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Sample records for australia decapoda atyidae

  1. Shrimps down under: evolutionary relationships of subterranean crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris.

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    Timothy J Page

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa.

  2. Aspectos reprodutivos de Potimirim glabra (Kingsley (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana Valverde Lima

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 were studied from September 1997 to February 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sieves, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the end of telson with precision callipers. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was measured with calibrated stereomicroscope. A total of 3281 shrimps were collected, among which, 47% male, 46% female (13.4% ovigerous females and 7% young shrimps. The Sex ratio was 1:1. Ovigerous females were present during all seasons, but the reproductive peak occurred in spring. The ovigerous female showed total lenght from 9.5 to 26.0 mm and carapace lenght from 1.6 to 7.3 mm. The mean fecundity was 545 eggs per female, with a minimun of 223 eggs and a maximum of 860 eggs. The first sexual maturation probably occur at 9.5 mm total lenght. The mean diameter of the eggs size was 0.32 mm (minor and 0.53 mm (major.

  3. Aspectos reprodutivos de Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Valverde Lima; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878) were studied from September 1997 to February 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sieves, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the end of telson with precision callipers. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was me...

  4. Reproductive aspects of the caridean shrimp Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 (Decapoda: Atyidae in São Sebastião Island, southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

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    Juliana Herrera-Correal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.

  5. The recent genera of the Caridean and Stenopodidean shrimps (class Crustacea, order Decapoda, supersection Natantia) with keys for their determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1955-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction.......... 1 Supersection Natantia ...... 2 Section Caridea....... . 7 Superfamily Oplophoroida ... 12 Family Oplophoridae .... 12 Family Nematocarcinidae . . 17 Family Atyidae ..... 18 Superfamily Stylodactyloida . . 31 Family Stylodactylidae ... 31 Superfamily Pasiphaeoida . .

  6. Estrutura populacional dos camarões simpátricos Potimirim glabra e Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no rio Sahy, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Populational structure of the sympatric freshwater shrimps Potimirim glabra and Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae in the Sahy River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter conhecimento sobre a estrutura populacional de dois camarões de água doce simpátricos, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 e Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 no rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de setembro de 1997 a fevereiro de 1999 utilizando-se peneiras, que foram passadas sob a vegetação marginal, superfície de rochas e pequenas poças d'água, num esforço de 15 minutos por coletor. Os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo e mensurados em relação ao comprimento total e do cefalotórax. Um total de 4.889 indivíduos foram coletados no rio Sahy: 3.281 P. glabra e 1.608 P. potimirim. A razão sexual observada foi de 1:1 para P. glabra e 1:2,3 para P. potimirim. Em ambas populações, cinco estágios de maturidade sexual foram determinados, sendo as populações constituídas principalmente por camarões adultos. O recrutamento de juvenis apresentou diferenças em ambas as espécies. O recrutamento de P. glabra ocorreu durante todo o período de estudo, exceto na primavera, enquanto que P. potimirim foi registrado somente no outono. A distribuição sazonal de fêmeas ovígeras de P. glabra é similar ao de P. potimirim, com reprodução na primavera e no verão.The aim of this work was to get some knowledge about the populational structure of the two sympatric freshwater shrimp species, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 in the Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimens were sampled monthly from September 1997 to February 1999 by sieving the marginal vegetation, on rocky surface and among litter on river bottom, with 15-minute effort per sampling period. The animals were sorted sexed and their total and cephalothoracic length were measured. A total of 4,889 individuals were collected in Sahy river: 3,281 P. glabra and 1,608 P. potimirim. The sex ratio for all collected individuals was 1:1 for P. glabra and 1:2.3 for P. potimirim. In both populations, five sexual maturity stages were determined and the populations were constituted mainly of adult freshwater shrimps. This study shows the difference between the recruitment of juveniles along these species. The recruitment for P. glabra occurs throughout the year, except in Spring, while P. potimirim was recorded only in Autumn. The seasonal distribution of ovigerous females of P. glabra is similar to P. potimirim, with reproduction on Spring and Summer.

  7. FUSE - Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  8. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  9. Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (Crustacea Decapoda Brachyura) de ecossistemas costeiros

    OpenAIRE

    Marochi, Murilo Zanetti

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (CRUSTACEA DECAPODA BRACHYURA) de ecossistemas costeiros. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar se diferentes espécies de Brachyura possuem padrões ecomorfológicos em comum ligados ao habitat em que estão inseridas. Foram analisados 528 exemplares pertencentes a 24 espécies e provenientes dos seguintes ecossistemas costeiros: manguezal, costão rochoso, praia arenosa, bentopelagial e mar aberto. De todos os exemplares foram mensurada...

  10. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

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    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  11. en Australia

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    Stephen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.

  12. Immigrant Families in Australia

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    Jock Collins

    1992-01-01

    Australia has a larger and more diverse immigrant population than most Western societies. Australia's immigration history is linked to the story of family migration as Australia sought immigrants for permanent settlement. However, it is important to aviod over-generalisation when studying immigrant families in Australia today. The main hypothesis is that in order to understand the immigrant family in Australia today it is necessary to study the intersection of factors such as ethnicity, class...

  13. Estimating population size of the cave shrimp Troglocaris anophthalmus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) using mark–release–recapture data

    OpenAIRE

    Jugovic, J.; Praprotnik, E.; Buzan, E. V.; Lužnik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Population size estimates are lacking for many small cave–dwelling aquatic invertebrates that are vulnerable to groundwater contamination from anthropogenic activities. Here we estimated the population size of freshwater shrimp Troglocaris anophthalmus sontica (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) based on mark–release–recapture techniques. The subspecies was investigated in Vipavska jama (Vipava cave), Slovenia, with estimates of sex ratio and age distribution. A high abundance of shrimps was found...

  14. Breeding biology of shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Milne Edwards) (Crustacea: Decapoda) along the Neendakara zone, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sunil, V.; Suryanarayanan, H.

    Sciences Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 78-80 Short Communication Breeding biology of shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Milne Edwards) (Crustacea: Decapoda) along the Neendakara zone, SW coast of India V Sunil* & H Suryanarayanan Department... of one year. Stages of matur- ity of gonad, ripeness of ova, gonado-somatic index (GSI) and fecundity were studied 1,3,5-7 . In order to find out the breeding season, the gonado-somatic index was calculated 6 as GSI = (Weight of ovary...

  15. Community Music in Australia

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    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  16. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾真

    2015-01-01

    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  17. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

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    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics. PMID:26171873

  18. Water Recycling in Australia

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    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  19. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  20. Healthcare in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  1. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  2. Australia in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  3. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

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    Jock Collins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  4. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  5. My Trip To Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2004-01-01

    During this winter holiday,I paid a visit to a foreign country, Austrilia.When people had a cold winter here,Ihad a hot summer there. Australia has many places to visit,just like the Olympic Village,the Opera House,

  6. Australia: a full house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  7. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray

    2007-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  8. Lilliput effect in a retroplumid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda) across the K/Pg boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Phillips, George E.; Nyborg, Torrey; Espinosa, Belinda; Távora, Vladimir de Araújo; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2016-08-01

    The genus Costacopluma (Brachyura: Decapoda: Retroplumidae) had a wide distribution during the early Paleogene and is currently represented by 14 species across the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Described early Paleogene species have a smaller mean body size compared to Campanian-Maastrichtian populations of Africa, northeastern Mexico, and southeastern United States. Originally described from the Paleocene and Eocene of Alabama, Costacopluma grayi Feldmann and Portell, 2007, is now documented from the uppermost Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) of northeastern Mexico and Mississippi and Lower Paleocene of Arkansas, all representing medium size specimens. The morphological features of latest Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) individuals are identical to those observed among populations of C. grayi from the Paleogene of Alabama and Arkansas, which have a smaller mean size. This size reduction, or dwarfism, in C. grayi across the K-Pg boundary is an example of the Lilliput effect. Dwarfism has been documented in several invertebrate groups as a response to environmental stress, but this is the first record of the Lilliput effect in brachyuran crustaceans. The stratigraphic and geographic range for Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989, is extended to the upper Campanian in northeastern Mexico and lower Maastrichtian in Mississippi and is suggested as a possible ancestor of C. grayi. Different preservational modes for this species in northeastern Mexico are discussed.

  9. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Xuan, Fu-Jun; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Here we present the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae) and provide its annotation. The complete mt genome was determined to be 15 929 bp and contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and a D-loop region. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A + T nucleotides (72.91%) and the AT skew of this mt genome was slightly negative. All the 22 tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). About 13 PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 and nad2 genes which were initiated by ACG and GTG, respectively. Six of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T or TA. The D-loop region of the mt genome was 1188 bp in length and the A + T content was 81.08%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the placement of P. clarkii was within the Cambaridae. This mt genome sequence will provide a better understanding for crayfish evolution in the future. PMID:26258501

  10. Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) in the fossil record: systematics and palaeobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of the ghost shrimp genus Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Callianassidae) is revised. Barnardcallichirus Sakai, 2011 and Tirmizicallichirus Sakai, 2011 are considered subjective synonyms of Balsscallichirus. Based on the examination of extant species it is argued that the morphology of the major cheliped merus, in combination with other hard part morphology characters, is sufficient for assignment of the fossil material into the genus. Main identifying characters are on merus which is keeled along its midline and its lower half is tuberculated; its lower margin possesses broad proximal meral hook continuing into a lobe distally; the entire lower margin is subdivided into numerous irregularly spaced spines. Three species, Callianassa sismondai A. Milne-Edwards, 1860, C. floriana Glaessner, 1928, and Podocallichirus laepaensis Hyžný & Muñiz, 2012, originally described from the Miocene of Italy, Austria and Spain, respectively, are assigned to Balsscallichirus herein. Neocallichirus wellsi Schweitzer, Feldmann & Gingerich, 2004 from the Upper Eocene of Pakistan is tentatively assigned to that genus as well. Spatial and temporal distribution of the genus indicates that at least since the Oligocene, and possibly even sooner (the Late Eocene), the genus has been restricted to the Western Tethys Region. Later, it migrated also into West Atlantic establishing present day communities. PMID:27499568

  11. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Alcaraz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow. Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca: three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components.

  12. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  13. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  14. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  15. Australia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines the role that government policy in Australia plays in influencing household saving, both directly through its own saving and the structure of the tax, social security and welfare systems, and indirectly through the influence of the policy environment on factors that affect saving such as economic growth. The determinants of household saving in a sample of 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries are also investigated, using ...

  16. Retirement Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Barrett; Yi-Ping Tseng

    2007-01-01

    Australia’s retirement income system has several distinctive features – most notably a policy of government mandated private saving and a means-tested Age Pension – which have gained increasing international attention. This paper provides an overview of the institutional features of the retirement income system in Australia, including details of the development and operation of the policy of forced retirement saving. The role of the different tiers of system in accounting for the income of th...

  17. Cash Use in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Eden Hatzvi; Jessica Meredith; Rose Kenney

    2014-01-01

    This article uses results from the 2013 Survey of Consumers’ Use of Payment Methods and regression analysis to examine trends in cash use in Australia. The results show that cash remained the most common form of payment, though its use relative to other payment methods has declined over recent years. Older participants were more likely to use cash than younger participants and all participants were more likely to use cash for low-value transactions relative to other payment methods. In additi...

  18. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins; Carol Reid

    2012-01-01

    One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigra...

  19. Australia Online; Borderless University

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep ERDINC

    2002-01-01

    Around the world distance education is playing an important roll in the education sector. Many countries are in the process of developing and improving their distance education projects. One of the projects being online education has improved information delivery and development op International education. Distance education has been available in Australia for many years. More than 30 higher education institutions within the country now use the program. The purpose of the development of di...

  20. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  1. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  2. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  3. New distribution ranges and records of caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the west coast of Mexico Nuevos intervalos de distribución y registros de camarones carideos (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic records are presented for 24 species of Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda along Pacific coast of Mexico, in the East Pacific. New records are presented for Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (from Peru to Mexico, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900, and Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (within the Gulf of California, and Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Aditional records are given that establish the presence of species at intermediate localities within the Gulf of California and along the southwestern coast of Mexico.Se recolectaron especímenes de 24 especies de Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda en la costa del Pacífico de México, en el Pacífico Este. Nuevos registros geográficos son señalados para Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (desde Perú hasta México, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900 y Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (en el Golfo de California y para Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (del Golfo de California hasta el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Se proporciona información adicional acerca de la presencia de algunas especies en localidades intermedias en el Golfo de California y a lo largo de la costa suroeste de México.

  4. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  5. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  6. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  7. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  8. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  9. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  10. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  11. Public Sector Governance in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meredith; Halligan, John; Horrigan, Bryan; Nicoll, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Australia lacks a scholarly book that covers recent developments in public sector governance in Australia and blends cross-disciplinary perspectives from law, management, public administration and public policy. The primary reason for writing this book is to fill the gap in the treatment of this subject, and to provide insights from empirical evidence and current practice. The book provides the first comprehensive theoretical and empirical work on governance in the Commonwealth public sec...

  12. Slovene migrant literature in Australia:

    OpenAIRE

    Maver, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This article on the literary creativity of Slovene migrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished authors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those that are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentray, historical, or e...

  13. Commercial Higher Education in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin George Toma

    2005-01-01

    The education system in Australia represents an exemplification of the anglo-saxon education pattern. The system has three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. After having graduated 13 years of primary and secondary school one can attend the tertiary level. Australia’s tertiary education sector comprises higher education and vocational education and training (VET). The first schools in Australia were set up by private individuals and Church organisations. The first Australian university ...

  14. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ergas H; Paolucci F.

    2011-01-01

    Henry Ergas1,2, Francesco Paolucci31University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Deloitte Australia, Brindabella Business Park, Canberra Airport, ACT, Australia; 3Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged...

  15. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  16. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  17. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  18. The nuclear industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the development of the nuclear industry in Australia is essentially the history of uranium mining. Australia is a significant exporter of uranium concentrate yellowcake, but no other nuclear power or fuel cycle activity exists on a commercial scale. Industrial radiation processing and the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceuticals are the only other endeavors. The uranium mining in early years and the second discovery period, the policy formulation in 1970s and the recent policy development are described. Australia's low cost reserve has risen to 474,000 t U, and in 1984, three mines produced around 4,400 t U as yellowcake. Once the Jervis Bay nuclear power plant with 500 MWe capacity was planned, but the project was postponed indefinitely. The Uranium Enrichment Group of Australia planned to build an enrichment plant as a joint venture with URENCO Ltd., but also this plan was interrupted. The lack of expansion into nuclear power and fuel cycle activities has been due to favorable fossil fuel resources and their distribution, population density and distribution, social factors and government policy in Australia. (Kako, I.)

  19. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  20. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  1. Australia: the coming of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, A C

    1988-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Australia and their implications are assessed. The author concludes that "Australia faces a relatively favourable demographic future: ageing is proceeding at a slower pace here, the pattern of the labour force ageing is conducive to restructuring in the intermediate future, and a well-established immigration policy can be used to accommodate demographics with social and economic goals. The financing of social services for the aged will produce fewer concerns here partly because of less immediate demographic pressures and partly because of the orientation of the age-pension system." PMID:12233479

  2. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  3. Evaluation of 5.8S rRNA to identify Penaeus semisulcatus and its subspecies, Penaeus semisulcatus persicus (Penaeidae and some Decapoda species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Noroozi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus is one of the most important members of the family Penaeidae in the Persian Gulf. Based on the morphological characteristics, two groups, including P. semisulcatus and its subspecies viz. P. s. persicus are recognized. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic distance between P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus by analyzing partial sequence of 5.8S rRNA. Another objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of 5.8S rRNA to identify the species of Decapoda. The results indicated that the 5.8S rRNA gene of both P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus were exactly identical, and sequence variation was not observed. The results also indicated that 5.8S rRNA sequences between species of the same genus of analysed species of Decapoda are conserved, and no genetic distance was observed in species level. The low evolutionary rate and efficient conservation of the 5.8S rRNA can be attributed to its role in the translation process.

  4. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  5. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  6. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  7. Plasticity in the reproductive biology of the smooth marron Cherax cainii (Decapoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beatty, Stephen; Graaf, de Martin; Duffy, Rodney; Nguyen, Vinh; Molony, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Considerable intra-specific variability in biological traits can exist in freshwater crayfishes including those of most importance to fisheries managers. Smooth Marron (Cherax cainii) is the third largest freshwater crayfish in the world, is endemic to south-western Australia, and supports an ico

  8. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rólier Lara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  9. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  10. Australia; Basel II Implementation Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The key findings of Australia’s BASEL II implementation assessment are presented. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) allocated sufficient resources, including highly skilled staff, prior to the Basel II start date, and the outcome has been a robust and high-quality implementation that has built upon and substantially strengthened the risk-management capabilities of major banks. The quality of leadership and commitment by all involved has been instrumental in the success o...

  11. Australia and the Indonesian Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Sah-Hadiyatan Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after World War II, the Indonesian nationalists declared the independence of Indonesia and staunchly opposed the return of the Dutch to the Netherlands East Indies. The Australian Labor government took the position to support the Indonesian nationalist instead of the Dutch. This position was taken based on the rights of self-government for the dependent peoples enshrined in the United Nations Charter and championed by Australia. Besides Australia’s idealism on the colonial issue, ...

  12. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere. PMID:27553999

  13. Regional Economic Disparities in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Ramakrishnan; Martin D. Cerisola

    2004-01-01

    Australia's remarkable economic performance during the 1990s has not resulted in a significant convergence of real per capita income, output, and employment levels across the country's states and territories. This paper explores the role of certain economic rigidities that may have contributed to the lack of convergence, including rigidities in labor markets and in the structure of federal government transfers to households and subnational governments. The analysis suggests that the wage awar...

  14. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  15. Private rental housing in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is in five parts. In section 1, the significance of private rental housing in Australia is outlined, and contemporary Australian issues are related to overseas developments and local concerns during the 1960s and 1970s. In section 2, some problems involved in defining the private rental sector are examined, the focus being on different types of landlords. In section 3, trends, issues, and problems are discussed, this involving a detailed examination both of the extent to which avai...

  16. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  17. New record of the genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916 (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-06-01

    The monotypic genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916, which was established based on material from the Indian Ocean and previously only known from the type localities, Australia and Japan, is now newly recorded from the South China Sea. A detailed description of Phycocaris simulans Kemp, 1916 based on the specimen collected from Hainan Island is presented. Specific features and the differences between the Indian Ocean and the present material are described.

  18. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  19. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  20. [Mental health services in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  1. Geoethics: a perspective from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ian B. Lambert

    2012-01-01

    This short article is based on the introductory remarks I made in the Geoethics symposium at Geoitalia 2011. I was pleased to be invited to provide a brief address at this meeting because it gave me the opportunity to promote the 34th International Geological Congress (IGC) that will to be held in Brisbane, Australia, on August 5-10, 2012, and which will have a strong geoethics symposium. My succinct remarks reflect my experience over many years in provision of technical information and advic...

  2. [Mental health services in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  3. Aquaponics : Practical thesis in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsa, Piia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about building an aquaponics system to an Australian farm. This thesis begins by introducing what aquaponics is, and continues by designing and building an aquaponics system to a farm in Australia. One of the goals is to learn more about aquaponics that’s a growing idea all around the world and raise the farm’s self-sustainability level. Information for the thesis has been gathered from several books, internet sources, followed by visits and inter-views from users of existing a...

  4. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  5. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U3O8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  6. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  7. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  8. Resource rent tax in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Since July 1, 1984, new (greenfield) offshore petroleum projects lying beyond the territorial sea (thus under federal control) have been subject to a Commonwealth resource rent tax (CRRT). Rules are to be laid down for calculating the economic rent to be attributed to production of any petroleum-crude oil, condensate, natural gas, LPG, or ethane. This rent is the tax base, and it is to be taxed at a rate of 40%. The first section of this paper briefly summarizes the current situation in Australia. This account is based chiefly on a series of public discussion papers (Australia, 1983, 1984a, 1984b) issued by the Commonwealth government before introducing the new tax. Then examined are certain limitations that apply to any tax system designed to appropriate realized economic rent. The following section focuses on several problems specifically associated with the CRRT that must be resolved if this approach to taxing mineral revenues is to be widely copied. In conclusion, the author reviews major remaining issues in the CRRT discussion on both the theoretical and applied levels, and return to the question of why rent-based taxes have not been more widely adopted. 18 references.

  9. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  10. Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Stewardson, Andrew J.; Roberts, Jason A; Beckett, Carolyn L.; Prime, Hayden T.; Loh, Poh-Sien; Thorley, Bruce R.; Daffy, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Wild poliovirus–associated paralytic poliomyelitis has not been reported in Australia since 1977. We report type 1 wild poliovirus infection in a man who had traveled from Pakistan to Australia in 2007. Poliomyelitis should be considered for patients with acute flaccid paralysis or unexplained fever who have been to poliomyelitis-endemic countries.

  11. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  12. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergas H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry Ergas1,2, Francesco Paolucci31University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Deloitte Australia, Brindabella Business Park, Canberra Airport, ACT, Australia; 3Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop.Keywords: aged care, long-term care, sustainability, residential care, community care

  13. The abortion debate in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  14. Geoethics: a perspective from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Lambert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This short article is based on the introductory remarks I made in the Geoethics symposium at Geoitalia 2011. I was pleased to be invited to provide a brief address at this meeting because it gave me the opportunity to promote the 34th International Geological Congress (IGC that will to be held in Brisbane, Australia, on August 5-10, 2012, and which will have a strong geoethics symposium. My succinct remarks reflect my experience over many years in provision of technical information and advice in support of Australian government decisions and policies on mining, energy and groundwater - all of which have core geoscientific elements. Further, they reflect the situation in a new world country with a strong economy dominated by mining, which differs in many ways from the countries where the field of geoethics has been nurtured and grown. They also outline a dilemma relating to mining in a developing country.

  15. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  16. Agricultural Innovation System In Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Arumapperuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document agricultural innovation systems (AIS in Australia. We identified eleven broad categories (actors in terms of their activities, namely: policy, education, finance and credit, marketing, input supply, research, extension and information, logistics, processing and storage, farmers and farm organisations and consumers. Survey results reveal that 11 kinds of innovation-related activities of research and education organisations with corresponding percentage weight are directly involved in innovation diffusion. Twelve pre-identified goals of innovation related activities of the above organisations surveyed with their corresponding percentage weight have also been revealed. The study reveals that the majority of funding (more than 80% for innovation activities comes from the Federal Government and funding bodies. Finally survey results indicate that the main constrains/incentives are other issues such as funding, lack of qualified staff, equipment, environmental and Government policy issues etc.

  17. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  18. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are widely distributed among Decapoda and are particularly present in hydrothermal vent organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnivard Eric

    2009-04-01

    allowed for revealing for the first time a widespread distribution of these elements among a large phylum, here the order Decapoda. They also suggest some peculiar features of these retrotransposons in hydrothermal organisms where a great diversity of elements is already observed. Finally, this paper constitutes the first essential step which allows for considering further studies based on the dynamics of the DIRS1-like retrotransposons among several genomes.

  19. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  20. Pycnogonida from south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty species of Pycnogonida are recorded from shallow waters of the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. Eight of these are new to science : Ammothea (Lecythorhynchus) ovatoides, Achelia transfugoides, Nymphon dubitabile, N. conirostrum, Pallenoides stylirostrum, Stylopallene longica

  1. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  2. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  3. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Briskman

    2015-01-01

    In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. ...

  4. The History of Oyster Farming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians consumed oysters before settlement by Europeans as shown by the large number of kitchen middens along Australia's coast. Flat oysters, Ostrea angasi, were consumed in southeastern Australia, whereas both flat and Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, are found in kitchen middens in southern New South Wales (NSW), but only Sydney rock oysters are found in northern NSW and southern Queensland. Oyster fisheries began with the exploitation of dredge beds, for the use...

  5. Labour Market Outcomes in Regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Cunningham; Kathryn Davis

    2011-01-01

    Labour market outcomes in regional areas of Australia have followed broadly similar trends to those in capital cities over the past two decades. The range of unemployment rates across the regions narrowed through the 2000s, as the benefits of economic growth were spread broadly across the country. Nonetheless, there are still some notable differences between labour market outcomes in certain regions, partly reflecting the variation in industry structure across regional areas of Australia.

  6. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cumbersome and often exceeds the prescribed OH and S single person lifting limits. The role of industrial radiography has expanded to inspect not only welds and castings, so that it now includes inspection of assembled and processed goods ranging from automotive air-bags to canned food. It is also used in security systems at airports and other facilities. Almost all these applications use cabinet systems which are rarely the subject of serious radiation incidents or accidents. Gamma ray inspection no longer uses radium. The most common radio-isotopes in use now are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Their freedom from the need for an electrical power supply; their high radiation energy and the ability to place a source in positions of limited physical access, ensures the ongoing attraction of the method. The useful activity ranges of typical sources vary according to their application and the effect on total inspection costs. Common source activities in Australia range between 185 and 370 GBq for Cobalt 60; and between 1500 and 3700 GBq for Iridium 192. Outside Australia however there are recent reports of routine industrial radiography using more than 5500 GBq of Iridium 192. Thus it can be appreciated that any radiation accidents involving these high activity sources have the potential for significant radiation doses. Personal Dose Data: ARPANSA and its predecessor, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, has been providing a personal radiation monitoring service for some time, and releases a summary report every few years (ARPANSA/TR 139, ARL/TR 121, ARL/TR 107). The selected data shown in Table 2 indicate a downward trend in occupational doses received by industrial radiographers working in open site situations, which are potentially the most hazardous. This trend is encouraging, especially when the number of industrial radiographers is increasing. A comparison of the ARPANSA data indicate that whilst the average Australian industrial radiographer's annual dose is higher than the

  7. Return migration from Australia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P

    1986-09-01

    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  8. Nuclear regulation in Australia - future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J. [Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Australian Safeguards Office

    1997-12-31

    Australia`s current nuclear regulatory arrangements reflect two major factors: that we are a federation, with a constitutional division of powers between the Commonwealth and the States, and that we have no nuclear industry, other than uranium mining. Australia`s only nuclear facilities are operated by a Commonwealth instrumentality, ANSTO. Current Commonwealth regulatory arrangements are a response to international treaty commitments -principally the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) -and to the commencement of commercial uranium mining and export in the late 1970`s. Although at present no nuclear industry activities, other than mining, are in prospect, this might not always be the case, and with the establishment of ARPANSA (the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) it is timely to give some thought to regulatory arrangements which might be appropriate to Australia`s future circumstances. This paper will discuss the regulation activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle , i e activities involved with the production and use of nuclear materials (uranium, thorium and plutonium) for the generation of energy through nuclear fission.

  9. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  10. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  11. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Sacculina nectocarcini, a new species of rhizocephalan, a new species of rhizocephalan(Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitising the red rock crabNectocarcinus integrifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)(Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Robert H.; Rybakov, Alexey V.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald;

    2006-01-01

    The parasitic barnacles, Rhizocephala, are a little known group within Australia with only seven described species from a coastline stretching approximately 59763 km. This study describes a new species of Rhizocephala, Sacculina nectocarcini. The description is based on a unique combination...

  13. Commercialisation of science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and the business proposition have merit - government assistance (e.g. BIF, R and D Start, STI funding) and some type of relationship with Big Pharma/Big Biotech provide assurances. In the life sciences, durable and strong IP is critical. This presentation will focus on choice of commercialisation strategy (i.e. licensing vs. start up vs. joint venture etc); the hazards of 'expropriation' for the small end of town; little c versus big C commercialisation; creating value in the biopharmaceutical sector; and persistent restraints to innovation in Australia

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GREEN TRANSPORT IN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT SARI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the main restrictions of sustainable development. We examine whether or not freight transport is sensitive of the environment in Australia, particularly in the state of Victoria. Because, freight transports is one of the significant factors of environmental pollution. In the study we discuss the decision taken by the government of Victoria; and what kind of measurement is applied by the government. We also discuss which policy should be followed to achieve green transportation. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of environmental measurement on growing of the transport sector. The economics of Australia has a structure growing fast, in order to parallel the increasing growth of the transport sector. It tries to apply Kyoto protocol to the transport sector. In conclusion, the environmental pollution and CO2 emissions decrease in Australia although the transport sector grows day by day.

  15. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicoll, G

    1995-11-01

    Despite having almost the highest rate of population growth among OECD countries, Australia has no explicit population policy. The potential elements of such a policy, especially with regard to immigration, family, and environment, are deeply entrenched in separate political domains and responsive to separate clusters of interests. Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for any systematic engagement and considered debate among them. Parallels to the case of Australia can be drawn with Canada and the US. Population policy may well be one of the issues that modern liberal democracies find particularly difficult to manage. There are, however, also specific historical circumstances which led to the outcome and perpetuate the situation. Population processes and the institution of citizenship, and contested policy domains are discussed. PMID:12321981

  16. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, D A; Buttery, R G

    1992-08-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presents with sudden onset of visual loss mainly in young adult males. LHON is not uncommon in Australia, accounting for 2% of invalid blind pensions. We have identified 20 unrelated families carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with LHON and 135 of 291 individuals with documented LHON are currently alive in Australia. The mean age of onset of visual loss for males was 26 years and for females 27 years, with a range from six to 65 years. The mean risk of visual loss was 20% for males and 4% for females. There are over 1750 male and female carriers living in Australia who have not yet lost vision; 600 carriers are under 24 years of age. The expected number of new cases of blindness from LHON is three to four per year. PMID:1449769

  17. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)

  18. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  19. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  20. Australia China Friendship Society Supports Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom Loy

    2008-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note: The following is the full text of a letter CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin received on May 5 from Australia: Dear Madam Li Xiaolin, As the national body representing friendship between Australia and China, we confirm our strongest support for the Olympic Torch Relay and Beijing’s hosting of the Olympic Games. Considering the difficulties that have been occurring and controversial media coverage we believe that China has set a good example. The Torch Relay has been a success in its own right and we are confident that the Olympic Games will be successful.

  1. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  2. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  3. “Water Poverty” in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Background Coleridge’s well known words from the Ancient Mariner, ‘Water, water, everywhere/ nor any drop to drink’ have strong resonances for Australia which is an island country and, by definition, surrounded by undrinkable sea water. The bulk of Australia’s population is huddled into a belt of arable land on the coastal perimeter of the nation, while its vast dry inland area remains only sparsely populated. Australia is, on many indicators, a rich island. It is highly industrialised. It ru...

  4. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  5. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Annual Conference Of Australia Sister Cities Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Australia Sister Cities Association(ASCA),the CPAFFC delegation visited Australia and attended the Annual Conference of ASCA in Devonport of Tasmania State from November 11 to 22,2006.

  6. A Case of Language Revitalisation in "Settled" Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of language revitalisation in "settled" Australia, considers the nature of the language ecology in indigenous Australia, and advances some of the reasons for the success of this case of language revitalization. (Author/VWL)

  7. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... importation of fresh mangoes from Australia into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the... the United States. The national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Australia has requested that... from Australia to be imported into the continental United States. As part of our evaluation...

  8. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a condition... into the continental United States. As part of our evaluation of Australia's request, we prepared a... litchi fruit with up to 5 millimeters of stem into the continental United States from Australia....

  9. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  10. Library Development: Australia. IATUL Proceedings Vol. 15, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the IATUL (International Association of Technological University Libraries) Proceedings focuses on developments in Australian libraries. The first article, "University Librarianship in Australia" (D. H. Borchardt), reviews the growth of librarianship in Australia and examines some current issues. "Information Retrieval in Australia"…

  11. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  12. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... prominent biotech organizations, government meetings, and briefings and receptions during the...

  13. Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia%Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China textile enterprises turn their sight to the largest and the best cotton farm in Australia for the use of local resource advantages, including perfect dams, low cost planting conditions, and high quality cotton.

  14. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  15. Lantern Festival —— Canberra, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol Keil

    2009-01-01

    <正>Each year, for the last 21 years, the ACT Branch of the Australia China Friendship Society has celebrated the Lantern Festival on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. In preparation for the Festival we hold a lantern-making workshop for the general public

  16. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the l...

  17. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors)

  18. Analysis on the Emotions in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing familial affection between Sarah and Nullah across race, love between Sarah and Drover across caste, friend⁃ship between Sarah and King George across caste and race, this paper attempts to help audience comprehend the theme of the movie Austrlia and construct a new equal harmonious diversified Australia.

  19. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  20. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  1. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  2. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possib

  3. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities. PMID:11929136

  4. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  5. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  6. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  7. Training for rural practice in Australia 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, J M

    1991-01-21

    There is a shortage of general practitioners in rural Australia. Several recent State and federal government reports have highlighted the difficulties of rural practice. One of the reasons commonly cited for the shortage of country doctors is the lack of appropriate training in Australia's medical schools and the Family Medicine Programme. This survey of the heads of departments of community medicine/general practice of Australia's 10 medical schools and of the State directors of the Family Medicine Programme documents the present efforts to train doctors for rural general practice. A 100% response was achieved. The responses indicate much interest and effort from the Family Medicine Programme in developing rural training schemes. Though the community medicine/general practice departments demonstrate considerable interest and innovation, they are hampered by lack of resources and negative attitudes of some specialist colleagues. Overall, the main impediments are: lack of "affirmative action" admissions policies to recruit rural students; insufficient curricular time for teaching the principles of general practice; students' lack of confidence in the procedural aspects of rural practice; lack of appropriate training posts in anaesthetics; lack of appropriate general practice training posts at regional hospitals; and lack of financial resources. Some suggestions are given to improve training for rural practice in Australia. PMID:1986187

  8. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  9. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  10. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  11. The United Kingdom and Australia: new titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, David

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, a number of significant publications reflected the upsurge of interest in medical ethics in Britain and Australia. Topics considered in these reports and journals include the teaching of medical ethics in medical schools, infertility treatment, surrogacy contracts, euthanasia, human embryo research, and moral issues related to AIDS. PMID:11650804

  12. Australia modifies resource rent, uranium mining policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed.

  13. Academic Salaries in Australia, 1967 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Trends in college faculty salaries in Australia since 1967 are examined, in real terms, for several academic ranks and in comparison with salaries of scientists, senior public service administrators and managers, and public service engineers. Faculty salary losses since a 1973 high are substantial, both over time and in comparison with other…

  14. Our impressions of Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Everyone has his or her own impressions of a place after a visit. Different people have different views because of different cultures. The following story contains some Chinese people’s impressions of Australia and New Zealand after their return.

  15. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  16. The Adult Educator in Multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassby, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian Commissioner for Community Relations describes and criticizes the Australian traditional ethnocentrism and xenophobia, pointing out that Australia is and always has been a multicultural society. He emphasizes the need for wide changes in education and notes the potential of lifelong and adult community education. (MF)

  17. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C

    1997-11-01

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  19. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  20. Changing Patterns of Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspland, Tania

    2006-01-01

    This paper is designed to portray the historical development of teacher education in Australia. The paper is presented in three parts, each of which represents a "turn" in the evolution of teacher education. The first details the historical development of teacher education prior to the establishment of the first teachers college in…

  1. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U3O8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U3O8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U3O8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U3O8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U3O8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U3O8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U3O8. Heathgate Pty. Ltd

  2. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  3. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  4. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  5. Overseas Students in Australia: Costs and Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Creedy, John; Johnson, David; Baker, Meredith

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the use of a university cost function to examine the costs and revenues of overseas students in Australia and to estimate the unobservable cost of providing education for only domestic students. The total costs (over all universities) of overseas students are found to be sensitive to variations in the cost function. The sensitivity of the specification of the cost function, particularly in terms of its nonlinearity, is examined. The paper also discusses the use of simple ...

  6. Perceptions of job security in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Borland

    2002-01-01

    This study examines workers' perceptions of job security in Australia between August 1999 and May 2002. It uses a new quarterly survey that asks probabilistic questions on the likelihood of involuntary job loss, and of finding a similar job if involuntary job loss occurs. Workers' perceptions of job security are shown to display significant variation by gender, age, education, and recent job mobility, to vary pro-cyclically with business cycle conditions, and to have decreased significantly f...

  7. Additional Forms of Employee Representation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gollan, Paul; Markey, Ray; Ross, Iain

    2001-01-01

    Additional forms of employee representation (AFER) may be defined as any representative mechanism which exists alongside or instead of trade unions, which historically have been the most common form of employee representation in Australia. Little is known about how AFER are composed, their independence from managerial influence, the 'representativeness' of such bodies, and their accountability. In addition, little has been documented about the impact of such structures on either the manageria...

  8. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Barkla; Sunny Modi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity ...

  9. Lepromatous leprosy: A rare presentation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barkla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. It is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease transmitted through close contact. The latest current data shows that in 2010, eleven new cases of leprosy were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia. We report the case of a patient with untreated chronic lepromatous leprosy diagnosed in Queensland, 2012. Delay in diagnosis may have been due to the rarity of this condition.

  10. Contemporary racism and Islamaphobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kevin M.; Klocker, Natascha; Salabay, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Contemporary anti-Muslim sentiment in Australia is reproduced through a racialization that includes well rehearsed stereotypes of Islam, perceptions of threat and inferiority, as well as fantasies that the Other (in this case Australian Muslims) do not belong, or are absent. These are not old or colour-based racisms, but they do manifest certain characteristics that allow us to conceive a racialization process in relation to Muslims. Three sets of findings show how constru...

  11. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.……

  12. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.

  13. GEOMAGNETIC ANOMALY FIELD VECTOR OFF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    ノギ, ヨシフミ; エグチ, ヨシアキ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Yoshiaki, EGUCHI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI

    1993-01-01

    Vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field were obtained during the 32nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-32) off Western Australia. The strikes of the magnetic boundaries at their position were derived from vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field. These strikes were interpreted as the directions of magnetic anomaly lineations originated either by seafloor spreading (seafloor spreading anomaly) or by morphological structures (structural magnetic anomaly). Some strikes of st...

  14. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ric Battellino; John Broadbent; Philip Lowe

    1997-01-01

    In January 1990, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) began announcing and explaining changes in the target cash rate. This has increased public understanding of monetary policy and, by increasing the attention given to changes in interest rates, has affected the way in which changes in policy are transmitted to the economy. In addition, the discipline of having to announce and explain changes in the target cash rate to the public has led to a clearer focus on the objectives of monetary policy...

  15. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  16. General practice education in Australia. Current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim; Heard, Sam

    2004-05-01

    General practice education is rapidly changing. Medical students now have exposure to general practice at most year levels, vocational training has been opened to competition, and continuing professional development is a mandatory requirement for maintenance of Health Insurance Commission recognition, and increasingly for state registration. This article outlines the foundations for, and challenge to, building a framework for quality general practice education in Australia. PMID:15227866

  17. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  18. Australia's experience with the variable deposit requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Australian Treasury

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of the Variable Deposit Requirement (VDR) capital control scheme in Australia in the 1970s. It notes that while capital controls can play a role in certain circumstances, they should not be used as a substitute for addressing underlying policy needs or financial sector reforms of an economy. The scheme was short-term in nature, and depended on subjective judgements about what level of capital inflow was appropriate at the time, and was unrelated to lon...

  19. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so‐called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possibly because Australian farmers perceive commodity price risk as more important than climate risk. Also, they perceive risk management tools such as water management and diversification as more impor...

  20. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contam...

  1. A new species of Canalisporium from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, TK; Hyde, KD

    2000-01-01

    Canalisporium variabile sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on several specimens from submerged wood and decaying palm rachis in Australia. It is most similar to C. pallidurn in having pale conidia with clearly visible septa and canals, but they are two distinct species. In C. pallidurn, conidia are more stable in shape, size and septation, with mostly a single column of vertical septa. In C. vam'abile, however, conidia are more variable in morphology, with mostly two columns of verti...

  2. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  3. The Immigrant Housing Market: Analyses for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Chua; Paul W. Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the immigrant adjustment process in Australia from the perspective of the housing market. It shows that immigrant “catch-up” to the native born in the housing market is much more rapid than in the labour market. A decomposition of the estimated coefficients of a logit model of tenure choice is developed that gives formal recognition to the immigrant adjustment process. The results from this decomposition demonstrate the importance of taking account of immigrant adjustment ...

  4. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Sarre

    2015-01-01

    In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  5. Best practice fox management in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, G.; McLeod, L.

    2011-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) impact on populations of many prey species in Australia, and so are the targets of widespread management programs. In this study we monitored fox management programs already operating across 4.5 million hectares of regional New South Wales (NSW) to compare the impact of varying fox baiting effort on the survival of lambs as a major prey species. The spatial coverage and frequency of fox baiting were both correlated with lamb survival. Lamb survival was higher in area...

  6. The Growth Effects of Education in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Antonio; Kumar, Saten; Rao, B. Bhaskara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the growth effects of human capital with country-specific time series data for Australia. Previous empirical studies, based on international data, have been inconclusive, in terms of the extent of the contribution of human capital to growth. We extend the Solow (1956) growth model by using educational attainment as a measure of human capital, as developed by Barro and Lee (2010). The extended Solow (1956) model performs well after allowing for the presence of structu...

  7. Macroeconomic Policy: Some International Lessons for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Corden, W. Max

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent macroeconomic experience outside Australia, especially in the United States, the United Kingdom and continental Europe, and compares it with Australian experience. It discusses booms and recessions, inflation (especially the "credibility" issue), unemployment (cyclical and structural), and exchange rate policy. It also discusses implications for monetarism and rational expectations theories. Two conclusions are that the big remaining problem in Europe and in Australi...

  8. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  9. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov. (Microsporida: Enterocytozoonidae), a parasite of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Penaeidae): Fine structure and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtip, Somjintana; Wongtripop, Somjai; Stentiford, Grant D; Bateman, Kelly S; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Chavadej, Jittipan; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2009-09-01

    A new microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov., is described from the hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea: Decapoda). Different stages of the parasite are described, from early sporogonal plasmodia to mature spores in the cytoplasm of host-cells. The multinucleate sporogonal plasmodia existed in direct contact with the host-cell cytoplasm and contained numerous small blebs at the surface. Binary fission of the plasmodial nuclei occurred during early plasmodial development and numerous pre-sporoblasts were formed within the plasmodium. Electron-dense disks and precursors of the polar tubule developed in the cytoplasm of the plasmodium prior to budding of early sporoblasts from the plasmodial surface. Mature spores were oval, measuring 0.7x1.1microm and contained a single nucleus, 5-6 coils of the polar filament, a posterior vacuole, an anchoring disk attached to the polar filament, and a thick electron-dense wall. The wall was composed of a plasmalemma, an electron-lucent endospore (10nm) and an electron-dense exospore (2nm). DNA primers designed from microsporidian SSU rRNA were used to amplify an 848bp product from the parasite genome (GenBank FJ496356). The sequenced product had 84% identity to the matching region of SSU rRNA from Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Based upon ultrastructural features unique to the family Enterocytozoonidae, cytoplasmic location of the plasmodia and SSU rRNA sequence identity 16% different from E. bieneusi, the parasite was considered to be a new species, E. hepatopenaei, within the genus Enterocytozoon. PMID:19527727

  10. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  11. Symptomotology and Racial Politics in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Buchanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jindabyne (a movie directed by Ray Lawrence, 2006 begins with the murder of a young aboriginal woman, but its real focus is the way people respond to this murder. In doing so, it tells several interesting truths about race relations in Australia today. I want to suggest that Jindabyne can usefully be read as a national allegory (in Jameson’s sense of the word. It maps or diagrams the cultural and political tropes of the present moment in history. My basic hypothesis is that it cannot be a coincidence that Jindabyne should give such prominence to the cultural problematic of the apology at this particular juncture in Australia’s history. Although this aspect of the film is scarcely mentioned in any of the reviews that accompanied the film’s premier, it strikes me that the timing is symptomatic: it is a topic that as Deleuze once said about difference was very much in the air. Produced only two years before the official national apology the Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd made to the Indigenous peoples of Australia on February 13, 2008, Jindabyne responds to a complex assemblage of cultural problematics that have been on the national political agenda ever since the release in 1995 of Bringing Them Home, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission’s report on its national inquiry into the so-called “Stolen Generation”.

  12. Cannabis policy in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes and compares current developments in policies to deal with cannabis in Australia and New Zealand. Both countries are bound by international conventions to control cannabis and in each case cannabis use, possession, cultivation and supply is illegal. In both countries almost all the supply is grown locally and patterns of use and health concerns appear to be similar. Strategies used to deal with cannabis include: demand reduction through enforcement of legislation, drug education and treatment; supply reduction through enforcement of legislation and crop recovery operations; and harm reduction through diversion of some offenders from the courts system, lenient enforcement policies for users and, in Australia, the formal decriminalization of cannabis use in two states/territories and de facto decriminalization in another. Australia has had a co-ordinated national drugs policy with a stated harm reduction focus for over a decade, while in New Zealand efforts to co-ordinate policy have been delayed by ongoing debates about cannabis's harm potential and what constitutes an appropriate approach. However, a national drugs policy with a professed harm reduction focus is currently being finalized. Despite these developments, government cut-backs and international and local prohibitionist influences on policy in both countries suggest that a harm reduction model may not necessarily be secure. PMID:16203457

  13. Media and Australia's replacement reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE A NEW, VOLUNTEER-BASED, COST EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR ZOOLOGICAL MAPPING: THE PHOTO IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER CRAYFISH (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA SPECIES AND THE IMPORTANCE OF VOLUNTEERS IN CRAYFISH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUKY M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the European Crayfish Atlas within the framework of the CRAYNET programme is a major breakthrough in Decapoda mapping in Europe. The current data base contains information from approximately 60-70% of the 50 km × 50 km squares covering the continent. A new method to improve this situation further is the use of photo identification involving volunteers in the collection of distribution data. The crayfish identification ability of two potential user groups, astacologists and biology teachers/students, was tested using the questionnaire given in Figure 2. One picture (Astacus leptodactylus male was correctly identified by everyone, the others were recognised by 59-94% (astacologists and 30-88% (non-crayfish specialised biology teachers and students. The first European Decapoda photo identification survey proved that the necessary expertise exists in the continent to determine crayfish species from pictures and also that the quality of the pictures is less important than the presence of key details. Photo identification is a low cost and environmental-friendly approach but it also needs special considerations. Volunteers need to be supported in several ways, such as by providing precise and interesting educational material in an easily understandable language describing e.g. the key parts of the body to photograph. However, the general use of digital cameras and even mobile phones/cameras and the Internet is an effective way to launch such surveys as it gives, on one hand, an opportunity for the specialists to check, and if necessary correct, the field identification of less experienced people and, on the other hand, it provides a much larger data base than what is available now by using the data collected by students, conservationists, scouts or other volunteers.

  15. Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network The Australian government has announced plans to increase the nation's network of marine reserves from 27 to 60, bringing the total size of the network to 3.1 million square kilometers, Australia's environment minister Tony Burke said on 14 June. The expansion, which would place more than one third of Australia's waters under protection, requires a 60-day consultation before it can become law.

  16. Climate Change, Mining and Traditional Indigenous Knowledge in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Birch

    2016-01-01

    Australia, in common with nations globally, faces an immediate and future environmental and economic challenge as an outcome of climate change. Indigenous communities in Australia, some who live a precarious economic and social existence, are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Impacts are already being experienced through dramatic weather events such as floods and bushfires. Other, more gradual changes, such as rising sea levels in the north of Australia, will have long-term negative ...

  17. Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The ANZDATA Registry includes all patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) throughout Australia and New Zealand. Funding is predominantly from government sources, together with the non-government organization Kidney Health Australia. Registry operations are overseen by an Executive committee, and a Steering Committee with wide representation. Data is collected from renal units throughout Australia and New Zealand on a regular basis, and forwarded to the Registry. Areas covered in...

  18. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang

    2008-01-01

    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  19. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lew RM; Burnett L; Proos AL; Delatycki MB

    2015-01-01

    Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics...

  20. Paediatric CT imaging trends in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of CT has rapidly increased since its introduction. Although an important medical tool for diagnosis and treatment, CT is rec ognised as being among the highest contributors to population radiation exposure. As the risks associated with exposure are higher for children than for adults, this study assessed the impact of paediatric CT in Australia by analysing imaging trends. CT imaging trends were derived from Medicare data. Comparable data from a dedicated paediatric hospital (Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (RCH)) were analysed to determine the validity of utilising Medicare statistics in the younger age groups. The resulting trends reflect the situation for paediatric CT imaging in Australia. In 2009, 2.1 million CT services were billed to Medicare in Australia for children and adults. The average annual growth in the number of CT services provided since 1994 was 8.5%, compared with population growth of 1.4%. Comparison of RCH and Medicare data revealed that only one third of pae diatric CT imaging is captured by Medicare. Combining the data sets showed that over the last 20 years, there has been an average annual increase of 5.1% in the CT imaging rate for 0 to 18-year-olds. However, in recent years, growth in the imaging rate for 11 to 18-year-olds has slowed, while for 5 to 10-year-olds the imaging rate has declined. The significant growth in CT services is attributable to increased demand from the adult demographic. Conversely, increases in the imaging rate for paediatric patients have slowed overall. In fact, for some age groups the rate has fallen.

  1. Development of NORM Management in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia has had a long involvement with NORM, mainly because of mining and processing of mineral ores. Radium mining was carried out in the early 20th century. After 1949, there was a rapid expansion in uranium mining (particularly in the Northern Territory) and mineral sand mining. Australia is a Federation of the Commonwealth, six States and two Territories, which independently regulate within their jurisdiction. Early mineral extraction and processing operations were unregulated, resulting in the existence of a large number of legacy sites. Regulation of uranium mining started in the 1970s, and mineral sand mining after 1980. The regulations vary in detail between jurisdictions. Most other NORM situations are not regulated in any of the States or Territories. A major review of the Western Australian mineral sand industry in the 1980s led to considerable reductions in doses to workers. Remediation of many of the old uranium mine sites in the Northern Territory has been carried out over the last 15 years and is continuing. International awareness of NORM as a potential source of risk to workers, members of the public and the environment has increased significantly in recent years. After an extensive stakeholder consultation process and the development of a position paper summarizing the NORM situation in Australia, a Safety Guide was developed, to enhance awareness and provide general guidance on NORM management. The Safety Guide recommends a graded approach to NORM management, based on exclusion, exemption, clearance and regulation. It includes sections on general radiation protection principles, impact assessment, assessment of the need for regulation, development of a NORM management plan, and annexes on NORM management in the oil and gas, bauxite processing and phosphate industries, written by experts from the industries. These industries were chosen because of their experience with NORM management and the availability of good data. (author)

  2. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  3. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  4. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA A; MENDIS P; LUMANTARNA R; NGO T

    2006-01-01

    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  5. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  6. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  7. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians.

  8. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians. PMID:15777145

  9. Determinants of Business Exits in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The annually increasing firm exits have significant financial, legal and social impacts on productivity, employment and economic growth in Australia. However, evidence of the impacts of firm exits is sparse. This paper undertakes a first-ever study that empirically investigates the determinants and their impacts on firm churn. This paper is innovative to the literature in four aspects: (1 Local Region Areas (LGAs data, rarely available in other countries, has been used for the analysis; (2 using LGAs as the basic analytical unit is able to eliminate the heterogeneity problems encountered by other studies which are based on national and cross-national data; (3 panel data modelling techniques identify robust evidence; (4 systematic statistical tests guarantees the robustness of the results. The dataset, provided by Australia Bureau of Statistics, include 3462 observations of 577 Local Government Areas (LGAs during 2004-2009. The research identifies variables positively and negatively affecting the exits and finds that size matters in determining business exits. The last section concludes with a discussion of limitations and future research directions.

  10. Rediscovering university teaching hospitals for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penington, David G

    2008-09-15

    Partnership between research and health services has a long history in other countries, but has been relatively recent in Australia, with several models arising in the 1960s and 1970s as research-based specialties developed. Since the implementation of Medibank, which became Medicare, Australian Health Care Agreements have been primarily crafted on the basis of transactional numbers, ignoring the need for links with teaching and research and the need to implement new developments. Education and research have been seen as the responsibility of the federal government, and hospitals are progressively less recognised or funded for these functions by the states. Australia's teaching hospitals are in danger of falling seriously behind those in other countries and losing their capacity to monitor quality, to innovate and to branch into new strategies in partnership with primary care services. We should look at initiatives in other countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada, which are making big strides in tackling similar issues. University hospitals hold the key, if appropriately linked with other services. The current Australian Health Care Agreements are on hold. A new agency is needed to support clinical and service-related research, with a new structure and track for federal government funding, and providing oversight of research and development, of clinical governance and quality of outcomes in health care, linked with new strategies for prevention and treatment. A component of the foreshadowed additional federal government funding for health should be sequestered to set up such an agency. PMID:18803539

  11. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wilcox

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  12. Management of radio frequency radiation exposures in telecom Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telecom Australia is the largest non-military user of radio frequency radiation (RFR) in Australia and the management of risks to health from RFR exposure are discussed. The Australian RFR Exposure Standard forms that basis of risk assessment. Risk assessment and control procedures including the health surveillance of workers, other special occupational groups and members of the general public are outlined. (author)

  13. Harmonising and Matching IPR Holders at IP Australia

    OpenAIRE

    T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.

  14. Lessons from the Past: Education and Racism in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Myra

    2001-01-01

    The history of racism in Australia is inextricably linked with prevailing ideologies of rural Australia, supported strongly by educational discourses of deficit and disadvantage. A challenge for the Reconciliation Movement will be to make an effective contribution to the development of anti-racist and non-racist practices in rural schooling.…

  15. Learning from Successful Skills Development Systems: Lessons from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main institutional features of Australia's TVET sector, focussing particularly on the qualifications framework, how it relates to the labour market, and the role of industry. It also looks briefly at two current policy challenges for Australia. Seeking lessons for other countries in the Asia Pacific region, it…

  16. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  17. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism p

  18. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD56 Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a...

  19. Music Australia and the Trove Transition: Consultation Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Stakeholders are invited to comment and provide feedback on discovery services for music in Australia, particularly in relation to the transition of 'Music Australia' service into the newly released 'Trove' search service. The content and discovery service features are explained in detail.

  20. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  1. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia do not…

  2. Australia's Adoption of Outcomes Based Education: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Australia's adoption of outcomes based education (OBE), sometimes known as Essential Learnings or outcomes and standards based education, has been at the centre of a good deal of public scrutiny and debate. In Western Australia, during 2006, the planned introduction of OBE into years 11 and 12 led to a strident and vocal media campaign, in part,…

  3. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  4. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  5. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  6. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Commonwealth of Australia is comprised of six States and several Territories. Each State and Territory Government maintains quarantine activities for its borders under the guidance of the Commonwealth Government. These activities, with regard to fruit flies, include quarantine at airports and harbours, compliance with import and export regulations and monitoring for, and action against, incursions of exotic fruit fly pests. There are about eighty species of fruit fly that are native to Australia that infest mainly native fruit and vegetables but, of these, six are classed as pests of horticultural significance. The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is by far the most destructive of these native Australian fruit fly species. Another, non-native species, now endemic to parts of Western Australia, which arrived in Australia in the 1890's, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), is just as damaging and it, too, is a critical quarantine pest. The distribution of these flies in Australia is such that not all pest species inhabit the same region. Quarantine restrictions are placed by States and fruit fly free-areas within States due to pest fruit fly species that are not native there. For example the State of Tasmania, to the southeast of Australia, is classified as entirely free from pest fruit flies. Fruit fly host produce exported to Tasmania from the rest of Australia is either prohibited or allowed entry following various quarantine requirements such as an approved postharvest disinfestation treatment. The State of Western Australia is free from Queensland fruit fly, but the eastern States of New South Wales and Queensland are not. while the eastern states are free from Mediterranean fruit fly and Western Australia is not. Quarantine restrictions are in place on trade between eastern and western Australia. Mediterranean fruit fly is now endemic to parts of Western Australia and nowhere else in Australia. It is a most destructive pest

  7. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  8. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  9. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  10. Aussat - A milestone in Australia's communication history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, W. L.

    1983-04-01

    The Australian national satellite system, Aussat, will commence operations in 1985 after launch of the two initial Aussat communications satellites. Australia is a member of Intelsat, which currently provides both international telephone links and television services to 50 Outback communities. The project was organized in study areas of satellite design and plans for the ground segment, major city earth stations, and minor earth stations. Aussat services will include low power DBS of radio and television, telephony, voice and data communications for minerals exploration and medical care, a school of the air, ATC links, emergency and disaster relief communications, data transfer, and voice conferencing.Initial configurations include Ku-band satellites launched by the Shuttle, with telemetry in the 12/14 GHz bands. The Aussat organization will be eventually transformed to 49 percent private ownership.

  11. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit. PMID:12268819

  12. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  13. Exploring Themes in the Movie Australia on Culture Identity Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成珍

    2014-01-01

    Gathering the history and emotions of the nation of Australia, the movie Australia not only reflects Australians’exer-tion to construct an equal harmonious diversified new Australia but also incarnates Australian people ’s nisus to pursue the sense of belonging internally and seek international recognition externally. In order to expand the perspective of researching this movie and give enlightenment on constructing an equal harmonious diversified international community, based on culture identity theo-ries, this paper tries exploring the themes of this movie.

  14. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  15. Education and Economic Growth: A Case Study of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sawami Matsushita; Abu Siddique; Margaret Giles

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the contribution of education to growth in per capita real GDP in Australia over the period 1969-2003 using the growth accounting method. Also estimated is the contribution of total factor productivity to growth. Over the period, per capita real GDP in Australia increased by 1.9 percent per annum. Of this, about 31 percent was contributed by education. This finding has important implications for policy makers in Australia. For example, in order to promo...

  16. On the genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae), with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tin-Yam; Cleva, Régis; Chu, Ka Hou

    2016-01-01

    The penaeid genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934a is revised with the aid of sequence data on the 12S and 16S rRNA genes. The species generally reported as "T. longipes" in recent literature was found to be not the true T. longipes (Paul'son, 1875) but a new species, herein named T. dentata sp. nov. To fix the identity of T. longipes, a neotype is selected and this action effectively synonymizes T. villaluzi (Muthu & Motoh, 1979) with T. longipes. Moreover, T. fulva (Dall, 1957) is synonymized with T. malaiana (Balss, 1933) while T. starobogatovi (Ivanov & Hassan, 1976) is confirmed to be a valid species. Two more new species are discovered, with T. parvispina sp. nov., widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, and T. crosnieri sp. nov., restricted to Australia. Altogether 12 species are recognized in Trachyalambria. The other valid species in this genus are T. curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860), T. aspera (Alcock, 1905), T. palaestinensis (Steinitz, 1932), T. brevisuturae (Burkenroad, 1934a), T. albicoma (Haysahi & Toriyama, 1980), and T. nansei Sakaji & Hayashi, 2003. Most characters previously used for separating the species of this genus are rather variable and their distinguishing characters are redefined.

  17. Overview on the European green crab Carcinus spp. (Portunidae, Decapoda), one of the most famous marine invaders and ecotoxicological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leignel, V; Stillman, J H; Baringou, S; Thabet, R; Metais, I

    2014-01-01

    Green crabs (Carcinus, Portunidae) include two species native to Europe--Carcinus aestuarii (Mediterranean species) and Carcinus maenas (Atlantic species). These small shore crabs (maximal length carapace, approximately 10 cm) show rapid growth, high fecundity, and long planktonic larval stages that facilitate broad dispersion. Carcinus spp. have a high tolerance to fluctuations of environmental factors including oxygen, salinity, temperature, xenobiotic compounds, and others. Shipping of Carcinus spp. over the past centuries has resulted in its invasions of America, Asia, and Australia. Classified as one of the world's 100 worst invaders by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Carcinus spp. are the most widely distributed intertidal crabs in the world. Their voracious predatory activity makes them strong interactors in local communities, and they are recognized as a model for invasiveness in marine systems as well as a sentinel species in ecotoxicology. This review shows an exhaustive analysis of the literature on the life cycle, diversity, physiological tolerance, genomic investigations, ecotoxicological use, historical invasion, control programs, and putative economical valorization of shore crabs.

  18. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  19. Generalized Geology of Australia and New Zealand (geo3cl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and rock type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Australia...

  20. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  1. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao NEGREIROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  2. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  3. Recent developments of acupuncture in Australia and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Claire

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Almost one in ten Australians has received acupuncture treatment by acupuncturists and/or medical doctors in private clinics. The majority of Australian health insurance funds offer rebates for acupuncture. Statutory regulations for acupuncture have been implemented in the State of Victoria, Australia. Six acupuncture degree courses have been approved by the Chinese Medicine Registration Board of Victoria and/or accredited by the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association. Furthermore, a number of clinical trials of acupuncture on allergic rhinitis, pain and women's health were carried out in Australia. Recent developments of acupuncture in Australia indicate that through adequate and appropriate evaluation, acupuncture begins to integrate into mainstream health care in Australia.

  4. Business Cycle Synchronization Between Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a high degree of economic and financial integration between Australia and New Zealand with free trade agreements linking the capital and labor markets. Given a strong economic relationship, business-cycle transmission is expected to exist between the two countries. By analyzing the shock-transmission channels via trade, monetary policy, and exchange rates between Australia and New Zealand we can infer that if Australia and New Zealand trade less, have more similar monetary policy structure, or have less similar economic structures they would have stronger economy correlation. The results also show that the highly integrated banking system between Australia and New Zealand is an additional avenue for shock transmission between both countries.

  5. Population policies in developed countries: how do Australia's policies compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C

    1989-05-01

    Between 1980-1985, Australia experienced the highest population growth of any developed nation basically due to high levels of immigration. West Germany was the only nation to have negative growth rate. Yet Australia, like most developed nations, had a below replacement fertility rate. Nevertheless Australia's population is expected to increase by 3 million people by 2026, even if there is no immigration. Australia does not have a fertility directed population policy, yet the government does provide a family allowance (although it is lower than that of other developed nations), guarantees maternity and patenity leave (albeit mostly unpaid), and some child care facilities. Unlike other developed nations, however, Australia's government assistance to families has declined recently. In the early 1980s, the level of child poverty in Australia ranked higher than of Canada, West Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, but in ranked lower than that of the United States (US). The population policy in Australia is an immigraiton based policy. Even though almost all the developed nations have reached or will soon reach below replacement fertility and are faced with an aging population, only Austrlia, Canada, and the US do not have a clear policy to influence fertility and continue to not restrict immigration. Further, Australia's level of immigration is 3 times the rate/head of population than the US or Canada. A possible nondemographic solution to the aging population in developed nations is to increase pension coverage to full time and part time workers and to secure greater continuity of pension coverage to those workers who change jobs and to women who took time out from working to bear and/or care for children. PMID:12342441

  6. Eating the Asian Other? Pedagogies of Food Multiculturalism in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Flowers; Elaine Swan

    2012-01-01

    Public pedagogies in tourism and education in Australia suggest that food is a medium through which we learn more about each other’s cultures: in other words food is a pedagogy of multiculturalism. Drawing on a white Anglo Australian man’s memories of food in different intercultural encounters, this paper prises open the concept of eating the Other. There has been trenchant critique of food multiculturalism and the consuming cosmopolitan in Australia (Hage 1997; Probyn 2004; Duruz 2010). Thus...

  7. Welfare Policy and Labour Supply of Immigrants in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Law

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social security payments on the labour supply of recent immigrants to Australia after the policy change. This research uses the first wave of two sets of Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (LSIA) data as treatment group and Survey of Income and Housing (SIH) as control group to analyse the short-term immigrant labour market outcomes before and after the policy change. Employing difference-in-differences estimators and propensity score matching...

  8. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Penman; Marc Cohen; Philip Stevens; Sue Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 responden...

  9. Distance Education in Australia : Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Mavis, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Compared with most other countries, Distance Education in Australia has a long history, spanning most of this century and is now used at all levels of education from elementary school to postgraduate courses as well as in vocational and in-service training in business and industry. In this paper, which focuses mainly on Distance Education at the post-secondary level, the author first outlines the current pattern of provision in the light of Australia's geography, population distribution and t...

  10. The Wage Premium of Foreign Education: New Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Gavin; Heaton, Christopher; Tani, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    We study whether Australian employers recognise immigrants' education acquired abroad, and if so how. Using data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Immigrants in Australia, we apply interval regression to model migrant hourly earnings. We find substantially higher returns from human capital obtained in Australia and other OECD countries compared with non-OECD countries. These results suggest that the transfer of human capital acquired abroad is mediated by the country in which it was acquired, ...

  11. Mining activity, income inequality and gender in regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Reeson, Andrew; Thomas G Measham; Hosking, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Mining activity has been a significant driver of export growth as well as income and employment in parts of regional Australia. However, while income growth is an economic benefit, the high incomes associated with the mining sector may also lead to greater inequality. This paper describes an empirical analysis of mining activity and income inequality in regional Australia. The Gini coefficient (a measure of inequality) for personal income is found to be significantly associated with levels of...

  12. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  13. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  14. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  15. An Australia telescope survey for CMB anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, R; Ekers, R D; Sinclair, M; Silk, J

    2000-01-01

    We have surveyed six distinct `empty fields' using the Australia TelescopeCompact Array in an ultra-compact configuration with the aim of imaging, with ahigh brightness sensitivity, any arcmin-scale brightness-temperatureanisotropies in the background radio sky. The six well-separated regions wereobserved at a frequency of 8.7 GHz and the survey regions were limited by theATCA primary beams which have a full width at half maximum of 6 arcmin at thisfrequency; all fields were observed with a resolution of 2 arcmin and an rmsthermal noise of 24 microJy/beam. After subtracting foreground confusiondetected in higher resolution images of the fields, residual fluctuations inStokes I images are consistent with the expectations from thermal noise andweaker (unidentified) foreground sources; the Stokes Q and U images areconsistent with expectations from thermal noise. Within the sensitivity of our observations, we have no reason to believe thatthere are any Sunyaev-Zeldovich holes in the microwave sky surveyed. Assumi...

  16. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  17. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures. PMID:26180104

  18. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.

    2016-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  19. Physiotherapy in critical care in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Susan; Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-03-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the longstanding physical impairment suffered by survivors of intensive care has resulted in physiotherapists re-evaluating treatment priorities to include exercise rehabilitation as a part of standard clinical practice. The goals of respiratory physiotherapy management are to promote secretion clearance, maintain or recruit lung volume, optimize oxygenation, and prevent respiratory complications in both the intubated and spontaneously breathing patient. In the intubated patient, physiotherapists commonly employ manual and ventilator hyperinflation and positioning as treatment techniques whilst in the spontaneously breathing patients there is an emphasis on mobilization. Physiotherapists predominantly use functional activities for the rehabilitation of the critically ill patient in intensive care. While variability exists between states and centers, Australian physiotherapists actively treat critically ill patients targeting interventions based upon research evidence and individualized assessment. A trend toward more emphasis on exercise rehabilitation over respiratory management is evident. PMID:22807651

  20. Serving rural Australia with reproductive health expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, T; Kovacs, G T; Kinfu, Y

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to review the use of reproductive health services in Family Planning clinics by women from rural (non-metropolitan) Australia through a retrospective analysis of data collected at clinics of seven state/territory Family Planning Organisations (FPO). From a total of 146 157 client visits to FPO clinics between July 1998 and June 1999, 42 497 (29.1%) were by clients who lived outside metropolitan areas. Some 97% of clients were women. Our results show the use of reproductive health services by women from rural areas was different from the services used by women from metropolitan areas. There were fewer male clients, more women over 40 years of age, and fewer clients from a non-English speaking background. More of the attendees had pension cards and fewer were privately insured. We concluded there is considerable demand for reproductive health services among the rural population and reproductive health care needs to be expanded to reach rural women. PMID:11736848

  1. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  3. Characterising Emissions from Australia's Black Saturday Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Young, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Stevens, L.

    2009-12-01

    The “Black Saturday” fires were a set of devastating bushfires that burned across the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday the 7th of February 2009 killing 173 people. The fires continued into March when rain and cooler conditions allowed the fires to be extinguished. Smoke plumes from the Black Saturday fires were transported south eastwards eluding local ground-based remote sensing FTIR spectrometers, but were captured by a number of satellite-based sensors. OMI UV-aerosol index data show that smoke from the first intense fires separated from subsequent plumes and was transported to the north of New Zealand where it stayed for over a week before moving west across northern Australia and dissipating over the Indian Ocean in early March. Here we present an analysis of the emissions from the Black Saturday fires including total emissions estimates for a number of trace gases and a study of the aging of the smoke emitted from the first days of the fires.

  4. Radiation doses from mammography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1989-90 the Australian Radiation Laboratory conducted a postal survey of at least 90% of the mammographic facilities in Australia. The primary aim of the survey was to measure the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the X-ray beam half value layer (HVL) for a typical mammograph. The MGD and HVL were measured with a specially designed tissue equivalent monitor. In all, 258 mammographic centres were surveyed. It was found that for centres using film-screen imaging, the average mean glandular dose was 1.83 mGy for centres using grids and 0.84 mGy for centres not using grids. In addition to the MGD and HVL, comprehensive statistical information was collected and data is presented on the types of equipment and techniques used, the number and age of patients and demographic distribution of centres. Results indicate that the use of a grid is the major factor determining dose and several other factors appear to have minor effects. In view of the distribution of MGD, it is recommended that the mean glandular dose per image, for a 5 cm compressed breast thickness, should not exceed 2.0 mGy when a grid is used and 1.0 mGy without a grid. 63 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs

  5. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  6. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  7. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  8. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Park

    Full Text Available Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria, in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  9. Horizontal inequities in Australia?s mixed public/private health care system, CHERE Working Paper 2006/13,

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy van Doorslaer; Philip Clarke; Elizabeth Savage; Jane Hall

    2006-01-01

    Recent OECD country comparative evidence suggests that Australia?s mixed public-private health system does a good job in ensuring high and fairly equal access to doctor, hospital and dental care services. This paper provides some further analysis of the same data from the Australian National Health Survey for 2001 to see to what extent the general finding of horizontal equity remains when the full potential of the data is realized. We extend the common core cross-country comparative analysis ...

  10. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  11. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  12. Equity of health care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairson, D R; Hindson, P; Hauquitz, A

    1995-08-01

    This paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing and delivery in Australia and compares its performance with recent findings on systems in Europe and the United States. Vertical equity of finance is evaluated with income and payment concentration indices derived from published survey data on taxes and expenditure by income decile. Horizontal equity of health care delivery is assessed with standardized expenditure concentration coefficients for three measures of health status and four types of health services, derived from household survey data on health care utilization, health status, income and demographics. Health cover is available to the entire population. Results show the financing system is slightly progressive despite the fact that 30% of payment comes from private sources, which are regressive. The equity index compares favorably to many European countries and is much better than the U.S. which has a regressive financing system. The Australian system fares less well in terms of equity of health care delivery. Several features favor privately insured higher income persons in use of health care and this is reflected, for some health status measures and types of service, in inequity favoring the better off. This contrasts with inequity favoring the less well off in many European countries and the U.S. This analysis provides a benchmark for monitoring the equity of the Australian system and provides information on the equity of a mixed private and public financing system that covers the entire population. This is relevant to the U.S. which is moving in this direction by extending private cover to the uninsured and to European countries that are increasing private sector involvement in health care financing. PMID:7481941

  13. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  14. Flow characteristics of rivers in northern Australia: Implications for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petheram, Cuan; McMahon, Thomas A.; Peel, Murray C.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryAnnual, monthly and daily streamflows from 99 unregulated rivers across northern Australia were analysed to assess the general surface water resources of the region and their implications for development. The potential for carry-over storages was assessed using the Gould-Dincer Gamma method, which utilises the mean, standard deviation, skewness and lag-one serial correlation coefficient of annual flows. Runs Analysis was used to describe the characteristics of drought in northern Australia and the potential for 'active' water harvesting was evaluated by Base Flow Separation, Flow Duration Curves and Spells Analysis. These parameters for northern Australia were compared with data from southern Australia and data for similar Köppen class from around the world. Notably, the variability and seasonality of annual streamflow across northern Australia were observed to be high compared with that of similar Köppen classes from the rest of the world (RoW). The high inter-annual variability of runoff means that carry-over storages in northern Australia will need to be considerably larger than for rivers from the RoW (assuming similar mean annual runoff, yield and reliability). For example, in the three major Köppen zones across the North, it was possible (theoretically) to only exploit approximately 33% (Köppen Aw; n = 6), 25% (Köppen BSh; n = 12) and 13% (Köppen BWh; n = 11) of mean annual streamflow (assuming a hypothetical storage size equal to the mean annual flow). Over 90% of north Australian rivers had a Base Flow Index of less than 0.4, 72% had negative annual lag-one autocorrelation values and in half the rivers sampled greater than 80% of the total flow occurred during the 3-month peak period. These data confirm that flow in the rivers of northern Australia is largely event driven and that the north Australian environment has limited natural storage capacity. Hence, there is relatively little opportunity in many northern rivers to actively harvest water

  15. Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reduced rainfall in southeast Australia has placed this region's urban and rural communities on escalating water restrictions, with anthropogenic climate change forecasts suggesting that this drying trend will continue. To mitigate the stress this may place on domestic water supply, governments have encouraged the installation of large domestic water tanks in towns and cities throughout this region. These prospective stable mosquito larval sites create the possibility of the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, where it remains endemic, back into New South Wales and other populated centres in Australia, along with the associated emerging and re-emerging dengue risk if the virus was to be introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having collated the known distribution of Ae. aegypti in Australia, we built distributional models using a genetic algorithm to project Ae. aegypti's distribution under today's climate and under climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2050 and compared the outputs to published theoretical temperature limits. Incongruence identified between the models and theoretical temperature limits highlighted the difficulty of using point occurrence data to study a species whose distribution is mediated more by human activity than by climate. Synthesis of this data with dengue transmission climate limits in Australia derived from historical dengue epidemics suggested that a proliferation of domestic water storage tanks in Australia could result in another range expansion of Ae. aegypti which would present a risk of dengue transmission in most major cities during their warm summer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the debate of the role climate change will play in the future range of dengue in Australia, we conclude that the increased risk of an Ae. aegypti range expansion in Australia would be due not directly to climate change but rather to human adaptation to the current and forecasted regional drying

  16. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options. PMID:23431857

  17. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  18. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia. PMID:26126071

  19. The Historical Change of the Chinese Community in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玥

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the author tries to give an account of the historical change of the Chinese community in Australia,hoping to sum up the basic pattern and structure of the Chinese community in Australia,as wel as the historical contributions the Chinese Australians has made to promote Sino-Australian friendship and the prosperity of the two countries. The paper can be divided into three parts. At the beginning,the author makes a brief introduction to the background of the formation of the Chinese community in Australia and the living condition of the Chinese Australians from 1848 to 1901. Later,the author explores the social state of the Chinese Australians under the White Australia Policy,with the intention to show the spirit of self-improvement of the Chinese. Then,at the end of the paper,the author points out the great contribution the Chinese Australians made not only for the motherland but for Australia,hoping to strengthen the cooperation and exchange.

  20. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  1. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  2. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  3. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  4. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Halafoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008 posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in recent years, a comprehensive analysis of Buddhism in Australia, and particularly its impact on Australian life and culture, is yet to be conducted. This paper argues that such a study is both timely and necessary, given that Buddhism is the second largest religion in Australia, and we appear to be entering an "Asian century."

  5. Current issues on ageing in Japan: a comparison with Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Yoshiko; Wells, Yvonne

    2008-03-01

    Japan's demography has changed dramatically, and with it, Japanese society and the circumstances of older people. These changes include shifts in family roles and functions, employment and social relations. Traditionally, families provided financial, physical and psychological support to their parents in the same household. While the proportion of older Japanese who live with adult children is still high in comparison to the rate in Western developed countries, patterns of care in Japan are gradually shifting towards the Western model. Public pensions supply financial support and the Long-Term Care Insurance System (LCIS) provides substantial physical care for frail older people. This paper focuses on current issues for older people in Japan, and provides a brief comparison with the situation in Australia. Japan's LCIS provides a simpler and more consistent basis for funding long-term care than Australia's system. On the other hand, Australia's pension system is comparatively robust. PMID:18713209

  6. New developments on the uranium sector in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is one of the richest countries as far as uranium is concerned. The Jabiluka deposit alone is considered to be the largest single uranium deposit of the Western world. The overall known assured uranium reserves in Australia amount to 465.000 tons U3O8 at cost ranges between 15 and 30 US Dollar per pound U3O8, i.e. approximately 21% of the known world reserves. Most of the Australien uranium ore is of relatively high grade and nearly all of it could be mined from open pit. At this stage Mary Kathleen in Queensland is the only producing uranium mine in Australia. The actual political attitude of the Australian government prevents the Australian uranium industry from beeing further developed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO

  7. Australia's southern margin: a product of oblique extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, J. B.; Stagg, H. M. J.

    1990-02-01

    Recently developed detachment models of continental margin formation interpret the southern margin of Australia to have formed when the lower-plate Australian margin was pulled out from beneath the upper-plate Antarctic margin. Data now available and summarised in this paper, point very strongly to a generally NW-SE direction of initial continental extension for the southern margin, in contrast to the widely held picture of simple N-S rifting. The evidence for this extension direction comes from the analysis of deep Seismic data acquired by the Bureau of Mineral Resources in 1986 in the central Great Australian Bight (GAB), the gravity field of the GAB, Seismic and magnetic basement structures in the Eyre Sub-basin, Polda Trough, Ceduna Depocentre and Duntroon Basin and from the analysis of the magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies produced during the slow first phase of drifting between Australia and Antarctica. Further, it is now believed that the formation of the southern margin of Australia can be described in terms of three phases of continental extension (El to E3) and two phases of drifting (D1 and D2). In summary, these phases were as follows. E1: approximately 300 km of Late Jurassic (?or older) to Early Cretaceous NW-SE-oriented extension in the GAB, with strike-slip motion in the nascent Otway Basin and along the Tasmanian margin. E2: 120 km of Early Cretaceous NNE-SSW-oriented extension which formed the basins of southeastern Australia (Otway, Bass, Gippsland) and which probably produced a structural overprinting in the GAB Basin. E3/D1: minor continental extension and the first 500 km of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica on an azimuth of 165°; wrenching on the Tasmanian margin. D2: 2600 km of fast drifting between Australia and Antarctica on a N-S azimuth.

  8. Towards a comprehensive uranium fuel management policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consideration of the problems inherent in the extraction and use of uranium fuels, in particular the long-term radiation hazard posed by wastes, leads to the recognition of several severe geological and social constraints that must govern any comprehensive management policy. In the light of these, and of the need to prevent diversion of nuclear material for the manufacture of weapons, the author outlines a comprehensive uranium fuel management policy for Australia. It is recommended that Australia's uranium should not be mined until the feasibility and cost of such a management policy have been assessed and compared with the added risks entailed in any less stringent management policy. (Author)

  9. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity. PMID:26541211

  10. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Esperance, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCafferty P. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a lead contamination event that occurred over a period of time in and around Esperance, Western Australia. It also describes the scientific developments necessary to effect the large scale cleanup of lead contamination in the town. This work was possibly the largest environmental cleanup of its kind ever undertaken in Australia. The work undertaken involved characterisation and assessment of the extent of contamination, development of remediation techniques and validation procedures to ensure that that this cleaning had been successful.

  11. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin...... the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response...

  12. Credential Changes and Education Earnings Premia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Coelli; Roger Wilkins

    2008-01-01

    We find that post-school education earnings premia have remained strikingly stable over the 1981 to 2003-04 period in Australia. This stability is in sharp contrast to the rising college premium observed in the US. The observed stability in Australia may in part be due to changes in the credentials earned by individuals entering certain professional occupations during the 1980s and early 1990s, particularly for females. We provide an estimate of the potential effect of within-occupation crede...

  13. Descriptions of five new species of Haplostylus (Mysidaceae crustacea) from South West Australia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    (Bacescu and Udrescu, 1982), H. robusta from South West Australia (Panampunnayii, 1989), from Broken Bay, New South Wales (Dakin and Colefax, 1940) and from Bass strait (Fenton, 1990), H. uderescu from Central Eastern Australia (Greenwood et al., 1991), H...

  14. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....

  15. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  16. Correlates of recent declines of rodents in northern and southern Australia : habitat structure is critical

    OpenAIRE

    Lawes, Michael J.; Fisher, Diana O; Johnson, Chris N.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Anke S K Frank; Fritz, Susanne A.; Hamish McCallum; Jeremy VanDerWal; Brett N Abbott; Sarah Legge; Mike Letnic; Thomas, Colette R.; Nikki Thurgate; Alaric Fisher; Gordon, Iain J.

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in A...

  17. Senate Inquiry into the Role of Libraries in the Online Environment: Submission from Public Libraries Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Library Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This submission represents the views of a newly formed organisation known as Public Libraries Australia. Formed to aggregate the political, service and infrastructure capacity of Australia's 1510 (ABS June 2000) public libraries, Public Libraries Australia will support and represent public libraries on a national basis. Networked across Australia…

  18. The Hidden Topography of Australia's Arts Nation: The Contribution of Universities to the Artistic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In "Arts Nation" 2015, the Australia Council documented the current landscape of artistic endeavour in Australia, acknowledging that there are still gaps that need to be filled to build a greater public understanding of the arts in Australia. The contribution of Australian universities to the arts is one such lacuna. This paper seeks to…

  19. The Crisis Discourse of a Wicked Policy Problem: Vocational Skills Training in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Rudd Labor government in Australia introduced significant changes to education policy for the nation. The "Skilling Australia's Future" (Rudd et al. "Skilling Australia for the future. Election 2007 policy document," 2007) policy was meant to redress a perceived failure by the previous Howard federal Liberal-National Coalition…

  20. "Educare" in Australia: Analysing Policy Mobility and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood education and care has been an area of significant policy attention, public investment and private market activity in Australia over the past three decades. Australian educationists and policy-makers have looked to international examples for evidence, policy design and institutional models. However, this area is…

  1. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  2. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal

    1993-01-01

    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  3. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  4. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  5. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  6. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  7. In Search of a Professional Identity: Counseling Psychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    This survey examined the professional identity of 114 counseling psychologists in Australia. Respondents rated the importance of activities to their present and ideal positions as counseling psychologists. Factor analysis of ratings showed that consultation and education, goal-directed counseling, depth psychotherapy, and program development and…

  8. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  9. A Short History of Sedition Laws in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Government's "Anti-Terrorism Act 2005" updates the sedition offenses previously found in the Crimes Act 1914. The Act is the latest and most comprehensive--and controversial--of a long list of legislation to respond to what the Federal Government has claimed is the changed security situation facing Australia. This article provides a…

  10. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  11. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  12. The Economics of a Multicultural Australia: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, P. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The growth of a multicultural Australia is generating debate on the economic effects of multiculturalism. This paper examines the extent to which competing claims can draw support from the literature and the extent to which economic issues arising from the growth of a multicultural Australian society have been identified and assessed.(30…

  13. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  14. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  15. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  16. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  17. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  18. Australia Won First Contract to Supply LPG to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming

    2002-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corp.(CNOOC)declared on August 8, 2002 that Australia Liquefied Natural Gas Company (ALNG) affiliated to Woodside Petroleum Corporation has been accepted as the supplier of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for its LNG distribution station in Guangdong Province.

  19. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  20. Touching the Void: Arts Education Research in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Robyn; Anderson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is an overview of arts education research in Australia. The authors argue that there is an urgent need for key arts organisations to form strategic partnerships with arts educators to provide stronger research in the area of arts education. This research base would enhance the ability of policymakers, arts administrators and arts…

  1. Delegation of Local Government Officials Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Australian Sister Cities Association (ASCA), the CPAFFC sent a delegation of local government officials to Australia to attend its national conference and visited New Zealand on its way from July 31 to August 14.

  2. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions. PMID:20617651

  3. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  4. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  5. Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

  6. The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

  7. Inclusive Education in Australia: Rhetoric, Reality and the Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joanna; Boyle, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is a term that has been part of the educational discourse in Australia for almost two decades. While there is no overarching definition under which IE operates in that country, it is accepted that the meaning behind the term has shifted from being exclusively about students with a disability to now encompassing the…

  8. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  9. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  10. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Stephens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  11. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  12. The Economics of Tea and Coffee Consumption in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.B. Siddique

    1991-01-01

    Demand for non-alcoholic beverages (NAB) in Australia is analyzed for the period 1964-89, with the use of consumption theory. The study's findings, which generally support those of earlier studies, suggest that demand for NAB is price-inelastic. A comparison of income elasticities further suggest that tea is an inferior good, coffee a necessity, and softdrinks, a luxury.

  13. Soils Governance in Australia: challenges of cooperative federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Williams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses soil governance in Australia and the challenges facing sustainable natural resource management within the context of a cooperative system of federation and a globalised market economy. With only 6 per cent of the Australian landmass considered arable, one would assume that protecting Australia’s valuable soil resource would be of national significance. However, Australia currently lacks nationally consistent policies and legal instruments to ensure that its soil is protected, maintained and enhanced for future generations. While recognising that soil governance is a broad discipline encompassing many areas of soil science and management, this discussion will only focus on the soil conservation aspects of sustainable ecosystems and sustainable food and fibre in Australia; it will not explore in depth issues of soil contamination and other pollution related areas. The paper discusses: the state of Australian soils and the managers of these resources; current soil governance in Australia (based on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations definition; and a case study example of an Australian state approach to landuse conflict and the protection of agricultural lands. The paper highlights policies and institutional arrangements required for the protection of Australian soil and the very communities that are attempting to steward these resources for future generations.

  14. Australia looks to small hydro for greenhouse gas reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Apress release, issued by the government of the state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, says water releases from the state's dams could be used to provide renewable, pollution-free electricity,as well as eliminate the production of more than 260,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year.

  15. Children's Library Services for Multicultural Societies in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayfield, Juliana

    Responding to the increasing cultural and ethnic diversity of Australia's population and to awakening interest in its indigenous minorities, this paper examines problems of acquisition and dissemination of children's literature to preserve the cultural heritage of minority groups. Appendices display population by age groups between 1954 and 1977,…

  16. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  17. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  18. Modelling the Balassa-Samuelson Effect in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshed Chowdhury

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis in Australia using the ARDL cointegrationframework. Evidence was found of a significant long-run relationship between real exchange rate andAustralia-US productivity differential during the period of 1950-2003. The results indicate that a one per centincrease in labour productivity in Australia relative to the US will lead to 5.6 per cent appreciation in the realexchange rate of Australia. The estimated coefficient for the error correction term is -0.1983 and is highlysignificant, indicating that the deviation from the long term real exchange rate equilibrium path is correctedby nearly 20 per cent over the following year. The Author suspects that the elasticity coefficient is “overestimated”due to the exclusion of relevant explanatory variables in the analytical model. The real exchangerate movements are affected by real fundamentals and policy-induced shifts in its real fundamentals. Thefundamentals include the terms of trade, government expenditure, real interest rate differentials, net foreignliabilities among others along with labour productivity differential.

  19. Forecasting Housing Approvals in Australia: Do Forecasters Herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...

  20. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's Major Trading Partners across the GFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financ

  1. Health and Physical Education in Australia: A Defining Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum in Australia in the context of the ongoing development of a new national curriculum. Drawing on policy documents and academic commentaries it reviews and problematises the current position and prospective development of HPE in the Australian Curriculum, examining key…

  2. Research Update 2010: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records 17 incidents not previously recorded in papers in this series (Brookes, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2007), in which 15 participants, two supervisors or teachers, and one member of the public died. Eleven of the incidents occurred since…

  3. Reflections on the Tertiary Education Sector in Australia. Conference Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The split between higher education and vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is not clean. This paper discusses a number of aspects of this tertiary education sector: the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which describes the qualifications offered by the three education sectors: schools, higher education and VET; student…

  4. The Bradley Review and Access to Higher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Bob; Edwards, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The "Review of Higher Education in Australia" (the Bradley Review) has recommended a massive expansion in the level of domestic training in Australian universities. This article examines the Report's rationale for rejecting the previous orthodoxy that there is no need for such expansion and, to the extent that there is, it would be better focussed…

  5. Sites of Contestation over Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marie; Willis, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teacher education in Australia is subject to a great deal of policy interest at both Federal and State levels; it is also part of education policy shifts for the whole university sector. This paper explores Australian teacher education policy in terms of its governance, focusing on three current "sites of contestation": university policy,…

  6. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  7. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  8. Numerical simulation of the October 2002 dust event in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yaping; Leys, John F.; McTainsh, Grant H.; Tews, Kenn

    2007-04-01

    In comparison to the major dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere, Australia is a relatively minor contributor to the global dust budget. However, severe dust storms do occur in Australia, especially in drought years. In this study, we simulate the 22-23 October 2002 dust storm using an integrated dust model, which is probably the most severe dust storm in Australia in at least the past 40 years. The model results are compared with synoptic visibility data and satellite images and for several stations, with high-volume sampler measurements. The model simulations are then used to estimate dust load, emission, and deposition, both for over the continent and for over the ocean. The main dust sources and sinks are identified. Dust sources include the desert areas in northern South Australia, the grazing lands in western New South Wales (NSW), and the farm lands in NSW, Victoria, and Western Australia, as well as areas in Queensland and Northern Territory. The desert areas appear to be the strongest source. The maximum dust emission is around 2000 μg m-2 s-1, and the maximum net dust emission is around 500 μg m-2 s-1. The total amount of dust eroded from the Australian continent during this dust event is around 95.8 Mt, of which 93.67 Mt is deposited on the continent and 2.13 Mt in the ocean. The maximum total dust load over the simulation domain is around 5 Mt. The magnitude of this Australian dust storm corresponds to a northeast Asian dust storm of moderate size.

  9. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-04-01

    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  10. Current Behaviours and Attitudes Towards Texting While Driving in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Beasley, Keiran

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the behaviour of texting and driving among the broader driving public in Australia and uncover whether attitudes are congruent with behaviours. Recent studies have generally been focussing on the behaviours of 18-24 year olds suggesting that the practice is mainly...... confined to people in this age bracket. Findings from an anonymous online survey show that the practice of texting and driving is widespread in Australia and not just confined to the younger demographic. Additionally, evidence suggests smart phone users are more likely to engage in texting while driving....... The paper also reveals that a majority of people continue to text and drive despite having strong views on the dangers associated with the practice....

  11. An Impact Crater in Palm Valley, Central Australia?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; O'Neill, Craig; Britton, Tui R

    2012-01-01

    We explore the origin of a ~280 m wide, heavily eroded circular depression in Palm Valley, Northern Territory, Australia using gravity, morphological, and mineralogical data collected from a field survey in September 2009. From the analysis of the survey, we debate probable formation processes, namely erosion and impact, as no evidence of volcanism is found in the region or reported in the literature. We argue that the depression was not formed by erosion and consider an impact origin, although we acknowledge that diagnostics required to identify it as such (e.g. meteorite fragments, shatter cones, shocked quartz) are lacking, leaving the formation process uncertain. We encourage further discussion of the depression's origin and stress a need to develop recognition criteria that can help identify small, ancient impact craters. We also encourage systematic searches for impact craters in Central Australia as it is probable that many more remain to be discovered.

  12. Correlates of welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article investigates some of the factors that are associated with welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia. It examines the role of factors such as gender, age, migration category, birthplace, period of arrival and educational background in explaining immigrants' dependence on government pensions and benefits as their main source of income." The author finds that there are "significant differences in welfare dependency...by birthplace and migration category even after controlling for age, education and employment status. Immigrants from Vietnam, Lebanon and Turkey were more likely than others to be dependent on welfare. Refugees were also more likely than other immigrants to be dependent on welfare; however the effect of refugee status on welfare dependency diminished with duration of residence in Australia." PMID:12287279

  13. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  14. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99mTc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)

  15. Migration of nurses in Australia: where and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, Se Ok; Parker, Vicki; Jeong, Sarah; Joyce, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The Australian health care workforce has benefited from an increasing migration of nurses over the past decades. The nursing profession is the largest single health profession, making up over half of the Australian health care workforce. Migration ofnurses into the Australian nursing workforce impacts significantly on the size ofthe workforce and the capacity to provide health care to the Australian multicultural community. Migration of nurses plays an important role in providing a solution to the ongoing challenges of workforce attraction and retention, hence an understanding of the factors contributing to nurse migration is important. This paper will critically analyse factors reported to impact on migration of nurses to Australia, in particular in relation to: (1) globalisation; (2) Australian society and nursing workforce; and (3) personal reasons. The current and potential implications of nurse migration are not limited to the Australian health care workforce, but also extend to political, socioeconomic and other aspects in Australia. PMID:21133293

  16. The Evolution of Security Industry Regulation in Australia: A Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Prenzler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the main changes in security industry regulation in Australia from the 1980s to the present time, and provides a critique of the regulatory framework and the change process. Change has largely been driven by recurring conduct scandals, with governments obliged to introduce increasingly more stringent integrity checks and competency standards in an attempt to diminish widespread concerns about the industry. Despite the lack of strategic planning, a significant learning process is evident and a clear model of best practice has emerged. Recent enquiries show that Australia still does not have an optimal system for managing the industry but change has been in the right direction, with scope for fine-tuning to ensure more responsive and effective regulation.

  17. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  18. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaHairong

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship Society, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantung, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chinese ambassador to Portugal and Denmark, and two CPAFFC staffers, visited Sydney, Melbourne,Adelaide, Brisbane, Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. They introduced to the Australian and New Zealand public China's achievements in economic development and social progress since reform and opening up, answered questions and made friends extensively. The visit has enhanced mutual understanding and friendship.

  19. Coming in from the interprofessional cold in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nick

    2007-08-01

    In Australia, implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) has been slow compared with peer countries. One cause is an apparent uncertainty about where and how to situate IPE at policy levels. Without a clear articulation of related needs, vision and purpose, IPE has largely remained isolated from the strategic planning and funding cycles necessary for implementation as "core business" across various sectors, systems and levels. This paper draws on international developments and research to emphasise the need to complement innovative IPE practice with supporting policy, specifically to optimise the quality of future health care delivery. Major forces for change are identified, as well as some residual barriers and possible strategies to bring IPE "in from the policy cold" in Australia. PMID:17669054

  20. HEALTH COVER, THE CASE OF MARTIN AND CAROLINA IN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines, from a qualitative perspective, some public opinion related to issues associated with the management of a tensed situation. In that process, it identifies some of the subtle differences in the Anglo-Latino cultural expectations. Martin, an Argentine tourist, contracted the Gullien-Barre syndrome in Australia, while enjoying his honeymoon vacation on a Tasmanian island with his partner Carolina. With the passing of days, Martin lost his mobility and was finally hospitalized in emergency. Doctors induced Martin into a coma temporarily because his muscles were paralyzed by the action of the virus. Health costs were more expensive than the family could absorb in Australia. The family had to request the intervention of the Argentine embassy and chancellery for help. In other words, this incident contrasts two world views: hospitality as the institution that historically developed to care and protect travelers versus hospitality as the commercial practice of exploitation.

  1. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Halafoff; Ruth Fitzpatrick; Kim Lam

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008) posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in re...

  2. Conceptualization and Construction of a People: Enacted Macedonianness in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colakova VELJANOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary literature widely agrees that the emic quality of distinctness of a people, in the form of a nation and/or ethnicity, is socially constructed as oppose to the descent essentialist approach rendering belonging to a people as an “immovable fact”. Nevertheless, despite the said agreement, there is paucity in literature exploring the ways in which the emic quality of distinctness of a people is constructed. The proponents of the performance/practice theory of ethnicity/ nation[alism] (Bentley 1987, 1991, Eriksen 1991, 1992, Dunn 2005, 2009 find that performance/practice is at the core of ethno-distinct collective formation. Inquiring into the dynamics of feeling and identifying as Macedonian in Australia, this paper presents the findings from the Australia-wide study conducted on ethno-Macedonians during 2006-2008. During this period five focus groups were conducted with a total number of 38 (N=38 participants and 817 (N=817 ethno-Macedonians were surveyed. The findings provided support and a further empirical ground for the proponents of the performance/practice theory of ethnicity/ nation[alism] by identifying six performance ethno-identity attributes (communal activity, Macedonian cuisine, Macedonian music, Macedonian Orthodoxy, Macedonian language, and respect and following of Macedonian traditions and three non-performance (history, place of birth, and ancestry of core relevance to Macedonianness in Australia. The findings also indicated that the affective and symbolic differentiation of material culture and performance as Macedonian has its roots in the shared habitus by ethno-Macedonians in Australia.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  4. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  5. Corporate Regulation and Corporate Governance of Small Businesses in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudini Heenetigala; Anona Armstrong; Andrew Clarke

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of small business owner /managers and CEOs of industry associations in relation to corporate regulation and corporate governance for small businesses in Australia. It is part of a larger project investigating regulation and small business governance supported by an Australian Research Council grant and COSBOA. A survey of the CEOs of small business associations and small business owner/managers investigated the corporate governance practices of small...

  6. Trends in the diagnosis of Rett syndrome in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Stephanie; Bebbington, Ami; Nassar, Natasha; Downs, Jenny; Ronen, Gabriel M; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Modifications to diagnostic criteria and introduction of genetic testing have likely affected the pattern and timing of Rett syndrome diagnosis. The trends in incidence and prevalence of Rett syndrome in Australia were examined; the cumulative risk of a female being diagnosed determined; and the impact of changes to diagnostic criteria and availability of genetic testing on these frequencies investigated. The population-based Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used to identify a total of 3...

  7. Water Markets: Australia's Murray Darling Basin and the US Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    R. Quentin Grafton; Clay Landry; Gary D. Libecap; R. J. (Bob) O'Brien

    2009-01-01

    Fresh water supplies increasingly are under stress in many parts of the world due to rising populations, higher per capita incomes and corresponding consumption, greater environmental concerns, and the effects of climate change. Water rights and markets are part of the institutional menus for responding to these problems. We examine water markets in both Australia's MDB and the western US and their prospects for addressing water scarcity. The two regions share a number of important similariti...

  8. The 2005 Survey of Information Systems Research in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Pervan; Graeme Shanks

    2006-01-01

    As part of a study to investigate the state of Information Systems research in Australia, a survey of the heads of all IS discipline groups in Australian universities was conducted in mid 2005. The study revealed a wide range of topics researched (with rapid growth in Electronic Commerce and Knowledge Management), a range of foci, a balance between positivist and interpretivist research, survey was the most frequently used research method, and most research was directed at informing IS profes...

  9. Application of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on production and use of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy of diseases, development of nuclear medicine in Australia are reviewed. HIFAR operation for medicine purposes is noted; characteristics of the nuclear reactor HIFAR and new nuclear reactor under construction are performed. Australian market of radionuclides for medicine and prediction of their consumption are presented. Tendency for application of cyclotron radionuclides in medicine is demonstrated

  10. Public Capital, Congestion and Private Production in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lei Song

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation into the impact of public capital on the private sector’s economic activity in Australia. In particular, it is assumed that the contribution of public capital to private factor productivity is subject to congestion. New data sets of capital stocks and private output are constructed for the Australian economy. By estimating flexible functional forms of private sector production functions with congestion in public capital services, the paper shows that p...

  11. Bicycle helmet promotion programs--Canada, Australia, and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-26

    The use of bicycle helmets substantially reduces the risk for serious head injuries during bicycle-related crashes. Despite this benefit, epidemiologic data indicate a worldwide low prevalence of helmet use. Strategies to increase the use of bicycle helmets in the United States and other countries include subsidies, legislation, and education. This report summarizes information regarding three strategies to increase bicycle helmet use and the impact of implementing these approaches in Canada (helmet subsidies), Australia (legislation), and the United States (education). PMID:8446097

  12. Selective immigration policy in Australia, Canada, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Stephen J. Trejo

    2004-01-01

    We compare the selective immigration policies in Australia, Canada and the United States over the twentieth century and as they exist today. We then review existing information about the link between selective immigration policy and immigration outcomes in the three countries. The literature reviewed suggests that there does seem to be potential for selective immigration policy to affect immigrant outcomes by altering the skill levels of immigrants. Still, it is clear that other forces are at...

  13. Immigration and Status Exchange in Australia and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Sinning, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    The claim that marriage is a venue for status exchange of achieved traits, like education, and ascribed attributes, notably race and ethnic membership, has regained traction in the social stratification literature. Most studies that consider status exchanges ignore birthplace as a social boundary for status exchanges via couple formation. This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admis...

  14. Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; McMahon, Jamie L.; Harrower, Bruce J; Constantino, Tanya R; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine. Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage. Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region. PMID:27679739

  15. Dividend Policy and Inflation In Australia: Results From Cointegration Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Basse

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between dividends and inflation in Australia by testing for cointegration between these two variables. The results of the tests indicate that inflation is contributing to dividend growth. This finding can be interpreted in different ways. Trying to follow a dividend policy which is perceived to be optimal Australian firms may, for example, believe that there is a desirable level of real dividend income to be paid out to their investors. A second possible i...

  16. A community development critique of compulsory income management in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Philip; Waugh, Jacinta; Flynn, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of compulsory income management – sometimes called welfare quarantining – for sub-groups of income security recipients within Australia has provoked considerable contention. This paper examines the specific introduction of the Place-Based trial in the rural Victorian region of Greater Shepparton from July 2012. Utilizing key community development principles, we critically analyse processes of implementation and evaluation, and argue that placebased income management has invol...

  17. Australia: Identity, Fear and Governance in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Pietsch, Juliet; Aarons, Haydn

    2012-01-01

    The latter years of the first decade of the twenty-first century were characterised by an enormous amount of challenge and change to Australia and Australians. Australia’s part in these challenges and changes is borne of our domestic and global ties, our orientation towards ourselves and others, and an ever increasing awareness of the interdependency of our world. Challenges and changes such as terrorism, climate change, human rights, community breakdown, work and livelihood, and crime are no...

  18. Drug Policy Down Under: Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Duckett, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Australia has had a government subsidized universal system of pharmaceutical provision for 50 years. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) consumes around 14 percent of total government health care expenditures and has grown substantially in both range of drugs covered, and expenditure since it was first introduced in 1950. It incorporates patient copayments (with differentials for the general population compared with concessional beneficiaries). Prior to listing a drug on the PBS it is su...

  19. First case of Francisella bacteraemia in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Aravena-Román

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisella species are Gram-negative, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccobacilli, facultative intracellular fastidious bacteria. We report the isolation of a Francisella-like species from a blood culture collected from a 44-year-old bacteraemic patient in Perth, Western Australia. The organism was identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing and by fatty acid methyl esters analysis. The strain genotypically resembled Francisella hispaniensis, a species previously isolated from human blood in Spain.

  20. The Drift to Private Schools in Australia: Understanding its Features

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Ryan; Louise Watson

    2004-01-01

    Government subsidies have provided a major source of funds to private schools in Australia for three decades. The increasing level of private school subsidies since the mid-1970s has contributed to a steady increase in the proportion of students enrolled in private schools. This growth in the private school share of enrolments was not inevitable, but has been the outcome of government policies. We use an economic framework that focuses jointly on the price and quality of schooling and find th...

  1. Escherichia coli and Community-acquired Gastroenteritis, Melbourne, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Bordun, Anne-Marie; Tauschek, Marija; Bennett-Wood, Vicki R.; Russell, Jacinta; Oppedisano, Frances; Lister, Nicole A.; Bettelheim, Karl A.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Sinclair, Martha I; Hellard, Margaret E

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the effects of water filtration on the incidence of community-acquired gastroenteritis in Melbourne, Australia, we examined fecal samples from patients with gastroenteritis and asymptomatic persons for diarrheagenic strains of Escherichia coli. Atypical strains of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) were the most frequently identified pathogens of all bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents in patients with gastroenteritis. Moreover, atypical EPEC were more common i...

  2. Rethinking Wine Investment in the UK and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, James Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three arguments as to why the value of wine as an investment good has typically been understated and argues that wine investment in the UK and Australia represents a value proposition. It is argued that general all vintage wine indexes understate the return the typical investor receives; that comparisons using pre-tax returns overstate the value of standard financial assets relative to wine; and that wine investment provides value in terms of allowing portfolio risk to b...

  3. Linking preferred orientations to elastic anisotropy in muderong shale, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kanitpanyacharoen; Vasin, R; Wenk, HR; Dewhurst, DN

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. The significance of shales for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and geologic carbon stor- age has opened new research frontiers in geophysics. Among many of its unique physical properties, elastic anisotropy had long been investigated by experimental and computational ap- proaches. Here, we calculated elastic properties of Cretaceous Muderong Shale from Australia with a self-consistent averaging method based on mic...

  4. Veterinary parasitology in Australia--a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, I; Besier, R B

    2013-08-01

    As an important producer and exporter of livestock products, animal health has always been of major significance to the Australian economy, and research into efficient parasite control has continued since the 1800s. With substantial research achievements also involving parasites of companion animals and wildlife, Australian parasitologists have made numerous contributions of global significance. This summary outlines the development of investigations into parasite biology and parasitic disease in Australia.

  5. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debono, Josephine C, E-mail: josephine.debono@bci.org.au [Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Poulos, Ann E [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Houssami, Nehmat [Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health (A27), Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Turner, Robin M [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Boyages, John [Macquarie University Cancer Institute, Macquarie University Hospital, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.

  6. Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming Offset Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    James Fitzsimons; Michael Heiner; Bruce McKenney; Kei Sochi; Joseph Kiesecker

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets can be an important tool for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite negative environmental impacts. There are now approximately 45 compensatory mitigation programs for biodiversity impacts worldwide, with another 27 programs in development. While offsets have great potential as a conservation tool, their establishment requires overcoming a number of conceptual and methodological hurdles. In Australia, new policy cha...

  7. Medicare Australia and the professional services review scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sara

    2008-09-01

    Medicare Australia's Practitioner Review Program and the Professional Services Review (PSR) Scheme aim to protect the integrity of Medicare and pharmaceutical benefits programs by protecting patients and the community from the risks associated with 'inappropriate practice' and also protecting the Commonwealth Government from having to meet the cost of services provided as a result of inappropriate practice. This article outlines the operation of the Practitioner Review Program and PSR.

  8. Pharmaceutical policy in Australia. CHERE Working Paper 2013/01

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny Parkinson

    2013-01-01

    The Commonwealth Government of Australia has subsidised access to drugs since 1948 via the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Through the PBS, the Commonwealth Government aims to provide affordable, timely and equitable access to necessary medicines at an affordable cost to the Government. The PBS is one of the three pillars of government funding of the Australian health system. The other two pillars are free treatment in public hospitals, funded jointly by the Commonwealth Government and ...

  9. A primitive protostegid from Australia and early sea turtle evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Michael S Y Lee

    2005-01-01

    Sea turtles (Chelonioidea) are a prominent group of modern marine reptiles whose early history is poorly understood. Analysis of exceptionally well preserved fossils of Bouliachelys suteri gen. et sp. nov., a large-bodied basal protostegid (primitive chelonioid) from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of Australia, indicates that early sea turtles were both larger and more diverse than previously thought. The analysis implies at least five distinct sea turtle lineages existed around 100 million ye...

  10. International Marketing Plan: Launch of Realeyes’ Services in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bettadapura Keshavamurthy, Sharath Kumar; Hsieh, Heng-Hui; Katti, Aditya

    2009-01-01

    MBA Students of the Nottingham University Business School have been asked by Realeyes to device a marketing plan in order to internationalize their data services by launching their business in Australia. This has been undertaken as our MBA group management project. The following report is a product of extensive research of the Australian market for usability services in general and eye-tracking services in particular. We have employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Ethnog...

  11. SMEs and Their Use of Intellectual Property Rights in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Paul H. Jensen; Elizabeth Webster

    2004-01-01

    There is a common, largely anecdotally based belief that registered intellectual property is a less efficient form of protection for SME inventors compared with inventors from large firms. This paper discusses the reasons why SMEs may be disadvantaged in their use of intellectual property as opposed to more general disadvantages they may incur over the whole course of innovation. It estimates patent and trade mark rates per employee in Australia but does not find a significant difference betw...

  12. Should Australia Copy U.S. Employee Relations Practices?

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, George

    2008-01-01

    As Australia debates the possibility of major changes in its labor laws, I am told that there are those who argue it should copy elements of the American system. How weird! While I love my country I never thought of it as a model of good labor relations. But based on the assumption that American experience has some relevance, this paper consists of three parts. The first describes recent developments in American employee relations broadly conceived (not just union-management relations). A...

  13. The hidden cost of private health insurance in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Davinia S E; Cheong, Timothy Z; Anstey, Matthew H R

    2013-02-01

    The provision of health services in Australia currently is primarily financed by a unique interaction of public and private insurers. This commentary looks at a loophole in this framework, namely that private insurers have to date been able to avoid funding healthcare for some of their policy holders, as it is not a requirement to use private insurance when treatment occurs in Australian public hospitals.

  14. The price elasticity of electricity demand in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Fan; Rob Hyndman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the price elasticity of electricity demand, representing the sensitivity of customer demand to the price of electricity, has been estimated for South Australia. We first undertake a review of the scholarly literature regarding electricity price elasticity for different regions and systems. Then we perform an empirical evaluation of the historic South Australian price elasticity, focussing on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. This ...

  15. Trove: Innovation in Access to Information in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2010-01-01

    In late 2009 the National Library of Australia released version 1 of Trove [1] to the public. Trove is a free search engine. It searches across a large aggregation of Australian content. The treasure is over 90 million items from over 1000 libraries, museums, archives and other organisations which can be found at the click of a button. Finding information just got easier for many Australians. Exploring a wealth of resources and digital content like never before, including full-text books, jo...

  16. People's Attitudes and the Effects of Immigration to Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinning, Mathias; Vorell, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of immigration flows on economic outcomes and crime levels to the public opinion about these effects using individual and regional data for Australia. We employ an instrumental variables strategy to account for non-random location choices of immigrants and find that immigration has no adverse effects on regional unemployment rates, median incomes, or crime levels. This result is inline with the economic effects that people typically expect but does not confirm ...

  17. A Markov-switching Model of Inflation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    John Simon

    1996-01-01

    This paper applies the methodology of Markov-switching models to describe the inflation process in Australia in the period since the early 1960s. In contrast to conventional modelling, the approach makes explicit allowance for the possibility of structural change: inflation is modelled within a framework that allows endogenous switching between simple inflation equations. The approach may be relevant to understanding shifts in inflation expectations if the public also uses relatively simple f...

  18. Adoption of Internet Shopping: Cultural Considerations in India and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sujana Adapa

    2008-01-01

    The current research paper examines the adoption of internet shopping patterns exhibited by Indian women currently residing in India and Australia emphasizing on the prevailing cultural dimensions. A conceptual framework has been developed based on the theoretical background which links intention to shop over internet and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to adoption of internet shopping. In order to test the stated hypotheses, the proposed relationships between the varia...

  19. The case for enrichment of uranium in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented on the number of nuclear power plants in operation and under construction and on the extent of the use of uranium. The case for enrichment of uranium in Australia is then considered in detail and the status of feasbility studies being carried out is discussed. Arguments to support an enrichment industry include: the need for additional enrichment capacity; added value; potential profitability; increased employment and industrial opportunities; and retention of depleted uranium

  20. Australia; Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    Australia’s 2004 Article IV Consultation reports that economic growth has rebounded, underpinned by continued buoyancy of domestic demand, an improvement in the external environment, and a gradual recovery from the drought. The main risk to the outlook relates to overheating in the housing market, but recent indicators suggest a soft landing is likely. Other risks include a re-emergence of drought, sustained high oil prices, or a weakening of external demand.

  1. A General Equilibrium Model of Australia's Premier City

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mark Horridge

    1999-01-01

    Australian cities suffer from urban sprawl, leading to long average commute distances and high energy use by urban transport. To investigate this problem, we define and construct a medium-sized general equilibrium model of Australia's second-largest city, Melbourne. Individuals are modelled as utility maximisers who face a discrete number of choices. We follow the logit approach, where the probability of an individual pursuing an option (for example, living in high-density housing in zone A w...

  2. How Portfolios Evolve After Retirement: Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Spicer; Olena Stavrunova; Susan Thorp

    2013-01-01

    Households in many developed economies now reach retirement with lump sums of financial wealth accumulated through defined contribution retirement plans. Managing wealth from individual accumulations and public provision is critical to retirement welfare. We study the dynamics of retirement wealth and asset allocation using the three wealth waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) panel survey. We find significant influences of ageing on asset holdings with older...

  3. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-03-01

    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  4. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  5. The 2011 marine heat wave off southwest Australia

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Rose; D. A. Smale; G. Botting

    2012-01-01

    Over 2000 km of Western Australian coastline experienced a significant marine heat wave in February and March 2011. Seawater temperature anomalies of +2–4 °C were recorded at a number of locations and satellite-derived SSTs were the highest on record. Here, we present seawater temperatures from southwestern Australia and describe, in detail, the marine climatology of Cockburn Sound; a large, multiple-use coastal embayment. We compared temperature and dissolved oxygen levels in 2011 with data ...

  6. The 2011 marine heat wave in Cockburn Sound, southwest Australia

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Rose; D. A. Smale; G. Botting

    2012-01-01

    Over 2000 km of Western Australian coastline experienced a significant marine heat wave in February and March 2011. Seawater temperature anomalies of +2–4 °C were recorded at a number of locations, and satellite-derived SSTs (sea surface temperatures) were the highest on record. Here, we present seawater temperatures from southwestern Australia and describe, in detail, the marine climatology of Cockburn Sound, a large, multiple-use coastal embayment. We compared temperature and dissolved oxyg...

  7. Disease control during the colonial period in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A J

    2011-07-01

    The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian.

  8. Australia; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Australia's economy has continued to perform remarkably well, despite encountering major adverse shocks. Fiscal policy, with an objective of maintaining a balanced budget, will help support the economy. Maintaining a sound and stable macroeconomic environment is essential. Reforms of the personal income tax system are critical elements. A comprehensive reform of the complex system of income support payments would provide stronger incentives for labor force participation. Maintenance of compet...

  9. Australia; Staff Report for the 2000 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, Australia entered the tenth year of an impressive economic expansion characterized by strong productivity growth and low inflation. The Australian equity market performed better than most countries in the region in local currency terms, and spreads on long-term government bonds and on private sector debt remained steady. Executive Directors observed that the means-tested publicly provided age pension, the mandatory private superannuation scheme, and the tax incentives for additional ...

  10. Australia's Retirement Income System: Implications for Saving and Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Edey; John Simon

    1996-01-01

    Australia is in the early stages of introducing a system of self-provision for retirement through mandatory contributions to" private superannuation funds. For most employees, the scheme will eventually replace, either fully or partially, the government age pension, currently relied upon by a large majority of retirees. The scheme has been implemented reasonably smoothly by building on existing financial infrastructure for voluntary superannuation. This paper summarizes the historical backgro...

  11. Forms of Memory in Post-colonial Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn McCredden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available there are many forms of memory in post-colonial Australia, and many kinds of haunting. This paper investigates the poetry of contemporary Indigenous poets Sam Wagan Watson and Tony Birch, and reads the script of the Federal Government’s February 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, asking how and why the nation should be haunted – historically and imaginatively - into the future.

  12. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have abundantinvertebrate food to offer. To answer the question whyand how so many birds are able to make a living in themud of Roebuck Bay, about a quarter of the intertidalarea was quantitatively sam...

  13. Access to high cost medicines in Australia: ethical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Christine Y.; Macneill, Paul; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric

    2008-01-01

    Access to "high cost medicines" through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is tightly regulated. It is inherently difficult to apply any criteria-based system of control in a way that provides a fair balance between efficient use of limited resources for community needs and equitable individual access to care. We suggest, in relation to very high cost medicines, that the present arrangements be re-considered in order to overcome potential inequities. The biological agents for th...

  14. Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat Yusuf; Nicholas J. Parr; Weerasinghe, Daminda P.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first detailed study on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Hospital data for PCIs carried out between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 2002 are analysed. The study explores trends in PCI rates by selected socio-demographic factors, the utilisation of angioplasties vis-a-vis stents, emergency admissions, and selected coexisting conditions which determine the disease status of PCI patients. Logistic regression models are used to study the medical co...

  15. Recent developments of acupuncture in Australia and the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Claire; Yang Angela; Zhang Anthony; Xue Charlie; Story David

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Almost one in ten Australians has received acupuncture treatment by acupuncturists and/or medical doctors in private clinics. The majority of Australian health insurance funds offer rebates for acupuncture. Statutory regulations for acupuncture have been implemented in the State of Victoria, Australia. Six acupuncture degree courses have been approved by the Chinese Medicine Registration Board of Victoria and/or accredited by the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Associatio...

  16. Insurance Rebates, Incentives and Primary Care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Luke B; Butler, James R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Australia has a universal, compulsory, public health insurance scheme that includes insurance rebates for private fee-for-service medical practitioner services. Recent sweeping changes to the rebates for general practitioner (GP) services provide an opportunity to observe the effects of widespread insurance changes on the behaviour of GPs and aggregate outcomes such as quantities, prices and co-payments. In this paper, we study the effect of two important changes to subsidies for GP services,...

  17. Do Migrants Get Good Jobs? : New Migrant Settlement in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Junankar, P. N. (Raja); Mahuteau, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the ease with which recent immigrants to Australia from different countries and with different visa categories enter employment at an appropriate level to their prior education and experience in the source country. Unlike most of the earlier research in this field that studied the labour market status of migrants (probabilities of employment, or unemployment, or participation, or wage equation) this paper focuses on the quality of job that the migrant obtains on arriva...

  18. Australia's Economic Policies in an Era of Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2004-01-01

    Outlines changes in Australian economic policies that have occurred in recent decades in response to growing economic globalisation. It considers microeconomic reforms in Australia and changes to its industry policy (including important changes in national competition policy) its financial reforms (exchange rate and banking reforms), its liberalisation of international trade and of foreign investment, both inward and outward. Furthermore, particular consideration is given to Australia’s polic...

  19. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes

  20. A comparison of eating disorder patients in India and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Maala; Abraham, Suzanne; Parikh, Samir; Chhibber, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders (EDs) are an emerging concern in India. There are few studies comparing clinical samples in western and nonwestern settings. Aim: The aim was to compare females aged 16–26 years being treated for an ED in India (outpatients n = 30) and Australia (outpatients n = 30, inpatients n = 30). Materials and Methods: Samples were matched by age and body mass index, and had similar diagnostic profiles. Demographic information and history of eating and exercise problems were...

  1. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's major trading partners across the GFC

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David E.; McAleer, Michael; Singh, Abhay K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). These markets are represented by the following major indices: The Shanghai composite and the Hangseng. (In the case of China, as both China and Hong Kong appear in Australian trade statistics), the S&P500 ind...

  2. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's Major Trading Partners across the GFC

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David; McAleer, Michael; Powell, Robert; Singh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). These markets are represented by the following major indices: The Shanghai composite and the Hangseng. (in the case of China, as both China and Hong Kong appear in Australian trade...

  3. Higher education in Australia and Britain : what lessons?

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    Both Britain and Australia have seen rapid, inadequately funded, expansion of student numbers, and increasing central planning. To address these problems, this paper argues (a) that students should pay via a system of income-contingent loans for the private benefits they derive from higher education, and (b) that, within a government-ordained regulatory framework, universities should be free to set fees and student numbers. In the wake of the Dearing Report in 1997, Britain is making progress...

  4. A Partnership in Burn Care Education - Nepal and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, D.; Tonkin, C.; T. Baker; Goodwin-Walters, A.; Wood, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes some of the issues related to an education partnership which has been developed over the last four years between the Royal Perth Hospital Burn Team in Australia and the Bir Hospital Burn Team in Kathmandu, Nepal. The paper provides an insight into the preparation and collaboration required from both teams and describes some practical ideas to assist those who may be considering educating others in a developing burn service outside their catchment area.

  5. The problem of overskilling in Australia and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Mcguinness, Seamus; O'Leary, Nigel C.; Sloane, Peter J.; Fok, Yi King

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the parallel trends in education and labour market developments in Australia and Britain. It uses unique information in the WERS and HILDA surveys on reported overskilling in the workplace. To a degree, the overskilling information overcomes the problem of unobserved ability differences and focuses on the actual job-employee mismatch more than the conventional overeducation variables can. The paper finds that the prevalence of overskilling decreases with education at least...

  6. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  7. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.

  8. The Continuing Evolution of Water Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1990s Australia has pursued a broad national agenda of water reform which includes full cost pricing, sufficient water for the environment, water conservation, irrigation infrastructure improvements, and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities of different water institutions among other reforms. A series of substantial changes to commonwealth and state law has resulted from these major initiatives. This reform effort was capped by groundbreaking commonwealth legislation in 2007 and 2008 that to large extent federalized the operation of the nation's largest river system, the Murray-Darling. A new basin wide authority, the MDBA, was created to manage the river via the concept of sustainable diversion limits (SDLs) to be promulgated through additional federal legislation. The October 2010 initial plan for these SDLs suggested cuts in use of up to 40% in the basin and was met with widespread opposition by irrigators. Subsequently, top leadership in the MDBA resigned, a number of parliamentary inquiries were begun, and the entire process has been delayed. How did Australia get to its current position with respect to water reform, and what is the likely outcome of the current delay? How has water management evolved in Australia over the last 20 years? What lessons exist for the Western United States?

  9. The Status of Industrial Ecology in Australia: Barriers and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen D. Corder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on current international industrial ecology thinking and experiences with Australian initiatives, this article critically overviews the current status of industrial ecology in Australia and examines the barriers and potential strategies to realise greater uptake and application of the concept. The analysis is conducted across three categories: heavy industrial areas (including Kwinana and Gladstone, mixed industrial parks (Wagga Wagga and Port Melbourne, and waste exchange networks, and identifies the past and future significance of seven different types of barriers—regulation, information, community, economic, technical, cooperation and trust, commitment to sustainable development—for each of the three categories. The outcomes from this analysis highlight that regulation, information, and economic barriers for heavy industrial area and mixed industrial parks, and economic and technical barriers for waste exchange networks are the current and future focus for industrial ecology applications in Australia. These findings appear to be consistent with recently published frameworks and learnings. The authors propose key questions that could enhance greater adoption of industrial ecology applications in Australia and acknowledge that international research and experiences, while partly providing answers to these questions, need to be adapted and refined for the Australian context.

  10. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  11. A national programme for mastitis control in Australia: Countdown Downunder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brightling PB

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, Countdown Downunder, Australia's national mastitis and cell count control programme, was created. With funding from the country's leading dairy organisation, Dairy Australia, this programme was originally intended to run for three years but is now in its tenth year. As it was the first time Australia had attempted a national approach to mastitis control on the farm, the first three years of the programme were largely concerned with the development of resources to be used by farmers and service providers. The second three years were devoted to training with both groups. Since that time, Countdown Downunder has entered into a second resource development phase. The goal of the programme was to achieve a reduction in the bulk milk somatic cell count from the Australian dairy herd. To achieve this, the programme had to develop resources with clear and consistent messages around mastitis and somatic cell count control on farms. It was determined that progress toward the goals would be made more rapidly if service providers were trained in the use of these resources prior to farmers. This paper reviews the Countdown Downunder programme from 1998 to 2007.

  12. Pharmaceuticals in Australia: developments in regulation and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Hans; Boer, Rebecca de

    2004-06-01

    The pharmaceutical domain represents a type of internationalised policy network theorised in recent writings on neo-liberalism, neo-corporatism and governance. This article presents an analysis of developments in prescription drug regulation in Australia. A relatively stable, state-managed pattern of interaction has been superseded by less closed exchange, and the government itself has fragmented into agencies pursuing different objectives. Developments in the three core regulatory areas are described: safety and efficacy controls, social policy (access and equity), and state support for industry (economic) development. Consensus-building occurs within the context of the National Medicines Policy. The pharmaceutical industry, represented by Medicines Australia, has a stake in all aspects of pharmaceutical policy and regulation, and draws upon unique resources (expertise and lobbying capacity). The context for the developments described is Australia's abandonment of a protectionist version of the Keynesian welfare national state in favour of the model of the competition state, which is oriented towards support for the growth of high technology industries such as pharmaceuticals, premised on partnerships with business. PMID:15081192

  13. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  14. Modeling Tourist Arrivals Using Time Series Analysis: Evidence From Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed AbdelhamidShobeiriNejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Australian tourism has a logistic trend as Butler’s model shows. The stagnation has not been reached so opportunities exist to increase tourism. The logistic model predicts 7.2 million tourists in 2015 but time series models of ARIMA and VAR improve the prediction and explain the data. The ARIMA (2, 2, 2 fits well while the VAR lead to Granger causalities between the three data sets. A regression model (R2 = 0.99 using Australian tourist arrival as a function of Europe and World arrivals allowed to further understand the Granger causality. The ARIMA model predicts tourist numbers to be approximately 6 million in 2015. The VAR technique allowed impulse response analysis as well. A two-way causality between the tourist in Australia, Europe and World exists, while impulse response indicated different effect patterns, where tourist arrivals increase in the first period and declines in the second period but experience seasonal fluctuations in the third period. The strongest causalities in were period 1 between World and Europe; period 2-a one-way causality from Australia to World and period 3-a two-way causalities between Australia, Europe and World. The impulse responses results were aligned with the Butler theory.

  15. The price elasticity of electricity demand in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the price elasticity of electricity demand, representing the sensitivity of customer demand to the price of electricity, has been estimated for South Australia. We first undertake a review of the scholarly literature regarding electricity price elasticity for different regions and systems. Then we perform an empirical evaluation of the historic South Australian price elasticity, focussing on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. This work attempts to determine whether there is any variation in price sensitivity with the time of day or quantile, and to estimate the form of any relationships that might exist in South Australia. - Highlights: → We review the scholarly literature on electricity own-price elasticity for different regions and systems. → We use annual log-linear econometric models of the electricity demand to estimate the historic South Australian price elasticity. → We focus on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. → The overall price elasticity in South Australia ranges from -0.363 to -0.428.

  16. Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming Offset Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fitzsimons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity offsets can be an important tool for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite negative environmental impacts. There are now approximately 45 compensatory mitigation programs for biodiversity impacts worldwide, with another 27 programs in development. While offsets have great potential as a conservation tool, their establishment requires overcoming a number of conceptual and methodological hurdles. In Australia, new policy changes at the national and state (i.e., Western Australia level require that offsets follow a set of general principles: (1 Environmental offsets may not be appropriate for all projects and will only be considered after avoidance and mitigation options have been pursued; (2 Environmental offsets will be based on sound environmental information and knowledge; (3 Establishing goals for offsets requires an estimate of expected direct and indirect impacts; (4 Environmental offsets will be focused on longer term strategic outcomes; (5 Environmental offsets will be cost-effective, as well as relevant and proportionate to the significance of the environmental value being impacted. Here we focus on the challenges of determining and implementing offsets using a real world example from a voluntary offset process undertaken for Barrick Gold’s Kanowna Belle mine site in Western Australia to highlight those challenges and potential solutions.

  17. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  18. Determinants of general practitioner use among women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A F; Dobson, A J; Byles, J E

    2001-12-01

    This study investigates the use of general practitioner services by women in Australia. Although there is a universal health insurance system (Medicare) in Australia, there are variations in access to services and out of pocket costs for services. Survey data from 2350 mid-age (45-50 years) and 2102 older (70-75 years) women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were linked with Medicare data to provide a range of individual and contextual variables hypothesised to explain general practitioner use. Structural equation modelling showed that physical health was the most powerful explanatory factor of general practitioner use. However, after adjusting for self-reported health, out of pocket cost per consultation was inversely associated with use of services. The out of pocket cost was generally lower for women with low socioeconomic status but cost was also directly related to geographical remoteness. Women living in more remote areas had higher out of pocket costs and poorer access to services. Women who reported better access to care were more likely to be satisfied with their most recent general practice consultation and less likely to be sceptical of the value of medical care. These results show the need for health policies that improve the equitable use of general practitioner services in Australia. PMID:11762890

  19. The Predictive Power of Financial Variables: New Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyadasa Edirisuriya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to examine the predictive power of financial variables for numerous countries, but rarely does such research focus on future economic activities with respect to Australia. Financial variables are used to predict future economic events primarily because these variables are the closest indicators of the expectations and activities of investors and other economic agents. The recent global financial crisis (GFC stemming from the subprime crisis shows that financial markets significantly influence global macroeconomic activities. In this study, we use major financial variables, such as the 90-day Treasury bill rate, 10-year Treasury bond rate, interest rate spread, and Australian stock index data. Similar to the housing prices in some other countries, those in Australia play a key role in future economic activities. In addition to financial variables, housing stock data is incorporated into our model for more realistic results, which are obtained by probit maximum likelihood estimation. We also use a general model for forecasting Australia’s GDP growth until the third quarter of 2012. The results support previous research findings, indicating that financial variables are a useful tool for forecasting future economic activities in Australia.

  20. The remittances of migrant Tongan and Samoan nurses from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Richard PC

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and remittances are of considerable importance in the small Pacific island states. There has been a significant migration of skilled health workers in recent decades to metropolitan fringe states, including Australia and New Zealand. This paper reports the findings of a re-analysis of survey of Samoan and Tongan migrants in Australia where the sample is split between nurse households and others. Methods The study analyzes the survey data with a view to comparing the remittance behaviour and determinants of remittances for nurses and other migrant households, using both descriptive, cross-tabulations and appropriate econometric methods. Results It is found that a significantly higher proportion of nurse households sent remittances home, and, on average remitted more. Remittances of nurse households did not decline significantly over time contrary to what has generally been predicted. This was in contrast to other migrant households in the sample, for whom remittances showed a sharp decline after 15 years absence. Remittances contribute much more to the income of migrant sending countries, than the cost of the additional human capital in nurse training. Conclusions Given the shortage of nurses in Australia and New Zealand, and therefore the high demand for immigrant nurses, investment by Pacific island governments and families in nurse training constitutes a rational use of economic resources. Policies encouraging investment in home countries may be more effective than policies directly discouraging brain drain in contributing to national development.

  1. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  2. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  3. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-10

    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  4. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, C. A.; Hassan, R

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A ...

  5. Farming Options for Ameliorating Acidifying Soils in South - Eastern Australia: An Economic Assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Q.; Mullen, John D.; Brennan, John P.; Li, G.D.; Helyar, K.R.; Jones, Randall E.

    1999-01-01

    Acid and acidifying soils occur extensively in Australia. Currently, some 90 million hectares of agricultural land in Australia is considered to be acidic and around 35 million hectares are considered to be highly acidic which is both a serious agricultural and environmental problem. The nature, impact, and causes of soil acidification vary across Australia, as do farming systems and the institutional and socioeconomic issues relating to land management. In high-rainfall areas of south-easter...

  6. The economic impact of the Australia-United States free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    The Australia–United States free trade agreement (AUSFTA) came into effect in 2005. It was the second preferential trade agreement that Australia signed, after its agreement with Singapore, and marked a departure from the primacy of Australia’s previous trade policy of unilateral and multilateral trade liberalisation towards preferential liberalisation. This paper assesses the economic effects of AUSFTA by applying the Productivity Commission’s gravity model of trade from its Bilateral ...

  7. Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera : Thripidae : Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddle, M S; Stosic, C D; Mound, L A

    2006-01-01

    Caliothrips fasciatus is native to the USA and western Mexico and overwintering adults are regular contaminants in the 'navel' of navel oranges exported from California, USA to Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Due to the long history of regular interceptions of C. fasciatus in Australia, a survey for this thrips was undertaken around airports, seaports, public recreational parks and major agricultural areas in the states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Weste...

  8. Hybrid Creatures: Mapping the emerging shape of art therapy education in Australia (Conference Presentation)

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, Jill

    2011-01-01

    World Dreaming: World Congress of Psychotherapy 2011 24-28 August, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Australia ABSTRACT Hybrid Creatures: Mapping the emerging shape of art therapy education in Australia Dr Jill Westwood PhD University of Western Sydney & Goldsmiths College, University of London This presentation is the culmination of a PhD research project that provides the first organized view of art therapy education in Australia. Inspired by...

  9. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    it is lost in all other raninoid extant members. New evidence shows that the abdominal holding was an early occurrence for a brachyuran crab. The Raninoidea, sister to Palaeocorystoidea, is characterised by gymnopleurity, a condition that results from the lifting of the carapace and thus the exposure of several pleurites. The narrowing of the body and thoracic sternum, almost certainly associated with their burrowing behaviour, is a diagnostic feature of raninoid evolution, in contrast to the widening observed in the remaining Brachyura. The monophyly of Heterotremata is discussed. Although the correct assignment of the coxal male gonopore and sternal female gonopore (vulva) at the base of Decapoda and Eubrachyura, respectively, left no synapomorphies to support the Heterotremata, the group nevertheless should be regarded as the sister group to Thoracotremata. The controversial monophyly of Podotremata is discussed and arguments are presented against the suppression of this taxon. The distinction of Homoloidia from Dromioidia is argued, and a classification of Podotremata, which considers the fossil record whenever possible, is presented. The earliest brachyurans are re-examined, and a new interpretation of the phylogeny of several basal eubrachyuran groups (Dorippoidea, Inachoididae, Palicoidea, Retroplumoidea) is proposed. Stenorhynchus shares a number of characters with the Inachoididae that differentiate them from Inachidae, and also has some distinctive features that warrants its assignment to a separate inachoidid subfamily, Stenorhynchinae, which is resurrected. The concealment strategies among Brachyura are documented and discussed. Podotremes use carrying behaviour, often combined with burying and concealment under substrates, whereas living within a host, burying, and decoration are used by heterotremes, burrowing being essentially a thoracotreme strategy. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  10. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  11. Politics of a Different Kind: Chinese in Immigration Litigation in the Post White Australia Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first mass Chinese immigration to Australia occurred in the 19th century, with approximately 100,000 Chinese arriving between the 1840s and 1901 (Fitzgerald 2007; Ho 2007, during which questions were raised both in relation to the Chinese rights of migration and settlement in Australia, and the validity of the government's actions against the Chinese. The latter question was in fact considered in the colonial courts (Cronin 1993; Lake and Reynolds 2008. Since then, the Chinese in Australia have never shied away from taking various legal actions, although they are normally seen as people who keep to themselves. Australia abandoned its 'White Australia' policy in 1974, and lately Australia has placed more emphasis on skilled and business migration. As a result, many believe that Chinese migrants have come to Australia under its normal skilled, business or family migration programs, which ignores the fact that a high proportion of them have obtained their chance to stay in Australia directly or indirectly through a series of legal battles. This paper contributes to the discussion of the Chinese in Australian political life by looking at how the Chinese have fought in the Courts in the post-White Australia era in past decades, and the key features of their unique experiences. This is a different type of political activism, characterising the lives of many Australian Chinese, their engagement with the Australian political system, and becoming part of the background of their identity, transnationality, socio-political attitudes and behaviour and many other traits.

  12. Eating the Asian Other? Pedagogies of Food Multiculturalism in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Flowers

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public pedagogies in tourism and education in Australia suggest that food is a medium through which we learn more about each other’s cultures: in other words food is a pedagogy of multiculturalism. Drawing on a white Anglo Australian man’s memories of food in different intercultural encounters, this paper prises open the concept of eating the Other. There has been trenchant critique of food multiculturalism and the consuming cosmopolitan in Australia (Hage 1997; Probyn 2004; Duruz 2010. Thus, several writers critique the prevailing idea that eating ethnic food is a sign of cosmopolitanism, and even anti-racism, in individuals and cities in Australia (Hage 1997; Sheridan 2002; Duruz 2010. Hence, the notion of eating the Other has been taken up to discuss how ethnicity becomes an object of enrichment for white people through the eating of ethnic food in restaurants (Hage 1997 and cooking ethnic food at home (Heldke 2003. In this paper we present an ‘entangled’ story of Frank which includes white expatriate masculinity, multiculturalism with ethnics and what Heldke calls ‘colonial food adventuring’. Drawing on a close reading of Frank’s story, we argue that an evaluation of food multiculturalism needs to historicise, gender and racialise inter-cultural food encounters. Thus, we argue that there are ethnic food socialities other than those of home-building or restaurant multiculturalisms. We suggest that culturalist and political economy pedagogies of food multiculturalism could be augmented by one that attends to the production of whiteness and gender.

  13. Imported malaria in the Northern Territory, Australia--428 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Timothy J; Trauer, James M; Fairley, Merv; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in Australia with an average of 600 notifications per year in returned travellers or newly arrived refugees, migrants and visitors. Although endemic disease has been eliminated from the tropical north of Australia, the region remains malaria receptive due to the presence of efficient mosquito vectors. This study analyses enhanced surveillance data collected by the Centre for Disease Control on all cases of malaria notified in the Northern Territory from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. There were 428 malaria episodes notified that occurred in 391 individuals with a median age of 26 years. Of these, 71.4% were male, 40.5% were Australian nationals and 38.0% were prescribed chemoprophylaxis. Primary infection consisted of 196 (51.3%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 165 (43.2%) P. vivax, 2 (0.5%) P. ovale, 1 (0.3%) P. malariae and 18 were mixed infections. There were 46 episodes of relapsed infection. Residents of non-malarious countries were most likely to have acquired primary infection in East Timor (40.6%), Papua New Guinea (27.8%), Indonesia (18.7%) and Africa (6.4%). Primary infection was diagnosed after a median 19 days (interquartile range (IQR) 7-69) after arrival in Australia for cases of P. vivax compared with 4 days for P. falciparum (IQR 2-11). Screening protocols led to the diagnosis of 27.2% of cases. Eighty-seven per cent of patients were admitted to hospital at the time of their malaria diagnosis with median duration of 3 days (IQR 2-4) and one patient died. Resettlement of people from endemic countries, as well as military and civilian activities, influences the prevailing notification rates and Plasmodium species type. PMID:23153087

  14. The complex isostatic equilibration of Australia's deep crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Alan; Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan

    2016-04-01

    A recent study, using a new finite-element based gravity inversion method has modelled in high-resolution the density and pressure fields for the Australian continent. Here we analyse the pressure results to consider how Australia's lower-crust and Moho contribute to the isostatic equilibration of topography and crustal masses. We find that the situation is more complex than the commonly applied model of isostatic compensation through crustal thickness variations. Key differences include low pressure-variability at ca. 30-35 km, suggesting that the thickness of the felsic-intermediate crust equilibrates most of the upper-crustal loads; increasing pressure-variability between 30-50 km, suggesting that positively buoyant deep-crustal roots generate disequilibrium. These large roots have previously been inferred to represent mafic underplates. Pressure-variability in the uppermost lithospheric mantle reduces to a minimum at ~125 km depth, suggesting that these loads are compensated by dense mantle at ~100 km depth, rather than by crustal loads or topography. This raises the notion that Australia's lithosphere is isostatically compensated at two levels: Crustal compensation involving topography and the felsic to intermediate crust; and deep-lithosphere compensation involving the mafic lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Rather than its traditional role of compensating for crustal masses, the Moho in this case appears to be a source of isostatic disequilibrium, acting in a separate cell with lithospheric mantle density sources. These results imply that, for cratonised continents like Australia, the notion of crustal isostasy is a poor descriptor of the system.

  15. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg R Guerin

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species; georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were

  16. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna. PMID:27574986

  17. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  18. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

  19. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease.

  20. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cope

    Full Text Available Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong, and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights, were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.

  1. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.

  2. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy. PMID:26881782

  3. Consumption metrics of chardonnay wine consumers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba,1 Johan Bruwer,2 Jasmine B MacDonald1 1School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, 2School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: There is a dearth of information in the knowledge base about who the chardonnay consumer is, what their wine-consumption metrics are, what sensory characteristics they associate chardonnay with, and who influenced their perceptions. This study examines the consumer engagement with chardonnay, and contributes evidence-based research to inform future wine-business strategy. A population sample was recruited to be representative of Australian consumers. An online survey of 2,024 Australian wine consumers was conducted, 1,533 (76% of whom actually consumed chardonnay. This paper focuses only on those who consumed chardonnay. Males purchased and consumed larger quantities of chardonnay, although marginally more females consumed it. Chardonnay is considered to be characterized by full, lingering, and fruity flavors, as well as yellow color. Chardonnay is associated with dinner parties and at-home consumption. The vast majority of participants liked and had a positive perception of chardonnay. The target market for chardonnay is not only females; in fact, males appear to be the main consumers of this varietal by volume. Marketing and promotion campaigns should leverage the findings to retain current and win back other consumers. This is the first research to provide empirical explanations of consumer engagement with chardonnay, and to contribute evidence-based research in this regard.Keywords: chardonnay, consumer behavior, wine style, wine consumption, Australia

  4. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk. PMID:22518918

  5. Water: Drought, Crisis and Governance in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sousa Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite huge differences in population, household income and development levels, Australia and Brazil have some temporal convergences in their water governance systems. Over the last 20 years, both countries have significantly reformed their water policies and practices by introducing a legal foundation for more integrated and participatory catchment/basin management based on the best information available. A critical test of any water reform is how effective it is in meeting the challenges of extreme and unpredictable conditions of drought and floods, which are expected to increase under climate changes scenarios. This paper compared the contemporary water governance frameworks of Australia and Brazil in relation to three elements of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM: integration, participation, and information/knowledge. We focused on insights from Brazil’s recent drought and Australia’s fluctuating water crises to derive lessons and recommendations for future changes. Among the main recommendations, we stress the need for both systems to improve effective participation and to embrace a more comprehensive approach to cope with water scarcity in future scenarios. Furthermore, water related decisions should be based on a transparent and well informed process, and take into account the lessons from similar situations worldwide in order to avoid unnecessary or ineffective measures. As demonstrated in the Australian case during the Millennium Drought, the most effective initiatives were those involving government, the private sector and society to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern in all sectors. There is much to learn from the Brazilian and Australia experiences in water reforms and crises, but it is imperative to understand the social, economic and environmental context within which these took place. Continuing to develop the capacity and willingness of researchers and policy makers to work together can make an

  6. Corporate Regulation and Corporate Governance of Small Businesses in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudini Heenetigala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study of small business owner /managers and CEOs of industry associations in relation to corporate regulation and corporate governance for small businesses in Australia. It is part of a larger project investigating regulation and small business governance supported by an Australian Research Council grant and COSBOA. A survey of the CEOs of small business associations and small business owner/managers investigated the corporate governance practices of small businesses, their understanding of their duties as directors, their approach to managing risks and accountability, the regulatory difficulties experienced by small businesses, and the factors that inhibited or promoted the performance of small business.

  7. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S

    2011-01-01

    The funding of research in universities is increasingly based on direction of resources in support of 'excellence'. Funding decisions are linked to evaluation through research funding systems, but there has so far been little comparative empirical research on the perceived effects of these systems....... This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  8. A study of personal income distributions in Australia and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2006-03-01

    The study of income distribution has a long history. A century ago, the Italian physicist and economist Pareto proposed that income distribution obeys a universal power law, valid for all time and countries. Subsequent studies proved that only the top 1-3% of the population follow a power law. For USA, the rest 97-99% of the population follow the exponential distribution [1]. We present the results of a similar study for Australia and Italy. [1] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, Europhys. Lett.69, 304 (2005).

  9. Azaria's antecedents: stereotyping infanticide in late nineteenth-century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociumbas, J

    2001-01-01

    Recent historical studies have reconsidered the plight of white women accused of infanticide in Australia, casting new light especially on the motives of single women and mothers of large families. Still unredeemed and largely unanalysed, however, is the baby-farmer. This article explores stereotypes of this bête noire of the nineteenth-century city, addressing concurrent medicalisation of the maternal body, child-birth, infant feeding and foster care. In so doing it also analyses representations of the midwife and the wet-nurse, along with their essentialised opposite, the good mother, who abided by the newly defined "rights of the child".

  10. The strange history of polarised neutrons in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, T. J.

    2016-04-01

    The history of polarised neutrons in Australia is unusual firstly because of the particular access that individuals in universities had to the facilities at the reactor site and because this resulted in the experiments being done almost all being with polarisation analysis. Two instruments were initially available. One was a conventional instrument albeit with a tilting counter. The other was a primitive polarisation analysis instrument purpose built for diffuse scattering. This latter instrument evolved over more than thirty years and produced results ranging from the separation of magnetic and nuclear diffuse scattering, for which it was conceived, to the isolation of magnetic features in inelastic spectra.

  11. A model for an inland port in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T.K. Toh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of an inland port particular to the outer regions of Melbourne, Australia. In this study, it has been experienced that the broad use of terminology, in the Melbourne context, has been a stumbling block. In its particular context, this has provided the impetus for the development of a model for an inland port that is unambiguous. It is clear from international examples that such a development acts as a significant potential nucleus for regional economic growth, but the lack of a facilitated discussion is an impediment. This model is offered as a facilitator and a useful tool in the construction of a common understanding.

  12. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-09-18

    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided.

  13. Mercury in shark in western Australia: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, D.A.; Edmonds, J.S.; Edinger, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Linear and curvilinear regressions relating mercury concentration and size were used in conjunction with catch data to estimate the average concentration in the three major shark species in the Western Australia fishery industry. The three species were whiskery (Furgaleus ventralis), bronze whaler (Carcharhinus obscurus) and gummy (Emissola antarctica) sharks. The averge mercury concentration for the 3 species was found to be approximately 0.75 ppM. The relevance of this to Public Health regulations was discussed and the need for information on consumption of shark stressed.

  14. High prices for generics in Australia - more competition might help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Liliana

    2009-05-01

    It is commonly believed that dispensed prices of medicines in Australia are substantially lower than those in other developed countries, particularly the US. This article reports the results of an analysis comparing dispensed prices for the most commonly prescribed and the highest cost items in Australia with dispensed prices in the US. Although a large majority of items are less expensive in Australia than in the US, Australian prices are higher for a substantial number of products, particularly generic drugs. This article examines various policies affecting the pricing of generics in Australia. It is postulated that the main cause for higher prices for a substantial number of generic products is the lack of price competition. This results from government policy which ensures that a price reduction by one company is communicated immediately to all competitors in that market along with an invitation to match the reduced price. The dominant strategy for all suppliers is to only reduce their price in response to a reduction in price by a competitor. The result is a lack of differentiation in pricing across brands of a medicine on the Schedule of Pharmaceutical Benefits. The government could improve the structure of the generics market and encourage greater competition by ceasing to disclose competitor firms' offers to other competitors. The government could conduct pricing reviews of each generic product relatively infrequently (eg, only once annually or every 18 months). At the time of the pricing review, the government would request confidential offers on price for a generic from all players in the market. Brands should then all be listed under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) at the offered price. Prices offered by the individual supplier would apply until the next pricing review. The PBS would continue to subsidise up to the price of the lowest priced brand, with brand premiums applying to all brands priced higher than the benchmark price. Such an

  15. The P-Star Model in Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Hewarathna

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the usefulness of the P-star model in the analysis of the behaviour of prices in Australia and New Zealand. The P-star model is based on the quantity theory of money and the belief that the price level tends to move towards the equilibrium price level. The main contribution of this model is the use of the price gap - the difference between current price and the equilibrium price (P-star) - to forecast inflation. Hence, if the equilibrium price is greater than the current pr...

  16. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided. PMID:26624076

  17. Spatial algorithm for detecting disease outbreaks in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Eagleson, S.; Veenendaa, B.; Watkins, R; Wright, G.; A. Plant

    2005-01-01

    La detección temprana de brotes de enfermedades es esencial de cara a una intervención pronta en problemas de salud pública. Actualmente en Australia, las enfermedades notificables son recogidas y almacenadas, y referenciadas geográfica y temporalmente. Sin embargo, el proceso para la búsqueda de brotes de enfermedad sobre escalas espaciales distintas no está bien definido. Los brotes son de detección difícil. Algunas enfermedades aparecen relativamente rápido, mientras otras requieren más...

  18. Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Jie-Bin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments, associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary

  19. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of monetary policy may hold the key to explaining the effects of policy on the economy. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of the bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Australia. In this paper, we found that the effectiveness of monetary policy varies with the size of the bank as well as the type of the loan. For different asset size and different kinds of loans, the effect of monetary policy is different. Thus, policy has distribu...

  20. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 1. Leptospirosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Lau, C L; Graham, G C;

    2010-01-01

    Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance that causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing nations. In this review, the history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and treatment of this disease, and its impact in Australia......, are discussed. Central to this review is the delineation of diagnostic methods for the disease and the challenges that this disease presents for both the clinician and diagnostic laboratory. This information should furnish clinicians with an updated tool to help overcome a number of problems associated...

  1. Crowfunding: A Way to Financing Creative Business in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bima Yudhistira

    2013-01-01

    AbstractCrowdfunding, a new term in financial industries. It provides fund for a new start-up project. In Australia where it becomes the basis of this study, Pozible as a leading crowdfunding platform has already launched 6.929 projects. The fund of US$22.930.536 was used for financing the projects, and 56 percent of the projects were successful. This research has an objective; it is to measure the degree of significancy using linear regression model. The result shows that among the businesse...

  2. The Lost History of Organic Farming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    It has not been previously reported that the world’s first “organic” farming society was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (AOFGS) which was founded in Australia in October 1944. The association was based in Sydney, New South Wales, and the first issue of its journal, the Organic Farming Digest (OFD), was dated April 1946. This was Australia’s first, and the world’s second, “organic” farming journal. The eighteen month delay between the founding of the society and the first...

  3. Optimised Harvesting Cost for Mallee Supply Chain in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffariyan, Mohammad Reza; Brown, Mark; Acuna, Mauricio; McGrath, John

    2016-01-01

    Mallee plantations have been integrated into wheat farms in Western Australia as a large-scale and multi-purpose woody crop since the 1990s. Mallee describes the growing habit of certain eucalypt species that grow with multiple stems shooting from an underground crown root (lignotuber), usually to a height of up to 10 meters. These types of plantations could be a considerable source of biomass to produce renewable energy. In this project the supply chain of Mallee was modelled using BIOPLAN’s...

  4. BOWEL SYMPTOMS: A SURVEY AT PHARMACIES IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lloyd

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many people in Australia consult pharmacists as the first point ofcontact when seeking medical advice, therefore it is important that the pharmacist canappropriately decide whether to provide an over-the-counter treatment or advise aconsultation with a doctor.Methods: A questionnaire was administered to clients at eighteen communitypharmacies in Perth, Western Australia over 15 weeks. Seventy-four clients seekingover-the-counter treatment for haemorrhoids were invited to complete an anonymous,previously validated questionnaire based on symptoms of colorectal disease.Results: A response rate of 63.5% was recorded; respondents had a mean age of 43years. More than half the respondents presented with rectal bleeding, the majorityindicating that the blood was mixed with the stool. 40% of respondents indicated thatthey had experienced a change in bowel habit, which had persisted for over a monthin most (66.7% cases. Twenty percent of those surveyed presented with slime and /or blood in their bowel motion, and almost one in three presented with abdominalpain. Respondents’ attitudes to completing the questionnaire were overwhelminglypositive.Conclusions: The symptomatic profiles of clients who present with anorectalsymptoms suggest that there are a significant proportion of clients who may benefitfrom medical consultation to rule out underlying conditions such as colorectal cancer.Responses from participants also suggest that the questionnaire model for obtainingsymptomatic information from clients is a useful and acceptable intervention in acommunity pharmacy setting.

  5. Earthquake Monitoring in Australia Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lin-lin; E. Cheng; D. Polonska; C. Rizos; C. Collins; C. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Are there any earthquakes in Australia? Although most Australians are not as familiar with earthquakes as citizens in countries such as Japan, there are some quakes on the Australian continent every year. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been widely used in recent years for monitoring crustal deformation due to earthquakes, volcanoes, underground mining, oil extraction,and so on. Hence the follow-on question is, can repeat-pass satellite DInSAR be used in Australian regions to monitor earthquakes? Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar images of the Burakin region in Western Australia were used to form the InSAR pairs.Twenty-two InSAR pairs were formed and were used to study the temporal decorrelation characteristics in the Burakin area. It was found that good coherence could be maintained all over the full scene for a pair spanning 211 d. The repeat cycles of RADARSAT and ERS (all C-band SAR missions) are 24 and 35 drespectively, Furthermore it is easier to maintain good coherence in L-band SAR images (e.g. the JERS-1 mission has a 44 d repeat cycle). Therefore the authors are confident that repeat-pass differential InSAR can be used to monitor ground deformation due to earthquakes in the Burakin region.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012 and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  7. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  8. Dose received by radiation workers in Australia, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.

    1994-07-01

    Exposure to radiation can cause genetic defects or cancer. People who use sources of radiation as part of their employment are potentially at a greater risk than others owing to the possibility of their being continually exposed to small radiation doses over a long period. In Australia, the National Health and Medical Research Council has established radiation protection standards and set annual effective dose limits for radiation workers in order to minimise the chance of adverse effects occurring. These standards are based on the the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1990). In order to ensure that the prescribed limits are not exceeded and to ensure that doses are kept to a minimum, some sort of monitoring is necessary. The primary purpose of this report is to provide data on the distribution of effective doses for different occupational categories of radiation worker in Australia. The total collective effective dose was found to be of the order of 4.9 Sv for a total of 34750 workers. 9 refs., 16 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  10. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  11. Retirement and its consequences for women's health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the health consequences of retirement is important, as many developed countries have already started raising state pension eligibility age, with the intention to induce postponed retirement. This paper estimates the causal effect of retirement on the health outcomes of older women in Australia, utilising the exogenous variation in retirement induced by the change in age eligibility for the Australian Age Pension. Using a sample of 19,185 observations for 3771 women from waves 2001-2011 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, we show that retirement status has positive and significant effects on women's self-reported health, physical and mental health outcomes. We also find that longer time spent in retirement confers clear additional health benefits. We show that retirement affects physical and mental health in diverse ways and that the estimated positive health effects of retirement are coincidental with increased post-retirement physical activity and reduced smoking. Our finding that retirement can improve health suggests that the welfare losses from working life prolongation policies will be larger than currently though when we include the cost of the foregone health improvements. PMID:27423068

  12. Sediment dynamics in flat landscapes - insights from central Australia

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    Struck, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Fink, David; Kotevski, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Erosion and sediment routing are key to understanding landscape evolution. In this regard, steep mountain regions have been the focus of most research efforts, leaving flat landscapes effectively unstudied in spite of their vast global extent. However, the timescales of material transfer and storage in regions of low relief are considered much longer than in their steep counterparts. Here we apply in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) to examine the sediment transport and storage history of a low-gradient catchment, Peake River, in arid central Australia. Previous work in central Australia has been restricted to mainly local measurements of landscape lowering and bedrock erosion; however, to better understand the processes shaping these landscapes, we adopt a source-to-sink approach coupling bedrock and hillslope colluvium measurements of CNs with basin-wide measurements in fluvial sediment. Variation in concentrations and ratios of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in sediment provide insights to rates of sediment residence times and burial history as grains are transmitted through the bedrock-hillslope-stream sediment conveyor. We present our preliminary CN results from sediments and bedrock, and discuss basin-wide sediment dynamics in flat landscapes, emphasizing the contrast with well-studied mountainous regions.

  13. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide integrated support to humanitarian refugees in settlement, physical health, mental health and employment. The Pilot Project was based in two primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. The evaluation utilized a flexible qualitative 'engaged' methodology and included interviews, focus groups and telephone interviews with the key stakeholders, project staff and a small number of refugee families. The strength of the qualitative methodology (including data that is narrative rich) is that it highlights issues as perceived by each stakeholder and provides insights into the daily work by ISC staff that helped to uncover unintended outcomes. Despite the fact that the ISC evaluation was supposed to be a 'before and after' design, the researchers acknowledge a common weakness in many evaluations (including the ISC) that when baseline data is required, evaluators are recruited after the project has begun. This issue is discussed in the paper. It is critical that independent evaluators are able to begin collecting baseline data as soon as programs are launched, if not before. PMID:19167072

  14. Realities of mental health nursing practice in rural Australia.

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    John Crowther, Andrew; Theresa Ragusa, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Mental health nursing as a distinct speciality has been in decline in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for two decades. Arguably, this decline has worsened both consumer outcomes and the workplace experiences of mental health nurses. This article reports on a study designed to ascertain the nature of contemporary mental health nursing practice in New South Wales. The study utilised focus group research methodology, with participants recounting the realities of their day-to-day professional practice and perceptions of their professional identity. The findings indicate a contracting, if not moribund, profession; a decrease in the value attached to mental health nursing; and a pattern of persistent underfunding by successive governments of mental health services. An analysis of present and historical trends reveals there is a pressing need for a restructure and re-formation of mental health nursing in rural areas. This article links the shortage of mental health nurses in NSW to the closure of the mental health nursing register, a shift to comprehensive/generalist nurse education models, a perceived lack of nurses' professional standing, and natural attrition without suitably qualified replacements. Mental health nurses in this study perceived that they were not valued by other health professionals or by their own managers. Participants in this study reported mental health nursing in rural areas was an unattractive career choice. These findings are important to the understanding of recruitment and retention issues in rural mental health nursing in Australia. PMID:21767253

  15. Timing of Administration: For Commonly-Prescribed Medicines in Australia

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    Gagandeep Kaur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronotherapy involves the administration of medication in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to maximise therapeutic effectiveness and minimise/avoid adverse effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the “time of administration” recommendations on chronotherapy for commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia. This study also aimed to explore the quality of information on the timing of administration presented in drug information sources, such as consumer medicine information (CMI and approved product information (PI. Databases were searched for original research studies reporting on the impact of “time of administration” of the 30 most commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia for 2014. Further, time of administration recommendations from drug information sources were compared to the evidence from chronotherapy trials. Our search revealed 27 research studies, matching the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In 56% (n = 15 of the research studies, the therapeutic effect of the medicine varied with the time of administration, i.e., supported chronotherapy. For some medicines (e.g., simvastatin, circadian-based optimal administration time was evident in the information sources. Overall, dedicated studies on the timing of administration of medicines are sparse, and more studies are required. As it stands, information provision to consumers and health professionals about the optimal “time” to take medications lags behind emerging evidence.

  16. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

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    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared.

  17. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz Survey: The Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Tara; Ekers, Ronald D; Massardi, Marcella; Hancock, Paul J; Mahony, Elizabeth; Ricci, Roberto; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Calabretta, Mark; Chhetri, Rajan; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Edwards, Philip G; Ekers, Jennifer A; Jackson, Carole A; Kesteven, Michael J; Lindley, Emma; Newton-McGee, Katherine; Phillips, Chris; Roberts, Paul; Sault, Robert J; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Walker, Mark A; Wilson, Warwick E

    2009-01-01

    We present the full source catalogue from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) Survey. The AT20G is a blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) from 2004 to 2008, and covers the whole sky south of declination 0 deg. The AT20G source catalogue presented here is an order of magnitude larger than any previous catalogue of high-frequency radio sources, and includes 5890 sources above a 20 GHz flux-density limit of 40 mJy. All AT20G sources have total intensity and polarisation measured at 20 GHz, and most sources south of declination -15 deg also have near-simultaneous flux-density measurements at 5 and 8 GHz. A total of 1559 sources were detected in polarised total intensity at one or more of the three frequencies. We detect a small but significant population of non-thermal sources that are either undetected or have only weak detections in low-frequency catalogues. We introduce the term Ultra-Inverted Spectrum (UIS) to describe these radio sources, which have a ...

  18. Flood Risk in Australia: Whose Responsibility Is It, Anyway?

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    Robin van den Honert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES, and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. Key informant interviews were conducted in four locations—Brisbane and Emerald, in Queensland, Dora Creek, in New South Wales, and Benalla, in Victoria. We find that understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder varied considerably between research participants. Insurance representatives felt their concerns about increasing flood risk costs were unheeded until the 2010–2011 floods made them the “canary in the coal mine”. Councils felt they had limited options for reducing flood risk. SES representatives felt they were too relied upon for event response, with requests for assistance outstripping their capacity to assist, and many residents were uncertain how to prepare for flood, relying on emergency agencies and the local council to protect them. Key lessons for flood risk management in Australia are (a an urgent need for all stakeholders to better understand each others’ roles and responsibilities; and (b residents must take greater responsibility for their own personal protection. Only then can the vision of shared responsibility presented by the 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience be achieved.

  19. Increasing Incidence of Salmonella in Australia, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Veitch, Mark; Wardell, Rebecca; Polkinghorne, Ben; Dobbins, Timothy; Lal, Aparna; Kirk, Martyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia and case numbers are increasing. We used negative binomial regression to analyze national surveillance data for 2000–2013, for Salmonella Typhimurium and non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars. We estimated incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age to show trends over time. Almost all states and territories had significantly increasing trends of reported infection for S. Typhimurium, with states and territories reporting annual increases as high as 12% (95% confidence interval 10–14%) for S. Typhimurium in the Australian Capital Territory and 6% (95% CI 5–7%) for non-Typhimurium Salmonella in Victoria. S. Typhimurium notification rates were higher than non-Typhimurium Salmonella rates in most age groups in the south eastern states of Australia, while non-Typhimurium rates were higher in most age groups elsewhere. The S. Typhimurium notification rate peaked at 12–23 months of age and the non-Typhimurium Salmonella notification rate peaked at 0–11 months of age. The age-specific pattern of S. Typhimurium cases suggests a foodborne origin, while the age and geographic pattern for non-Typhimurium may indicate that other transmission routes play a key role for these serovars. PMID:27732615

  20. Adoption of Internet Shopping: Cultural Considerations in India and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Adapa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper examines the adoption of internet shopping patterns exhibited by Indian women currently residing in India and Australia emphasizing on the prevailing cultural dimensions. A conceptual framework has been developed based on the theoretical background which links intention to shop over internet and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to adoption of internet shopping. In order to test the stated hypotheses, the proposed relationships between the variables were empirically verified. A web based survey was employed by using online questionnaire as a research instrument and the respondents were approached by posting the questionnaire to various newsgroups. The results of the study reveal that intention of int ernet shopping as measured with the perceived attributes significantly influences the actual adoption of internet shopping. With regard to the prevailing cultural dimensions in the country of origin (India, the results obtained are as expected and signifi cantly influence the internet purchases. Where as with regard to the prevailing cultural dimensions in the country of residence (Australia, most of the results obtained are as predicted except for the dimension masculinity versus femininity.