatric population requires further study.

  1. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikritzhs Tanya N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death

  2. A short history of the origins of radiography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [University Department of Rural Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Locked Bag 9783 NEMSC, Tamworth NSW 2348 (Australia)], E-mail:


    At the time of Roeentgen's discovery of X-rays, Australia was in a period of social transition. Federation under a centralised Australian government was at hand, while regional population centres were growing rapidly under various influences, such as the gold rush of the 1850s, the opening up of new pastoral land and the Great Drought of the 1890s. Reports of Roeentgen's discovery first appeared in Australian newspapers towards the end of January 1896. The first limited description of his experimental techniques appeared on the 15th February, arousing excitement in the antipodean scientific community. Independent attempts were made to produce X-ray images at several locations in Australia, the necessary apparatus being widely available. Three men have been separately credited with having been the first to produce a radiographic image using the techniques described by Roeentgen. Thomas Rankin Lyle, a Professor at Melbourne University performed a demonstration on the 3rd March 1896, X-raying a colleague's foot. The image was reproduced in the newspaper the following day. Lyle also performed a pre-surgical foreign body localisation on 12th June. Meanwhile, electrician and amateur scientist, Walter Filmer, produced a radiograph at Newcastle, also to localise a needle prior to surgical removal. Although the date of this examination is uncertain, it reportedly took place within days of the 15th February newspaper story, making it both the first successful attempt at radiography and the first medical use of X-rays in Australia. Filmer was later appointed to Newcastle Hospital as honorary 'X-ray operator'. The third was a catholic priest and Science Master at St Stanislaus' College at Bathurst in western New South Wales, Father Joseph Slattery. On 25th July 1896 he X-rayed the hand of a former student to locate gunshot pellets, saving the hand from amputation. All three men were remarkable for their scientific knowledge and ability and all are

  3. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. (United States)

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David


    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  4. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers (United States)

    Bense, Katharina


    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  5. What's Different Away from the Rat Race?: Issues for VET in Non-Metropolitan Australia. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series. (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena

    A review of research literature relating to vocational education and training (VET) in non-metropolitan Australia identified issues which differentially impact metropolitan and non-metropolitan Australia and research needs. Findings indicated non-metropolitan Australia is diverse in terms of population density, educational experiences of the…

  6. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support.

  7. Collaboration: the Key to Establishing Community Networks in Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Taylor


    Full Text Available Despite the promise of community involvement, cohesion and empowerment offered by local community networks (CN using Internet Technologies, few communities in regional Australia have been able to demonstrate sustainable and vibrant CN which demonstrate increased social, cultural or self-reliance capital. The Faculty of Informatics and Communication at Central Queensland University (CQU and a local council have established a formal alliance to establish the COIN (Community Informatics projects to research issues around this topic. This paper presents the initial findings from this work and draws conclusions for possible comparison with other international experience. The research focuses attention on community understanding and cohesion, local government priorities in a community with relatively low diffusion of the Internet and the competing demands in a regional university between traditional service provision in an increasingly competitive market and the needs of establishing outreach research for altruistic, industry establishment and commercial rationale.

  8. The aftermath of megafaunal extinction: ecosystem transformation in Pleistocene Australia. (United States)

    Rule, Susan; Brook, Barry W; Haberle, Simon G; Turney, Chris S M; Kershaw, A Peter; Johnson, Christopher N


    Giant vertebrates dominated many Pleistocene ecosystems. Many were herbivores, and their sudden extinction in prehistory could have had large ecological impacts. We used a high-resolution 130,000-year environmental record to help resolve the cause and reconstruct the ecological consequences of extinction of Australia's megafauna. Our results suggest that human arrival rather than climate caused megafaunal extinction, which then triggered replacement of mixed rainforest by sclerophyll vegetation through a combination of direct effects on vegetation of relaxed herbivore pressure and increased fire in the landscape. This ecosystem shift was as large as any effect of climate change over the last glacial cycle, and indicates the magnitude of changes that may have followed megafaunal extinction elsewhere in the world.

  9. Loneliness and life satisfaction in Japan and Australia. (United States)

    Schumaker, J F; Shea, J D; Monfries, M M; Groth-Marnat, G


    We examined the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in 121 residents of Fukoku, Japan, and 139 residents of Melbourne, Australia, using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1983) and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980). Australian subjects reported significantly less loneliness and significantly greater life satisfaction than Japanese subjects. A high inverse correlation was found between loneliness and life satisfaction in Australian subjects, with a much smaller inverse relationship observed among the Japanese, suggesting that loneliness in Japanese subjects did not emotionally translate into life dissatisfaction as it did in Australian subjects. Instead, the experience of loneliness in Japanese individuals may remain largely independent of general life satisfaction.

  10. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia. (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Delatycki, Martin B


    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years.

  11. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Kupriyanova, Elena K; Sun, Yanan; Hove, Harry A Ten; Wong, Eunice; Rouse, Greg W


    Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions. Some species described herein are commonly found in the waters around Lizard Island, but had not previously been formally reported. A new species of Hydroides (H. lirs) and two new species of Semivermilia (S. annehoggettae and S. lylevaili) are described. A taxonomic key to all taxa found at Lizard Island is provided.

  12. Modelling the peopling of Australia: 1900-1930. (United States)

    Pope, D


    An analysis of migration from the United Kingdom to Australia during the period 1900 to 1930 is presented. The author attempts "first to explicitly develop and estimate a model of the behavioural relations of the two blades of the Marshallian scissors, rather than mixing supply and demand (under the polyglot terms of 'push-pull') in a single equation without regard to the problem of identification. And second, [he attempts] to incorporate in these structural equations key elements of government intervention in the migration process." The relationship between economic factors and Australian government support for immigration is considered. The author also identifies three factors influencing annual variations in the flow of migration from the United Kingdom: expected income gains, transport costs, and the costs of job search.

  13. Water Vapour Radiometers for the Australia Telescope Compact Array

    CERN Document Server

    Indermuehle, Balthasar T; Crofts, Jonathan


    We have developed Water Vapour Radiometers (WVRs) for the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) that are capable of determining path fluctuations by virtue of measuring small temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere using the 22.2 GHz water vapour line for each of the six antennae. By measuring the line of sight variations of the water vapour, the induced path excess and thus the phase delay can be estimated and corrections can then be applied during data reduction. This reduces decorrelation of the source signal. We demonstrate how this recovers the telescope's efficiency and image quality as well as how this improves the telescope's ability to use longer baselines at higher frequencies, thereby resulting in higher spatial resolution. A description of the WVR hardware design, their calibration and water vapour retrieval mechanism is given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    This paper reports on a more holistic assessment of such schemes taking into account factors in addition to speed and crashes including: traffic volume displacement, physical road network characteristics, environmental factors, community ownership and acceptance, enforcement effort and impact on travel times. The research work has included the analysis of extensive traffic data, community surveys and focus groups, the collection of environmental and travel time data from an instrumented probe vehicle and the computer modelling of road networks. The work reported is based on over 10 years of working with a 40km/h lower urban speed limit area in South Australia. The paper expands the notion of using speed and crash outcomes as the only criteria for measuring the success of lower speed limit schemes.

  15. Advancing Australia's role in climate change and health research (United States)

    Green, Donna; Pitman, Andrew; Barnett, Adrian; Kaldor, John; Doherty, Peter; Stanley, Fiona


    A major Australian government report published 25 years ago called for urgent investment in research on the impacts of climate change on human health. Since that report's release, less than 0.1% of Australian health funding has been allocated to this area. As the world continues on a high emissions pathway, the health impacts from climate change are increasing in size and complexity. While Australia has established leadership roles in climate science and health research, it must now link these two strengths. Doing so would boost regional understanding of how climate change will affect health and what adaptation strategies are needed to reduce these threats. Such research would support better health planning and decision-making in partnership with other regional countries.

  16. Northwest Australia's Saladin crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.


    High-quality Saladin crude oil from offshore Western Australia has been assayed. The 48.2[degree] API, 0.02 wt % sulfur crude's characteristics--determined in 1990--are presented here for the first time. The estimated 30--40 million bbl field, south of Barrow Island, is produced from two platforms in 58 ft of water in block TP 3. Production began in late 1989 from three platforms with three wells each and from two wells drilled directionally from Thevenard Island. The paper lists data on the following properties: API gravity, density, sulfur content, pour point, flash point, viscosity, salinity, heat of combustion, ash content, asphaltene content, wax content, and metal content for the whole crude and various fractions.

  17. Access to high cost medicines in Australia: ethical perspectives. (United States)

    Lu, Christine Y; Macneill, Paul; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric


    Access to "high cost medicines" through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is tightly regulated. It is inherently difficult to apply any criteria-based system of control in a way that provides a fair balance between efficient use of limited resources for community needs and equitable individual access to care. We suggest, in relation to very high cost medicines, that the present arrangements be re-considered in order to overcome potential inequities. The biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are used as an example by which to discuss the ethical issues associated with the current scheme. Consideration of ethical aspects of the PBS and similar programs is important in order to achieve the fairest outcomes for individual patients, as well as for the community.

  18. Indigenous homelessness: perspectives from Canada, Australia and New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  19. The Australia Telescope Compact Array Broadband Backend (CABB)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Warwick E; Axtens, P; Brown, A; Davis, E; Hampson, G; Leach, M; Roberts, P; Saunders, S; Koribalski, B S; Caswell, J L; Lenc, E; Stevens, J; Voronkov, M A; Wieringa, M H; Brooks, K; Edwards, P G; Ekers, R D; Emonts, B; Hindson, L; Johnston, S; Maddison, S T; Mahony, E K; Malu, S S; Massardi, M; Mao, M Y; McConnell, D; Norris, R P; Schnitzeler, D; Subrahmanyan, R; Urquhart, J S; Thompson, M A; Wark, R M


    Here we describe the Compact Array Broadband Backend (CABB) and present first results obtained with the upgraded Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The 16-fold increase in observing bandwidth, from 2 x 128 MHz to 2 x 2048 MHz, high bit sampling, and addition of 16 zoom windows (each divided into a further 2048 channels) provide major improvements for all ATCA observations. The benefits of the new system are: (1) hugely increased radio continuum and polarization sensitivity as well as image fidelity, (2) substantially improved capability to search for and map emission and absorption lines over large velocity ranges, (3) simultaneous multi-line and continuum observations, (4) increased sensitivity, survey speed and dynamic range due to high-bit sampling, and (5) high velocity resolution, while maintaining full polarization output. The new CABB system encourages all observers to make use of both spectral line and continuum data to achieve their full potential. Given the dramatic increase of the ATCA capab...

  20. Minerals processing opportunities for New South Wales and Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, R. (Pasminco Mining, NSW (Australia))


    An account is given of the main findings and recommendations of a report presented in September 1990 by the NSW Task Force on Mineral Processing Development Strategies. The Task Force considered that the best opportunities fell into two categories: existing industries with development potential (steel, aluminium, refractories, zinc, lead, copper, coke, dimension stone and gemstones) and new opportunities (in processing of titanium, titanium dioxide pigment, rare earths, silicon, fused silica, advanced ceramics, mullite and magnesium). Potential for development of the minerals is discussed. Australia is seen as being in an excellent position to capitalize on recent economic changes and new technolgies. Coal, except for value-added coal products and petroleum were excluded from the study - a separate task force has been set up to consider the NSW coal industry. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Native title contestation in Western Australia's Pilbara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cleary


    Full Text Available The rights afforded to Indigenous Australians under the Native Title Act 1993 (NTA are very limited and allow for undue coercion by corporate interests, contrary to the claims of many prominent authors in this field. Unlike the Commonwealth’s first land rights law, Aboriginal Lands Rights (Northern Territory Act 1976 (ALRA , the NTA does not offer a right of veto to Aboriginal parties; instead, they have a right to negotiate with developers, which has in practice meant very little leverage in negotiations for native title parties. And unlike ALRA, developers can deal with any Indigenous corporation, rather than land councils. These two factors have encouraged opportunistic conduct by some developers and led to vexatious litigation designed to break the resistance of native title parties, as demonstrated by the experience of Aboriginal corporations in the iron ore-rich Pilbara region of Western Australia.

  2. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Reid


    Full Text Available Purpose of the review: This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ. The review sought to determine 1 how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2 how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3 how collaborative and integrated they are. Recent findings: There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD. Of the broad range of One Health research performed in ANZ, the majority is performed by teams with limited disciplinary diversity, although diversity is improving. Summary: Progress has been made in building collaboration between human, animal, and environmental health professions. However, the lack of clearly defined competencies and agreed purpose for One Health may be impeding collaboration.

  3. One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (United States)

    Reid, Simon A.; McKenzie, Joanna; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.


    Purpose of the review This review was performed to create a repository of information on One Health research and training in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The review sought to determine 1) how many training activities there are in ANZ, 2) how much research on zoonotic diseases is undertaken by multidisciplinary teams, and 3) how collaborative and integrated they are. Recent findings There are few opportunities for training in One Health in ANZ. The majority require enrolment in a postgraduate degree programme, and there is only one postgraduate level course that is also available for continuing professional development (CPD). Of the broad range of One Health research performed in ANZ, the majority is performed by teams with limited disciplinary diversity, although diversity is improving. Summary Progress has been made in building collaboration between human, animal, and environmental health professions. However, the lack of clearly defined competencies and agreed purpose for One Health may be impeding collaboration. PMID:27906122

  4. Oldest coelacanth, from the Early Devonian of Australia. (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Long, John A; Talent, John A; Janvier, Philippe; Warren, James W


    Coelacanths are well-known sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes, which together with lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of land vertebrates (tetrapods). Coelacanths have both living representatives and a rich fossil record, but lack fossils older than the late Middle Devonian (385-390 Myr ago), conflicting with current phylogenies implying coelacanths diverged from other sarcopterygians in the earliest Devonian (410-415 Myr ago). Here, we report the discovery of a new coelacanth from the Early Devonian of Australia (407-409 Myr ago), which fills in the approximately 20 Myr 'ghost range' between previous coelacanth records and the predicted origin of the group. This taxon is based on a single lower jaw bone, the dentary, which is deep and short in form and possesses a dentary sensory pore, otherwise seen in Carboniferous and younger taxa.

  5. Stuttering, disability and the higher education sector in Australia. (United States)

    Meredith, Grant; Packman, Ann; Marks, Genée


    The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which Australian public universities and their associated disability liaison services offer web-based information for current or prospective students who stutter. The disability pages of the websites of all 39 public universities in Australia were visited and the information about disability services assessed according to 12 criteria developed by the authors. Results indicate that there is a dearth of information on Australian university websites available for students or prospective students who stutter. Only 13% of the sites reported any form of alternative teaching and assessment procedures for speech-impaired students and only 51% of 39 disability liaison officers responded when contacted by email. Such a student could not make an informed choice to enrol in a university based upon the information on disability services available on public Australian university websites.

  6. Corneal fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Australia. (United States)

    Flint, M; Limpus, C J; Patterson-Kane, J C; Murray, P J; Mills, P C


    Chelonid corneal fibropapillomatosis has not previously been recorded in Australian waters. During 2008, 724 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were examined in Queensland, Australia at two sites, Moreton Bay (n=155) and Shoalwater Bay (n=569), during annual monitoring. In the same calendar year, 63 turtles were submitted from various sites in southern Queensland for post-mortem examination at the University of Queensland. Four of the 787 animals (0.5%) were found to have corneal fibropapillomas of varying size, with similar gross and microscopical features to those reported in other parts of the world. Two animals with corneal fibropapillomas also had cutaneous fibropapillomas. Clinical assessment indicated that these lesions had detrimental effects on the vision of the turtles and therefore their potential ability to source food, avoid predators and interact with conspecifics. Importantly, these findings represent an emergence of this manifestation of fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtle populations in the southern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.


    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  8. A molecular survey of Eimeria in chickens across Australia. (United States)

    Godwin, Rosamond M; Morgan, Jess A T


    Coccidiosis is a costly enteric disease of chickens caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. Disease diagnosis and management is complicated since there are multiple Eimeria species infecting chickens and mixed species infections are common. Current control measures are only partially effective and this, combined with concerns over vaccine efficacy and increasing drug resistance, demonstrates a need for improved coccidiosis diagnosis and control. Before improvements can be made, it is important to understand the species commonly infecting poultry flocks in both backyard and commercial enterprises. The aim of this project was to conduct a survey and assessment of poultry Eimeria across Australia using genetic markers, and create a collection of isolates for each Eimeria species. A total of 260 samples (faecal or caecal) was obtained, and survey results showed that Eimeria taxa were present in 98% of commercial and 81% of backyard flocks. The distribution of each Eimeria species was widespread across Australia, with representatives of all species being found in every state and territory, and the Eimeria species predominating in commercial flocks differed from those in backyard flocks. Three operational taxonomic units also occurred frequently in commercial flocks highlighting the need to understand the impact of these uncharacterised species on poultry production. As Eimeria infections were also frequent in backyard flocks, there is a potential for backyard flocks to act as reservoirs for disease, especially as the industry moves towards free range production systems. This Eimeria collection will be an important genetic resource which is the crucial first step in the development of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and the development of new live vaccines which ultimately will provide savings to the industry in terms of more efficient coccidiosis management.

  9. Struan Sutherland--Doyen of envenomation in Australia. (United States)

    Tibballs, James


    Struan Sutherland (1936-2002) was the doyen of medical research in the field of envenomation and the ultimate authority on the medical management of envenomated victims in Australia for almost 3 decades. In 1981 as Head of Immunology Research of Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL), he produced an antivenom against the Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus)-an accomplishment that had defied numerous previous attempts. Struan also invented the pressure-immobilisation technique of first-aid for snake bite. This ingenious, simple but safe and effective technique revolutionised first-aid management of snake bite and of some other types of envenomation. It made redundant the use of tourniquets and other dangerous first-aid treatments. Similarly, he helped to develop a snake venom detection kit, which enables doctors working at a victim's bedside to ascertain which snake was responsible and which antivenom should be administered. He had a very wide range of research interests and was a prodigious researcher publishing over 200 scientific and medical articles, numerous chapters in books and the standard Australian medical textbook on the management of envenomation, Australian Animal Toxins. He made major contributions to the understanding of the venoms of Australia's remarkable range of fauna including snakes, spiders, Blue-ringed octopus, ants, jellyfish and stinging fish. Struan served the medical fraternity and the public selflessly. He was always available to doctors, or to anybody, to give advice at any hour of the day or night, on management of envenomated victims. Members of the Australian Venom Research Unit, which he founded in 1994 at The University of Melbourne, now continue this 24-h advisory service.

  10. Where next on e-waste in Australia? (United States)

    Golev, Artem; Schmeda-Lopez, Diego R; Smart, Simon K; Corder, Glen D; McFarland, Eric W


    For almost two decades waste electrical and electronic equipment, WEEE or e-waste, has been considered a growing problem that has global consequences. The value of recovered materials, primarily in precious and base metals, has prompted some parts of the world to informally and inappropriately process e-waste causing serious environmental and human health issues. Efforts in tackling this issue have been limited and in many ways unsuccessful. The global rates for formal e-waste treatment are estimated to be below the 20% mark, with the majority of end-of-life (EoL) electronic devices still ending up in the landfills or processed through rudimentary means. Industrial confidentiality regarding device composition combined with insufficient reporting requirements has made the task of simply characterizing the problem difficult at a global scale. To address some of these key issues, this paper presents a critical overview of existing statistics and estimations for e-waste in an Australia context, including potential value and environmental risks associated with metals recovery. From our findings, in 2014, on average per person, Australians purchased 35kg of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) while disposed of 25kg of WEEE, and possessed approximately 320kg of EEE. The total amount of WEEE was estimated at 587kt worth about US$ 370million if all major metals are fully recovered. These results are presented over the period 2010-2014, detailed for major EEE product categories and metals, and followed by 2015-2024 forecast. Our future projection, with the base scenario fixing EEE sales at 35kg per capita, predicts stabilization of e-waste generation in Australia at 28-29kg per capita, with the total amount continuing to grow along with the population growth.

  11. The molecular profile of metastatic melanoma in Australia. (United States)

    Lyle, Megan; Haydu, Lauren E; Menzies, Alexander M; Thompson, John F; Saw, Robyn P M; Spillane, Andrew J; Kefford, Richard F; Mann, Graham J; Cooper, Wendy A; Yu, Bing; Scolyer, Richard A; O'Toole, Sandra A; Long, Georgina V


    Targeted therapy directed at driver oncogenic mutations offers an effective treatment option for select patients with metastatic melanoma. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of clinically significant somatic mutations, specifically BRAF, NRAS and KIT, in a large cohort of Australian patients with metastatic melanoma. We performed a cross-sectional cohort study of consecutive patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IIIc unresectable or stage IV melanoma managed at Melanoma Institute Australia, and affiliated sites, that underwent molecular testing between 22 June 2009 and 19 July 2013. Additionally, we examined the change in BRAF testing methodology and patient population over time, and how this influenced the prevalence of mutations. A total of 767 molecular tests were conducted for 733 patients. BRAF V600 mutation testing was performed for 713 patients (97.2%), with an overall mutation prevalence of 37.7% (269/713); 74.3% (200/269) were the V600E genotype and 22.3% (60/269) V600K. The BRAF mutation prevalence and proportion of BRAF V600E and V600K genotypes varied across the study period, as did testing methodology and the median age of the cohorts. Of 222 patients who underwent NRAS testing, 58 (26.1%) had a mutation identified. The overall prevalence of KIT mutations was 3.7% (11/296). In Australia the prevalence of BRAF mutations is lower than initially reported, although this remains the most common mutation identified in metastatic melanoma and an important therapeutic target. NRAS mutations are more prevalent than initially described; however, other mutations reported in melanoma, including KIT, are rare in an unselected population of patients.

  12. Crowfunding: A Way to Financing Creative Business in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Yudhistira


    Full Text Available AbstractCrowdfunding, a new term in financial industries. It provides fund for a new start-up project. In Australia where it becomes the basis of this study, Pozible as a leading crowdfunding platform has already launched 6.929 projects. The fund of US$22.930.536 was used for financing the projects, and 56 percent of the projects were successful. This research has an objective; it is to measure the degree of significancy using linear regression model. The result shows that among the businesses that has already funded by crowdfunding system, ‘video game’ is one of the most favorite project. It is successful in getting pledges. However, food and drink did not get fund as much as the favorites project. It was based on the percentage of fund that has already got from crowdfunding. In short, crowdfunding can help creative business as a top rank start-up rather than manufacture business.Crowdfunding, istilah baru dalam industri keuangan. Crowdfunding adalah dana untuk proyek rintisan. Pozible sebagai platform crowdfunding terkemuka telah meluncurkan 6,929 proyek di Australia. Negara tersebut menjadi dasar dari penelitian ini. Dana sebesar $ 22.930.536 US digunakan untuk membiayai proyek-proyek dan 56 persen dari proyek tersebut sukses. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur tingkat signifikansi dengan menggunakan model regresi linier. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa di antara bisnis yang sudah didanai oleh sistem crowdfunding, ‘video game’ adalah salah satu proyek yang paling favorit dan sukses dalam mendapatkan jaminan. Sedangkan makanan dan minuman tidak mendapatkan dana sebanyak proyek favorit. Hal ini didasarkan pada persentase dana yang telah diperoleh dari crowdfunding. Kesimpulannya adalah crowdfunding lebih bisa membantu bisnis kreatif sebagai a top rank start-up daripada bisnis manufaktur

  13. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Penman


    Full Text Available Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women. Asana (postures and vinyasa (sequences of postures represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques, meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits

  14. Origin of the New England Oroclines, eastern Australia (United States)

    Shaanan, U.; Rosenbaum, G.; Li, P.


    During most of the Paleozoic, the Australian continent has occupied a tectonic position between the Tethys Ocean in its northern boundary and the Circum-Pacific (Panthalassan) subduction zones in the east. The latter has been subjected to alternating episodes of trench advance and trench retreat, as expressed, in the Australian Tasmanides, by changes from accretionary processes to rifting and S-type magmatism. Geological observations from the easternmost and youngest component of the Tasmanides, the New England Orogen, show that this orogenic belt forms a strongly contorted ear-shaped structure, delineated by a number of early Paleozoic to early Permian tectonic elements. Bending and fragmentation of the continental margin commenced in the early Permian, at ~300 Ma, and was associated with the development of extensional sedimentary basins, large vertical-axis block rotations and oroclinal bending. In this work, we constrain the geometry and kinematics of the New England Oroclines by providing new structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic data from key localities along the bent system. We show that the process of oroclinal bending was intimately linked to the development of backarc sedimentary basins, suggesting that extensional tectonics may have played a major role in the formation of the oroclines. This may indicate that the process of oroclinal bending in eastern Australia was controlled by trench retreat and slab segmentation, similarly to the modern tectonics of the SW Pacific and Mediterranean regions. In the context of Paleozoic Australia, it is possible that such complex plate boundary processes originated from the kinematic interaction between the Tethyan and circum-Pacific systems.

  15. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn


    Full Text Available Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2 performed by Ziehn et al. (2014 to also minimize the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to 5 new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  16. Renewable Energy Policy and Practice in Western Australia (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Harries, David


    Renewable energy is commonly seen as an essential strategy for sustainability. Many governments, however, have sustainable energy or sustainability strategies that place little emphasis on renewable energy. One reason is that despite acceptance of the concept of sustainable development as a concept, the reality is that economic growth remains the dominant policy objective of most governments and sustainability and sustainable development are such ill-defined concepts that lack of precise definition often confuses the debate. Climate change, however, is one issue for which the meaning over what is sustainable and what is unstainable has become clearer and the need to balance economic growth with reductions in greenhouse gas emissions has become urgent. The question of by when, by what means, by how much and by whom GHG emissions need to be reduced are now the critical questions. The question of the extent to which renewable energy is essential to the goal of reducing emissions therefore has become more pressing. Some governments continue to see renewable energy as an expensive and unnecessary option and that other, lower cost options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector exist. Western Australia makes an interesting case study as the State is experiencing rapid economic growth supported by rapidly increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to date have focused on the fact that the state relies heavily on natural gas rather than coal and encourages the efficient use of energy. Western Australia's energy situation and greenhouse gas emissions strategies are reviewed in order to assess the extent to which this greenhouse gas reduction policy that has to date placed a relatively low emphasis on renewable energy is likely to be successful.

  17. Population structure of the peridomestic mosquito Ochlerotatus notoscriptus in Australia. (United States)

    Foley, D H; Russell, R C; Bryan, J H


    Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the predominant peridomestic mosquito in Australia where it is the primary vector of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy), and a potentially important vector of arboviruses (Barmah Forest, Ross River) with geographical variation of vector competence. Although widespread, Oc. notoscriptus has low dispersal ability, so it may have isolated subpopulations. The identification of gene flow barriers may assist in understanding arbovirus epidemiology and disease risk, and for developing control strategies for this species. We investigated the population structure of Oc. notoscriptus from 17 sites around Australia, using up to 31 putative allozyme loci, 11 of which were polymorphic. We investigated the effect of larval environment and adult morphology on genetic variation. At least five subpopulations were found, four in New South Wales (NSW) and one unique to Darwin. Perth samples appear to be a product of recent colonization from the Australian east coast. For NSW sites, a Mantel test revealed an isolation by distance effect and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed an area of effective gene flow of 67 km, which is high given the limited dispersal ability of this species. No consistent difference was observed between 'urban' and 'sylvan' habitats, which suggests frequent movement between these sites. However, a finer-scaled habitat study at Darwin revealed small but significant allele frequency differences, including for Gpi. No fixed allozyme differences were detected for sex, size, integument colour or the colour of species-diagnostic pale scales on the scutum. The domestic habit of Oc. notoscriptus and assisted dispersal have helped to homogenize this species geographically but population structure is still detectable on several levels associated with geographical variation of vector competence.

  18. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.


    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  19. Digging deeper: new gene order rearrangements and distinct patterns of codons usage in mitochondrial genomes among shrimps from the Axiidea, Gebiidea and Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Hua Tan


    Full Text Available Background Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters and Caridea (true shrimps are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Methods Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. Results We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Discussion Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages.

  20. Canine rabies in Australia: a review of preparedness and research needs. (United States)

    Sparkes, J; Fleming, P J S; Ballard, G; Scott-Orr, H; Durr, S; Ward, M P


    Australia is unique as a populated continent in that canine rabies is exotic, with only one likely incursion in 1867. This is despite the presence of a widespread free-ranging dog population, which includes the naturalized dingo, feral domestic dogs and dingo-dog cross-breeds. To Australia's immediate north, rabies has recently spread within the Indonesian archipelago, with outbreaks occurring in historically free islands to the east including Bali, Flores, Ambon and the Tanimbar Islands. Australia depends on strict quarantine protocols to prevent importation of a rabid animal, but the risk of illegal animal movements by fishing and recreational vessels circumventing quarantine remains. Predicting where rabies will enter Australia is important, but understanding dog population dynamics and interactions, including contact rates in and around human populations, is essential for rabies preparedness. The interactions among and between Australia's large populations of wild, free-roaming and restrained domestic dogs require quantification for rabies incursions to be detected and controlled. The imminent risk of rabies breaching Australian borders makes the development of disease spread models that will assist in the deployment of cost-effective surveillance, improve preventive strategies and guide disease management protocols vitally important. Here, we critically review Australia's preparedness for rabies, discuss prevailing assumptions and models, identify knowledge deficits in free-roaming dog ecology relating to rabies maintenance and speculate on the likely consequences of endemic rabies for Australia.

  1. Towards an Accurate and Precise Chronology for the Colonization of Australia: The Example of Riwi, Kimberley, Western Australia (United States)

    Balme, Jane; O’Connor, Sue; Whitau, Rose


    An extensive series of 44 radiocarbon (14C) and 37 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages have been obtained from the site of Riwi, south central Kimberley (NW Australia). As one of the earliest known Pleistocene sites in Australia, with archaeologically sterile sediment beneath deposits containing occupation, the chronology of the site is important in renewed debates surrounding the colonization of Sahul. Charcoal is preserved throughout the sequence and within multiple discrete hearth features. Prior to 14C dating, charcoal has been pretreated with both acid-base-acid (ABA) and acid base oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) methods at multiple laboratories. Ages are consistent between laboratories and also between the two pretreatment methods, suggesting that contamination is easily removed from charcoal at Riwi and the Pleistocene ages are likely to be accurate. Whilst some charcoal samples recovered from outside hearth features are identified as outliers within a Bayesian model, all ages on charcoal within hearth features are consistent with stratigraphy. OSL dating has been undertaken using single quartz grains from the sandy matrix. The majority of samples show De distributions that are well-bleached but that also include evidence for mixing as a result of post-depositional bioturbation of the sediment. The results of the two techniques are compared and evaluated within a Bayesian model. Consistency between the two methods is good, and we demonstrate human occupation at this site from 46.4–44.6 cal kBP (95.4% probability range). Importantly, the lowest archaeological horizon at Riwi is underlain by sterile sediments which have been dated by OSL making it possible to demonstrate the absence of human occupation for between 0.9–5.2 ka (68.2% probability range) prior to occupation. PMID:27655174

  2. The economic viability of nuclear power in a fossil-fuel-rich country: Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Anthony


    This paper assesses the economic viability of investment in nuclear power generation in Australia and factors which may influence government policy towards such investments. It argues that the structure of the grid in Eastern Australia and the nature of the existing generator mix require nuclear technology that has similar attributes to combined cycle gas technology; i.e. modular construction of generating units, load following capability, low unit capital cost, and a general acceptance by the Australian public. The paper concludes that it is only Generation IV nuclear technology that has the potential to be part of Australia's energy mix after 2030.

  3. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England]. (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne


    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  4. Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased

  5. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J


    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the ACPSEM, are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organization). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists (168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program. The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach

  6. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae in Australia and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Crews


    Full Text Available The spider family Selenopidae Simon occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, currently containing nearly 200 species in five genera. We relimit and revise the family to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and Asia. The family Selenopidae is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul and Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous errors in the definition. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: S. bursarius Karsch, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, S. ollarius Zhu, Sha, and Chen, and S. radiatus Latreille, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha, and Chen is recognized as a junior synonym of S. radiatus, syn. n. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with A. baginawa sp. n., and is known only from the Philippine island of Mindoro. Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with G. careus sp. n., and is known only from Papua New Guinea. Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and has 24 species: K. australiensis (L. Koch comb. n., K. gangarie sp. n., K. monteithi sp. n., K. alanlongbottomi sp. n., K. keithlongbottomi sp. n., K. larryoo sp. n., K. jarrit sp. n., K. marrayagong sp. n., K. raveni sp. n., K. badgeradda sp. n., K. burbidgei sp. n., K. karrawarla sp. n., K. julianneae sp. n., K. martamarta sp. n., K. manaayn sp. n., K. vadlaadambara sp. n., K. pilkingtoni sp. n., K. deserticola sp. n., K. ngarutjaranya sp. n., K. francesae sp. n., K. toolbrunup sp. n., the type species K. ellenae sp. n., K. jenniferae sp. n., and K. dawara sp. n. The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal: M. agumbensis (Tikader, comb. n., the type of the genus M. mahishasura sp. n., M. montigenus (Simon, comb. n., M. nilgirensis (Reimoser comb. n., and M. shiva sp. n. The genus Pakawops gen. n. is

  7. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John O. Hill; Roger T. Cross


    @@ Summary The theme of 17 ICCE is that the new century offers new challenges, new opportunities and new hopes for chemical education. These aspirations are certainly critical for chemical education in Australia, particularly at the tertiary level.

  9. Tourism Organization and Coordination in Australia and the Managerial Strategy for Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Smaranda


    Full Text Available This paper presents synthetically the organization of tourism activities in Australia, harmoniously integrated within the functional unit of the economy, as well as the relations between the components of this system, so that they function as real motors of accomplishing the national strategy of tourism development. This paper also deals with sustainable tourism and tourism ecolabelling programs in Australia. The opinions expressed are based on the research of the cited bibliographic sources and the interpretation of current information, taken from the websites of some reliable organizations (Tourism Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics. Primary statistics were taken from Tourism Research Australia(TRA, Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO and Tourism Satellite Account.This study may be extended through a similar approach of tourism industry’ organization and tourism development strategy in other regions with great tourism potential, using relevant comparative analyses thereafter.

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  11. Notes from an Unknown Presenter at the Third International Conference of English Teachers in Sydney, Australia. (United States)

    Lewis, Flossie


    Offers an English teacher's observations about an international conference held in Sydney, Australia, with particular emphasis on George Orwell's "1984" and his views on language, multiculturalism, and humanism and on George Steiner's "Language and Silence." (RL)

  12. Friendship Activities in Brief——Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  13. The new energy technologies in Australia; Les nouvelles technologies de l'energie en Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R


    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  14. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.


    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  15. Geologic Provinces of Australia and New Zealand, 2000 (prv3cl) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Australia and New Zealand area...

  16. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor;


    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine be...

  17. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  18. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses. (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian


    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  19. Informing Policy and Practice in Australia's Vocational Education and Training Sector: Reflections and Futures. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Forum of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 21, 2007) (United States)

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Loveder, Phil, Ed.


    To mark the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) brought together policy, industry and academic leaders to reflect on the role that research and statistics have played in the development of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector. This publication includes the original…




    A preliminary analysis of demand in eight major OECD wool-consuming countries is used to provide up-to-date estimates of price elasticities of demand for wool. Those elasticities are employed to calculate ex ante market prices, assuming no wool price stabilisation in Australia. The computed ex ante prices are used in a dynamic simulation to estimate demand and, hence, revenue from wool sales to the eight countries in the absence of reserve price operations in Australia. Based on the preferred...

  1. Australia; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Technical Note: Investor Protection, Disclosure, and Financial Literacy


    International Monetary Fund


    This study reviews selected issues on investor protection and corporate governance in Australia, and concludes that the corporate governance framework for Australian-listed companies is largely healthy and dynamic. Shareholder activism is an important element of corporate governance because it promotes compliance and implementation of disclosure and corporate governance obligations. The legislative and regulatory framework in Australia includes disclosure requirements that meet or exceed the ...

  2. Teeth Tales: a community-based child oral health promotion trial with migrant families in Australia


    Gibbs, L.; Waters, E; Christian, B.; Gold, L.; Young, D.; Silva, A; Calache, H.; Gussy, M.; Watt, R.; Riggs, E; Tadic, M.; Hall, M.; Gondal, I.; Pradel, V.; Moore, L.


    Objectives The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. Design An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. Setting The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Families with 1–4-year-old children, self-identifie...

  3. The Experience of Melanoma Follow-Up Care: An Online Survey of Patients in Australia


    Janine Mitchell; Peta Callaghan; Jackie Street; Susan Neuhaus; Taryn Bessen


    Investigating patients’ reports on the quality and consistency of melanoma follow-up care in Australia would assist in evaluating if this care is effective and meeting patients’ needs. The objective of this study was to obtain and explore the patients’ account of the technical and interpersonal aspects of melanoma follow-up care received. An online survey was conducted to acquire details of patients’ experience. Participants were patients treated in Australia for primary melanoma. Qualitative...

  4. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia


    Kenneth A. McColl; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C.


    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationshi...

  5. Tourism Organization and Coordination in Australia and the Managerial Strategy for Tourism Development


    Simoni Smaranda; Mihai Daniela


    This paper presents synthetically the organisation of tourism activities in Australia, harmoniously integrated within the functional unit of the economy, as well as the relations between the components of this system, so that they function as real motors of accomplishing the national strategy of tourism development. This paper also deals with sustainable tourism and tourism ecolabelling programs in Australia. The opinions expressed are based on the research of the cited bibliographic sources ...

  6. Promoting the Contributions of Willing and Able States: Australia’s Response to Transnational Extremism (United States)


    Terrorism: The Threat to Australia (Australia: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2004), viii. 33 Greg Fealy and Aldo Borgu , “Local Jihad...Walid Phares, Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies Against America (United States: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005), 202-203. 36 Aldo Borgu , “Understanding...Butts and Reynolds, 126. 108 Rolfe, 7. 109 Australian Government, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, xi. 110 Borgu , 9. 111 Eric G. John., “The

  7. Brief Talk About Australia Dating and Marriage Culture-For If You Are The Only One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper seeing big things through small ones probes into why the dating show If You Are The One is so popular in Australia, take which as a standard to talk about Australian dating and marriage culture, and then naturally transitioning to the point that Australia as a country of immigrants is tolerant to various cultures. Mass media has great influence on individual idea of love and marriage of Chinese people with which we are supposed to carefully confront .

  8. Gadigaleyrodes froggatti, a new genus and species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Australia. (United States)

    Dooley, John W; Gillespie, Peter


    A new monotypic genus of whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), Gadigaleyrodes gen.n., is described and illustrated for G. froggatti sp.n. from New South Wales, Australia. Specimens were collected by W. W. Froggatt in 1899 on Syncarpia glomulifera, and subsequently by P. S. Gillespie on an unknown climbing plant. The genus has unusual morphological features with traits common to both Aleurodicinae and Aleyrodinae. The subfamily placement is discussed, and a key provided to discriminate this taxon from similar whitefly genera in Australia.

  9. History of Astronomy at James Cook University, Australia (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Duerbeck, H.; Glass, I.; Malville, K.; Marsden, B.; Simonia, I.; Slee, B.; Stephenson, F. R.; Strom, R.; Whittingham, I.; Wielebinski, R.


    The Centre for Astronomy at James Cook University (JCU) in Australia has been offering totally internet-delivered Master of Astronomy degrees since 2003 and Doctor of Astronomy and Ph.D. degrees since 2004. In 2005 a new dimension was added with unique offerings in the history of astronomy at both Masters and Doctoral levels. With the aid of 1 full-time staff member and 10 adjunct staff, 4 students have now graduated with Ph.D. degrees, 1 student died from cancer after completing the first draft of his thesis, and 14 students are currently enrolled in Ph.D. degrees. In addition 12 students have completed Master of Astronomy degrees in history of astronomy, and there are 3 students who are currently enrolled for Masters degrees. As part of its commitment to the international development of history of astronomy, the Centre for Astronomy also arranges boutique `invitation only’ history of astronomy conferences in March each year, and produces the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage.

  10. A new species of mesonivirus from the Northern Territory, Australia. (United States)

    Warrilow, David; Watterson, Daniel; Hall, Roy A; Davis, Steven S; Weir, Richard; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter; Allcock, Richard; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; O'Brien, Caitlin A; Hobson-Peters, Jody


    Here we describe Casuarina virus (CASV), a new virus in the family Mesoniviridae. This is the first report of a mesonivirus in Australia, which extends the geographical range of this virus family to 3 continents. The virus was isolated in 2010 from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes during surveillance in the suburbs of Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Cryo-electron microscopy of the CASV virions revealed spherical particles of 65 nm in size with large club-shaped projections of approximately 15 nm in length. The new virus was most closely related to Alphamesonivirus 1, the only currently recognized species in the family. In 2013 a further 5 putative new mesonivirus species were described: Hana, Méno, Nsé, Moumo and Dak Nong viruses. The evolutionary distance between CASV and two of its closest relatives, Cavally and Hana viruses (Jones-Taylor-Thornton distance of 0.151 and 0.224, respectively), along with its isolation from a different genus of mosquitoes captured on a separate continent indicate that CASV is a new species.

  11. A new species of mesonivirus from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Warrilow

    Full Text Available Here we describe Casuarina virus (CASV, a new virus in the family Mesoniviridae. This is the first report of a mesonivirus in Australia, which extends the geographical range of this virus family to 3 continents. The virus was isolated in 2010 from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes during surveillance in the suburbs of Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Cryo-electron microscopy of the CASV virions revealed spherical particles of 65 nm in size with large club-shaped projections of approximately 15 nm in length. The new virus was most closely related to Alphamesonivirus 1, the only currently recognized species in the family. In 2013 a further 5 putative new mesonivirus species were described: Hana, Méno, Nsé, Moumo and Dak Nong viruses. The evolutionary distance between CASV and two of its closest relatives, Cavally and Hana viruses (Jones-Taylor-Thornton distance of 0.151 and 0.224, respectively, along with its isolation from a different genus of mosquitoes captured on a separate continent indicate that CASV is a new species.

  12. Chemical dosing for sulfide control in Australia: An industry survey. (United States)

    Ganigue, Ramon; Gutierrez, Oriol; Rootsey, Ray; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Controlling sulfide (H(2)S) production and emission in sewer systems is critical due to the corrosion and malodour problems that sulfide causes. Chemical dosing is one of the most commonly used measures to mitigate these problems. Many chemicals have been reported to be effective for sulfide control, but the extent of success varies between chemicals and is also dependent on how they are applied. This industry survey aims to summarise the current practice in Australia with the view to assist the water industry to further improve their practices and to identify new research questions. Results showed that dosing is mainly undertaken in pressure mains. Magnesium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and nitrate are the most commonly used chemicals for sewers with low flows. In comparison, iron salts are preferentially used for sulfide control in large systems. The use of oxygen injection has declined dramatically in the past few years. Chemical dosing is mainly conducted at wet wells and pumping stations, except for oxygen, which is injected into the pipe. The dosing rates are normally linked to the control mechanisms of the chemicals and the dosing locations, with constant or profiled dosing rates usually applied. Finally, key opportunities for improvement are the use of mathematical models for the selection of chemicals and dosing locations, on-line dynamic control of the dosing rates and the development of more cost-effective chemicals for sulfide control.

  13. Climatic regionalization mapping of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area,Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Demin Zhou; Shahbaz Khan; Akhtar Abbas; Tariq Rana; Haiying Zhang; Yun Chen


    In this study,spatial analysis techniques were used to generate climatic zoning maps of the East Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA),Australia.Long term climate data were used to analyze and assess regional climatic variation by cluster analysis in a GIS environment.Based on thermal and moisture factors,four variables were chosen to develop climate zones.These variables include annual average rainfalls,annual average ETc,annual average Growing Day Degree (GDD) and daily average temperature generated from daily climate data of 36 years (1971-2006) on 12 local weather stations as the fundamental elements of regional climate characteristics.GIS-based spatial analysis models are used to map climate sub-regions from sets of climatic parameters derived from regional climate data sources.Two climate zoning schemes are presented by integration of spatial interpolation,spatial cluster analysis and climate indices methods.One scheme comes with the two climate zones of the West and the East based on spatial cluster analysis according to selected climatic variables,and the other comes with the three comprehensive hydro-thermal zones and the six hydro-thermal balance zones.

  14. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.


    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  15. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia. (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M


    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  16. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew


    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources.

  17. Dental hygiene student experiences in external placements in Australia. (United States)

    Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda


    While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.

  18. Generalised pollination systems for three invasive milkweeds in Australia. (United States)

    Ward, M; Johnson, S D


    Because most plants require pollinator visits for seed production, the ability of an introduced plant species to establish pollinator relationships in a new ecosystem may have a central role in determining its success or failure as an invader. We investigated the pollination ecology of three milkweed species - Asclepias curassavica, Gomphocarpus fruticosus and G. physocarpus - in their invaded range in southeast Queensland, Australia. The complex floral morphology of milkweeds has often been interpreted as a general trend towards specialised pollination requirements. Based on this interpretation, invasion by milkweeds contradicts the expectation than plant species with specialised pollination systems are less likely to become invasive that those with more generalised pollination requirements. However, observations of flower visitors in natural populations of the three study species revealed that their pollination systems are essentially specialised at the taxonomic level of the order, but generalised at the species level. Specifically, pollinators of the two Gomphocarpus species included various species of Hymenoptera (particularly vespid wasps), while pollinators of A. curassavica were primarily Lepidoptera (particularly nymphalid butterflies). Pollinators of all three species are rewarded with copious amounts of highly concentrated nectar. It is likely that successful invasion by these three milkweed species is attributable, at least in part, to their generalised pollinator requirements. The results of this study are discussed in terms of how data from the native range may be useful in predicting pollination success of species in a new environment.

  19. Epidemiology of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fielding


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the magnitude and severity of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia using surveillance data from five sources. Methods: Data from influenza notifications, sentinel general practices, a sentinel hospital network, a sentinel locum service and strain typing databases for 2012 were descriptively analysed. Results: Influenza and influenza-like illness activity was moderate compared to previous years, although a considerable increase in notified laboratory-confirmed influenza was observed. Type A influenza comprised between 83% and 87% of cases from the general practitioners, hospitals and notifiable surveillance data. Influenza A/H3 was dominant in July and August, and most tested isolates were antigenically similar to the A/Perth/16/2009 virus used in the vaccine. There was a smaller peak of influenza type B in September. No tested viruses were resistant to any neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals. Higher proportions of type A/H3, hospitalized cases and those with a comorbid condition indicated for influenza vaccination were aged 65 years or older. Influenza vaccination coverage among influenza-like illness patients was 24% in sentinel general practices and 50% in hospitals. Discussion: The 2012 influenza season in Victoria was average compared to previous years, with an increased dominance of A/H3 accompanied by increases in older and hospitalized cases. Differences in magnitude and the epidemiological profile of cases detected by the different data sources demonstrate the importance of using a range of surveillance data to assess the relative severity of influenza seasons.

  20. Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia. (United States)

    Cai, Lixin; Kalb, Guyonne


    This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15-49, males aged 50-64, females aged 15-49 and females aged 50-60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups.

  1. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice. (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel


    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  2. Nereididae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Glasby, Christopher J


    Nereididae is one of the most ubiquitous of polychaete families, yet knowledge of their diversity in the northern Great Barrier Reef is poor; few species have been previously reported from any of the atolls or islands including Lizard Island. In this study, the diversity of the family from Lizard Island and surrounding reefs is documented based on museum collections derived from surveys conducted mostly over the last seven years. The Lizard Island nereidid fauna was found to be represented by 14 genera and 38 species/species groups, including 11 putative new species. Twelve species are newly reported from Lizard Island; four of these are also first records for Australia. For each genus and species, diagnoses and/or taxonomic remarks are provided in addition to notes on their habitat on Lizard Island, and general distribution; the existence of tissue samples tied to vouchered museum specimens is indicated. Fluorescence photography is used to help distinguish closely similar species of Nereis and Platynereis. A key is provided to facilitate identification and encourage further taxonomic, molecular and ecological studies on the group.

  3. Large wood in the Snowy River estuary, Australia (United States)

    Hinwood, Jon B.; McLean, Errol J.


    In this paper we report on 8 years of data collection and interpretation of large wood in the Snowy River estuary in southeastern Australia, providing quantitative data on the amount, sources, transport, decay, and geomorphic actions. No prior census data for an estuary is known to the authors despite their environmental and economic importance and the significant differences between a fluvial channel and an estuarine channel. Southeastern Australian estuaries contain a significant quantity of large wood that is derived from many sources, including river flood flows, local bank erosion, and anthropogenic sources. Wind and tide are shown to be as important as river flow in transporting and stranding large wood. Tidal action facilitates trapping of large wood on intertidal bars and shoals; but channels are wider and generally deeper, so log jams are less likely than in rivers. Estuarine large wood contributes to localised scour and accretion and hence to the modification of estuarine habitat, but in the study area it did not have large-scale impacts on the hydraulic gradients nor the geomorphology.

  4. Land-mobile-satellite fade measurements in Australia (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro


    Attenuation measurements were implemented at L-band (1.5 GHz) in southeastern Australia during an 11-day period in October 1988 as part of a continuing examination of the propagation effects due to roadside trees and terrain for mobile-satellite service. Beacon transmissions from the geostationary ETS-V and IPORS satellites were observed. The Australian campaign expanded to another continent our Mobile Satellite Service data base of measurements executed in the eastern and southwestern United States regions. An empirical fade distribution model based on U.S. data predicted the Australian results with errors generally less than 1 dB in the 1-20 percent probability region. Directive antennas are shown to suffer deeper fades under severe shadowing conditions (3 dB excess at 4 percent), the equal-probability isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions deteriorated to 10 dB at the 5 dB fade level, and antenna diversity reception may reduce unavailability of the system by a factor of 2-8.

  5. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D


    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (prisk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  6. Turnkey Helium Purification and Liquefaction Plant for DARWIN, Australia (United States)

    Lindemann, U.; Boeck, S.; Blum, L.; Kurtcuoglu, K.


    The Linde Group, through its Australian subsidiary BOC Limited, has signed an agreement with Darwin LNG Pty Ltd for the supply of feed-gas to Linde's new helium refining and liquefaction facility in Darwin, Australia. Linde Kryotechnik AG, located in Switzerland, has carried out the engineering and fabrication of the equipment for the turn key helium plant. The raw feed gas flow of 20'730 Nm3/h contains up to of 3 mol% helium. The purification process of the feed gas consists of partial condensation of nitrogen in two stages, cryogenic adsorption and finally catalytic oxidation of hydrogen followed by a dryer system. Downstream of the purification the refined helium is liquefied using a modified Bryton process and stored in a 30'000 gal LHe tank. For further distribution and export of the liquid helium there are two stations available for filling of truck trailers and containers. The liquid nitrogen, required for refrigeration capacity to the nitrogen removal stages in the purification process as well as for the pre-cooling of the pure helium in the liquefaction process, is generated on site during the feed gas purification process. The optimized process provides low power consumption, maximum helium recovery and a minimum helium loss.

  7. The Fluctuating Political Appeal of Water Engineering in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin R. Crase


    Full Text Available Like many nations, Australia has a mixed history with water engineering. For over a century the engineer was 'king' and water was harnessed as a vehicle for settling the harsh inland, creating wealth and building prosperity. By the 1960s it was becoming increasingly clear that this approach was not without its flaws. Mounting evidence of environmental degradation emerged in the 1970s and the trend towards fiscal responsibility in the 1980s subjected the engineering approach to even greater scrutiny. These events set the context for a series of water policy reforms that commenced in earnest in the early 1990s. Initially, the reforms favoured greater use of economic incentives and focussed attention on the ecological impacts of water management. In this environment, the status of the engineer was transformed from 'king' to 'servant'. However, the engineering profession was not to hold this status for long and the political difficulties of simultaneously dealing with the economics and ecology of water quickly became the rationale for reverting to engineering solutions. This paper traces these historical events and focusses specifically on the politically vexing issues that arise when water reallocation is attempted in a fully allocated basin.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E


    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  9. Why Social Exclusion Persists among Older People in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyana Miranti


    Full Text Available The existing literature on social exclusion among older people, though relatively limited, suggests that disadvantage among older people is cumulative in nature. Some aspects of disadvantage starting at early life stages have long-term consequences. As such, older people with disadvantages may be subject to higher risks of persistent social exclusion. This article aims to improve understanding of social exclusion and its persistence among senior Australians in three ways. Firstly, the incidence of social exclusion among older people is analysed using selected indicators. Secondly, the study examines whether an older person experiencing social exclusion at one time is more likely to experience it again (persistence. Thirdly, it investigates what factors may be protecting older people from social exclusion. The analysis is conducted using the first eight waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey. The sample of older people is disaggregated into a younger group (55–64 years at wave 1 and an older group (65+ years. The article suggests that higher education and income, as well as better health conditions and previous employment experiences, are important protective factors from social exclusion for older Australians.

  10. Monitoring the Galactic Centre with Australia Telescope Compact Array

    CERN Document Server

    Borkar, A; Straubmeier, C; Kunneriath, D; Jalali, B; Sabha, N; Shahzamanian, B; García-Marín, M; Valencia-S, M; Sjouwerman, L; Britzen, S; Karas, V; Dovčiak, M; Donea, A; Zensus, A


    The supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), at the centre of the Milky Way undergoes regular flaring activity which is thought to arise from the innermost region of the accretion flow. We performed the monitoring observations of the Galactic Centre to study the flux-density variations at 3mm using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 2010 and 2014. We obtain the light curves of Sgr A* by subtracting the contributions from the extended emission around it, and the elevation and time dependent gains of the telescope. We perform structure function analysis and the Bayesian blocks representation to detect flare events. The observations detect six instances of significant variability in the flux density of Sgr A* in three observations, with variations between 0.5 to 1.0 Jy, which last for 1.5 $-$ 3 hours. We use the adiabatically expanding plasmon model to explain the short time-scale variations in the flux density. We derive the physical quantities of the modelled flare emission, such as ...

  11. Bomb radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand and Australia (United States)

    Hua, Q.; Barbetti, M.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Zoppi, U.; Lawson, E. M.


    We have examined the atmospheric 14C excess in the tropics and the southern hemisphere temperate region in the bomb pulse period, using two sets of cross-dated tree rings. One set was from a medium-sized three-leaf pine ( Pinus kesiya) grown in northwestern Thailand and the other was from a Huon pine ( Lagarostrobos franklinii) grown in northwestern Tasmania, Australia. A total of 48 annual tree rings (24 pairs) from 1952 to 1975 AD were pretreated to alpha-cellulose, combusted to CO 2 and converted to graphite for 14C measurement in the tandem accelerator at ANSTO. Excellent agreement was found between our measured 14C data from tree rings and atmospheric 14C records at similar latitudes. A large depletion of atmospheric 14C for Thailand in 1953-1954 AD was observed. This might be due to a combination of the Suess effect and upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean. The results also showed the rise and decay of bomb 14C peaks from north to south with a time delay of about 1.5 yr, and the effects of minor atmospheric nuclear tests in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A delay of at least one month for 14C in tree cellulose of Huon pine compared with that in the atmosphere was also found.

  12. Astronomical Orientations of Bora Ceremonial Grounds in Southeast Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Robert S; Norris, Ray P


    Ethnographic evidence indicates that bora (initiation) ceremonial sites in southeast Australia, which typically comprise a pair of circles connected by a pathway, are symbolically reflected in the Milky Way as the 'Sky Bora'. This evidence also indicates that the position of the Sky Bora signifies the time of the year when initiation ceremonies are held. We use archaeological data to test the hypothesis that southeast Australian bora grounds have a preferred orientation to the position of the Milky Way in the night sky in August, when the plane of the galaxy from Crux to Sagittarius is roughly vertical in the evening sky to the south-southwest. We accomplish this by measuring the orientations of 68 bora grounds using a combination of data from the archaeological literature and site cards in the New South Wales Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System database. We find that bora grounds have a preferred orientation to the south and southwest, consistent with the Sky Bora hypothesis. Monte Carlo statis...

  13. Psychotherapy in Australia: clinical psychology and its approach to depression. (United States)

    Kavanagh, David J; Littlefield, Lyn; Dooley, Roger; O'Donovan, Analise


    In Australia, clinical psychology training is dominated by cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBTs), although there is exposure to other theoretical orientations. Since 2001, over 20% of general medical practitioners (GPs) have received training in CBT, and psychiatry training increasingly incorporates CBT elements. Psychotherapy by medical practitioners is financially supported by universal health care funding with supplementation by patients and their private health insurance. Federally funded health benefits for up to 12 psychology consultations per year are provided on referral from GPs and psychiatrists, and initial takeup has been very strong. Mrs. A would be a typical patient for such a referral. However, she would not fulfill criteria for priority access from state-funded mental health services. Mrs. A would probably consult a GP and receive antidepressants, although she may also access a range of other community support programs. Access to and acceptance of psychotherapy would be greater in urban areas, and if she were of Anglo-Saxon and non-indigenous origin.

  14. Emissions from in-use lawn-mowers in Australia (United States)

    Priest, M. W.; Williams, D. J.; Bridgman, H. A.

    Concern over the levels of pollutants emitted from small engines has led to recent legislation in the United States that regulates exhaust emissions from lawn and garden equipment. Particular attention has focused on the high levels of hydrocarbons emitted by these engines. The present study establishes emission factors for lawn-mowers in use in Australia. The estimates were calculated on the basis of a series of controlled emission tests conducted on commonly used lawn-mowers. Ten two-stroke and six four-stroke lawn-mower engines were operated under simulated power requirements while fuel usage and gas emissions were monitored. Fuel consumption rates from the tests were compared to those ascertained under actual mowing conditions in field tests conducted on 19 two-stroke and ten four-stroke lawn-mowers. Basic emission factors were established for CO, CO 2, CH 4, NMHC and NO x, and combined with data on machine population and annual usage collected in a survey of lawn care practices and lawn-mower usage conducted in the Newcastle area. When compared to transport sources in the Newcastle study region, lawn-mowers contribute 5.2 and 11.6% of CO and NMHC emissions, respectively.

  15. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk


    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  16. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia. (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G


    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.

  17. Local environments as determinants of walking in Melbourne, Australia. (United States)

    Bentley, Rebecca; Jolley, Damien; Kavanagh, Anne Marie


    Structural changes to neighbourhoods that promote walking are likely to benefit everyone in a community and result in long-term improvements in the population's physical activity and health. We consider time spent walking in relation to objectively measured features of people's local environments (functionality, safety, destinations and aesthetics) in Melbourne, Australia. We used multilevel ordered logistic regression analysis to examine variations in time spent walking amongst 2334 residents of 49 small areas (Census Collection Districts - CCDs). Features on each street segment within a 400 m radius of a randomly selected household within each CCD were measured, supplemented by geographic information system data. Models were adjusted for socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individual and socio-economic characteristics of areas. We found that increasing track length, having paths located closer to roads, fewer buildings with driveways, a greater presence and variety of destinations and views of shops, light industry, offices and/or schools (commercial views) were associated with more time spent walking in local environments in adjusted models. As such, each of the four features of local environments considered (design, safety, destinations and aesthetics) were associated on at least one measure with walking. Characteristics of areas reflecting urbanisation (destinations, commercial views, path location and driveways) were associated with increased time spent walking. This study provides important evidence on how urban design can be utilised to improve physical activity.

  18. The Emergence of Secular Insight Practice in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bubna-Litic


    Full Text Available In recent years insight (vipassana practice in Australia has diversified in content and spawned new institutions that present a more secular face. These changes exemplify the development of global Buddhism elsewhere rather than some local, sui generis divergence from international trends. Nonetheless, the unusual prominence of Buddhist migrants in the Australian population has influenced the interaction between “traditional” and “western” Buddhists, and thus the emergence of the new trends. In interpreting the transformations in question, we make heuristic use both of Martin Baumann’s periodization of Buddhist history, with its characterization of the present stage as global, and Stephen Batchelor’s distinction between “religious Buddhism” and “dharma practice.” The Australian experience highlights the value of the earlier interaction between migrant and locally-born Buddhists, and the formative effect their later separation has on lay practice. This experience also points to the salience of forms of association when secular Buddhist practice melds with the Western values of inclusiveness and equality, not least in gender relations.

  19. Timing and response of vegetation change to Milankovitch forcing in temperate Australia and New Zealand (United States)

    Dodson, J. R.


    In this study a comparison is made of the late Quaternary palaeovegetation records of the last 20,000 radiocarbon years from temperate Australia and New Zealand. The present vegetation is generally different in composition and structure but the broad patterns of vegetation structure follow generally well-defined climatic gradients. The number of records is small and dating of some sequences is imprecise but they suggest that the timing of vegetation changes in southeastern Australia and New Zealand appear to be broadly the same until the Holocene. There are no reliable published records from southwestern Australia until the Holocene. During the Holocene, the climate changes are less pronounced and the records diverge. The degree of change within southwestern Australia may be spatially inconsistent while peak warming in New Zealand appears to develop and finish ahead of southeastern Australia. A late Holocene cooling appears to only be present for upland areas of southeastern Australia. There appears to be no clear relationship between changing vegetation patterns and insolation gradients except around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. This was when both Summer and Winter latitudinal insolation gradients were at a maximum for the last 20,000 radiocarbon years. This corresponds to the time when the Westerlies were assumed to be consistently strong all year. For other periods the Milankovitch signal is either weak or vegetation change is predominantly driven by other factors.

  20. Modeling geomagnetic induction hazards using a 3-D electrical conductivity model of Australia (United States)

    Wang, Liejun; Lewis, Andrew M.; Ogawa, Yasuo; Jones, William V.; Costelloe, Marina T.


    The surface electric field induced by external geomagnetic source fields is modeled for a continental-scale 3-D electrical conductivity model of Australia at periods of a few minutes to a few hours. The amplitude and orientation of the induced electric field at periods of 360 s and 1800 s are presented and compared to those derived from a simplified ocean-continent (OC) electrical conductivity model. It is found that the induced electric field in the Australian region is distorted by the heterogeneous continental electrical conductivity structures and surrounding oceans. On the northern coastlines, the induced electric field is decreased relative to the simple OC model due to a reduced conductivity contrast between the seas and the enhanced conductivity structures inland. In central Australia, the induced electric field is less distorted with respect to the OC model as the location is remote from the oceans, but inland crustal high-conductivity anomalies are the major source of distortion of the induced electric field. In the west of the continent, the lower conductivity of the Western Australia Craton increases the conductivity contrast between the deeper oceans and land and significantly enhances the induced electric field. Generally, the induced electric field in southern Australia, south of latitude -20°, is higher compared to northern Australia. This paper provides a regional indicator of geomagnetic induction hazards across Australia.

  1. 瓯江口海域夏、秋季口足目和十足目虾类分布特征%Distribution of Hoplocarida and Decapoda shrimps in Oujiang estuary, East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆礼; 沈盎绿; 李新正


    采用2007年6月和9月瓯江口海域2个航次的渔业资源调查资料,研究瓯江口海域甲壳动物口足目(Hoplocarida)和十足目(Decapoda)中虾类的资源密度、种类组成和物种多样性等分布,探讨优势种、地形地貌、水团、温度和盐度等因素变化对这些分布的影响.结果表明,在2次拖网调查中,共鉴定口足目2种和虾类17种.口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)和哈氏仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis hardwickii)是6月的关键种,口虾蛄是9月的关键种.6月和9月2类优势甲壳动物平均质量密度分别为41.14 kg/km2和32.36 kg/km2,尾数密度为18.41×103ind/km2和10.66×103ind/km2.质量密度与尾数密度分布趋势一致,即调查水域东部高于西部,南部高于北部.6月,种问分布较均匀,物种数多,多样性指数值(H')较高;9月,在群岛外侧,由于口虾蛄在质量密度上形成单一优势种,导致质量多样性指数下降;但在尾数密度上,种间分布较均匀,尾数多样性指数值明显高于质量多样性指数值.无论是在6月还是9月,高密度区均出现在瓯江口洞头群岛外侧,特别是东南部受台湾暖流影响的海域.瓯江北口外的冲淡水水团是形成瓯江口北侧口足目和十足目虾类密度、种数和多样性低的重要原因.研究结果表明,瓯江冲淡水势力的季节变化是影响瓯江订海域口足目和虾类种类和多样性分布的主要水文因素.[中国水产科学,2009,16(1):104-112

  2. Health technology assessment in Australia: a role for clinical registries? (United States)

    Scott, Anna Mae


    Objective Health technology assessment (HTA) is a process of assessing evidence to inform policy decisions about public subsidy of new drugs and medical procedures. Where evidence is uncertain but the technology itself is promising, funders may recommend funding on an interim basis. It is unknown whether evidence from clinical registries is used to resolve uncertainties identified in interim-funded decisions made by Australian HTA bodies. Therefore, the present study evaluated the role of evidence from clinical registries in resolving evidence uncertainties identified by the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC).Methods All HTAs considered by MSAC between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed and assessments that recommended interim funding were identified. The MSAC website was searched to identify reassessments of these recommendations and sources of evidence used to resolve the uncertainties were identified.Results Of 173 HTA reports considered by MSAC, 17 (10%) contained an interim funding recommendation. Eight recommendations cited uncertainty around safety, 15 cited uncertainty around clinical effectiveness and 13 cited uncertainty around economics (cost-effectiveness and/or budget impact). Of the 17 interim funding recommendations, 11 (65%) have been reassessed. Only two reassessments relied on clinical registry evidence to resolve evidence gaps identified at the time of the interim funding recommendation.Conclusions Clinical registries are underused as a source of evidence for resolving uncertainties around promising new health technologies in Australia. An open dialogue between stakeholders on the role of registries in this context is needed.What is known about the topic? HTA is a process of assessing the evidence to inform policy decisions about public subsidy of new health technologies (e.g. pharmaceuticals, diagnostic tests, medical procedures). Where evidence is uncertain but the technology under evaluation is promising, funders may recommend the funding of

  3. Puente sobre el río Parramatta, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo


    Full Text Available A bridge is now being built at Gladesville, Australia, of reinforced and prestressed concrete, which having a span of 277 m, will be the largest of its type in the world. The main arch consists of four parallel ribs, each 277 m in span. These ribs are hollow, and constitute the main structure of the arch. There are four secondary access spans on each side. The initial project was somewhat altered by the Sydney Dept. of Public Works. Each of the four main ribs of the central arch leaves 36 m clear height for fluvial navigation. The arched ribs are made up of 108 hollow units, each weighing 50 tons. At suitable intervals a number of transversal, prestressed diaphragms have been fitted, which serve to mutually stabilise the ribs. On the ribs a palisade of vertical supports carry the bridge deck. This is 22 m wide and has two sidewalks, each 1.80 m wide. The prestressed deck girders were made at two nearby workshops, one on each side of the bridge. The construction of the ribs was completed with the aid of a metallic scaffolding, which was moved from one rib to the next and served for the erection of all of them. Prestressing was done with Freyssinet type plane jacks. These were placed between the rib units, which were compressed, at the same as forcing the arch to lift off the scaffolding. After the oil had compressed the concrete, it was substituted by cement mortar. The operation was repeated at various points for each rib.En Gladesville, Sydney (Australia, se construye un puente, de hormigón armado y pretensado, que, por sus 277 m de luz, será el mayor de los hasta hoy construidos en arco. Está formado por cuatro arcos o nervios huecos como tramo central, de 277 m de luz, y cuatro tramos de acceso a uno y otro lado. El proyecto inicial sufrió alguna variante que introdujo el Departamento de Obras Públicas de Sydney. Cada uno de los cuatro arcos del tramo central, que deja una altura libre de 36 m para la navegación fluvial, se ha

  4. Vertical Motions in Convective Clouds Over Darwin, Australia (United States)

    Mallinson, H.; Schumacher, C.; Ahmed, F.


    Vertical motions are essential in parameterizing convection in large-scale models. Yet in tropical systems vertical motions are difficult to obtain, especially in areas of active convection. This study uses three months of profiler data from Darwin, Australia to directly compare vertical velocity and spectrum width with reflectivity at a height of 1 km (a near-surface rain proxy) for shallow, mid-level, and deep convective clouds. Vertical velocities for all convective clouds were also compared to echo-top heights of varying reflectivities to better understand convective cloud dynamics in relation to their vertical structure. In shallow convective clouds (tops 40 dBz). These regimes could represent different stages in the convective cloud life cycle with strong updrafts and moderate reflectivity occurring in the growing phase and strong downdrafts and large reflectivity occurring in the mature phase. The weak up-and downdraft couplet and low reflectivities suggest a dissipating phase. Mid-level convective clouds (tops 4-8 km) also show three distinct regimes: moderate updrafts at low reflectivities (possible growing phase), a weak up-and downdraft couplet at moderate reflectivities (possible dissipating phase), and strong up-and downdrafts at large reflectivities (mature phase). Deep convective clouds (tops >8 km) show strong updrafts above 4 km for all reflectivities with the strongest downdrafts occurring at large reflectivities. While maximum updrafts vary in height and occur at different reflectivities among cloud types, mean downdraft depth never exceeds 3 km and is always strongest at large reflectivities, which may allow better characterization of cold pool properties. Throughout all convective cloud types, spectrum width has the highest values at lower heights than where the strongest up-and downdrafts occur while also showing a maximum value core around the transition height. In addition, maximum vertical motions occur at or just beneath the 30-dBz echo

  5. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia. (United States)

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P


    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  6. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia. (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N


    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  7. Subjective Wellbeing, Objective Wellbeing and Inequality in Australia. (United States)

    Western, Mark; Tomaszewski, Wojtek


    In recent years policy makers and social scientists have devoted considerable attention to wellbeing, a concept that refers to people's capacity to live healthy, creative and fulfilling lives. Two conceptual approaches dominate wellbeing research. The objective approach examines the objective components of a good life. The subjective approach examines people's subjective evaluations of their lives. In the objective approach how subjective wellbeing relates to objective wellbeing is not a relevant research question. The subjective approach does investigate how objective wellbeing relates to subjective wellbeing, but has focused primarily on one objective wellbeing indicator, income, rather than the comprehensive indicator set implied by the objective approach. This paper attempts to contribute by examining relationships between a comprehensive set of objective wellbeing measures and subjective wellbeing, and by linking wellbeing research to inequality research by also investigating how subjective and objective wellbeing relate to class, gender, age and ethnicity. We use three waves of a representative state-level household panel study from Queensland, Australia, undertaken from 2008 to 2010, to investigate how objective measures of wellbeing are socially distributed by gender, class, age, and ethnicity. We also examine relationships between objective wellbeing and overall life satisfaction, providing one of the first longitudinal analyses linking objective wellbeing with subjective evaluations. Objective aspects of wellbeing are unequally distributed by gender, age, class and ethnicity and are strongly associated with life satisfaction. Moreover, associations between gender, ethnicity, class and life satisfaction persist after controlling for objective wellbeing, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to objective wellbeing link structural dimensions of inequality to life satisfaction.

  8. Water vapor stable isotope observations from tropical Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen


    The response of the tropical hydrological cycle to anthropogenically induced changes in radiative forcing is one of the largest discrepancies between climate models. Paleoclimate archives of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropics indicate a relationship with precipitation amount that could be exploited to study past hydroclimate and improve our knowledge of how this region responds to changes in climate forcing. Recently modelling studies of convective parameterizations fitted with water isotopes and remote sensing of water vapor isotopes in the tropics have illustrated uncertainty in the assumed relationship with rainfall amount. Therefore there is a need to collect water isotope data in the tropics that can be used to evaluate these models and help identify the relationships between the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and rainfall intensity. However, data in this region is almost non-existent. Here we present in-situ water vapor isotopic measurements and the HDO retrievals from the co-located Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON) site at Darwin in Tropical Australia. The Darwin site is interestingly placed within the tropical western pacific region and is impacted upon by a clear monsoonal climate, and key climate cycles including ENSO and Madden Julian Oscillations. The analysis of the data illustrated relationships between water vapor isotopes and humidity which demonstrated the role of precipitation processes in the wet season and air mass mixing during the dry season. Further the wet season observations show complex relationships between humidity and isotopes. A simple Rayleigh distillation model was not obeyed, instead the importance of rainfall re-evaporation in generating the highly depleted signatures was demonstrated. These data potentially provide a useful tool for evaluating model parameterizations in monsoonal regions as they demonstrate relationships with precipitation processes that cannot be observed with

  9. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.


    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  10. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia. (United States)

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G


    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  11. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia. (United States)

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E


    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs.

  12. Applying Health in All Policies to obesity in South Australia. (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Ludford, Isobel; Williams, Carmel; Herriot, Michele


    Public policy strategies impact on population health by acting on the effectiveness, availability and distribution of the social determinants of health. Reducing obesity and promoting healthy weight is a key focus of governments, health promoters and researchers, and can benefit from a systems approach with 'upstream' policy action beyond the health sector. Although the literature identifies many areas for hypothetical non-health policy action, and in particular relating to food and activity environments, few have identified practical, politically viable and relatively cost-free processes by which non-health sectors would want to commit to such action. This article details how the Government of South Australia used the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach in the SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project. It mapped the core business and policy directions of 44 state departments against research on 'what works' to address obesity. Negotiations then developed high-level policy commitments to address factors promoting healthy weight which predominantly changed ways of working rather than requiring new expenditure and also assisted departments in meeting their own goals; departmental chief executives endorsed the commitments. By starting from departmental documents, and not restricting the project to departments with more 'obvious' obesity prevention potential, we gained commitment to a broader range of policy actions than identified elsewhere; for example, for prisons, environment and botanic gardens, housing and vocational education. The SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project provides one example of a workable, evidence-based systems approach to increase commitment to practical and politically viable opportunities across government to address the non-health environments supporting healthy weight.

  13. Alluvial terrace preservation in the Wet Tropics, northeast Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Hughes, Kate; Croke, Jacky; Bartley, Rebecca; Thompson, Chris; Sharma, Ashneel


    Alluvial terraces provide a record of aggradation and incision and are studied to understand river response to changes in climate, tectonic activity, sea level, and factors internal to the river system. Terraces form in all climatic regions and in a range of geomorphic settings; however, relatively few studies have been undertaken in tectonically stable settings in the tropics. The preservation of alluvial terraces in a valley is driven by lateral channel adjustments, vertical incision, aggradation, and channel stability, processes that can be further understood through examining catchment force-resistance frameworks. This study maps and classifies terraces using soil type, surface elevation, sedimentology, and optically stimulated luminescence dating across five tropical catchments in northeast Queensland, Australia. This allowed for the identification of two terraces across the study catchments (T1, T2). The T1 terrace was abandoned ~ 13.9 ka with its subsequent removal occurring until ~ 7.4 ka. Abandonment of the T2 terrace occurred ~ 4.9 ka with removal occurring until ~ 1.2 ka. Differences in the spatial preservation of these terraces were described using an index of terrace preservation (TPI). Assessments of terrace remnant configuration highlighted three main types of terraces: paired, unpaired, and disconnected, indicating the importance of different processes driving preservation. Regional-scale variability in TPI was not strongly correlated with catchment-scale surrogate variables for drivers of terrace erosion and resistance. However, catchment-specific relationships between TPI and erosion-resistance variables were evident and are used here to explain the dominant processes driving preservation in these tropical settings. This study provides an important insight into terrace preservation in the tectonically stable, humid tropics and provides a framework for future research linking the timing of fluvial response to palaeoclimate change.

  14. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia A Paxton

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of pathology results. SETTING: Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006-October 2009. PARTICIPANTS: 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (<6 years, 6-11 years, 12-17 years, 18 years and older. RESULTS: Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B(12 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three. CONCLUSIONS: Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation.

  15. Deep crustal reflection results from the central Eromanga Basin, Australia (United States)

    Mathur, S. P.


    From 1980 to 1982 deep seismic reflection profiles were recorded across the central Eromanga Basin in eastern Australia to study the regional structure, stratigraphy and geological history of the Eromanga Basin and infra-basins. The reflection data were recorded to 20 s to obtain additional information on the nature and structure of the crust below the sediments and their relationship to the development of the basins. The seismic sections show good quality reflections from the deep crust as well as from the sedimentary layers. Based on the character, strength, coherence, continuity and spatial distribution of the reflections, the sections can be divided into four zones. The tope zone between 0 and 2.5 s shows fairly uniform, coherent and continuous events which correlate with the Mesozoic and Late Palaeozoic sediments. The zone from 2.5 to 8 s (4 to 22 km) does not show any primary reflections and is interpreted as the highly-deformed metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Early Palaeozoic Thomson Orogen underlying the sediments. Without any recognisable reflection or diffraction patterns in this zone, it is difficult to say whether the faulting and folding observed in the sediments extend into the upper crustal basement. The deeper zone of numerous reflection segments between 8 and 12.5 s (22 to 36 km) is interpreted as thin laminae of alternating low and high velocity (intermediate and basic) rocks, and correlates with the lower crust bounded by refraction velocity discontinuities. The lowest zone of no reflections below 12.5 s corresponds with the upper mantle. The reflection character and thickness as well as the refraction velocity structure of the crust under the central Eromanga Basin area are significantly different from those of the Precambrian crust under the Georgina Basin to the northwest. It is proposed that the crust under the Eromanga Basin is extensionally attenuated crust which had been intruded by sills of basaltic melt from the underlying

  16. The 2011 marine heat wave in Cockburn Sound, southwest Australia

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    T. H. Rose


    Full Text Available Over 2000 km of Western Australian coastline experienced a significant marine heat wave in February and March 2011. Seawater temperature anomalies of +2–4 °C were recorded at a number of locations, and satellite-derived SSTs (sea surface temperatures were the highest on record. Here, we present seawater temperatures from southwestern Australia and describe, in detail, the marine climatology of Cockburn Sound, a large, multiple-use coastal embayment. We compared temperature and dissolved oxygen levels in 2011 with data from routine monitoring conducted from 2002–2010. A significant warming event, 2–4 °C in magnitude, persisted for > 8 weeks, and seawater temperatures at 10 to 20 m depth were significantly higher than those recorded in the previous 9 yr. Dissolved oxygen levels were depressed at most monitoring sites, being ~ 2 mg l−1 lower than usual in early March 2011. Ecological responses to short-term extreme events are poorly understood, but evidence from elsewhere along the Western Australian coastline suggests that the heat wave was associated with high rates of coral bleaching; fish, invertebrate and macroalgae mortalities; and algal blooms. However, there is a paucity of historical information on ecologically-sensitive habitats and taxa in Cockburn Sound, so that formal examinations of biological responses to the heat wave were not possible. The 2011 heat wave provided insights into conditions that may become more prevalent in Cockburn Sound, and elsewhere, if the intensity and frequency of short-term extreme events increases as predicted.

  17. Prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roughead Elizabeth E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of comorbidity is high, with 80% of the elderly population having three or more chronic conditions. Comorbidity is associated with a decline in many health outcomes and increases in mortality and use of health care resources. The aim of this study was to identify, review and summarise studies reporting the prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia. Methods A systematic review of Australian studies (1996 – May 2007 was conducted. The review focused specifically on the chronic diseases included as national health priorities; arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus and mental health problems. Results A total of twenty five studies met our inclusion criteria. Over half of the elderly patients with arthritis also had hypertension, 20% had CVD, 14% diabetes and 12% mental health problem. Over 60% of patients with asthma reported arthritis as a comorbidity, 20% also had CVD and 16% diabetes. Of those with CVD, 60% also had arthritis, 20% diabetes and 10% had asthma or mental health problems. Conclusion There are comparatively few Australian studies that focused on comorbidity associated with chronic disease. However, they do show high prevalence of comorbidity across national health priority areas. This suggests integration and co-ordination of the national health priority areas is critical. A greater awareness of the importance of managing a patients' overall health status within the context of comorbidity is needed together with, increased research on comorbidity to provide an appropriate scientific basis on which to build evidence based care guidelines for these multimorbid patients.

  18. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson


    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  19. A research and evaluation capacity building model in Western Australia. (United States)

    Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Laing, Sue; Mak, Donna B; Jancey, Jonine; Rowell, Sally; McCausland, Kahlia; Bastian, Lisa; Sorenson, Anne; Tilley, P J Matt; Yam, Simon; Comfort, Jude; Brennan, Sean; Doherty, Maryanne


    Evaluation of public health programs, services and policies is increasingly required to demonstrate effectiveness. Funding constraints necessitate that existing programs, services and policies be evaluated and their findings disseminated. Evidence-informed practice and policy is also desirable to maximise investments in public health. Partnerships between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers can help address evaluation knowledge and skills gaps. The Western Australian Sexual Health and Blood-borne Virus Applied Research and Evaluation Network (SiREN) aims to build research and evaluation capacity in the sexual health and blood-borne virus sector in Western Australia (WA). Partners' perspectives of the SiREN model after 2 years were explored. Qualitative written responses from service providers, policymakers and researchers about the SiREN model were analysed thematically. Service providers reported that participation in SiREN prompted them to consider evaluation earlier in the planning process and increased their appreciation of the value of evaluation. Policymakers noted benefits of the model in generating local evidence and highlighting local issues of importance for consideration at a national level. Researchers identified challenges communicating the services available through SiREN and the time investment needed to develop effective collaborative partnerships. Stronger engagement between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers through collaborative partnerships has the potential to improve evidence generation and evidence translation. These outcomes require long-term funding and commitment from all partners to develop and maintain partnerships. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation can ensure the partnership remains responsive to the needs of key stakeholders. The findings are applicable to many sectors.

  20. Radon and thoron concentrations in public workplaces in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A


    Radon and thoron are radioactive gases that can emanate from soil and building materials, and it can accumulate in indoor environments. The concentrations of radon and thoron in the air from various workplace categories in Brisbane, Australia were measured using an active method. The average radon and thoron concentrations for all workplace categories were 10.5 ± 11.3 and 8.2 ± 1.4 Bq m(-3), respectively. The highest radon concentration was detected in a confined area, 86.6 ± 6.0 Bq m(-3), while the maximum thoron level was found in a storage room, 78.1 ± 14.0 Bq m(-3). At each site, the concentrations of radon and thoron were measured at two heights, 5 cm and 120 cm above the floor. The effect of the measurement heights on the concentration level was significant in the case of thoron. The monitoring of radon and thoron concentrations showed a lower radon concentration during work hours than at other times of the day. This can be attributed to the ventilation systems, including the air conditioner and natural ventilation, which normally operate during work hours. The diurnal variation was less observed in the case of thoron, as the change in its concentration during and after the working hours was insignificant. The study also investigated the influence of the floor level and flooring type on indoor radon and thoron concentrations. The elevated levels of radon and thoron were largely found in basements and ground floor levels and in rooms with concrete flooring.