Haigh, Matthew; Guthrie, James
This paper adds to the literatures on socially responsible investment (SRI), investment management, regulation of financial services and social accounting by providing a comprehensive survey of investment methods used in SRI products and regulated social reporting in financial services. Australian and New Zealand regulations require issuers of self-declarative SRI products to provide details on methods used in portfolio construction. Regulators' objectives to standardize the reporting of port...
Haigh, Matthew; Guthrie, James
This paper adds to the literatures on socially responsible investment (SRI), investment management, regulation of financial services and social accounting by providing a comprehensive survey of investment methods used in SRI products and regulated social reporting in financial services. Australian...... and New Zealand regulations require issuers of self-declarative SRI products to provide details on methods used in portfolio construction. Regulators' objectives to standardize the reporting of portfolio construction and thus improve its comparability were identified by examination of parliamentary...... debates and other public reports. Portfolio construction styles of 86 SRI products managed by 63 financial institutions in Australia and New Zealand were chosen for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify associations between styles, construction methods and assessment techniques over...
Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.
Full Text Available Capital account liberalization created premises and allow Romania for final exit from the financial crisis. Promoting direct investment in Romania can lead to sustainable economic growth, create new jobs and thus, by selling labor set up new forms of saving, which will support investments. Banking ethics elements behind the development of direct investments in Romania are legislation, regulation and behavior of participants. Amid an emerging economy rocked by the global financial crisis, capital account liberalization has allowed entry direct investment, but allowed and the capital flight. Respect for ethics in the business financial banking groups provide, at least, economic development and upgrading the infrastructure of Romania
Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio
It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.
... ethics. 275.204A-1 Section 275.204A-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... codes of ethics. (a) Adoption of code of ethics. If you are an investment adviser registered or required... enforce a written code of ethics that, at a minimum, includes: (1) A standard (or standards) of business...
Clapin, Helen; Phelan, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Sinnott, Richard; Colman, Peter; Craig, Maria; Jones, Timothy
Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes. The initial phase of this collaboration, known as the Australasian Diabetes Data Network or ADDN, was led by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) and thus included only children and adolescents. The next phase, commenced in 2016, will see adult sites added through collaboration with the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS). As most of the initial centers had longitudinal data collection in place the model employed was to establish the transfer and collation of data already collected into a central database. This required the definition of a common data dictionary, ethics and governance procedures and the employment of technology to enable efficient and accurate information transfer and accessibility. The ADDN project received widespread support from the diabetes research community with study investigators representing 20 pediatric centers across the region. The first phase focused on the 5 largest centers and at the end of 2015 these centers were uploading patient data to the ADDN database on a quarterly basis resulting in 5271 patients with 83 506 diabetes visits. PMID:27257171
The author comments the background of the consecutive disengagements of the Norwegian Government Petroleum Fund from several companies belonging to the arms sector, a disengagement which complies with the opinion of various actors in favour of a socially responsible investment, and of NGOs and associations opposed to the armament sector. After having recalled the global definition of this fund which was created in 1990, and of its investment policy, the author analyses the framework within which these disengagements occur, comments how these different spheres (the fund and the other above mentioned actors) finally met. He also wanders whether this ethics actually concern arms company or is in fact related to a problem proper to investment funds in general. The author notably indicates the various arms companies from which the Petroleum Fund withdrew its investments. The author also outlines some remaining ambiguities of the strategy of ethic investment of the former Norwegian Petroleum Fund, and shows that its methodology of ethic and socially responsible investment applied to the arms sector is in fact not yet precisely defined
Zaidi, Ali A
This article applies various ethical frameworks to inform decision making about investment in two specific goods-strengthening public health and stabilizing the global climate. I begin by outlining how these goods traditionally competed for common and constrained resources. I then discuss how this view of competition has been rendered more problematic by emerging and compelling ethical justifications for investment in both goods based on utilitarian, Rawlsian, and communitarian analyses. I conclude by showing that these goods no longer compete head-to-head in a zero-sum way. Changes in science, technology, and society mean that investment in either good has the potential to advance both goods-that is, the goods have become synergistic. As a result, the case for investing in both is better. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,
Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide has been providing star gazers with everything they need to know about the southern night sky for the past 25 years. The 2015 guide will celebrate this landmark with highlights from the past as well as monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of the year's exciting celestial events.Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2015 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the l
Bodie, Zvi; Marcus, Alan J.
The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, and how they need it, so that your class time is more engaging and effective.
The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course
Close, Benjamin; Zolcinski, Robert
A physician assistant (PA) is a university qualified health professional who's primary role is to provide medical care under the direction and supervision of medical staff. This is a new profession in Australasia. The PA is well suited to working in both rural, regional and urban settings that deliver emergency medical care. A perspective is presented on their role and scope of practice within the Australasian emergency care system supported by some early findings from their use in a tertiary ED. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Pellegrino, Edmund D
In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.
Johnston, Graham A R
There were a number of highly significant events regarding ASCEP in the 1980s: a tour of China by ASCEP pharmacologists; the Sydney IUPHAR Congress; and the initiation of the Australasian Visitor to the BPS scheme. ASCEP appointed a professional secretariat, established an investment portfolio, and initiated Special Interest Groups. The Society entered the 1990s welcoming toxicologists into the new ASCEPT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clapin, Helen; Phelan, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Sinnott, Richard; Colman, Peter; Craig, Maria; Jones, Timothy
Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes. The initial phase of this collaboration, known as the Australasian Diabetes Data Network or ADDN, was led by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) and thus included only children and adolescents. The next phase, commenced in 2016, will see adult sites added through collaboration with the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS). As most of the initial centers had longitudinal data collection in place the model employed was to establish the transfer and collation of data already collected into a central database. This required the definition of a common data dictionary, ethics and governance procedures and the employment of technology to enable efficient and accurate information transfer and accessibility. The ADDN project received widespread support from the diabetes research community with study investigators representing 20 pediatric centers across the region. The first phase focused on the 5 largest centers and at the end of 2015 these centers were uploading patient data to the ADDN database on a quarterly basis resulting in 5271 patients with 83 506 diabetes visits. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.
Cunningham, Frances C; Morris, Andrew D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Australian states have embraced clinical networking as a mechanism for managing, organising and improving the quality of care. Using these individualised state approaches to clinical networks, in this paper the authors aim to examine this Australasian "experimentation" and present lessons for other health systems. The paper draws on current knowledge from the literature on clinical networks. The 2010 Inaugural Australasian Clinical Networks Conference also serves as a primary resource, as well as the authors' extensive discussions with policy-makers, managers and clinicians in Australasian systems. Key themes from the literature include: network type (mandated or natural, and hybrids); network purpose; the importance of network objectives; drivers of network success and barriers; the need for consumer engagement; and the difficulty of evaluating network effectiveness. Policy challenges include the establishment of networks for some specialty areas and not others; how to develop common standards across networks; and the need for performance metrics to assess network impact on patient outcomes. Australian networks report difficulties with achieving greater involvement of rural clinicians and indigenous populations, and with private sector clinical engagement. There are challenges too with implementation, at service level, of models of care and recommendations. Clinical networks are becoming a fundamental vehicle for clinical improvement and change across complex organisational and professional boundaries. How to nurture and sustain effective clinical networks is of import to every health system and the authors invite stakeholders in health systems to network and share their empirical research on clinical networks to assist with distinguishing the evidence from the rhetoric.
Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H
Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ebert, M A; Harrison, K M; Cornes, D; Howlett, S J; Joseph, D J; Kron, T; Hamilton, C S; Denham, J W
The present paper describes the logistics of the 2004-2008 Australasian Level III Dosimetry Intercomparison. Dosimetric intercomparisons (or 'audits') can be used in radiotherapy to evaluate the accuracy and quality of radiation delivery. An intercomparison was undertaken in New Zealand and Australia to evaluate the feasibility and logistics of ongoing dosimetric intercomparisons that evaluate all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, known as a 'Level III' intercomparison. The study commenced in 2002 with the establishment of a study team, definition of the study protocol, acquisition of appropriate equipment and recruitment of participating radiotherapy centres. Measurements were undertaken between October 2004 and March 2008, and included collation of data on time, costs and logistics of the study. Forty independent Australian and New Zealand radiotherapy centres agreed to participate. Measurement visits were made to 37 of these centres. Data is presented on the costs of the study and the level of support required. The study involved the participation of 16 staff at the study centre who invested over 4000 hours in the study, and of over 200 professionals at participating centres. Recommendations are provided for future phantom-based intercomparisons. It is hoped that the present paper will be of benefit to any centres or groups contemplating similar activities by identifying the processes involved in establishing the study, the potential hazards and pitfalls, and expected resource requirements.
Bourke, Bernie M; Beiles, Charles Barry; Thomson, Ian A; Grigg, Michael J; Fitridge, Rob
The purpose of this study was to describe the development of the Australasian Vascular Audit that was created to unify audit activities under the umbrella of the Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery as a Web-based application. Constitutional change in late 2008 deemed participation in this audit compulsory for Society members. The Web-based application was developed and tested during 2009. Data for all open vascular surgery and for all endovascular procedures are collected at two points in the admission episode: at the time of operation and at discharge, and entered into the application. Data are analyzed to produce risk-adjusted outcomes. An algorithm has been developed to deal with outliers according to natural justice and to comply with the requirements of regulatory bodies. The Audit is protected by legislated privilege and is officially endorsed and indemnified by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Confidentiality of surgeons and patients alike is ensured by a legally protected coding system and computer encryption system. Validation is by a verification process of 5% of members per year who are randomly selected. The application is completely funded by the Society. Data entry commenced on January 1, 2010. Over 40,000 vascular procedures were entered in the first year. The Audit application allows instantaneous on-line access to individual data and to deidentified group data and specific reports. It also allows real-time instantaneous production of log books for vascular trainees. The Audit has already gained recognition in the Australasian public arena during its first year of operation as an important benchmark of correct professional surgical behavior. Compliance has been extremely high in public hospitals but less so in private hospitals such that only 60% of members received a certificate of complete participation at the end of its first year of operation. An Internet-based compulsory audit of complete surgical practice is
Full Text Available BackgroundReferences serve as an important tool in providing credibility to the published literature and to assist retrieval of the cited and related information. This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Australasian Medical Journal.Method Fifty references were randomly selected from two different issues of Australasian Medical Journal (AMJ: Volume 3, Number 11, 2010 and Volume 3, Number 10, 2010. The instructions for authors of this journal were examined. References from each article were compared with the original for accuracy, using the following six elements: 1 authors; including spelling, initials, order and number; 2 title, including spelling and punctuation; 3 journal name, including use of correct abbreviation as listed in Index Medicus; 4 year; 5 volume; and 6 page numbers, including first and last page numbers. Citations were considered incorrect if there was an error in any of these six elements. References not cited from indexed journals were excluded. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage.ResultsResults show that 14.0% references in AMJ were inaccurate. Most common errors were author’s name and journal name. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 10.0% references while journal name (either incorrect abbreviations or incorrect instructions or punctuation errors were found to be incorrect in 4.0%. Least common error was found in writing the title of the article (2.0%. There were no errors found in other elements.ConclusionErrors in citing the references are also found in the AMJ. The quoted error in this study (14.0% is comparable to other international literature. The majority of errors are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.
Thirty-three microtektites have been recovered from four different sites in the Central Indian Basin. Based on their physical properties, geographical occurrence and chemical composition, they are identified as belonging to the Australasian tektite...
Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...
Anazodo, Antoinette C; Gerstl, Brigitte; Stern, Catharyn J; McLachlan, Robert I; Agresta, Franca; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Cohn, Richard J; Wakefield, Claire E; Chapman, Michael; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A
In Australia and New Zealand, there has not been a national systematic development of oncofertility services for cancer patients of reproductive age although many cancer and fertility centers have independently developed services. A number of barriers exist to the development of these services, including a lack of clear referral pathways, a lack of communication between clinicians and patients about fertility preservation, differences in the knowledge base of clinicians about the risk of cancer treatment causing infertility and fertility preservation options, a lack of national health insurance funding covering all aspects of fertility preservation, and storage costs and cultural, religious, and ethical barriers. The development of strategies to overcome these barriers is a high priority for oncofertility care to ensure that equitable access to the best standard of care is available for all patients. The FUTuRE Fertility Research Group led a collaborative consultation process with the Australasian Oncofertility Consumer group and oncofertility specialists to explore consumers' experiences of oncofertility care. Consumers participated in qualitative focus group meetings to define and develop a model of consumer driven or informed "gold standard oncofertility care" with the aim of putting together a Charter that specifically described this. The finalized Australasian Oncofertility Consortium Charter documents eight key elements of gold standard oncofertility care that will be used to monitor the implementation of oncofertility services nationally, to ensure that these key elements are incorporated into standard practice over time.
de Graaf, F.J.; Slager, A.
Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) is of growing importance for institutional investors. Our analysis shows that SRI strategies can be grouped in ethically-based, investment-driven and value-ensuring objectives. We demonstrate that this categorization strengthens decisionmaking in SRI. Based on
MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,
This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
Rademaker, Marius; Gupta, Monisha; Andrews, Megan; Armour, Katherine; Baker, Chris; Foley, Peter; Gebauer, Kurt; George, Jacob; Rubel, Diana; Sullivan, John
The Australasian Psoriasis Collaboration reviewed methotrexate (MTX) in the management of psoriasis in the Australian and New Zealand setting. The following comments are based on expert opinion and a literature review. Low-dose MTX (< 0.4 mg/kg per week) has a slow onset of action and has moderate to good efficacy, together with an acceptable safety profile. The mechanism of action is anti-inflammatory, rather than immunosuppressive. For pretreatment, consider testing full blood count (FBC), liver and renal function, non-fasting lipids, hepatitis serology, HbA1c and glucose. Body mass index and abdominal circumference should also be measured. Optional investigations in at-risk groups include an HIV test, a QuantiFERON-TB Gold test and a chest X-ray. In patients without complications, repeat the FBC at 2-4 weeks, then every 3-6 months and the liver/renal function test at 3 months and then every 6 months. There is little evidence that a MTX test dose is of value. Low-dose MTX rarely causes clinically significant hepatotoxicity in psoriasis. Most treatment-emergent liver toxicity is related to underlying metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Alcohol itself is not contraindicated, but should be limited to < 20 gm/day. [Correction added on 6 January 2017, after first online publication: '20 mg/day' has been corrected to '20 gm/day'.] Although MTX is a potential teratogen post-conception, there is little evidence for this pre-conception. MTX does not affect the quality of sperm. There is no evidence that MTX reduces healing, so there is no specific need to stop MTX peri-surgery. MTX may be used in combination with cyclosporine, acitretin, prednisone and anti-tumour necrosis factor biologics. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Beveridge, Ian; Spratt, David M
Despite current attempts to document the extent of biodiversity on Earth, significant problems exist in fully documenting the helminth parasites of wildlife. Using the Australasian marsupials as an example, we examine some of these difficulties, including challenges in collecting uncommon host species, the ongoing description of new species of marsupials, the presence of cryptic species, and the decline in taxonomic expertise in Australia. Although optimistic global predictions have been made concerning the rate of discovery and description of new species of animals, these predictions may not apply in the case of specific groups of animals such as the Australasian marsupials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A review is given of the water mite fauna of the Australasian and Pacific region. Within the Australasian region, New Zealand has the highest percentage of endemism. It is concluded that the water mite fauna of the islands in the South Pacific is of Australasian origin, while the water mite fauna of
Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.
The Fe oxidation state along profiles across dark and light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite samples have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.
Student learning and development are the core business of the academy, yet until recently Australian and New Zealand universities lacked data on students' engagement in effective educational practices. This paper reports the foundations and development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)--the largest educationally focused…
Full Text Available Abstract The 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference was held from April 26 to 29 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This commentary provides a brief overview of the conference, including the speakers and topic areas covered, selected original research highlights, and award winning presentations.
The 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference was held from April 26 to 29 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This commentary provides a brief overview of the conference, including the speakers and topic areas covered, selected original research highlights, and award winning presentations. PMID:21762520
The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.
Senanayake, Sanjaya N; Daveson, Kathryn L
The 2010 Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting took place in May in the Northern Territory (Australia) and focussed on infections in the region. The meeting highlights included the changing spectrum of malaria and dengue in endemic regions, the latest on influenza epidemiology, multidrug-resistant organisms and infectious diseases in the Australian indigenous population. This was complemented by subspeciality interest group research encompassing mycobacterial disease, infection control, mycology and virology.
Beiles, Charles Barry; Bourke, Bernie M
Accuracy of data is important in any clinical audit. It is necessary to determine how complete the dataset is as well as the accuracy of the data that have been entered. The Australasian Vascular Audit has been operational for 4 years and a data validation process has been undertaken. An independent data source is available, which is collected by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. This collects all public and private hospital data and is available for interrogation. Similarly, private-only data are available from the Medicare website. This has been compared with the Australasian Vascular Audit dataset to establish completeness of data collection. Quality of data collected has been verified by comparing accuracy of data fields with that present in patient records in a 5% random sample. For the 2 years studied, there was a 63% capture rate in Australia for all patients. In the private sector, only 50% of patients were captured with a significant decrease noted in 2013. The quality of data entered had a 2.6% error rate. There is a need to increase compliance with vascular audit in Australia and data accuracy is acceptable but could be improved. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin
This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.
Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin
This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.
Craig, Simon; Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Mellett, Tanya
To describe current practice of EDUS by ACEM Trainees and Fellows; to describe potential barriers to US use in the Australasian setting; to determine compliance with current college guidelines regarding US credentialing. Data were collected by a cross-sectional online survey. Respondents were Trainees and Fellows of the ACEM. Outcome measures included the percentage of respondents currently undergoing or that had completed US credentialing for Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) scans. The perceived barriers to use of emergency US were explored. There were 512 survey respondents, giving an overall response rate of 15%. Fellows were more likely to be credentialed compared with Trainees. There were 61% of respondents not credentialed for FAST and assessment of AAA scans. However, a significant proportion performed these scans regularly, and did not routinely seek independent confirmation of their findings. Barriers to credentialing included limited time and no credentialing programme at the individual's hospital. The present study showed that only a minority of ACEM Trainees and Fellows are credentialed to perform routine ED scans. Many non-credentialed ACEM Trainees and Fellows are performing scans, many without independent confirmation of their findings. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.
Gouvea, R.; Linton, J.D.; Linton, Jonathan; Montoya, M.; Walsh, Steven Thomas
Does national success with an emerging technology require ethical sacrifices? This question is considered through the simultaneous consideration of ethics, investment, and outcomes in the nine jurisdictions that are making the largest investments in nanotechnologies—an important emerging technology.
O'Meara, Peter; Maguire, Brian; Jennings, Paul; Simpson, Paul
The need for paramedicine research has been recognised internationally through efforts to develop out-of-hospital research agendas in several developed countries. Australasia has a substantial paramedicine research capacity compared to the discipline internationally and is well positioned as a potential leader in the drive towards evidence-based policy and practice in paramedicine. Our objective was to draw on international experiences to identify and recommend the best methodological approach that should be employed to develop an Australasian paramedicine research agenda. A search and critical appraisal process was employed to produce an overview of the literature related to the development of paramedicine research agendas throughout the world. Based on these international experiences, and our own analysis of the Australasian context, we recommend that a mixed methods approach be used to develop an inclusive Australasian Paramedicine Research Agenda. This approach will capture the views and interests of a wide range of expert stakeholders through multiple data collection strategies, including interviews, roundtable discussions and an online Delphi consensus survey. Paramedic researchers and industry leaders have the opportunity to use this multidisciplinary process of inquiry to develop a paramedicine research agenda that will provide a framework for the development of a culture of open evaluation, innovation and improvement. This research agenda would assess the progress of paramedicine research in Australia and New Zealand, map the research capacity of the paramedicine discipline, paramedic services, universities and professional organisations, identify current strengths and opportunities, make recommendations to capitalize on opportunities, and identify research priorities. Success will depend on ensuring the participation of a representative sample of expert stakeholders, fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and adhering to a predefined
Schultz, Timothy J; Crock, Carmel; Hansen, Kim; Deakin, Anita; Gosbell, Andrew
Medical-specific incident reporting systems are critical to understanding error in healthcare but underreporting by doctors reduces their value. We conducted a pilot study of the implementation of an online ED-specific incident reporting system in Australasian hospitals and evaluated its use. The reporting system was based on the literature and input of experts. Thirty-one hospital EDs were approached to pilot the Emergency Medicine Events Register (EMER). The pilot evaluated: website usage and analytics, reporting behaviours and rates, the quality of information collected in EMER. Semi-structured interviews of three site champions responsible for implementing EMER were conducted. Seventeen EDs expressed interest; however, due to delays and other barriers reporting only occurred at three sites. Over 354 days, the website received 362 unique visitors and 77 incidents. The median time to report was 4.6 min. The reporting rate was 0.07 reports per doctor month, suggesting a reporting rate of 0.08% of ED presentations. Data quality, as measured by the number of completed non-mandatory fields and ability to classify incidents, was very high. The interviews identified enablers (the EMER system, site champions) and barriers (chiefly the context of EM) to EMER uptake. Collecting patient safety information by frontline doctors is essential to actively engage the profession in patent safety. Although the EMER system allowed easy online reporting of high quality incident data by doctors, site recruitment and system uptake proved difficult. System use by ED doctors requires dedicated and conscious effort from the profession. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.
Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.
Folco, L.; Glass, B. P.; D'Orazio, M.; Rochette, P.
Impactor identification is one of the challenges of large-scale impact cratering studies due to the dilution of meteoritic material in impactites (typically Australasian tektite/microtektite strewn field, i.e., the largest Cenozoic strewn field (∼15% of the Earth's surface), the youngest (∼0.78 Myr old) on Earth, and the only one without an associated impact crater so far, is an outstanding issue. We identify a chondritic impactor signature in 77 Australasian microtektites (size range: ∼200-700 μm) from within 3000 km from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼17°N, 107°E) based on variations of Cr, Co and Ni interelement ratios in a Co/Ni vs Cr/Ni space (46 microtektites analyzed in this work by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma -Mass Spectrometry and 31 from literature by means of Neutron Activation Analyses with Cr, Co and Ni concentrations up to ∼370, 50 and 680 μg/g, respectively). Despite substantial overlap in Cr/Ni versus Co/Ni composition for several meteorite types with chondritic composition (chondrites and primitive achondrites), regression calculation based on ∼85% of the studied microtektites best fit a mixing line between crustal compositions and an LL chondrite. However, due to some scatter mainly in the Cr versus Ni ratios in the considered dataset, an LL chondrite may not be the best fit to the data amongst impactors of primitive compositions. Eight high Ni/Cr and five low Ni/Cr outlier microtektites (∼15% in total) deviate from the above mixing trend, perhaps resulting from incomplete homogenization of heterogeneous impactor and target precursor materials at the microtektite scale, respectively. Together with previous evidence from the ∼35 Myr old Popigai impact spherules and the ∼1 Myr old Ivory Coast microtektites, our finding suggests that at least three of the five known Cenozoic distal impact ejecta were generated by the impacts of large stony asteroids of chondritic composition, and possibly of
Melanie R. Wells
Full Text Available Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26, in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change.
Keogh, Justin W L; Pühringer, Petra; Olsen, Alicia; Sargeant, Sally; Jones, Lynnette M; Climstein, Mike
To describe the physical activity (PA) promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers of Australasian oncology nurses and gain preliminary insight into how PA promotion practices may be affected by the demographics of the nurses. . Cross-sectional survey. . Australia and New Zealand. . 119 registered oncology nurses. . Self-reported online survey completed once per participant. . Questions assessed the PA promotion beliefs (e.g., primary healthcare professionals responsible for PA promotion, treatment stage), PA benefits (e.g., primary benefits, evidence base), and PA promotion barriers of oncology nurses. . Oncology nurses believed they were the major providers of PA advice to their patients. They promoted PA prior to, during, and post-treatment. The three most commonly cited benefits of PA for their patients were improved quality of life, mental health, and activities of daily living. Lack of time, lack of adequate support structures, and risk to patient were the most common barriers to PA promotion. Relatively few significant differences in the oncology nurses' PA promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers were observed based on hospital location or years of experience. . Despite numerous barriers, Australasian oncology nurses wish to promote PA to their patients with cancer across multiple treatment stages because they believe PA is beneficial for their patients. . Hospitals may need to better support oncology nurses in promoting PA to their patients and provide better referral pathways to exercise physiologists and physiotherapists.
Wells, Melanie R; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y
Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Jaung, Rebekah; Robertson, Jason; Rowbotham, David; Bissett, Ian
To evaluate the current practice and degree of consensus amongst Australasian surgeons regarding non-surgical management of acute diverticulitis (AD) and to determine whether newer approaches to management are being translated into practice. An online survey was distributed to all Australasian colorectal surgeons and all general surgeons in the Auckland region. Responses were collected over two months and analysed to identify points of consensus and areas of significant difference in opinion between these groups. Responses were received from a total of 99 of 200 (49.5%) colorectal surgeons, and 19 of 36 (52.7%) general surgeons. The Hinchey Classification was the most commonly used measure of disease severity, used by 67 (95.7%) colorectal surgeons and 12 (92.3%) general surgeons. There was lack of consensus around important aspects of AD management, including antibiotic therapy, and use and modality of follow-up imaging. Selective antibiotic therapy and use of anti-inflammatory medication as adjuncts to treatment were practised by a minority of those surveyed. Newer approaches to management were being utilised by some respondents. The lack of consensus regarding management of AD may be a consequence of a paucity of high-level evidence to support specific management approaches, particularly in patients with uncomplicated AD.
Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie
The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…
Börjesson, Maria; Eliasson, Jonas; Lundberg, Mattias
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is often used when many transport investments need to be ranked against each other, for example in national investment planning. However, results are often questioned on claims that the ranking depends crucially on uncertain assumptions about the future, and on methodologically or ethically contestable trade-offs of different types of benefits relative to each other. This paper explores the robustness of CBA rankings of transport investments with respect to two typ...
Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.
Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.
When compared to an Australasian ED, the two major differences in the emergency medicine practice at Teaching Hospital Karapitiya are which patients are selected at triage and how those selected present. These differences have caused me to reflect on emergency medicine practice in Australasia and wonder if this practice is sustainable. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...
Titov, Oleg; Lovell, Jim; Takeguchi, Hiroshi; Quick, Jonathan; Shabala, Stanislav; McCallum, Jamie; Sun, Jing; Dawson, John; de Witt, Aletha; Reynolds, Cormac; Bignall, Hayley; Natusch, Tim; Weston, Stuart; Gulyaev, Sergei
The Australasian geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array consisting of three new 12-meter radio telescopes in Australia (Hobart, Katherine, and Yarragadee), a 12-meter radio telescope in New Zealand (Warkworth), and a correlation facility in Perth started operations in 2011. The daily positions of the AuScope array are estimated with a precision of a few mm, whereas their daily estimates vary within a range of 20-30 mm on the annual scale. Analysis of geodetic VLBI sessions also reveals small linear trends in the time series of baseline lengths between the Australian and New Zealand stations. A seasonal signal with amplitude of about 10 mm was detected for the baseline Hobart-Katherine. This signal is consistent with seasonal variations of baselines between co-located GNSS stations. We argue this signal should be incorporated in the fitting model to improve the estimates of positions and linear velocities.
Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis
Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...
Full text: Controversy continues in the radiation protection literature on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls (if any) should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The assumption made and the way it is applied can have far-reaching effects, not only on the scale of regulatory compliance required but also on public perception of risk, and therefore on the technological choices made by society. It is important therefore that decisions reached concerning the regulation of low doses of ionizing radiation derive from rational arguments and are perceived to have an ethical basis. It is also important that such decisions are neither portrayed nor perceived as resolving the scientific uncertainties: rather, they serve merely to facilitate the implementation of appropriate measures to ensure safety. At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on this matter. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting on 14 November 2005. Its salient features are as follows: There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls; Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers; The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. The paper will
Baker, Allan J.
Phenetic affinities of Australasian oystercatchers were elucidated by multivariate statistical analysis of seven morphometric characters taken from museum skins. Nineteen operational taxonomie units (OTUs), representing all the currently recognized species and most of the subordinate taxa, were used
Mizera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Kameník, J.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.
We argue against the generally accepted hypothetical location of the unknown source crater for Australasian tektites to Indochina, and present a hypothesis of a possible location of the AAT source crater in deserts of NW China.
Einsiedel, Lloyd; Purcell, Damian; Schinke, Shane; Haynes, Katelin; Taylor, Graham P; Martin, Fabiola
We are pleased to report on the inaugural HTLV-1 symposium at the 2017 Australasian HIV and AIDS Conference joint with 2017 Australasian Sexual Health Conference in Canberra, Australia. Our understanding of HTLV-1 epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnostics and treatment options for HTLV-1 diseases has advanced tremendously over the last 40 years. However, the awareness of healthcare providers and the general population about HTLV-1, and the effective promotion and implementation of HTLV-1 transmission-prevention strategies, lag behind current knowledge. Here we present a summary of the symposium, plenary and poster presentations on HTLV-1.
Giuli, Gabriele; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Eeckhout, Sigrid Griet; Pratesi, Giovanni; Paris, Eleonora; Folco, Luigi
The Fe oxidation state and coordination number of 29 impact glass spherules recently recovered from the Transantarctic Mountains (Antarctica) have been determined by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Based on geochemical, isotopic, and fission track data, these spherules are considered as microtektites from the Australasian tektite/microtektite strewn field. Their find location is the farthest so far discovered from the possible source crater region, and their alkali content is the lowest compared with other published data on Australasian microtektite glasses. The Fe3+/(Fe2++Fe3+) ratio, determined from the analysis of the pre-edge peak energy position and integrated intensity, is below 0.1 (±0.04) for all the samples, and is comparable to that of most tektites and microtektites from the Australasian strewn field. Also, the pre-edge peak integrated intensity, which is sensitive to the average Fe coordination geometry, is comparable to that of other Australasian microtektites reported in the literature. The agreement of the Fe oxidation state and coordination number, between the Transantarctic Mountain microtektites (TAM) and the Australasian tektites and microtektites, further confirms the impact origin of these glass spherules and provides an independent suggestion that they represent a major extension southeastward of the Australasian strewn field. The fact that similar redox conditions are observed in tektites and microtektites within the Australasian strewn field regardless of the distance from the source crater area (up to approximately 11000 km) could be an important constraint for better understanding the different processes affecting microtektite formation and transport. The fact that the Fe oxidation state of microtektites does not increase with distance, as in the case of North American microtektites, means that thermal and redox histories of Australasian and TAM microtektites could differ significantly from those of North
Brightmore, Amy; O'Hara, John; Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Hubka, Tate; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton
To evaluate the movement and physiological demands of Australasian National Rugby League (NRL) referees, officiating with a 2-referee (ie, lead and pocket) system, and to compare the demands of the lead and pocket referees. Global positioning system devices (10 Hz) were used to obtain 86 data sets (lead, n = 41; pocket, n = 45) on 19 NRL referees. Total distance, relative distance covered, and heart rate per half and across match play were examined within and between referees using t tests. Distance, time, and number of movement "efforts" were examined in 6 velocity classifications (ie, standing 7.0 m/s) using analysis of variance. Cohen d effect sizes are reported. There were no significant differences between the lead and pocket referees for any movement or physiological variable. There was an overall significant (large, very large) effect for distance (% distance) and time (% time) (P 5.51 m/s. Findings highlight the intermittent nature of rugby league refereeing but show that there were no differences in the movement and physiological demands of the 2 refereeing roles. Findings are valuable for those responsible for the preparation, training, and conditioning of NRL referees and to ensure that training prepares for and simulates match demands.
The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...
Karoly, David; Gergis, Joelle; Neukom, Raphael; Gallant, Ailie
Multiproxy warm season (September-February) temperature reconstructions are presented for the combined land-ocean region of Australasia (0°-50°S, 110°E-180°) covering the last millennium (1000-2001CE). Using between 2 (R2) and 28 (R28) paleoclimate records, four 1000-member ensemble reconstructions of regional temperature are developed using four different statistical methods: principal component regression (PCR), composite plus scale (CPS), Bayesian hierarchical models (LNA), and pairwise comparison (PaiCo). The reconstructions are then compared with a three-member ensemble of GISS-E2-R climate model simulations and independent paleoclimate records. Decadal fluctuations in Australasian temperatures are remarkably similar between the four reconstruction methods. There are, however, differences in the amplitude of temperature variations between the different statistical methods and proxy networks. When the largest R28 network is used, the warmest 30-yr periods occur after 1950 in 77% of ensemble members over all methods. However, reconstructions based on only the longest records (R2 and R3 networks) indicate that single 30- and 10-yr periods of similar or slightly higher temperatures than in the late twentieth century may have occurred during the first half of the millennium. Regardless, the most recent instrumental temperatures (1985-2014) are above the 90th percentile of all 12 reconstruction ensembles (four reconstruction methods based on three proxy networks — R28, R3, and R2). An earlier manuscript describing this study and its results was accepted for publication in the Journal of Climate in May 2012, after two thorough rounds of review. However, as described by Gergis (2016), after the early online release of the paper, a typo in the methods section was identified. While the paper said the study had used "detrended" data - observed temperature data from which the longer-term trends had been removed - the study had in fact used raw data. Both raw and
Lauren P Angel
Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7% than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04. Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF stores, where TBF(% = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15. This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(% between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.
Sieh, K.; Herrin, J. S.; Wiwegwin, W.; Charusiri, P.; Singer, B. S.; Singsomboun, K.; Jicha, B. R.
The Australasian strewn field, a horizon of glassy clasts formed of molten ejecta from the impact of a bolide about 770,000 years ago, covers about a tenth of the Earth - from Indochina to Australia and from the Indian to western Pacific oceans. The distribution of chemical and physical characteristics of these tektites implies a very large impact somewhere in central Indochina. A half-century of unsuccessful searching for the impact crater implies obscuration by either erosion or burial. Geomorphological and stratigraphic evidence suggests that the crater lies buried beneath lavas and cinder cones of a 100-km wide volcanic shield centered atop the Bolaven Plateau of southern Laos. One critical test of this hypothesis, using precise 40Ar/39Ar dating, is now in progress - are these highly weathered basalts younger than the tektites? Although volcanic rocks cover most of the area proximal to our purported impact site, a thick, crudely bedded, bouldery to pebbly breccia that crops out southeast of the obscured crater rim appears to be part of an ejecta blanket. The basal unit of this fining-upward sequence comprises large boulders of late-Mesozoic sandstone bedrock that display in situ shattering. This implies emplacement ballistically rather than by debris-flow. Old surfaces in the surrounding region (as others have noted) and on the Plateau have a mantle of pebbly, detrital lateritic debris that in its upper 15 cm contains angular tektite fragments. We hypothesize that this debris is a proximal fall bed produced by shock-induced comminution and ejection of a lateritic soil that covered the Plateau bedrock. Deposition was nearly complete when sparse tektite fragments ejected from nearer the center of the impact began to land. At many sites this pebbly, lateritic bed is overlain by a thick silty bed that others have associated with aeolian erosion of a barren, incinerated tropical landscape. See Herrin et al (this meeting) for more on the volcanic rocks.
Izet Masic; Ajla Hodzic; Smaila Mulic
To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of i...
Harris, T. H. S.; Davias, M. E.
A growing body of mid-Pleistocene evidence suggests a 786 ka cosmic impact (MIS 20) at an oblique angle onto the North American ice sheet may have created both the Carolina Bays on the US Eastern coastal plane, as well as the 60 billion tons of Australasian (AA) tektites that cover ¼ to ⅓ of Earth. No AA impact structure has ever been identified. ~12 ka after the AA tektite event came the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal, Earth's most recent. In 1986, Richard Muller's paper "Geomagnetic Reversals from Impacts on the Earth" explained how a geologically rapid change of Earth's crustal spin rate relative to the liquid core would upset its convective cellular dynamo structure, disrupting and dismantling Earth's magnetic field. Muller proposed an impact-induced mini ice age to transport 10 meters of low- and mid-latitude sea into ice at the poles, changing the crustal polar moment of inertia and accelerating rotation relative to the core. Muller's impact ice age is a weak point, but oblique cosmic impacts deliver tangential impulse directly. The Carolina Bays are a depositional formation of high purity quartz sand, angular to subangular in grain texture, covering approximately 5% of the continental US, with an estimated volume of 1600 km3 over the east coastal plain and some of Nebraska. The bays themselves are depressions in the sand layer, expressed through depositional overburden. They range from a few hundred meters to several kilometers in scale. Carolina Bays are now characterized with LiDAR altimetry. Their alignment is systematic by latitude. They conform to 6 archetype ovoid shapes, easily derived using suborbital mechanics. This implies suborbital mechanics was a governor of their transport: the imprint is a snapshot of the emplacement process. Suborbital Analysis using co-aligned axes of 45,000 Carolina Bays indicates the ice sheet impact region was the Georgian Bay, across Lake Huron to Michigan's Saginaw Bay. The average downrange distance of the
Barton, M.; Boyages, J.; Crennan, E.; Davis, S.; Fisher, R.J.; Hook, C.; Johnson, N.; Joseph, D.; Khoo, V.; Liew, K.H.; Morgan, G.; O'Brien, P.; Pendlebury, S.; Pratt, G.; Quong, G.; Roos, D.E.; Thornton, D.; Trotter, G.; Walker, Q.; Wallington, M.
Purpose: To review the Australasian results of Stage I and IIA Infradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease (IHD) treated solely by irradiation. Methods and materials: Eligible patients had IHD only and were treated by irradiation with curative intent over the period of 1969 to 1988. Ten radiation oncology centres from within Australia and New Zealand were surveyed for patient, tumour and treatment variables. Disease free rates, survival and complications were analysed. Results: 106 patients with IHD were studied. The average potential follow up was 9.4 years. The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. The median age was 37.5 years. Histological subgroups were as follows; lymphocyte predominant 43%, mixed cellularity 21%, lymphocyte depleted 5%, nodular sclerosing 27% and unclassifiable 4%. Fifty nine patients had laparotomy of which 22 (37%) were positive for tumour. Nine laparotomies were performed for diagnosis and the remainder for staging. One patient was up-staged by laparotomy and three were down-staged. Sixty-eight patients presented with inguinal disease alone, five with abdominal disease alone, 19 with two sites of involvement and 12 with inguinal, pelvic and abdominal disease. In two patients the site was unknown. There was no correlation between site of involvement, age, sex or histological subtype. Forty seven cases were clinically staged (CS) as follows: CS IA - 23, CS IIA - 24. The other 59 were pathologically staged (PS) as follows: PS IA - 37, PS IB - 1, PS IIA - 21. Treatment consisted of involved field alone (16), inverted Y (68), inverted Y and spleen (13), para-aortic irradiation only (3), or total nodal irradiation (6). Mean dose was 37 Gy. There were 30 recurrences to give an actuarial 10-year disease-free rate of 70%. In multivariate analysis lower number of tumour sites, lymphocyte predominant histology and higher dose were all significantly correlated with higher disease free rates. Eight patients died of Hodgkin's disease and 19 of other causes. The 10
Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.
Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116
Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...
Jonasson, Haukur Ingi
How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.
Sternberg, Robert J.
Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…
... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...
den Hartog, D.N.
High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a
Winterton, Shaun L
The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurumsp. n., Panops danielsisp. n., Panops jadesp. n. and Panops schlingerisp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included.
Beiles, C Barry; Walker, Stuart
Reduced exposure of trainees to open repair (OR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) during training has been considered detrimental to outcome. The Australasian experience is examined. The Australasian Vascular Audit (AVA) was interrogated for AAA procedures between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. Surgeons completing training before 2006 (group 1) were compared with those attaining their qualification subsequently (group 2). The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) database was also interrogated to confirm the trends over time of open and endovascular repair (EVAR) since 2000. Actual exposure to OR and EVAR of AAA by trainees from 2010 to 2014 was also extracted. One hundred and forty-six surgeons in group 1 performed 3049 OR compared with 997 for the 66 surgeons in group 2. Overall mortality for group 1 was 9.8% and for group 2, 15% (P Australasian College of Surgeons.
Australasian is the adjectival version of the name of a geographical region. The region is defined differently by different people. It includes islands other than Australia and New Zealand and variably includes or excludes New Guinea. It has nothing to do with Asia. The adjective is often misunderstood, it leaves New Zealand invisible to many readers and it is an incorrect description of who we are as a college. Australian and New Zealand describes who we are - fellows from two sovereign nations - Australia and New Zealand. Changing the name is not about secession, division nor ingratitude and does not undermine the College's commitment to helping other nations in the greater region. It is a positive acknowledgement of who we are and a strong foundation for a united College's future growth. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.
Hansson, Sven Ove
Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.
Arbon, Paul; Ranse, Jamie; Cusack, Lynette; Considine, Julie; Shaban, Ramon Z; Woodman, Richard J; Bahnisch, Laura; Kako, Mayumi; Hammad, Karen; Mitchell, Belinda
The type of disaster, individual demographic factors, family factors and workplace factors, have been identified in the international, multidisciplinary literature as factors that influence a person's willingness to attend and assist in their workplace during a disaster. However, it is unknown if these factors are applicable to Australasian emergency nurses. The research aims to determine the extent to which Australasian emergency nurses are willing to attend their workplace in a disaster. This research was exploratory and descriptive study design, using online and paper based surveys as a means of data collection. Australasian emergency nurses from two Australasian emergency nursing colleges and four Australian hospitals were recruited to participate. Data analysis was conducted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. In total, 451 Australasian emergency nurses participated in this research. Participants were more willing to attend their workplace during a conventional disaster (p ≤ 0.001), if they worked full-time (p = 0.01), had received formal education pertaining to disasters (p ≤ 0.001), had a family disaster plan (p = 0.008), did not have children (p = 0.001) and worked in an environment in which they perceived their colleagues, managers and organisation to be prepared. The factors that influenced Australasian emergency nurses to attend their workplace in a disaster were similar to that described in the international multidisciplinary literature. Of particular note, improving disaster knowledge and skills, having a family disaster plan and improving the perceptions of the nurses' workplace preparedness can enhance the nurses' willingness to assist in a disaster. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goderis, Steven; Tagle, Roald; Fritz, Jörg; Bartoschewitz, Rainer; Artemieva, Natalia
The Australasian tektite strewn field is exceptional, not only as the largest and most recent, but also as the only strewn field without an identified source impact crater. Therefore, scenarios without the formation of an impact crater, such as a low altitude cometary airburst, have proven hard to discard. Here, new geochemical evidence is presented for mixing of projectile and target material, which implies the formation of an Australasian tektite-related impact crater. First, ninety-two Australasian tektites were grouped according to their Cr, Co and Ni concentrations. Based on this data, Australasian tektites with the highest Ni contents (>200 μg/g) occur more than 1500 km south-southeast (SSE) of the northern Indochina region, with the highest concentration of Ni-rich tektites in South Vietnam, the islands of Borneo, Belitung, and Java, and reports in literature for Ni-rich tektites in central Australia. The tektites with the highest Cr and Ni abundances often also show highly siderophile element (HSE) enrichments of up to 4 ng/g Ir. The most Ni-rich samples exhibit broadly chondrite-relative HSE proportions. However, a chondritic impactor contribution appears to be inconsistent with the observed Ni/Cr, Ni/Co, and Cr/Co ratios. A previously suggested significant terrestrial mantle contribution can also not explain the siderophile element enrichments in combination with relatively low FeOtot (populations across the central part of the Australasian tektite strewn field could represent projectile-enriched material preferentially ejected downrange. Continued tracing of this Ni-rich component across the strewn field may help to constrain the location of the yet to be identified source crater of the Australasian (micro)tektites.
Lydon, Reamonn; Scally, John
This article examines trends in business investment in Ireland. Consistent with the international evidence on investment cycles, we show that business investment in Ireland exhibits large cyclical movements around a long-run trend relative to GDP. Changes in business investment broadly coincide with the overall business cycle, although swings in investment tend to be far greater, with extended periods of both over- and under-investment relative to GDP. The sharp fall in business investment si...
Chiew, Dominic Kia Seng
It is quite impossible to deny the growing importance of socially responsible investing (SRI) since its introduction in the early 1990s (Robson and Wakefield, 2007), when little attention was paid to this subject within the business ethics community as an alternative outlet to the existing conventional investment philosophy (Sparkes, 2001). The increasing use of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) in the financial markets has become more apparent today. Organization have included many other...
Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.
A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.
The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.
This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.
Rogers, Andrew; Furyk, Jeremy; Banks, Colin; Chu, Kevin
This study aims to establish current practice among Australasian emergency physicians and trainees on several aspects of the investigation of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). An electronic questionnaire (SurveyMonkey™) was distributed to emergency physicians and trainees by email through the ACEM. Survey recipients were asked about demographics, followed by a series of questions relating to the investigation of SAH. There were 878 survey respondents (response rate 24%). Our data showed that 47.3% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that a CT brain within 6 h of headache onset is sufficient to exclude a diagnosis of SAH. For a CT performed within 12 h of ictus, 14.4% were satisfied that SAH could be excluded. After a negative CT scan, for further investigation of SAH, 88% of respondents preferred lumbar puncture to CT angiography. For detection of xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid, 57.7% of respondents felt that spectrophotometry (vs visual inspection) is necessary to accurately diagnose SAH. A range of information was collected regarding the investigation of suspected SAH. We report significant differences in the diagnostic approach of Australasian emergency physicians and trainees to this condition, in particular the utility of CT within 6 h for exclusion of SAH. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Pont, Adrian C.
The type-material of Oriental und Australasian Muscidae in the University Zoological Museum, Amsterdam, is discussed. Of 131 species considered, the primary types of 112 are located in Amsterdam, and the location of the other types is also listed. 40 lectotypes are designated and 19 new combinations
de Raadt, Michael
This Australasian focused review compares a number of recent studies that have identified difficulties encountered by novices while learning programming and problem solving. These studies have shown that novices are not performing at expected levels and many novices have only a fragile knowledge of programming, which may prevent them from learning…
Hadlock, Camey Andersen; Clegg, J. Aleta; Hickman, Garrett R.; Huyett, Sabrina Lynn; Jensen, Hyrum C.; West, Richard E.
The authors analyzed all research articles in the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" from 2003 to 2012 to determine the types of research methodologies published, major contributing authors, and most frequently referenced keywords, abstract terms, and cited articles. During this decade, the majority of articles published…
Crock, Carmel; Hansen, Kim; Fogg, Toby; Cahill, Angela; Deakin, Anita; Runciman, William B
To review incident reports relating to problems encountered during the ED management of patients with 'airway or breathing' problems, with the aim of finding and highlighting common themes within these rare events, and making recommendations to further improve patient safety in the areas in which deficiencies have been identified. Thematic analysis of 36 incidents reported from Australasian EDs, which were related to problems with airway and breathing. In all, 51 problems were identified among the 36 incidents related to airway and/or breathing. Fourteen involved clinical decision-making, 11 equipment, nine communication, seven intubation, five surgical access and five pneumothorax. Eight incidents involved children and there were nine deaths within hours or days. Recommendations for improving preparedness of ED staff and facilities have been made for each of the problem areas identified with respect to clinical practice, equipment, communication and clinical process. Analysis of incidents from the Australasian Emergency Medicine Events Register allows clusters of like-events to be identified and characterised, providing the possibility of getting a better idea of how problems present and progress, with some information about contributing factors, characteristics and context. This will pave the way for earlier and better detection of life-threatening problems and the development and reinforcement of preventive and corrective strategies. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Hagel, Pauline; Carr, Rodney; Devlin, Marcia
Student engagement has rapidly developed a central place in the quality agenda of Australian universities since the introduction of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE). The AUSSE is based on one developed in the USA. The main arguments given for adopting this survey in Australia are that it provides a valid instrument for…
composition. The ferromanganese crust has a thickness range of 6-17 mm, and its chemistry and mineralogy indicate hydrogenic accretion. Because the Australasian strewn field has an age of approximately 0.77 Ma, this finding implies that the overlying Fe...
, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, and development anthropology. Drawing on material from ethnographic fieldwork with the NGO in Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, Taiwan and mainland China over 12 months between March 2009 and November 2010, it advances an argument that the uptake of ethics through forms such as the Ethics Review Committee...
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
Iyalomhe, G B S
Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.
Bradt, David A; Bartley, Bruce; Hibble, Belinda A; Varshney, Kavita
A regional epidemiological analysis of Australasian disasters in the 20th century to present was undertaken to examine trends in disaster epidemiology; to characterise the impacts on civil society through disaster policy, practice and legislation; and to consider future potential limitations in national disaster resilience. A surveillance definition of disaster was developed conforming to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) criteria (≥10 deaths, ≥100 affected, or declaration of state emergency or appeal for international assistance). The authors then applied economic and legislative inclusion criteria to identify additional disasters of national significance. The surveillance definition yielded 165 disasters in the period, from which 65 emerged as disasters of national significance. There were 38 natural disasters, 22 technological disasters, three offshore terrorist attacks and two domestic mass shootings. Geographic analysis revealed that states with major population centres experienced the vast majority of disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis revealed an increasing incidence of disasters since the 1980s, which peaked in the period 2005-2009. Recent seasonal bushfires and floods have incurred the highest death toll and economic losses in Australasian history. Reactive hazard-specific legislation emerged after all terrorist acts and after most disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis reveals an increasing incidence in natural disasters over the past 15 years, with the most lethal and costly disasters occurring in the past 3 years. Vulnerability to disaster in Australasia appears to be increasing. Reactive legislation is a recurrent feature of Australasian disaster response that suggests legislative shortsightedness and a need for comprehensive all-hazards model legislation in the future. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia
Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…
The Handbook of Economics and Ethics portrays an understanding of economic methodology in which facts and values, though distinct, are closely interconnected in a variety of ways. From theory building to data collection, and from modelling to policy evaluation, this encyclopaedic Handbook is at the intersection of economics and ethics.
Chambers, David W
This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.
Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.
Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...
Rønn, Kira Vrist
.e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists......Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i...
Vaughan, Geraldine; Pollock, Wendy; Peek, Michael J; Knight, Marian; Ellwood, David; Homer, Caroline S; Pulver, Lisa Jackson; McLintock, Claire; Ho, Maria T; Sullivan, Elizabeth A
The Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS) conducts surveillance and research of rare and serious conditions in pregnancy. This multi-centre population health study is considered low risk with minimal ethical impact. To describe the ethics/governance review pathway undertaken by AMOSS. Prospective, descriptive study during 2009-2011 of the governance/ethical review processes required to gain approval for Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) maternity units with more than 50 births per year (n = 303) to participate in AMOSS. Review processes ranged from a single application for 24 NZ sites, a single application for eligible hospitals in two Australian states, full Health Research Ethics Committee (HREC) applications for individual hospitals, through simple letters of support. As of September 2011, 46 full/expedited ethics applications, 131 site governance applications and 136 letters of support requests were made over 33 months, involving an estimated 3261 hours by AMOSS staff/investigators, and an associated resource burden by participating sites, to obtain approval to receive nonidentifiable data from 291 hospitals. The AMOSS research system provides an important resource to enhance knowledge of conditions that cause rare and serious maternal morbidity. Yet the highly variable ethical approval processes required to implement this study have been excessively repetitive and burdensome. This process jeopardises timely, efficient research project implementation, without corresponding benefits to research participants. The resource burden to establish research governance for AMOSS confirms the urgent need for the Harmonisation of Multi-centre Ethical Review (HoMER) to further streamline ethics/governance review processes for multi-centre research. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Full Text Available Codes of ethics and code of conduct formalize an ideal of expected behavior patterns to managers and employees of organizations, providing standards and orientation that states companies interactions with the community, through products /services, sales force, marketing communications, investments, and relationships with other stakeholders, influencing company reputation and overall Marketing performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the differences in codes of ethics of the largest companies based in Brazil and in Portugal, given their cultural and linguistic similarities. Findings show that the use of codes of ethics are more common in Brazil than in Portugal and that codes of ethics are substantially more extensive and cover a larger number of categories in Brazilian companies, reflecting the organizations’ mission and perception of stakeholders concerns and priorities. We conclude that ethical issues severely impact company reputation and, in a comprehensive sense, overall Marketing performance. Marketing professionals should be systematically aware of how company core values are transmitted to different audiences, including the use of code of ethics to communicate both with internal and external publics. 0 0 1 171 966 CASA DOS ANDRADES 23 14 1123 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE
Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU
Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...
Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.
Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.
Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian
The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.
Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Kameník, Jan
Roč. 154, MAR (2016), s. 123-137 ISSN 0012-8252 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-22351S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Australasian tektite * Parent crater * Geochemical analysis * Isotope analysis * Chinese loess * Badain Jaran Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; DD - Geochemistry (USMH-B) Impact factor: 7.051, year: 2016
Tomkinson, Grant R; Olds, Timothy S
There have been an increasing number of reports in recent years which have highlighted that the aerobic fitness test performances of Australian and New Zealand children and adolescents are declining. Some researchers have previously commented on secular changes in performance, but have used data dating back only to 1985. Using a metaanalytical approach, this study aimed to quantify the secular changes in the aerobic fitness test performances of Australasian (Australian and New Zealand) children and adolescents over the past half a century. Forty-six studies reporting on the aerobic fitness test performances of healthy Australasian children and adolescents were included in the analysis. Corrections for methodological variation were made where possible, and data for each aerobic fitness test were expressed in a common metric. Raw data were merged with pseudo data generated from reported means and standard deviations using Monte Carlo simulation. Changes in aerobic test performance were calculated at the country x age x sex x test level using least squares linear regression. Secular changes were calculated for 161,419 6-17-year-old tested on five different maximal field-running tests of aerobic fitness between 1961 and 2002. Overall, the aerobic performance of young Australasians declined at an average rate of -0.24% per annum (95% confidence interval -0.22 to -0.26% per annum). The pattern of change, however, was not consistent over time. Early in the 1960s, changes in performance shifted from improvements to declines, with the rate of decline accelerating until about 1990, and slowing thereafter. Secular changes were reasonably similar for boys and girls, but quite different for children and adolescents. There has been a marked decline in aerobic fitness test performances of Australasian children and adolescents in recent decades. It is likely that this secular decline is caused by a network of social, behavioral, physical, psychosocial and physiological factors.
Bayly, Michael J; Holmes, Gareth D; Forster, Paul I; Cantrill, David J; Ladiges, Pauline Y
Rutaceae subfamily Rutoideae (46 genera, c. 660 species) is diverse in both rainforests and sclerophyll vegetation of Australasia. Australia and New Caledonia are centres of endemism with a number of genera and species distributed disjunctly between the two regions. Our aim was to generate a high-level molecular phylogeny for the Australasian Rutoideae and identify major clades as a framework for assessing morphological and biogeographic patterns and taxonomy. Phylogenetic analyses were based on chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, for 108 samples (78 new here), including 38 of 46 Australasian genera. Results were integrated with those from other molecular studies to produce a supertree for Rutaceae worldwide, including 115 of 154 genera. Australasian clades are poorly matched with existing tribal classifications, and genera Philotheca and Boronia are not monophyletic. Major sclerophyll lineages in Australia belong to two separate clades, each with an early divergence between rainforest and sclerophyll taxa. Dehiscent fruits with seeds ejected at maturity (often associated with myrmecochory) are inferred as ancestral; derived states include woody capsules with winged seeds, samaras, fleshy drupes, and retention and display of seeds in dehisced fruits (the last two states adaptations to bird dispersal, with multiple origins among rainforest genera). Patterns of relationship and levels of sequence divergence in some taxa, mostly species, with bird-dispersed (Acronychia, Sarcomelicope, Halfordia and Melicope) or winged (Flindersia) seeds are consistent with recent long-distance dispersal between Australia and New Caledonia. Other deeper Australian/New Caledonian divergences, some involving ant-dispersed taxa (e.g., Neoschmidia), suggest older vicariance. This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Australasian Rutoideae gives a broad overview of the group's evolutionary and biogeographic history. Deficiencies of infrafamilial classifications of Rutoideae have long been
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...
Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.
Alawami, Mohammed; Chatfield, Andrew; Ghashi, Rajaie; Walker, Laurence
Atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery is a major health problem that is associated with a significant financial burden. This paper aims to highlight this problem and review the current guidelines in the prevention and management of AF after cardiac surgery, providing our experience in the Australasian centers. We conducted a literature review using mainly PubMed to compare the current practice with the available evidence. EMBASE and Cochrane library were also searched. We concurrently developed an online questionnaire to collect data from other Australasian centers regarding their approach to this problem. We identified 194 studies that were considered relevant to our research. We did not find any formal protocols published in the literature. From our Australasian experience; seven centers (58%) had a protocol for AF prophylaxis. The protocols included electrolytes replacement, use of amiodarone and/or β-blockers. Other strategies were occasionally used but were not part of a structured protocol. The development of an integrated medical and surgical protocol for the prophylaxis of AF after cardiac surgery is an important aspect for the care of postoperative cardiac patients. Considerations of prophylactic strategies other than those routinely used should be included in the protocol. This area should receive considerable attention in order to reduce the postoperative complications and health costs.
Udovicich, Cristian; Soh, Bryan; Law, Sam; Hoe, Venetia; Lanfranco, Dion; Perera, Kalpa; Duong, Cuong; Chan, Steven
A key metric of the research quality of medical conferences is the publication rate of abstracts. The study objective was to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Scientific Congress (RACS ASC) and to examine for any predictive factors associated with publication. Abstracts presented at the RACS ASC from 2011 to 2013 were analysed. Abstract characteristics such as presentation format, study type, study design, study site, cohort size and author origin were recorded. Abstracts published were identified by a PubMed search using a strict algorithm. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyse for predictive factors of publication. Overall, 1438 abstracts were presented and 423 abstracts (29%) were published. The median time to publication was 15.2 months (interquartile range: 8-26) with 110 in Australasian journals (26%). The median number of citations for published abstracts was 6 (interquartile range: 2-16). After multivariable analysis, publication was significantly associated with prospective study design (odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, P = 0.02), multicentre study site (OR = 1.43, P = 0.02), cohort size ≥100 (OR = 2.00, P Australasian College of Surgeons.
Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Rochette, Pierre
Petrographic and geochemical studies of microtektites collected in newly explored summit plateaus of the Transantarctic Mountains (i.e., Schroeder Spur, Killer Nunatak, Miller Butte in the inland catchment of the Rennick Glacier, and Allan Hills, in the inland catchment of the Mackay-David Glaciers) document a regional distribution of Australasian microtektites in Victoria Land. A geochemical comparison with Australasian microtektites from deep sea sediments at lower latitudes identifies a possible projectile geochemical signature for the first time, and confirms that Transantarctic Mountains microtektites experienced higher thermal regimes. Ballistic calculations reveal that the extraordinary distance of the Transantarctic Mountains microtektites from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼11,000 km) could be more efficiently attained at relatively low ejection angles (20°-40°). Finally, the occurrence of Australasian microtektites (∼0.8 Ma old) on specific glacial surfaces of the Antarctic bedrock constrains the glacial history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Victoria Land. In particular, data from Allan Hills supports a glaciological scenario envisaging an extremely stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet over at least the last ∼1 Ma in the inland catchment of the Mackay/David glaciers. This is consistent with the large accumulation of meteorites in the adjacent blue ice fields.
Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian
High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.
Etherton-Beer, C; Katz, B; Naganathan, V
Continuing professional development (CPD) is an obligation for all Australasian geriatricians; however, there are no systematic data regarding Australian and New Zealand geriatricians' satisfaction with, and preferences for, CPD. To inform understanding of Australasian geriatricians' satisfaction with, and preferences for, CPD. An electronic survey to collect data relating to demographics, current CPD activities, preferred CPD activities and perceived major barriers to CPD was distributed to 706 geriatricians in Australia and New Zealand. Two hundred and thirteen (30%) responses were received. Respondents commonly reported CPD through participation in conferences (n = 205 (96%)) and research/educational activity (n = 146 (70%)). Most respondents agreed that the annual scientific meeting (n = 168 (79%)) and state-based meetings (n = 135 (63%)) are valuable for their CPD. Respondents perceived their professional (n = 155 (73%)) and non-professional (n = 21 (57%)) commitments as the major barriers to quality CPD. Respondents supported additional electronic CPD resources being made available, improved integration of assessment in CPD activities and flexible methods of CPD participation to meet the diverse needs of geriatricians. Respondents perceived the face-to-face CPD opportunities currently available to them as valuable for their CPD but seek additional, flexible products to enable CPD participation based on individual needs and preferences. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Gosbell, Andrew; Moore, Katie; Jelinek, George A
To understand the attitudes of consultant emergency medicine physicians and advanced trainees and the perceived barriers to public health interventions in Australasian EDs. This was a voluntary cross-sectional, mixed-methods online survey of consultant emergency physicians and advanced trainees of the ACEM, conducted between December 2011 and March 2012. Eight hundred and fifty-six ACEM members responded to the survey - a response rate of 33%. A similar number of consultants (70%) and trainees (75%) believed public health initiatives should be provided in the ED. Barriers identified by a similar majority of consultants and trainees to the implementation of public health interventions in EDs included dedicated time available for staff to be involved; available public health resources; available funding; clinical staff skills and expertise in public health; and the availability of staff training. Public health and health promotion are perceived by the majority of emergency medicine physicians as important in emergency medicine; however, substantial barriers exists to their implementation. Development of an evidence-based approach to public health interventions, which are effective and feasible in the ED environment, will facilitate a more comprehensive approach to public health initiatives in emergency medicine. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
.... These funds aim to promote broad U.S. foreign policy and strategic goals by investing in countries or regions that are making the transition to market economies or are otherwise of foreign policy interest to the United States...
What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....
BLACKORBY, Charles; BOSSERT, Walter; DONALDSON, David
This paper reviews the welfarist approach to population ethics. We provide an overview of the critical-level utilitarian population principles and their generalized counterparts, examine important properties of these principles and discuss their relationships to other variable-population social-evaluation rules. We illustrate the difficulties arising in population ethics by means of an impossibility result and present characterizations of the critical-level generalized-utilitarian principles ...
Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.
Flege, Marius M; Thomsen, Simon F
Remuneration in paediatric research poses an ethical dilemma. Too large a sum might cause parents to enrol their children in research projects with no benefit for the child, whereas too modest a sum might hamper recruitment. The institutional review boards have the responsibility to only approve remuneration in paediatric trials with ethically sound research plans. However, little is known about which factors influence institutional review boards' evaluation of remuneration in paediatric research. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Full Text Available To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity.
Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan
Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.
In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.
This paper estimates the price of ethics by studying the risk-return relation in socially responsible investment (SRI) funds. Consistent with investors paying a price for ethics, SRI funds in many European and Asia-Pacific countries strongly underperform domestic benchmark portfolios by about 5% per
The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...
The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...
Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy
Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.
surrounding expected profits indicated by share price volatility, were the chief influences on investment levels, and that heightened share price volatility played the dominant role in the crucial investment collapse in 1930. Investment did not simply follow the downward course of income at the onset...
This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.
standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri
We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...
Brunson, Paul M.
Points out the rift between the non-discrimination ethic of social workers and the apartheid policy in South Africa. University corporate investments in South Africa are questioned, especially those from universities with graduate schools of social work. (LAB)
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have...... promised better services for lower costs. Despite the positive intention, such reforms have not always been received as such by front line nurses, who often see an opposition between these processes with their focus on efficiency and the fundamental values of nursing. In this climate, nurse managers......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...
Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille
Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...
Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille
Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...
Trubiano, J A; Cheng, A C; Korman, T M; Roder, C; Campbell, A; May, M L A; Blyth, C C; Ferguson, J K; Blackmore, T K; Riley, T V; Athan, E
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) continues to rise, whilst treatment remains problematic due to recurrent, refractory and potentially severe nature of disease. The treatment of C. difficile is a challenge for community and hospital-based clinicians. With the advent of an expanding therapeutic arsenal against C. difficile since the last published Australasian guidelines, an update on CDI treatment recommendations for Australasian clinicians was required. On behalf of the Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases, we present the updated guidelines for the management of CDI in adults and children. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Condamine, Fabien L; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Watts, Chris H; Porch, Nick; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael
During the Cenozoic, Australia experienced major climatic shifts that have had dramatic ecological consequences for the modern biota. Mesic tropical ecosystems were progressively restricted to the coasts and replaced by arid-adapted floral and faunal communities. Whilst the role of aridification has been investigated in a wide range of terrestrial lineages, the response of freshwater clades remains poorly investigated. To gain insights into the diversification processes underlying a freshwater radiation, we studied the evolutionary history of the Australasian predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Hydroporini (147 described species). We used an integrative approach including the latest methods in phylogenetics, divergence time estimation, ancestral character state reconstruction, and likelihood-based methods of diversification rate estimation. Phylogenies and dating analyses were reconstructed with molecular data from seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) for 117 species (plus 12 outgroups). Robust and well-resolved phylogenies indicate a late Oligocene origin of Australasian Hydroporini. Biogeographic analyses suggest an origin in the East Coast region of Australia, and a dynamic biogeographic scenario implying dispersal events. The group successfully colonized the tropical coastal regions carved by a rampant desertification, and also colonized groundwater ecosystems in Central Australia. Diversification rate analyses suggest that the ongoing aridification of Australia initiated in the Miocene contributed to a major wave of extinctions since the late Pliocene probably attributable to an increasing aridity, range contractions and seasonally disruptions resulting from Quaternary climatic changes. When comparing subterranean and epigean genera, our results show that contrasting mechanisms drove their diversification and therefore current diversity pattern. The Australasian Hydroporini radiation reflects a combination of processes that promoted both diversification
Dawson, John B
How should the mental element be defined in the legal standards governing a person's 'sectioning' or placement under the Mental Health Act (MHA)? This article considers how this mental element is defined in many MHAs in Australasia: via a statutory list of disorders of mental function said to 'characterise' the necessary state of mind. This article assesses the assumptions behind the adoption of this approach. It discusses the views of several English law reform committees that have explored how the mental element should be defined. It examines the philosophy of psychiatry, expounded clearly by Aubrey Lewis, that lies behind the Australasian approach, one that emphasises the need to identify mental disturbance by reference to disorders of 'part-function of the mind', not by reference to behaviour alone. It considers how the Australasian statutes address the question of personality disorder's covered by the Act. In conclusion, it endorses cautiously the Australasian approach, principally on the ground that it may contribute positively to the conduct of review proceedings for compulsory patients under the Act. It may concentrate the attention of tribunals on particular features of the patient's mental state, on how those features are linked to associated dangers or risks, and on how the presence of those features may justify placing decisions about the patient's treatment in others' hands. Throughout, comparisons are made with the manner in which the mental element has been defined in mental health legislation for England and Wales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø
of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...
I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)
textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological
Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.
Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for
The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.
Pearce, Christopher; Veil, Klaus; Williams, Peter; Cording, Andrew; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Grain, Heather
Across the world, bodies representing health informatics or promoting health informatics are either societies of common interest or universities with health informatics courses/departments. Professional colleges in Health Informatics (similar to the idea of professional colleges in other health fields) are few and far between. The Australasian College of Health Informatics has been in existence since 2001, and has an increasing membership of nearly 100 fellows and members, acting as a national focal point for the promotion of Health Informatics in Australasia. Describing the activities of the college, this article demonstrates a need for increasing professionalization of Health informatics beyond the current structures.
Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Rosenthal, Doreen; Bolitho, Annie
Considerable time and resources are invested in the ethics review process. We present qualitative data on how human research ethics committee members and health researchers perceive the role and function of the committee. The findings are based on interviews with 34 Australian ethics committee members and 54 health researchers. Although all participants agreed that the primary role of the ethics committee was to protect participants, there was disagreement regarding the additional roles undertaken by committees. Of particular concern were the perceptions from some ethics committee members and researchers that ethics committees were working to protect the institution's interests, as well as being overprotective toward research participants. This has the potential to lead to poor relations and mistrust between ethics committees and researchers.
Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle
The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…
With this essay I treat some problems raised by the new developments in science and technology, that is, those about Computer Ethics to show how and how far Applied Ethics differs from traditional ethics. I take up backgrounds on which Computer Ethics rests, particularly historical conditions of morality. Differences of conditions in time and space explain how Computer Ethics and Applied Ethics are not any traditional ethics in concrete cases. But I also investigate the normative rea...
Kuleshov, Yuriy; Choy, Suelynn; Fu, Erjiang Frank; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Liou, Yuei-An; Pavelyev, Alexander G.
Results of analysis of meteorological variables (temperature and moisture) in the Australasian region using the global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) and GPS ground-based observations verified with in situ radiosonde (RS) data are presented. The potential of using ground-based GPS observations for retrieving column integrated precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the Australian continent has been demonstrated using the Australian ground-based GPS reference stations network. Using data from the 15 ground-based GPS stations, the state of the atmosphere over Victoria during a significant weather event, the March 2010 Melbourne storm, has been investigated, and it has been shown that the GPS observations has potential for monitoring the movement of a weather front that has sharp moisture contrast. Temperature and moisture variability in the atmosphere over various climatic regions (the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Antarctic and Australia) has been examined using satellite-based GPS RO and in situ RS observations. Investigating recent atmospheric temperature trends over Antarctica, the time series of the collocated GPS RO and RS data were examined, and strong cooling in the lower stratosphere and warming through the troposphere over Antarctica has been identified, in agreement with outputs of climate models. With further expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) system, it is expected that GNSS satellite- and ground-based measurements would be able to provide an order of magnitude larger amount of data which in turn could significantly advance weather forecasting services, climate monitoring and analysis in the Australasian region.
Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Hauber, Mark E; Libby, Eric; Amiot, Christophe; Raubenheimer, David
Predators that forage on foods with temporally and spatially patchy distributions may rely on private or public sources of information to enhance their chances of foraging success. Using GPS tracking, field observations, and videography, we examined potential sites and mechanisms of information acquisition in departures for foraging trips by colonially breeding Australasian gannets (Morus serrator). Analyses of the bill-fencing ceremony between mated pairs of breeding gannets did not detect correlations between parameters of this reciprocal behavior and foraging trips, as would have been predicted if gannets used this behavior as a source of private information. Instead, 60% of the departing birds flew directly to join water rafts of other conspecific en route to the feeding grounds. The departure of solitary birds from the water rafts was synchronized (within 60 s) with the arrival of incoming foragers and also among departing birds. Furthermore, solitary departing birds from the rafts left in the same directional quadrant (90º slices) as the prior arriving (67%) and also prior departing forager (79%). When associated plunge dives of conspecific were visible from the colony, providing a public source of information, gannets more often departed from the water rafts in groups. Our study thus provides evidence for the use of water rafts, but not the nest site, as locations of information transfer, and also confirms the use of local enhancement as a strategy for foraging flights by Australasian gannets.
Norris, Diana; Photiou, Louise; Tacey, Mark; Dolianitis, Con; Varigos, George; Foley, Peter; Baker, Chris
Psoriasis is a chronic condition that may require long-term treatment for disease control. This analysis utilizes data from the Australasian Psoriasis Registry with particular attention to the impact of biologic therapy on DLQI, and the differences between the biologics in terms of DLQI score change. A retrospective review of patients enrolled in the Australasian Psoriasis Registry from April 2008 to August 2016 was conducted. All subjects from the registry that had DLQI and Psoriasis Assessment Severity Index (PASI) scores recorded at a baseline time point of treatment commencement, in addition to week 12 and 24 post commencement were included in the study. A window of ±3 weeks was permitted at these time points. Multivariate linear regression analysis was undertaken to identify significant predictors associated with change in DLQI. Significant predictors of reduction in DLQI and PASI score from baseline to week 24 include use of adalimumab, infliximab, secukinumab and ustekinumab. Other therapies, including etanercept and oral systemic agents did not show significant change. Each class of biologic showed significant reductions in DLQI score, with IL-12/23 blockade showing the greatest reduction. Significant predictors of lack of reduction in DLQI score include a baseline PASI score psoriasis who are treated with biologics show the greatest reduction in DLQI score, compared with other treatments. Australian dermatologists are prescribing biologics when patients qualify for them in keeping with current guidelines.
Leonard, Elizabeth; Curtis, Kate
The Australasian Trauma Verification Program was developed in 2000 to improve the quality of care provided at services in Australia and New Zealand. The programme outlines resources required for differing levels of trauma services. This study compares the human resources in Australia and New Zealand trauma services with those recommended by the Australasian College of Surgeons Trauma Verification Program. In September 2011, all trauma nurse coordinators in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an electronic survey endorsed by the Australasian Trauma Society. This study expands on previous bi-national research and aimed to identify demographic and trauma service human resource levels. Fifty-three surveys (78%) were completed and all 27 Level 1 trauma centres represented. Of the Level 1 trauma centres, a trauma director and fellow were available at 16 (51.8%) and 14 (40.7%) centres, respectively. The majority (93%) had a full-time trauma coordinator although a trauma case manager was only available at 14 (48.1%) of Level 1 trauma centres. Despite the large amount of data collection and extraction required, trauma services had limited access to a data manager (50.9%) or clerical staff (36.9%). Human resources in Australian and NZ trauma services are not reflective of those recommended by the Australasian Trauma Verification Program. This impacts on the ability to coordinate trauma monitoring and performance improvement. Review of the Australasian Trauma Verification Model Resource Criteria is required. Injury surveillance in Australia and NZ is hampered by insufficient trauma registry resources. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.; Baker, H.K.; Nofsinger, J.R.
This chapter studies the money flows into and out of socially responsible investment (SRI) funds around the world. In their investment decisions, investors in SRI funds may be more concerned with ethical or social issues than with fund performance. Therefore, SRI money flows are less related to past
Porter, Brian E.
It is increasingly important to understand the fundamentals of investing and, for many, the ability to integrate faith and ethics with investing decisions. This is especially relevant for employees and students in Christian higher education. Most employees in Christian higher education are enrolled in retirement plans that obligate them to make…
Sibbin, C P; Bihari, S; Russell, P
Australian internal medicine trainees undergo intensive training in preparation for the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) clinical examination. Trainees preparing for the 2013 RACP clinical examination assessed the jugular venous pressure (JVP) of patients, with central venous pressure monitoring in the intensive care unit before and after the exam. RACP clinical examination preparation was associated with improvements of trainees' ability to identify JVP that were not elevated, although the JVP examination was performed marginally as a diagnostic test. Ongoing training might further improve this skill. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Steinberg, J J
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)].
COPIL CRINA ANGELA
Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages
Moreno Lax, Alejandro
Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics.
Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy
Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...
Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.
Successful investing for long-term funds requires a strategic plan. This is true despite--indeed, because of--the fact that the future is unknowable. The plan must be specific, embodying in concrete terms the best thinking of the board of trustees about the investment pool, its goals and purposes; but it also needs to be sufficiently flexible to…
Responsible investment has witnessed significant changes in the past decade. It is estimated that about one fifth of assets under management in the US and about half of all assets under management in the EU are done on the basis of one of the seven responsible investment strategies. This paper
The studys purpose is to provide MoDOT with insight to the potential ROI for airport : investments in terms of economic development. To do so, this study addresses two central : objectives: first, an approach to evaluate airport investments; and s...
O. V. Pochukaeva
Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.
Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…
Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.
In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics
Furman, Gail C.
This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…
Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.
Peggie, J.R.; Gan, Tianghong; Solomon, S.B.
The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Programme for radon, thoron and daughters monitoring equipment, abbreviated IIIP, was a programme organized jointly by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Radiation Protection Research Programme of the Commission of European Communities. The broad purpose of the IIIP was to determine if the diverse calibration procedures used in different countries were equivalent. The general approach was to select four regional reference laboratories and entrust then with the details of project definition and execution. The Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) was selected to co-ordinate IIIP activities between OECD member countries in the Pacific region. As the regional programme precluded the participation of non-OECD member countries in the Western Pacific Region, an intercomparison series for radon was initiated by ARL in 1987 between twenty eight laboratories from nine countries in the Asian/Australasian region. The methodology and protocols for grab sampler, solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and charcoal measurements are described in this report. Generally the results showed reasonable agreement between the majority of laboratories for grab sampler measurements consistent with previous intercomparison. However there were large systematic differences in the results of the passive monitors for some laboratories. For all samplers, it was found that the overall random uncertainty or replication error, which included random uncertainties associated with the counting and calibration, were the main sources of variability between individual measurements of participants and the ARL reference value, with calibration uncertainties predominating. 23 tabs
-to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...... and needs among population groups with a low ability to pay. Instead of cost-benefit analyses, impact analyses evaluating the likely effects of project alternatives against a wide range of societal goals is recommended, with quantification and economic valorisation only for impact categories where this can......This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural...
Full Text Available In the article the approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “investment attractiveness of enterprises” were analyzed. On the example of "Agrofirm Brusilov" depth analysis of the agricultural enterprises to evaluate of profitability, liquidity, solvency, financial stability, the timing of the return of invested funds and minimizing investment risks was conducted. To study methods of rating and system analysis were used. To justify the conditions of increasing investment attractiveness farms method of scoring was used. It was established as a result of the use of integrated evaluation of the financial position one can see problem aspects of financial position of the company and develop measures to enhance liquidity, solvency, identify potential for raising the efficiency of company and prevention of financial crisis. The analysis of financial position showed that the management of the enterprise doesn’t think about financial stability and solvency, does not understand the benefit of borrowed capital. Using research results in practice of agricultural enterprises allows us to give a real evaluation of investment attractiveness and justify ways to improve it. Key words: investments, investment attractiveness, potential business, financial position.
A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Human subjects and social relations are crucial in research psychologists’ ethical considerations. Lists of ethical criteria - including how to anonymize data, avoid causing harm, handle asymmetries – are pivotal. A situated ethics inspired by new materialism and poststructuralism would, however,...
This article focuses on the question of unification versus relationality in ethics. It compares two different ethical approaches from Late Antiquity, highlighting the contrast between Plotinian (Neoplatonic) ethics as striving for perfect unification of the human soul with the divinity...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (Board) are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical conduct at 5 CFR part...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS EMPLOYEE ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS § 705.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...
Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the ...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....
The development of applied ethics in recent decades has had great significance for philosophy and society. In this article, I try to characterise this field of philosophical inquiry. I also discuss the relation of applied ethics to social policy and to professional ethics. In the first part, I address the following questions: What is applied ethics? When and why did applied ethics appear? How do we engage in applied ethics? What are the methods? In the second part of the article, I introduce...
Kesgin, Ahmet; KESGİN, Ahmet
Ethics is philosophical thought which human behavior’s scope of moral is subject. However, by effectuating the principles of moral is to be in the life. In this regard, although not exactly the same is to be fulfilled the function of the concept of morality. There are ussually common oponion which ethics, a philosophical topic, is three kinds. These are descriptive ethics, normative ethics and metaethics. The main characteristics of these types of ethical are: Descriptive ethics depict existi...
Watanuki, Satoshi; Aoyagi, Yuki; Yukawa Orimoto, Kumiko
We attended the first Australasian Diagnostic Error in Medicine Conference (Aus DEM) in Melbourne from 23 to 25 May, 2017. We believe hosting the DEM conference in Japan is vital in promoting diagnostic error prevention initiatives in our region. We hope all the stakeholders in health care will join the DEM conference to be hosted in our country to address issues surrounding diagnostic errors.
Cheng, Daryl R; McCartney, Laura E; West, Adam; Craig, Simon S
Australasian EDs have introduced innovative processes to ensure safe and timely management of patients. Our ED introduced a dedicated pager system to provide rapid assessment of Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) category 2 patients in an attempt to expedite ED care. The present paper aims to evaluate the impact of this initiative on time to clinician, ED length of stay (LOS) and clinical outcomes in a tertiary paediatric ED. Retrospective structured chart review on patients presenting in a 2 month period before the intervention (August-September 2009) and the same time 1 year later. Patients were grouped into common ATS category 2 presentations and analysed in these subcategories. Clinical indicators of appropriate and timely performance were selected from best practice performance guidelines. 779 ATS category 2 patients were seen during the two periods: 370 pre-intervention and 409 post-intervention. The overall percentage of ATS category 2 patients seen within the target time increased by 22.3%, although there was no significant change in ED LOS. The median time for patients from triage to being seen by an ED clinician improved from 10 to 6 min (P Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Hardman, L M; Haukisalmi, V; Beveridge, I
A phylogenetic analysis was carried out on rDNA of 45 species of anoplocephaline cestodes from marsupial hosts. The exclusively Australasian genera Progamotaenia Nybelin, 1917, Triplotaenia Boas, 1902, Paramoniezia Maplestone & Southwell, 1923 and Phascolotaenia Beveridge, 1976 formed a monophyletic clade, and the previously suggested relationship between the Australasian species of the cosmopolitan genus Bertiella Stiles & Hassall, 1902 and species of Progamotaenia was supported. A low degree of phyletic co-evolution was detected within endemic Australasian clades. Colonisation rather than co-speciation appeared to be the principal means of diversification within the Australasian anoplocephaline radiation. The clade of bile duct-inhabiting Progamotaenia species emphasises the role of microhabitat rather than host species as a driver of speciation. Triplotaenia undosa Beveridge, 1976 described from a wide variety of macropodid hosts was found to be polyphyletic and a proposition was made to resurrect Wallabicestus Schmidt, 1975, with W. ewersi Schmidt, 1975 as the type-species and including W. ualabati (Beveridge, 2009) n. comb. [previously Progamotaenia ualabati Beveridge, 2009].
Garcia Schreck, M.
This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)
Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Fiorelli, Lucas E
Titanosauria is a globally distributed clade of sometimes extremely large Mesozoic herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs. On the basis of current evidence these giant dinosaurs seem to have reproduced in specific and localized nesting sites. However, no investigations have been performed to understand the possible ecological and geological biases that acted for the selection of these nesting sites worldwide. In this study, observations were performed on the best-known Cretaceous nesting sites around the world. Our observations strongly suggest their eggs were incubated with environmental sources of heat, in burial conditions. Taking into account the clutch composition and geometry, the nature and properties of the sediments, the eggshells' structures and conductance, it would appear that titanosaurs adopted nesting behaviors comparable to the modern Australasian megapodes, using burrow-nesting in diverse media and mound-building strategies.
E. Martín Hechenleitner
Full Text Available Titanosauria is a globally distributed clade of sometimes extremely large Mesozoic herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs. On the basis of current evidence these giant dinosaurs seem to have reproduced in specific and localized nesting sites. However, no investigations have been performed to understand the possible ecological and geological biases that acted for the selection of these nesting sites worldwide. In this study, observations were performed on the best-known Cretaceous nesting sites around the world. Our observations strongly suggest their eggs were incubated with environmental sources of heat, in burial conditions. Taking into account the clutch composition and geometry, the nature and properties of the sediments, the eggshells’ structures and conductance, it would appear that titanosaurs adopted nesting behaviors comparable to the modern Australasian megapodes, using burrow-nesting in diverse media and mound-building strategies.
Full Text Available The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to “AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research” for more detail of his contributions .
Moin, Aquib; Edwards, Philip G.; Tingay, Steven J.; Phillips, Chris J.; Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Amy, Shaun W.; An, Tao; Sekido, Mamoru; Wang, Zhong-Xiang
Transcontinental e-VLBI observations were conducted in June 2008 with telescopes in Australia, China and Japan. Detections were made of the radio-loud quasar PKS B0727-115, which shows superluminal motion, and the intra-day variable quasar PKS B0524+034. The latter source was used as a phase reference calibrator for observations at the position of the gamma-ray burst GRB 080409, for which an upper limit to the radio emission is set. Australia Telescope Compact Array data were also used to derive a limit on the radio flux density of the GRB afterglow. These observations demonstrate the capability to form a large Australasian radio telescope network for e-VLBI, with data transported and processed in realtime over high capacity networks. This campaign represents the first step towards more regular e-VLBI observations in this region.
Morrish, Alicia T; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Badve, Sunil V; Perkovic, Vlado; Reidlinger, Donna M; Cass, Alan
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem globally. Despite this, there are fewer high-quality, high-impact clinical trials in nephrology than other internal medicine specialties, which has led to large gaps in evidence. To address this deficiency, the Australasian Kidney Trials Network, a Collaborative Research Group, was formed in 2005. Since then, the Network has provided infrastructure and expertise to conduct patient-focused high-quality, investigator-initiated clinical trials in nephrology. The Network has not only been successful in engaging the nephrology community in Australia and New Zealand but also in forming collaborations with leading researchers from other countries. This article describes the establishment, development, and functions of the Network. The article also discusses the current and future funding strategies to ensure uninterrupted conduct of much needed clinical trials in nephrology to improve the outcomes of patients affected by kidney diseases with cost-effective interventions. PMID:24088955
Round, W Howell
A survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce was carried out in 2009 following on from a similar survey in 2006. 621 positions (equivalent to 575 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these 330 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 45 EFT were in radiology physics, 42 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 159 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 29 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 3 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.
Morrish, Alicia T; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Badve, Sunil V; Perkovic, Vlado; Reidlinger, Donna M; Cass, Alan
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem globally. Despite this, there are fewer high-quality, high-impact clinical trials in nephrology than other internal medicine specialties, which has led to large gaps in evidence. To address this deficiency, the Australasian Kidney Trials Network, a Collaborative Research Group, was formed in 2005. Since then, the Network has provided infrastructure and expertise to conduct patient-focused high-quality, investigator-initiated clinical trials in nephrology. The Network has not only been successful in engaging the nephrology community in Australia and New Zealand but also in forming collaborations with leading researchers from other countries. This article describes the establishment, development, and functions of the Network. The article also discusses the current and future funding strategies to ensure uninterrupted conduct of much needed clinical trials in nephrology to improve the outcomes of patients affected by kidney diseases with cost-effective interventions.
Zurzolo, G A; Peters, R L; Koplin, J J; de Courten, M; Mathai, M L; Tye-Din, J A; Tang, M L K; Campbell, D E; Ponsonby, A-L; Prescott, S L; Gurrin, L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J
The precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) and Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL ® ) tools were designed by industry to assist consumers with selecting safe foods for consumption. However, a sizeable proportion of food products bear no label, and it is unclear whether these products are free from allergens and therefore safe to consume or have simply not undergone a risk assessment and therefore remain unlabelled for that reason. To assess the prevalence of unlabelled products that have undergone a risk assessment process and to examine the factors influencing industry's uptake of the VITAL ® process. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to Australasian food and grocery manufacturers. One hundred and thirty-seven Australasian manufacturers were contacted, and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 43%). The respondents represented 454 different manufacturing sites. Manufacturers reported that 23% (95% CI 19-28) of products (n=102/434) that had been through the VITAL ® risk assessment process had no PAL statement on the label. 34% (95% CI 30-38), (n=204/600) of products that had undergone another (non-VITAL ® ) risk assessment process had no PAL statement. In examining the factors that influenced industry's uptake of the VITAL ® process, 25 manufacturers reported on factors that influenced the uptake of the VITAL ® process, 76% (CI 95% 55-91) reported that VITAL ® was an effective tool because it was based on science; 52% (CI 95% 31-72) reported that it was too time-consuming and 36% (CI 95% 18-57) identified a concern with it not being endorsed by the government. Currently, we estimate that at least 30% of products may have been through a risk assessment process and yet bear no PAL statement on the label. Permissive labelling could be incorporated onto these products if they have been assessed to be safe for consumption. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
B. C. Dixon
Full Text Available Non-annually resolved palaeoclimate records in the Australasian region were compiled to facilitate investigations of decadal to centennial climate variability over the past 2000 years. A total of 675 lake and wetland, geomorphic, marine, and speleothem records were identified. The majority of records are located near population centres in southeast Australia, in New Zealand, and across the maritime continent, and there are few records from the arid regions of central and western Australia. Each record was assessed against a set of a priori criteria based on temporal resolution, record length, dating methods, and confidence in the proxy–climate relationship over the Common Era. A subset of 22 records met the criteria and were endorsed for subsequent analyses. Chronological uncertainty was the primary reason why records did not meet the selection criteria. New chronologies based on Bayesian techniques were constructed for the high-quality subset to ensure a consistent approach to age modelling and quantification of age uncertainties. The primary reasons for differences between published and reconstructed age–depth models were the consideration of the non-singular distribution of ages in calibrated 14C dates and the use of estimated autocorrelation between sampled depths as a constraint for changes in accumulation rate. Existing proxies and reconstruction techniques that successfully capture climate variability in the region show potential to address spatial gaps and expand the range of climate variables covering the last 2000 years in the Australasian region. Future palaeoclimate research and records in Australasia could be greatly improved through three main actions: (i greater data availability through the public archiving of published records; (ii thorough characterisation of proxy–climate relationships through site monitoring and climate sensitivity tests; and (iii improvement of chronologies through core-top dating
Gagan, M. K.; Scroxton, N. G.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Krause, C.; Hantoro, W. S.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Shen, C. C.; Scott-Gagan, H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Rifai, H.
Speleothem 18O/16O records have revealed key aspects of past hydroclimates in the northern Australasian monsoon domain on orbital to millennial scales, but much less is known about the southern half of the monsoon system. We aim to develop a hydroclimate history for the southern Australasian monsoon based on speleothems from southwest Sulawesi and Flores, Indonesia (latitudes 5-9oS), which extend back to ~530 kyr BP and 90 kyr BP, respectively. To date, the 18O/16O record for Sulawesi covers glacial terminations TIV (~340 kyr BP), TIII (~245 kyr BP) and TI (~18 kyr BP). The details of each termination are different, however two important hydroclimate patterns are emerging. First, the 18O/16O record shows sharp weakening of the monsoon immediately before each termination. This surprisingly robust pattern marks a southern extension of the northern 'weak monsoon interval', and reinforces the idea that southward monsoon displacement is a fundamental feature of terminations. Second, monsoon intensification around Sulawesi lags the rise in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature by several thousand years, but parallels the 18O/16O decrease in atmospheric O2. Our finding extends that of Wang et al. (2008) and Cheng et al. (2009) who noted the influence of the low-latitude hydrological cycle on the 18O/16O of tropical transpiration, and its potential for correlating ice core and paleomonsoon records. Further south, the 90-kyr 18O/16O record for Flores shows clear precession-scale antiphasing with China, and southerly positioning of the summer monsoon rainfall belt during Heinrich stadials. Heinrich stadials 5, 4, 2 and 1 occur during wetter intervals in Flores that accompanied relatively high southern summer insolation. Intriguingly, these events are associated with abrupt atmospheric CH4 signals that may be due to increased Southern Hemisphere CH4 production related to intensification of monsoon rainfall over southern tropical land areas (Rhodes et al., 2014).
Khashram, Manar; Thomson, Ian A; Jones, Gregory T; Roake, Justin A
In New Zealand (NZ), there are two major sources of operative data for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair: the Australasian Vascular Audit (AVA) and the National Minimum Data Set (NMDS). Since the introduction of the AVA in NZ, there has not been any attempt at the validation of outcome data. The aims of this study were to report the outcomes of AAA repair and validate the AAA data captured by AVA using the NMDS. AAA procedures performed in NZ from January 2010 to December 2014 were extracted from the AVA and NMDS. Patients identified from the AVA had their survival status matched to the NMDS. Only primary AAA procedures were included for the analysis, with re-interventions and graft infections excluded. Demographical, risk factors and outcome data were used for validation. The number of patients undergoing primary AAA procedure from AVA and NMDS was 1713 and 2078, respectively. The AVA inpatient mortality for elective and rupture AAA was 1.6 and 32.2%, respectively. The NMDS 30-day mortality from AAA was 2.5 and 31.5%. Overall, 1604 patients were available for matching, and the NMDS correctly reported 98.1% of endovascular aneurysm repair and 94.2% of elective AAA repairs; however, there were major differences in comorbidity reporting between the data sets. Both data sets were incomplete, but combining administrative (NMDS) and clinical (AVA) data sets provided a more accurate assessment of mortality figures. More than 80% of AAA repairs are captured by AVA, but further work to improve compliance and comorbidity documentation is required. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
McNeil, Nicola; Leggat, Sandra; Bartram, Timothy
Medical Colleges rely on the volunteer labour of their Fellows to undertake their key functions. In the Australasian context, there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that Fellow participation is declining. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main factors that influence Fellows' participation in the activities of a Medical College. The authors conducted three focus groups with Fellows who exhibit varying levels of participation with the Medical College in 2012. The research identified individual and organisational factors which influence the propensity of Fellows to volunteer their time to the Medical College. At an individual level, Fellows cite a number of factors which motivate them to volunteer their time to the Medical College, including: altruistic reasons; giving back to the profession and community; and the benefits that Fellow's receive from their participation in College activities, including enhancing their status within the profession. However, Fellows also report issues of work-family integration, balancing Medical College and work-related responsibilities as factors precluding them from participating in Medical College activities. Fellows also noted several factors related to the operation of the Medical College which inhibited their participation in the Medical College, including the perceived exclusivity of the Medical College, a lack of service orientation towards Fellows, a lack of recognition of the work of Fellows and a perceived lack of advocacy on the part of the Medical College. This paper highlights that the participation of Fellows in their Medical Colleges is essential to maintaining quality standards and the effective operation of Australasian healthcare. These preliminary results indicate that there are several factors which discourage Fellow participation in Medical College activities, suggesting a need for Medical Colleges to develop strategies to address these issues.
Sane, Vrunda; Humphreys, Linda; Peterson, Madelyn
This study explored the perceived interest in development of private genetic counseling services in collaboration with primary care physicians in the Australasian setting by online survey of members of the Australasian Society of Genetic Counselors. Four hypothetical private practice models of professional collaboration between genetic counselors and primary care physicians or clinical geneticists were proposed to gauge interest and enthusiasm of ASGC members for this type of professional development. Perceived barriers and facilitators were also evaluated. 78 completed responses were included for analysis. The majority of participants (84.6 %) showed a positive degree of interest and enthusiasm towards potential for clinical work in private practice. All proposed practice models yielded a positive degree of interest from participants. Model 4 (the only model of collaboration with a clinical geneticist rather than primary care physician) was the clearly preferred option (mean = 4.26/5), followed by Model 2 (collaboration with a single primary care practice) (mean = 4.09/5), Model 3 (collaboration with multiple primary care clinics, multidisciplinary clinic or specialty clinic) (mean = 3.77/5) and finally, Model 1 (mean = 3.61/5), which was the most independent model of practice. When participants ranked the options in the order of preference, Model 4 remained the most popular first preference (44.6 %), followed by model 2 (21.6 %), model 3 (18.9 %) and model 1 was again least popular (10.8 %). There was no significant statistical correlation between demographic characteristics (age bracket, years of work experience, current level of work autonomy) and participants' preference for private practice models. Support from clinical genetics colleagues and the professional society was highly rated as a facilitator and, conversely, lack of such support as a significant barrier.
Dixon, Bronwyn C.; Tyler, Jonathan J.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Goodwin, Ian D.; Gergis, Joëlle; Drysdale, Russell N.
Non-annually resolved palaeoclimate records in the Australasian region were compiled to facilitate investigations of decadal to centennial climate variability over the past 2000 years. A total of 675 lake and wetland, geomorphic, marine, and speleothem records were identified. The majority of records are located near population centres in southeast Australia, in New Zealand, and across the maritime continent, and there are few records from the arid regions of central and western Australia. Each record was assessed against a set of a priori criteria based on temporal resolution, record length, dating methods, and confidence in the proxy-climate relationship over the Common Era. A subset of 22 records met the criteria and were endorsed for subsequent analyses. Chronological uncertainty was the primary reason why records did not meet the selection criteria. New chronologies based on Bayesian techniques were constructed for the high-quality subset to ensure a consistent approach to age modelling and quantification of age uncertainties. The primary reasons for differences between published and reconstructed age-depth models were the consideration of the non-singular distribution of ages in calibrated 14C dates and the use of estimated autocorrelation between sampled depths as a constraint for changes in accumulation rate. Existing proxies and reconstruction techniques that successfully capture climate variability in the region show potential to address spatial gaps and expand the range of climate variables covering the last 2000 years in the Australasian region. Future palaeoclimate research and records in Australasia could be greatly improved through three main actions: (i) greater data availability through the public archiving of published records; (ii) thorough characterisation of proxy-climate relationships through site monitoring and climate sensitivity tests; and (iii) improvement of chronologies through core-top dating, inclusion of tephra layers where possible
Rademaker, Marius; Agnew, Karen; Andrews, Megan; Armour, Katherine; Baker, Chris; Foley, Peter; Frew, John; Gebauer, Kurt; Gupta, Monisha; Kennedy, Debra; Marshman, Gillian; Sullivan, John
The Australasian Psoriasis Collaboration has reviewed the evidence for managing moderate to severe psoriasis in those who are pregnant or are breast-feeding, or planning a family. The severity of the psoriasis, associated comorbidities and specific anti-psoriasis treatment, along with other exposures, can have a deleterious effect on pregnancy outcomes. Psoriasis itself increases the risk of preterm and low birthweight babies, along with spontaneous and induced abortions, but no specific birth defects have been otherwise demonstrated. The baseline risk for a live born baby to have a major birth defect is 3%, and significant neuro-developmental problem is 5%. In Australia, pregnant women with psoriasis are more likely to be overweight or obese, depressed, or smoke in their first trimester, and are also less likely to take prenatal vitamins or supplements. Preconception counselling to improve maternal, pregnancy and baby health is therefore strongly encouraged. The topical and systemic therapies commonly used in psoriasis are each discussed separately, with regards to pregnancy exposure, breast-feeding and effects on male fertility and mutagenicity. The systemic therapies included are acitretin, adalimumab, apremilast, certolizumab, ciclosporin, etanercept, infliximab, ixekizumab, methotrexate, NBUVB, prednisone, PUVA, secukinumab and ustekinumab. The topical therapies include dithranol (anthralin), calcipotriol, coal tar, corticosteroids (weak, potent and super-potent), moisturisers, salicylic acid, tacrolimus, and tazarotene. As a general recommendation, effective drugs that have been widely used for years are preferable to newer alternatives with less foetal safety data. It is equally important to evaluate the risks of not treating, as severe untreated disease may negatively impact both mother and the foetus. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Smith, Ross C; Smith, Sarah F; Wilson, Jeremy; Pearce, Callum; Wray, Nick; Vo, Ruth; Chen, John; Ooi, Chee Y; Oliver, Mark; Katz, Tamarah; Turner, Richard; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Rayner, Christopher; Horowitz, Michael; Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nick; Windsor, John; Pirola, Ron; Neale, Rachel
Because of increasing awareness of variations in the use of pancreatic exocrine replacement therapy, the Australasian Pancreatic Club decided it was timely to re-review the literature and create new Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI). A working party of expert clinicians was convened and initially determined that by dividing the types of presentation into three categories for the likelihood of PEI (definite, possible and unlikely) they were able to consider the difficulties of diagnosing PEI and relate these to the value of treatment for each diagnostic category. Recent studies confirm that patients with chronic pancreatitis receive similar benefit from pancreatic exocrine replacement therapy (PERT) to that established in children with cystic fibrosis. Severe acute pancreatitis is frequently followed by PEI and PERT should be considered for these patients because of their nutritional requirements. Evidence is also becoming stronger for the benefits of PERT in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. However there is as yet no clear guide to help identify those patients in the 'unlikely' PEI group who would benefit from PERT. For example, patients with coeliac disease, diabetes mellitus, irritable bowel syndrome and weight loss in the elderly may occasionally be given a trial of PERT, but determining its effectiveness will be difficult. The starting dose of PERT should be from 25,000-40,000 IU lipase taken with food. This may need to be titrated up and there may be a need for proton pump inhibitors in some patients to improve efficacy. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.
Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.
Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns
Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.
Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results: This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated...... with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged...
Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.
This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort
Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta
This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis on qu...
Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...
Pei-Hsuan Lee; Ching-Wen Wang
This study investigates the loyalty-based investment behavior in Taiwan. The link between team associations and loyalty has been examined to understand the characteristics of loyalty-based investors. The results revealed that both behavioral loyalty and attitudinal loyalty have significant positive effects on fans' investment intentions. Moreover, both attributes and benefits are significantly and positively related to either aspect of loyalty. In specific, behavioral loyalty has a higher inf...
Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose
As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases. This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745
This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara
Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…
We continue to expand a water supply that has ecological and economical limits. Drip irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and use of water=saving plumbing fixtures can help solve our water shortage problem. The core of the predicament is that society is no longer connected to water's life=giving qualities. Modern society does not respect the natural river, the complexity of a wetland, and the intricate web of life. It considers water to be a resource only to control for human consumption. Humans do not realize that they should preserve and protect water. We need guidelines to force us to act appropriately when we must make complex decisions about natural ecosystems whose workings evade us. The ultimate goal of this water ethic should be protection of water ecosystems. Adoption of this integrated, holistic ethic would call for the use of less water when possible and to share what we have. This ethic would be part of a sustainable development code which blends economic goals with ecological criteria. The water ethic would have indicators monitoring the breakdown of ecosystems, therefore allowing us to make corrections to restore ecosystems to health. We see some of this now as Florida tries to restore the Everglades damaged by unsustainable development. We should watch to see whether Botswana will continue to keep economic development from the Okavango Delta. Governments, the World Bank, and other lending institutions should make investment decisions based on ecological sustainability. The water ethic must include a social and political commitment to meet the basic needs of the poor. International relations must also consider equity and fairness when it comes to developing water-sharing terms and treaties. Individuals need to reduce their water consumption and consumption of goods whose manufacture requires water use resulting in water pollution. Population growth needs to slow down considerably to secure out water future.
Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.
Social Impact Investment: Increasing Private Sector Investment to address Economic, Social, and Environmental Challenges. Private investors and philanthropic agencies are increasingly investing in firms and social enterprises that provide socially valued goods and services. The social impact investment market is now ...
In the introduction the author submits association, connotations, and definitions of basic ethical terms, along with a classification of ethics. The author presents an outline of ethical problems of medicine and in particular paediatrics with an explanation why society pays special attention to these problems and why ethical self-reflection of doctors in general and paediatricians in particular is necessary.
Beggs, Jeri Mullins
The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…
This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.
Lieberman, Jethro K.
The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)
The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters."
Yamin Ahmad; Pietro Cova; Rodrigo Harrison
We present a model of investment under uncertainty about fundamentals, using a global games approach. Goldstein & Razin (2003) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment (PI) which rationalizes some well known stylised facts in the literature - the relative volatility and reversibility of foreign direct investment versus portfolio investment. We extend their result and show that uncertainty about fundamentals does not imp...
This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...
This thesis analyzes different aspects of the investment decision. In the first chapter, we consider an economy in which different energy sources may produce electricity. The model focuses first on the optimal use of a hydroelectric dam from which water can be extracted and which is supplied with a random water flow. The presence of constraints on a minimal and on a maximal storage capacity makes electricity consumption smoothing possible only when the quantity of water available to the agent lies in a certain range that we determine. In a second stage, we introduce a second energy source with unlimited supply at some exogenous cost. The marginal propensity to produce hydroelectricity is an increasing function of the second technology cost. The availability at a low cost of the alternative source improves thus time diversification. Finally, the optimal electric park is composed of a number of dams that is increasing with the cost of the second technology. Chapter 2 studies the decision of an investor who wants to undertake an irreversible investment when he has the choice between two mutually exclusive projects that present input price and/or output price uncertainty. We prove that the investor decides not to invest in any project when each investment generates the same payoff independently of its size. Therefore, some inaction region appears in which the investor prefers not to invest whereas an immediate investment would have been optimal if no choice had been available: a 'choice value' is thus created. A key feature of this bidimensional degree of uncertainty is thus that the payoff generated by each project is not a sufficient statistic to make a rational investment. In this context, our analysis provides a new motive for waiting to invest: the benefits associated with the dominance of one project over the other. In chapter 3, we study the investment decision problem of a duo-poly with price competition on a market of finite size driven by stochastic taste
Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would li...
Luiz Martins da Silva
The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no commun...
The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.
Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.
In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics of activities directly connected with doing scientific research are discussed, like experimenting with animals and human beings, publishing, patenting, getting funds and selecting one’s research th...
Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...
Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe
A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...... literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature....
Bechmann, Ken L.
Som det vil være velkendt for de fleste læsere, så er der skiftedag på Finans/Invest. Således var Finans/Invest 8/13 det sidste nummer med Anders Grosen som redaktør, og nærværende nummer er det første med professor Ken L. Bechmann som redaktør. I denne første leder beskriver den nye redaktør lidt...... om hans syn på Finans/Invest og tidsskriftets store betydning for formidling af faglig viden inden for finansiering. Yderligere beskrives nogle af de mindre redaktionelle ændringer, som den nye redaktør har planlagt. Endelig indeholder lederen traditionen tro redaktørens refleksioner over og...
The investment decision is part of a companies’ investment strategy. Defined as a logical set of technical and economic information, the investment strategy determines the main objectives of the firm regarding its investments, based on studies, analysis and simulations. It also establishes the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the objectives, methods of achieving them, sources of funding and resource allocation methods. Still, all these are influenced by several factors. The invest...
Full Text Available Starting with the year 2009, the European Union, as well as the rest of the world, was affected by the economic and financial crisis, and one of the effects reflected in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI projects and also in the reduction of their host locations. Creating a healthy economic environment, that should be efficient for any form of international investment , represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. This paper concentrates on analyzing our country’s attractiveness from the international investor’s point of view, it also focuses on the Romanian investment policy, its investment climate, as well as on identifying or valuating the strengths and opportunities offered by Romania. The advantages of the foreign direct investments are universally recognized and they basically include the expansion of the production capacity and income, job creation, technologically diffusion and economic development. Creating an appropriate economic environment, that is efficient for any form of international investments represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. OECD member states experience, for example, outlines the advantages of a functional legal and normative climate, based on the principles of transparency and non discrimination, that are essential for attracting foreign investments. In the actual competition for attracting FDI, every state tries to offer as many incentives to the future foreign investors. The Romanian investment policy sets out incentives in a non-discriminatory and transparent way offering the investors the specific criteria. The Romanian business environment has improved significantly in recent years, driven in particular by EU accession. Major progress has been recorded in areas such as the fiscal environment, rule of law, the fight against corruption and property registration. When considering our country a possible location for the development of their businesses, the foreign
Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm
The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bioethics became applied ethics when it was assimilated to moral philosophy. Because deduction is the rationality of moral philosophy, subsuming facts under moral principles to deduce conclusions about what ought to be done became the prescribed reasoning of bioethics, and bioethics became a theory comprised of moral principles. Bioethicists now realize that applied ethics is too abstract and spare to apprehend the specificity, particularity, complexity and contingency of real moral issues. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics are needed to incorporate these features into morality, not just bioethics. The relevant facts and features of problems have to be identified, investigated and framed coherently, and potential resolutions have to be constructed and assessed. Moreover, these tasks are pursued and melded within manifold contexts, for example, families, work and health care systems, as well as societal, economic, legal and political backgrounds and encompassing worldviews. This naturalist orientation and both empirical ethics and contextual ethics require judgment, but how can judgment be rational? Rationality, fortunately, is more expansive than deductive reasoning. Judgment is rational when it emanates from a rational process of deliberation, and a process of deliberation is rational when it uses the resources of non-formal reason: observation, creative construction, formal and informal reasoning methods and systematic critical assessment. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics recognize that finite, fallible human beings live in complex, dynamic, contingent worlds, and they foster creative, critical deliberation and employ non-formal reason to make rational moral judgments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena
In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.
Full Text Available Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would like to show the contradictions inherent to the connection of business and ethics are no coincidence. At the end a possible relationship between ethics and business sphere will be suggested.
Legalisation of physician-assisted dying (PAD) remains a highly contested issue. In the Australasian context, the opinion and perspective of palliative care specialists have not been captured empirically, and are required to inform better the debate around this issue, moving forward. To identify current attitudes and experiences of palliative care specialists in Australasia regarding requests for physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia, and to capture the opinion of palliative care specialists on the legalisation of these practices in the Australasian context. An anonymous, cross-sectional, online survey of Australasian specialists in palliative care, addressing the following six areas: (i) demographics; (ii) frequency of requests, and response given; (iii) understanding of the term 'voluntary euthanasia'; (iv) opinion regarding legalisation of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia in Australasia, and willingness to participate if legal; (v) identification of the most important values guiding this opinion; and (vi) anticipated impact that legalisation of assisted death would have on palliative care practice. Important findings include: (i) palliative care specialists are largely opposed to the legalisation of PAD; (ii) the proportional titration of opioids is not understood by any palliative care specialist studied to be 'voluntary euthanasia'; and (iii) there is a wide variation in frequency of requests, and one-third of palliative care specialists express discomfort in dealing with requests for assisted suicide or euthanasia. Key areas for future research at the interface between PAD and best practice end-of-life care are identified, including exploration into why palliative care specialists are largely opposed to PAD, and consideration of the impact 'the opioid misconception' may have on the literature informing this debate. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.
Van Baarle, D.
In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl
This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD
Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher
groups with differing human capital and welfare levels. Depending on the parameters of the model, a temporary or permanent public investment into human capital formation is needed to overcome steady states with low human capital and welfare levels. Furthermore, even the best steady state is suboptimal...
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten
the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...
The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten
by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...
OECD Publishing, 2014
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…
OECD Publishing, 2016
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…
OECD Publishing, 2015
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…
Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.
In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.
Krull, C R; Ranjard, L; Landers, T J; Ismar, S M H; Matthews, J L; Hauber, M E
The study of the evolution of sexual differences in behavioral and morphological displays requires analyses of the extent of sexual dimorphism across various sensory modalities. In the seabird family Sulidae, boobies show dramatic sexual dimorphism in their vocalizations, and gannet calls have also been suggested to be dimorphic to human observers. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of sexually dimorphic calls in the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) through the first comprehensive description of its vocalizations recorded at two localities; Cape Kidnappers, where individuals were banded and sexed from DNA samples, and at the Muriwai gannetry, both on the North Island of New Zealand. Calls were first inspected using basic bioacoustic features to establish a library of call element types for general reference. Extensive multivariate tests, based on a dynamic time warping algorithm, subsequently revealed that no sexual differences could be detected in Australasian gannet calls. The analyses, however, indicated extensive and consistent vocal variation between individuals, particularly so in female gannets, which may serve to signal individual identity to conspecifics. This study generates predictions to identify whether differences in Australasian gannet vocalizations play perceptual and functional roles in the breeding and social biology of this long-lived biparental seabird species.
Samaei, Hossein; Weiland, Tracey Joy; Dilley, Stuart; Jelinek, George Alexander
Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians' and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees') level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011) and directly (November 2011) to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405) and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42%) had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5-67.1) passed (>50%) a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416) incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig's Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433) were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434) confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r = 0.488). Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%). Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted.
Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.
The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.
Zhabynets Olga Yo.
Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.
Friedman, Nicholas R; Harmáčková, Lenka; Economo, Evan P; Remeš, Vladimír
Birds' beaks play a key role in foraging, and most research on their size and shape has focused on this function. Recent findings suggest that beaks may also be important for thermoregulation, and this may drive morphological evolution as predicted by Allen's rule. However, the role of thermoregulation in the evolution of beak size across species remains largely unexplored. In particular, it remains unclear whether the need for retaining heat in the winter or dissipating heat in the summer plays the greater role in selection for beak size. Comparative studies are needed to evaluate the relative importance of these functions in beak size evolution. We addressed this question in a clade of birds exhibiting wide variation in their climatic niche: the Australasian honeyeaters and allies (Meliphagoidea). Across 158 species, we compared species' climatic conditions extracted from their ranges to beak size measurements in a combined spatial-phylogenetic framework. We found that winter minimum temperature was positively correlated with beak size, while summer maximum temperature was not. This suggests that while diet and foraging behavior may drive evolutionary changes in beak shape, changes in beak size can also be explained by the beak's role in thermoregulation, and winter heat retention in particular. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa
This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian “Health Star Rating” front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging. PMID:27258305
Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa
This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian "Health Star Rating" front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging.
Harrower, Emma; Bougher, Neale L; Henkel, Terry W; Horak, Egon; Matheny, P Brandon
We present a multigene phylogeny (partial nuc rDNA and RPB2) of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius (i.e. the C. violaceus group), which reveals eight species distributed in Europe, Australasia, South America, Central America and North America. Relaxed molecular clock analyses suggested that diversification began during the Miocene, thus rejecting more ancient Gondwanan origin scenarios among the taxa currently occurring in the northern and southern hemispheres. There was strong support for an Australasian origin of the C. violaceus group with initial dispersal to the Neotropics, followed by migration into North America and Europe. A dispersal-extinction cladogenesis model that includes a parameter for founder effects was the most highly supported biogeographic model in the program BioGeoBEARS. A maximum likelihood analysis showed the most recent common ancestor of sect. Cortinarius was an angiosperm ectomycorrhizal associate. Ancestral associations at the plant family level, however, were ambiguous. Of eight recovered species-level lineages, C. violaceus is the only one that associates with Pinaceae and the only species to associate with both Pinaceae and angiosperms. This analysis showed that long-distance dispersal and founder event speciation have been important factors during evolution of the C. violaceus group. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.
Kear, Benjamin P.; Aplin, Ken P.; Westerman, Michael
Bandicoots (Peramelemorphia) are a unique order of Australasian marsupials whose sparse fossil record has been used as prima facie evidence for climate change coincident faunal turnover. In particular, the hypothesized replacement of ancient rainforest-dwelling extinct lineages by antecedents of xeric-tolerant extant taxa during the late Miocene (~10 Ma) has been advocated as a broader pattern evident amongst other marsupial clades. Problematically, however, this is in persistent conflict with DNA phylogenies. We therefore determine the pattern and timing of bandicoot evolution using the first combined morphological + DNA sequence dataset of Peramelemorphia. In addition, we document a remarkably archaic new fossil peramelemorphian taxon that inhabited a latest Quaternary mosaic savannah-riparian forest ecosystem on the Aru Islands of Eastern Indonesia. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that unsuspected dental homoplasy and the detrimental effects of missing data collectively obscure stem bandicoot relationships. Nevertheless, recalibrated molecular clocks and multiple ancestral area optimizations unanimously infer an early diversification of modern xeric-adapted forms. These probably originated during the late Palaeogene (30-40 Ma) alongside progenitors of other desert marsupials, and thus occupied seasonally dry heterogenous habitats long before the onset of late Neogene aridity.
Don, Higson; Ches, Mason; Andrew, McEwan; Peter, Burns; Riaz, Akber; Ron, Cameron; Pamela, Sykes; Joe, Young
At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (A.R.P.S.) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on risks from low levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting in 2005. Its salient features are as follows: First, there is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of milli sieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls. Secondly, estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of milli sieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. Thirdly, the risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 micro sieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. (authors)
Ayliffe, Linda K.; Gagan, Michael K.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Drysdale, Russell N.; Hellstrom, John C.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Griffiths, Michael L.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Pierre, Emma St; Cowley, Joan A.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.
Recent studies have proposed that millennial-scale reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere circulation drives increased upwelling in the Southern Ocean, leading to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and ice age terminations. Southward migration of the global monsoon is thought to link the hemispheres during deglaciation, but vital evidence from the southern sector of the vast Australasian monsoon system is yet to emerge. Here we present a 230thorium-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record of millennial-scale changes in Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall over the last 31,000 years. The record shows that abrupt southward shifts of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon were synchronous with North Atlantic cold intervals 17,600-11,500 years ago. The most prominent southward shift occurred in lock-step with Heinrich Stadial 1 (17,600-14,600 years ago), and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Our findings show that millennial-scale climate change was transmitted rapidly across Australasia and lend support to the idea that the 3,000-year-long Heinrich 1 interval could have been critical in driving the last deglaciation.
Van Dam, Matthew H; Lam, Athena W; Sagata, Katayo; Gewa, Bradley; Laufa, Raymond; Balke, Michael; Faircloth, Brant C; Riedel, Alexander
Weevils (Curculionoidea) comprise one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. There is hardly a vascular plant or plant part without its own species of weevil feeding on it and weevil species diversity is greater than the number of fishes, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals combined. Here, we employ ultraconserved elements (UCEs) designed for beetles and a novel partitioning strategy of loci to help resolve phylogenetic relationships within the radiation of Australasian smurf-weevils (Eupholini). Despite being emblematic of the New Guinea fauna, no previous phylogenetic studies have been conducted on the Eupholini. In addition to a comprehensive collection of fresh specimens, we supplement our taxon sampling with museum specimens, and this study is the first target enrichment phylogenomic dataset incorporating beetle specimens from museum collections. We use both concatenated and species tree analyses to examine the relationships and taxonomy of this group. For species tree analyses we present a novel partitioning strategy to better model the molecular evolutionary process in UCEs. We found that the current taxonomy is problematic, largely grouping species on the basis of similar color patterns. Finally, our results show that most loci required multiple partitions for nucleotide rate substitution, suggesting that single partitions may not be the optimal partitioning strategy to accommodate rate heterogeneity for UCE loci.
Marki, Petter Z; Jønsson, Knud A; Irestedt, Martin; Nguyen, Jacqueline M T; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon
With nearly 300 species, the infraorder Meliphagides represents one of the largest and most conspicuous Australasian bird radiations. Although the group has been the focus of a number of recent phylogenetic studies, a comprehensive species-level phylogenetic hypothesis is still lacking. This has impeded the assessment of broad-scale evolutionary, biogeographic and ecological hypotheses. In the present study, we use a supermatrix approach including five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers to infer a time-calibrated phylogeny of the Meliphagides. Our phylogeny, which includes 286 of the 289 (99%) currently recognized species, is largely congruent with previous estimates. However, the addition of 60 newly sequenced species reveals some novel relationships. Our biogeographic analyses suggest an Australian origin for the group in the early Oligocene (31.3Mya, 95% HPD 25.2-38.2Mya). In addition, we find that dispersal events out of Australia have been numerous and frequent, particularly to New Guinea, which has also been the source of multiple back-colonizations to the Australian mainland. The phylogeny provides an important framework for studying a wide variety of macroecological and macroevolutionary themes, including character evolution, origin and timing of diversification, biogeographic patterns and species responses to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Patil, S; Krishnajyothi, Y; Putty, K; Ramakrishna, K V; Sunitha, G; Devi, B V; Kavitha, K; Deepthi, B; Krovvidi, S; Reddy, Y N; Reddy, G H; Singh, K P; Maan, N S; Hemadri, D; Maan, S; Mertens, P P; Hegde, N R; Rao, P P
Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-borne disease caused by several serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV). Similar to other insect-borne viral diseases, distribution of BT is limited to distribution of Culicoides species competent to transmit BTV. In the tropics, vector activity is almost year long, and hence, the disease is endemic, with the circulation of several serotypes of BTV, whereas in temperate areas, seasonal incursions of a limited number of serotypes of BTV from neighbouring tropical areas are observed. Although BTV is endemic in all the three major tropical regions (parts of Africa, America and Asia) of the world, the distribution of serotypes is not alike. Apart from serological diversity, geography-based diversity of BTV genome has been observed, and this is the basis for proposal of topotypes. However, evolution of these topotypes is not well understood. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of several BTV-4 isolates from India. These isolates are distinct from BTV-4 isolates from other geographical regions. Analysis of available BTV seg-2 sequences indicated that the Australasian BTV-4 diverged from African viruses around 3,500 years ago, whereas the American viruses diverged relatively recently (1,684 CE). Unlike Australasia and America, BTV-4 strains of the Mediterranean area evolved through several independent incursions. We speculate that independent evolution of BTV in different geographical areas over long periods of time might have led to the diversity observed in the current virus population. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Shand, A W; Luk, W; Nassar, N; Hui, L; Dyer, K; Rawlinson, W
To assess the knowledge, practice and attitudes of maternity clinicians regarding congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is the most common congenital infection, and well-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental disability and hearing loss. New consensus recommendations state all pregnant women and health-care providers should be educated about congenital CMV infection and preventive measures. An email questionnaire was distributed in October 2015 to specialists, diplomates (general practitioners), and trainees of the Royal Australian New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG), and Victorian and New South Wales midwives. 774 responded: (37.3% specialists, 17.3% diplomates, 16.8% trainees, 28.6% midwives). Clinicians had variable knowledge of fetal sequelae, transmission routes and prevention. Overall, 30.2% felt confident about discussing CMV in pregnancy: less than 10% of midwives (7.4%) and less than half of specialists (47.1%, p Australasian maternity clinicians lack confidence and knowledge about congenital CMV. Few (<10%) routinely provide advice on prevention. There is urgent need for clinical guidance and patient information to reduce the burden of disease.
Schnetzler, C. C.
The source crater of the youngest and largest of the tektite strewnfields, the Australasian strewnfield, has not been located. A number of lines of evidence indicate that the Muong Nong-type tektites, primarily found in Indochina, are more primitive than the much more abundant and widespread splash-form tektites, and are proximal to the source. In this study the spatial distribution of Muong Nong-type tektite sites and chemical character have been used to indicate the approximate location of the source. The variation of Muong Nong-type tektite chemical composition appears to be caused by mixing of two silicate rock end-members and a small amount of limestone, and not by vapor fractionation. The variation in composition is not random, and does not support in situ melting or multiple impact theories. The distribution of both Muong Nong and splash-form tektite sites suggest the source is in a limited area near the southern part of the Thailand-Laos border.
Full Text Available This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian “Health Star Rating” front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent. The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging.
Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C; Tait, Robert; Smart, Diana; Letcher, Primrose; Silins, Edmund; Hutchinson, Delyse M
This study presents an integrative data analysis of the association between frequency of cannabis use and severity of depressive symptoms using data from four Australasian cohort studies. The integrated data comprised observations on over 6900 individuals studied on up to seven occasions between adolescence and mature adulthood. Repeated measures data on frequency of cannabis use (not used/depression scores were pooled over the four cohorts. Regression models were fitted to estimate the strength of association between cannabis use and depression. Fixed effects regression methods were used to control for confounding by non-observed fixed factors. Increasing frequency of cannabis use was associated with increasing depressive symptoms (pcannabis had depression scores that were 0.32 (95%CI 0.27-0.37) SD higher than non-users. The association was reduced but remained significant (pdepression scores for weekly users were 0.24 (95%CI 0.18-0.30) SD higher than non-users. The adjusted associations were similar across cohorts. There was a weak age×cannabis use interaction (pcannabis use was associated with modest increases in rates of depressive symptoms. This association was stronger in adolescence and declined thereafter. However, it was not possible from the available data to draw a definitive conclusion as to the likely direction of causality between cannabis use and depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B
The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.
Contemporary engineering ethics scholars deal with contesting several ethical theories without criticizing them radically and try to use them to solve ethical problems. In this paper I first show that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial, and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Second, I claim that the way to deal with contesting ethical theories in contemporary engineering ethics has an unacceptable side which does not accord with my argument that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Finally, I conclude that this inconsistency in contemporary engineering ethics should be corrected to make contemporary engineering ethics consistent.
This article focuses on the question of unification versus relationality in ethics. It compares two different ethical approaches from Late Antiquity, highlighting the contrast between Plotinian (Neoplatonic) ethics as striving for perfect unification of the human soul with the divinity...... - and Biblical ethics as a relational ethics, where alterity remains operative in the encounter with the deity, and where the primary ethical demand is to relate properly to fellow creatures and God as other. The latter demand is exemplified by the figure of Job, whose righteousness is interpreted as his...
Gold, Hugo; Hall, Georgina; Gillam, Lynn
This article explores and analyses the role and functions of a clinical ethics service in paediatrics. It is based on the experiences of developing ethics capacity at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, which has evolved since 2002 from a multidisciplinary advisory panel into Australia's first dedicated paediatric Children's Bioethics Centre, which opened in 2008. The ultimate goal is building ethics capacity and literacy across the hospital and continuing to support clinical staff managing patients and their families in ethically problematic cases. This is achieved through current case consultation, education and training, research and institutional policy, and guideline development. The experience of building a clinical ethics service has led to many changes to its structure over the years, with issues like timeliness of meeting, constitution of the group and referral and reporting structures arising as key elements of evolution. Challenges include resourcing and structure, institutional support, and family involvement in ethics consultations. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Strous, Rael D
Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training.
Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.
Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.
van Duuren, Emiel; Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert
We investigate how conventional asset managers account for environmental, social and governance factors (ESG) in their investment process. We do so on the basis of an international survey among fund managers. We find that many conventional managers integrate responsible investing in their investment
Luiz Martins da Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.
Luiz Martins da Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.
The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.
Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)
Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online....
Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A.; Meslin, Eric M.
The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards’ documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics to 275 African professionals, strengthened research ethics committees in 19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and created research ethics curricula at many institutions and bioethics centers within Africa. Trainees’ leadership resulted in new national systems and policies on research ethics, human tissue storage and export, and methods of monitoring compliance with research ethics guidelines. Training programs adapted to challenges that arose due to varied trainees’ background knowledge in ethics, duration of time available for training, spoken and written English language skills, administrative obstacles, and the need to sustain post-training research ethics activities. Our report showcases the development of awareness of research ethics and building/strengthening of basic research ethics infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the increasing amount and complexity of health research being conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests the need for continued investment in research ethics capacity development in this region. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782070
Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A; Meslin, Eric M
The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards' documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics to 275 African professionals, strengthened research ethics committees in 19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and created research ethics curricula at many institutions and bioethics centers within Africa. Trainees' leadership resulted in new national systems and policies on research ethics, human tissue storage and export, and methods of monitoring compliance with research ethics guidelines. Training programs adapted to challenges that arose due to varied trainees' background knowledge in ethics, duration of time available for training, spoken and written English language skills, administrative obstacles, and the need to sustain post-training research ethics activities. Our report showcases the development of awareness of research ethics and building/strengthening of basic research ethics infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the increasing amount and complexity of health research being conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests the need for continued investment in research ethics capacity development in this region. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.
Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan
The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…
Full Text Available This article includes the latest regulations regarding the financial investments services. After presenting some elements about prudence and conduct rules, the peculiar aspects of the presentation form and of the contract, with all the forms demanded by such transaction, are analyzed. Afterwards, the focus is set on the transparency and integrity of the operations. Another aspect is about the free circulation of services and about the role of the clearing fund, being distinguished all thesensitive elements this fund raises.
Having for retirement has become increasingly challenging with retirement plan rules changing along with taxes and investment choices. The only certainty is that everyone needs to save money in order to be able to stop working. The best plan for a small business can be complex and confusing but rewarding if designed properly. There are a number of options available and many factors to consider in choosing the most appropriate plan.
Full Text Available The EBRD is the largest investor in private equity funds, mainly focusing on growth and expansion in countries of operation. The significant support to its private equity fund managers accelerates the development and institutionalisation of the private equity industry in the region. For EBRD, equity investments are made indirectly through regional and sector funds. These funds are created by groups of investors, mostly private, to which the EBRD participates with capital.
Sternberg, Robert J.
Is there an ethical giftedness, and if so, what does it look like? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethically gifted individuals are able to complete a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to…
Sternberg, Robert J.
What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…
Nedelko, Zlatko; Potočan, Vojko
The main purpose of this paper is to examine how employeesʼ personal ethics, expressed through their personal values and attitudes toward social and environmental issues, are associated with the ethics of organizations in public administration. The authors introduce their own theoretical model that examines the relations between employeesʼ personal ethics - expressed through employeesʼ personal values and attitudes toward natural and social environments - and the ethics of public administrati...
Ms. Tatiana A. Ykovleva
Full Text Available The article discusses the features of investment risks and their causes, as well as provides a detailed classification of investment risks. The authors reveal the essence and content of the investment process, risk management, providing material for presentation in the form of a diagram. In conclusion, the article explains the use of the system of specialized institutions as a way to exclude the basic, or primary investment risk.
Smith, Michael C
Today's investors have many choices. From seemingly simple investments, such as stocks, bonds and cash, to more complicated option strategies, there is a dizzying array of investment vehicles that can leave even the most seasoned investor a bit confused. In discussions with our clients, one common thread is the desire to learn more about the various types of investments available. Following is a basic guide to the most common investments and the risks inherent in those choices.
Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption
Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.
This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social
If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.
Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.
van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.
Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering
Eveslage, Thomas; D'Angelo, Paul
Suggests that publications advisors have sound, practical reasons for addressing ethical decision making. Presents a brief review of the Supreme Court's message in "Hazelwood." Surveys staffs and advisors of award-winning high school newspapers concerning ethical issues facing the student press. Finds that advisors believe ethics to be…
Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja
into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols...
Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.
Sugnet, Chris, Ed.
Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…
Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…
Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…
Identifies common ethical dilemmas that arise in performance technology consultant-client relationships and the difficulties both parties have in resolving them. Questions of integrity v ethics, legality v ethics, conflict of interest issues, contracts and fee issues, and ownership issues are addressed. (MER)
Medlin, E. Lander
Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…
Ebbers, H.A.; Zhang, J.
China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional
Barton, Michael; Boyages, John; Crennan, Elizabeth; Davis, Sidney; Fisher, Richard J.; Hook, Carolyn; Johnson, Neva; Joseph, David; Liew, Kuen H.; Morgan, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Pendlebury, Sue; Pratt, Gary; Quong, George; Thornton, Deborah; Walker, Quenten; Wallington, Margaret; Trotter, Grant
Purpose: Analysis of treatment outcome for Stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease treated solely by irradiation in Australia and New Zealand. Methods and Materials: Patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease only who were treated by irradiation alone with curative intent between 1969 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand contributed patient data to the study. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were recorded. Disease-free interval, survival, and complications were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and twenty patients were reviewed. The median age was 29 years. There were 437 men and 383 women. The distribution of 310 clinically staged patients was 170 stage IA, 5 IB, and 135 IIA. Five hundred and ten patients received laparotomies, and pathologic staging was as follows: IA 214, IB 13, IIA 283. The 10-year acturial disease-free rate was 69% and overall survival rate was 79%. Increasing age, male sex, higher number of involved sites, the use of involved field irradiation, no staging laparotomy, and earlier year of treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse and lower survival. Actuarial 10-year survival following recurrence was 48%. Acute complications requiring interruption to treatment occurred in 46 patients (6%), but < 1% had their treatment permanently suspended. Actuarial complication rates at 10 years were: cardiac 2%, pulmonary 3% and thyroid 5%. There were 44 second malignancies including 10 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 3 leukemias, 7 lung, and 6 breast cancers. Mean delay to the development of a second cancer was 6 years. The 10-year actuarial rate of second malignancy was 5%. Conclusions: The Australasian experience of early stage Hodgkin's disease is consistent with the results in the published literature and confirms that irradiation produces a high cure rate with minimal toxicity
Phelan, Helen; Clapin, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Cameron, Fergus J; Cotterill, Andrew M; Couper, Jennifer J; Davis, Elizabeth A; Donaghue, Kim C; Jefferies, Craig A; King, Bruce R; Sinnott, Richard O; Tham, Elaine B; Wales, Jerry K; Jones, Timothy W; Craig, Maria E
To assess glycaemic control, anthropometry and insulin regimens in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Cross-sectional analysis of de-identified, prospectively collected data from the Australasian Diabetes Data Network (ADDN) registry. Five paediatric diabetes centres in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia. Children and adolescents (aged 18 years or under) with type 1 diabetes of at least 12 months' duration for whom data were added to the ADDN registry during 2015. Glycaemic control was assessed by measuring haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) were calculated according to the CDC-2000 reference; overweight and obesity were defined by International Obesity Task Force guidelines. Insulin regimens were classified as twice-daily injections (BD), multiple daily injections (MDI; at least three injection times per day), or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The mean age of the 3279 participants was 12.8 years (SD, 3.7), mean diabetes duration was 5.7 years (SD, 3.7), and mean HbA1c level 67 mmol/mol (SD, 15); only 27% achieved the national HbA1c target of less than 58 mmol/mol. The mean HbA1c level was lower in children under 6 (63 mmol/mol) than in adolescents (14-18 years; 69 mmol/mol). Mean BMI-SDS for all participants was 0.6 (SD, 0.9); 33% of the participants were overweight or obese. 44% were treated with CSII, 38% with MDI, 18% with BD. Most Australian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are not meeting the recognised HbA1c target. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high. There is an urgent need to identify barriers to achieving optimal glycaemic control in this population.
Griffiths, Michael L.; Drysdale, Russell N.; Gagan, Michael K.; Hellstrom, John C.; Couchoud, Isabelle; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Vonhof, Hubert B.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.
Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles were the most prominent, abrupt climate events of the last glacial period whose impact was most strongly felt in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic region. The climate links between the North Atlantic, the Asian and American tropics, and Antarctica during these cycles are well documented. However, the potential role of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and Australasian monsoon system in propagating climate impacts across the hemispheres is still unclear. Here, we use tandem measurements of oxygen isotopes in calcite and fluid inclusions, as well as carbon-isotope ratios, from multiple stalagmites from Liang Luar Cave, Flores (southern Indonesia) to examine the monsoon response to D-O event number 21 (~87,000-84,000 years ago), the longest and warmest event recorded in Greenland ice cores. The record shows that there was a rapid decline in monsoon rainfall in Indonesia during D-O21 warming in Greenland and cooling in Antarctica. At around the same time, the East Asian monsoon was intensified, indicating that the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifted abruptly to the north during this event. Our record also shows that there was a 2-3 °C increase in local air temperature, which would have acted to increase primary productivity and promote the generation of soil carbon for methanogenesis. Therefore, our findings indicate that ITCZ positioning in tropical Australasia—through its influence on large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation—played a key role in transmitting the abrupt climate signal between the hemispheres, thereby facilitating the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations during D-O21 that ultimately led to global warming and the demise of the MIS5b stadial.
Campbell, CA; Horvath, AR
Timely release and communication of critical test results may have significant impact on medical decisions and subsequent patient outcomes. Laboratories therefore have an important responsibility and contribution to patient safety. Certification, accreditation and regulatory bodies also require that laboratories follow procedures to ensure patient safety, but there is limited guidance on best practices. In Australasia, no specific requirements exist in this area and critical result reporting practices have been demonstrated to be heterogeneous worldwide. Recognising the need for agreed standards and critical limits, the AACB started a quality initiative to harmonise critical result management throughout Australasia. The first step toward harmonisation is to understand current laboratory practices. Fifty eight Australasian laboratories responded to a survey and 36 laboratories shared their critical limits. Findings from this survey are compared to international practices reviewed in various surveys conducted elsewhere. For the successful operation of a critical result management system, critical tests and critical limits must be defined in collaboration with clinicians. Reporting procedures must include how critical results are identified; who can report and who can receive critical results; what is an acceptable timeframe within which results must be delivered or, if reporting fails, what escalation procedures should follow; what communication channels or systems should be used; what should be recorded and how; and how critical result procedures should be maintained and evaluated to assess impact on outcomes. In this paper we review the literature of current standards and recommendations for critical result management. Key elements of critical result reporting are discussed in view of the findings of various national surveys on existing laboratory practices, including data from our own survey in Australasia. Best practice recommendations are made that laboratories
Gandolfo, María A; Hermsen, Elizabeth J
Radially symmetrical, five-winged fossil fruits from the highly diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina, are named, described and illustrated. The main goals are to assess the affinities of the fossils and to place them in an evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographic context. Specimens of fossil fruits were collected from the Tufolitas Laguna del Hunco. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil fruits using published literature. Their structure was also evaluated by comparing them with that of modern Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits through examination of herbarium specimens. The Laguna del Hunco fossil fruits share the diagnostic features that characterize modern and fossil Ceratopetalum (symmetry, number of fruit wings, presence of a conspicuous floral nectary and overall venation pattern). The pattern of the minor wing (sepal) veins observed in the Patagonian fossil fruits is different from that of modern and previously described fossil Ceratopetalum fruits; therefore, a new fossil species is recognized. An apomorphy (absence of petals) suggests that the fossils belong within crown-group Ceratopetalum . The Patagonian fossil fruits are the oldest known record for Ceratopetalum . Because the affinities, provenance and age of the fossils are so well established, this new Ceratopetalum fossil species is an excellent candidate for use as a calibration point in divergence dating studies of the family Cunoniaceae. It represents the only record of Ceratopetalum outside Australasia, and further corroborates the biogeographic connection between the Laguna del Hunco flora and ancient and modern floras of the Australasian region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.
This paper summarizes the content of Capgemini's 10. European Energy Markets Observatory (EEMO) report. The EEMO is an annual report that tracks the progress in establishing an open and competitive electricity and gas market in the 27 European countries, including Norway and Switzerland. This tenth edition is based on 2007 and winter 2007-2008 data sets. A 1 trillion euros infrastructure investment is required to build the plants, electrical lines and gas pipelines needed in Europe over the next 25 years. Although today's credit crunch could severely hurt the investment cycle, analysts also anticipate a difficult period for the European energy markets once the recession is over. The report said that Europe has yet to solve the related issues of responding to its energy demand, while curbing its carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. In 2007, even at a slower pace than previous years, analysts said European electricity consumption still increased by 0.9% and CO 2 emissions stabilized, instead of decreasing. Despite the mild weather, the electricity security of supply deteriorated, analysts said. The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) real margin - which takes into account non-usable and unavailable generation capacities - dropped from 7.6% in 2006 to 5.3% in 2007. Analysts said without a significant and vigorous investment program in electricity and gas infrastructures, Europe's energy supply security will be threatened. Since the low point in 2005, utilities started to invest again, but have made energy mix choices that are not moving toward a reduction in CO 2 emissions as the majority (58%) of the planned generation capacities will be fossil-fueled. In 2007, investments in renewable capacities grew fast, wind being the industry's preference, with an addition of 8.3 gigawatt (GW) renewables in Europe. However, analysts said this type of 'non-scheduable' source is not always available during peak hours. This partially explains the security
Shanafelt, Tait; Goh, Joel; Sinsky, Christine
Widespread burnout among physicians has been recognized for more than 2 decades. Extensive evidence indicates that physician burnout has important personal and professional consequences. A lack of awareness regarding the economic costs of physician burnout and uncertainty regarding what organizations can do to address the problem have been barriers to many organizations taking action. Although there is a strong moral and ethical case for organizations to address physician burnout, financial principles (eg, return on investment) can also be applied to determine the economic cost of burnout and guide appropriate investment to address the problem. The business case to address physician burnout is multifaceted and includes costs associated with turnover, lost revenue associated with decreased productivity, as well as financial risk and threats to the organization's long-term viability due to the relationship between burnout and lower quality of care, decreased patient satisfaction, and problems with patient safety. Nearly all US health care organizations have used similar evidence to justify their investments in safety and quality. Herein, we provide conservative formulas based on readily available organizational characteristics to determine the financial return on organizational investments to reduce physician burnout. A model outlining the steps of the typical organization's journey to address this issue is presented. Critical ingredients to making progress include prioritization by leadership, physician involvement, organizational science/learning, metrics, structured interventions, open communication, and promoting culture change at the work unit, leader, and organization level. Understanding the business case to reduce burnout and promote engagement as well as overcoming the misperception that nothing meaningful can be done are key steps for organizations to begin to take action. Evidence suggests that improvement is possible, investment is justified, and return
Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor
Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…
Have, H ten; Ang, T W
The Global Ethics Observatory, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in December 2005, is a system of databases in the ethics of science and technology. It presents data on experts in ethics, on institutions (university departments and centres, commissions, councils and review boards, and societies and associations) and on teaching programmes in ethics. It has a global coverage and will be available in six major languages. Its aim is to facilitate the establishment of ethical infrastructures and international cooperation all around the world. PMID:17209103
Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie
This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built. This projec...
Addison, Courtney Page
of gene therapy, and the authority of its practitioners. The politics of ethics can also be discerned in practice: the UK research ethics system structures scientific work but cannot account for the various, complex, and on-going ethical dilemmas that patients and practitioners face when undertaking gene....... However, social scientists have yet to devote much attention to this ethically contentious and medically complex field. This project aimed to identify and explore social and ethical factors shaping gene therapy practice in clinical settings. It is based on six months of participant observation in a London...... children’s hospital (the UKCH), thirty-two interviews with key actors in the gene therapy field, and scientific and policy document analysis. One of the main interests of this research is with the politics of ethics. The thesis shows that ‘ethical boundary work’ was central to establishing the credibility...
This article examines the work that goes in to ‘making room’ for ethics, literally and figuratively. It follows the activities of a capacity building Asia-Pacific NGO in training and recognising ethics review committees, using multi-sited field materials collected over 12 months between 2009...... and 2010. Two queries drive this article: First, how are spaces made for ethical review –politically, infrastructurally, materially – as committee members campaign for attention to ethics and access to resources in which to conduct their meetings? Second, how are the limits of ‘local circumstance......’ negotiated during a review of the committee’s work: what does the implementation of standards in the area of ethics look like? I then discuss what standards of ethics practice mean for more fraught questions of the universal in bioethics. Rather than regarding ethics systems as backgrounds to global health...
Devettere, R J
Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.
Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M
The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.
Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.
Full Text Available Ethics and politics are normally considered domains that do not mix, in fact, domains that have little to do with one another. In this article, I provide four factual fictions that show how at the university, research ethics and politics are intertwined. Politics appears to be used for the sole purpose of constructing and maintaining control over the research process and its products. Ultimately, even ethics reviews of proposed research studies are caught up in the politics of power. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403357
The role of the European Investment Bank (EIB) in the financing of oil refining projects in the European Union is discussed. The EIB has done much to support the competitiveness of the energy industries in Europe, secure supply and contribute to conservation of the environment. Its track record is reviewed. How the EIB operates in appraising proposals, providing funding, and figures for funding, are all given. In 1997 the EIB's lending was 26.2 billion ECU. Challenges (such as low profit margins and environmental compliance) facing refining in Europe are also discussed. (UK)
Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.
Serisier, David J; Williams, Sophie; Bowler, Simon D
The value of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scoring tools is almost exclusively reliant upon regular and accurate application in clinical practice. Until recently, the Australasian Therapeutic Guidelines has recommended the use of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) in spite of poor user-friendliness. Electronic and postal survey of respiratory and emergency medicine physician and specialist registrar members of the Royal Australasian College was undertaken to assess the use of the PSI and the accuracy of its application to hypothetical clinical CAP scenarios. The confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age 65 or older (CURB-65) score was also assessed as a simpler alternative. Five hundred thirty-six (228 respiratory, 308 emergency) responses were received. Only 12% of respiratory and 35% of emergency physicians reported using the PSI always or frequently. The majority were unable to accurately approximate PSI scores, with significantly fewer respiratory than emergency physicians recording accurate severity classes (11.8% vs 21%, OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37-0.68, P Australasian specialist physicians primarily responsible for the acute management of CAP report infrequent use of the PSI and are unable to accurately apply its use to hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, respiratory and emergency physicians contrasted distinctly in their use and application of the two commonest severity scoring systems--the recent recommendation of two further alternative scoring tools by Australian guidelines may add to this confusion. A simple, coordinated approach to pneumonia severity assessment across specialties in Australasia is needed. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C
We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."
Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad
Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.
Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A
The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.
Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary
Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.
David Orlando Ruiz Castro
Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.
Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon
A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratioâthe last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percentâto determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...
Rabbolini, David J; Chun, Yenna; Latimer, Maya; Kunishima, Shinji; Fixter, Kathleen; Valecha, Bhavia; Tan, Peter; Chew, Lee Ping; Kile, Benjamin T; Burt, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Kottayam; Bird, Robert; Ockelford, Paul; Gabrielli, Sara; Chen, Qiang; Stevenson, William S; Ward, Christopher M; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine
MYH9-related disorders (MYH9-RDs) caused by mutation of the MYH9 gene which encodes non-muscle myosin heavy-chain-IIA (NMMHC-IIA), an important motor protein in hemopoietic cells, are the most commonly encountered cause of inherited macrothrombocytopenia. Despite distinguishing features including an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, giant platelets on the peripheral blood film accompanied by leucocytes with cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (döhle-like bodies), these disorders remain generally under-recognized and often misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This may result in inappropriate treatment with corticosteroids, immunosupressants and in some cases, splenectomy. We explored the efficacy of next generation sequencing (NGS) with a candidate gene panel to establish the aetiology of thrombocytopenia for individuals who had been referred to our center from hematologists in the Australasian region in whom the cause of thrombocytopenia was suspected to be secondary to an inherited condition but which remained uncharacterized despite phenotypic investigations. Pathogenic MYH9 variants were detected in 15 (15/121, 12.4%) individuals and the pathogenecity of a novel variant of uncertain significance was confirmed in a further two related individuals following immunofluorescence (IF) staining performed in our laboratory. Concerningly, only one (1/17) individual diagnosed with MYH9-RD had been referred with this as a presumptive diagnosis, in all other cases (16/17, 94.1%), a diagnosis was not suspected by referring clinicians, indicating a lack of awareness or a failing of our diagnostic approach to these conditions. We examined the mean platelet diameter (MPD) measurements as a means to better identify and quantify platelet size. MPDs in cases with MYH9-RDs were significantly larger than controls (p < 0.001) and in 91% were greater than a previously suggested threshold for platelets in cases of ITP. In addition, we undertook IF staining in a proportion of
Kwak, Mackenzie L; Beveridge, Ian; Koehler, Anson V; Malipatil, Mallik; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul
The Australasian paralysis ticks and their relatives, Ixodes Latrielle, subgenus Sternalixodes Schulze, are some of the most important ticks in the region. However, very little is known about their phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of members of the subgenus Sternalixodes by undertaking phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular datasets. Adult females (n = 64) of Sternalixodes, including Ixodes anatis Chilton, 1904, Ixodes confusus Roberts, 1960, Ixodes cornuatus Roberts, 1960, Ixodes cordifer Neumann, 1908, Ixodes dendrolagi Wilson, 1967, Ixodes hirsti Hassall, 1931, Ixodes holocyclus Neumann, 1899, Ixodes myrmecobii Roberts, 1962 and Ixodes trichosuri Roberts, 1960, were examined morphologically. Subsequently, these Ixodes spp. were genetically characterised using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) of the rRNA. Both morphological and molecular datasets were analysed using various phylogenetic methods to assess the evolutionary relationship of various members of the subgenus Sternalixodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the cox1 sequences and morphological characters datasets revealed that the Australian and Papuan Sternalixodes formed a distinct clade with the New Zealand member of the group I. anatis positioned basally, in a separate clade. Ixodes holocyclus, I. cornuatus and I. myrmecobii formed a distinctive clade in both the cox1 and morphological phylogenies. However, based on phylogenetic analysis of the ITS-2 data, I. holocyclus formed a separate clade whereas I. cornuatus and I. myrmecobii grouped in a different clade. The cox1 and morphological data suggest that the subgenus Sternalixodes is paraphyletic, and I. anatis is not a sternalixodid tick; hence, it should not be included in the subgenus. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and ITS-2 sequences, it appears that I. myrmecobii and I. cornuatus are not subspecies of I
Burmeister, Bryan H.; Rad, F.F.; Denham, James W.; O'Brien, Maree; Jamieson, Glyn G.; Gill, P. Grantley; Devitt, Peter; Yeoh, Eric; Hamilton, Christopher S.; Ackland, Stephen P.; Lamb, David S.; Spry, Nigel A.; Joseph, David J.; Atkinson, Christopher; Walker, Quenten J.
Purpose: This report updates local control and survival experience and focuses on treatment toxicity in 294 patients with esophageal cancer who have been treated at six Australasian centers using three prospective unrandomized protocols that used concurrent radiation, cisplatin, and modest dose infusional fluorouracil. Methods and Materials: Protocol 1-'definitive' chemoradiation. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been treated with 'definitive' radiation to 60 Gy in 6 weeks plus two courses of cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 ) and infusional fluorouracil (800 mg/m 2 /day over 4 days) during the first and fourth weeks of radiation. Protocol 2-'preoperative' chemoradiation and surgery. Seventy-eight patients received chemoradiation using the same chemotherapy, but 30-35 Gy in 3-4 weeks prior to surgery. Protocol 3-'palliative' chemoradiation. Seventy-nine patients deemed incurable were treated 'palliatively' with the same chemoradiation protocol without surgery. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 7 years (mean 22 months) in live patients. Results: Durable palliation of dysphagia in all three treatment groups has been reflected by encouraging 3-year survival expectations of 43.2 ± 5% in definitively treated patients, 40.3 ± 7.65% in surgically treated patients, and 8.5% ± 3.9% in the palliatively treated patients. There are early indications that female patients have fared better than males. Toxicity levels were modest in all three groups. Following definitive treatment, severe myelotoxicity (World Health Organization grades 3 and 4) occurred in 19%, severe esophagitis (World Health Organization grade 3) in 11%, and moderate or severe benign stricture in 17%, depending upon age and sex of the patient (being worse in female patients). Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that the concurrent addition of modest dose cisplatin and infusional dose fluorouracil to radiation in the definitive, preoperative, and palliative settings contribute to high rates of durable
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...
Hence, the crux of the matter – ethical issues in examination management! What then do we mean by ethical issues? Ethical Issues. Ethics, according to Collins Concise Dictionary of 21st Century (2001), is a moral principle or a set of moral values held by an individual or group. Succinctly put, ethic is a set of principles that ...
Brey, Philip A.E.
In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of
Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.
Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...
Smith, Ron P.; Zoega, Gylfi
In Keynes' General Theory, investment determines effective demand, which determines unemployment and the labour market plays a negligible role. In New Keynesian models, labour market institutions determine the natural rate of unemployment and the speed at which unemployment adjusts to it. Investment is mostly ignored as a key variable behind the problem of high unemployment, despite a strong empirical association between investment and unemployment. We discuss the evolution of the 'Keynesian'...
Abdulbaset M. HAMUDA; Veronika ŠULIKOVÁ; Vladimír GAZDA; Denis HORVÁTH
The paper investigates the determinants of investments in Tunisia using annual data over the period of 1961-2011. The importance of this study comes from the necessity to determine important factors influencing domestic investments in Tunisia. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base and trade openness on domestic investments. Our results reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between investm...
This paper investigates the relationship between infation uncertainty and investment using a panel of loan-level data from small businesses. Micro-level data makes it possible to study phenomena that are obscured in country or industry aggregates. The data show that periods of increased inflation uncertainty are associated with substantial reductions in total investment. Moreover, there is a shift in the composition of investment away from fixed assets and towards working capital - the more f...
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten
This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...... of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides and explanation for a high price on housing services tending to reduce homeownership...
Antonella Del Rosso
In addition to well-established working principles based on conservative and capital preservation oriented investments that ensure it a sustainable future, the CERN Pension Fund recently introduced a new criterion for selecting the numerous opportunities that the market offers: philanthropy. Its first initiative, which also involves the Staff Association’s Long-Term Collection, will help support two orphanages in China. The two charities are located near Beijing. Beijing’s “China Children Charity and Foundation” is an orphanage that cares for up to 80 babies who need surgery to correct birth defects. The other, “Hope Healing Home”, is an organization that deals with 300 babies and cares for sick and physically disabled babies who have been abandoned. All these babies are awaiting treatment and a medical solution. The CERN Pension Fund has over 6700 members. To ensure the greatest efficiency and profitability, the Fund’s por...
The sixth in a series of theory-based essays, this article presents accounting for investments in debt and equity securities along with some related conceptual and measurement issues. Additional coverage is devoted to potential ethical dilemmas and both theoretical and empirical literature related to this asset. (Contains 1 footnote.)
... persons on retainer, of one or more affiliated employers, (b) by immediate family members of such persons, or (c) by such employer or employers together with any of the persons in (a) or (b). 2. Section 7 of... under the Act, that every registered investment company adopt a written code of ethics and every...
... persons on retainer, of one of more affiliated employers, (b) by immediate family members of such person, or (c) by such employer or employers, together with any of the persons in (a) or (b). 2. Section 7 of...-1 also requires that every registered investment company adopt a written code of ethics and that...
"Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)
Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.
7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)
Rivero-Serrano, Octavio; Durante-Montiel, Irene
Medical practice has been traditionally ruled by the principles of medical ethics and the scientific aspects that define it. However, today's medical practice is largely influenced by other aspects such as: economic interests, abuse of therapeutics, defensive medicine, unnecessary surgeries and conflicts of interests without excluding alterations in the application of the informed consent, the relation with the pharmaceutical industry, respect of confidentiality, organizational ethics, and the ethical practice that escapes the will of the medical professional.
Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...
The Constitution and Declaration of Independence simultaneously hold two different views of human nature, an individualist and a collectivist view...the term “ethic” from the perspective of a philosophical ethicist, as opposed to a legal or financial sense. The Joint Ethics Regulation discusses...ethical perspective . 21 In that sense, some could argue that the military ethic should be informed (or at least aware) of the consequentialist school of
Full Text Available This paper makes the review of the literature dedicated to relevant social issues that have been addressed by business practices and the business ethics literature, especially during the past century. The review of practical literature is undertaken from the perspective of the practitioner and demonstrates that the business ethics literature has been lax in the sense that it mostly addresses specific managerial problems and personal ethics within the business environment.
Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul
This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment
Full Text Available The paper investigates the determinants of investments in Tunisia using annual data over the period of 1961-2011. The importance of this study comes from the necessity to determine important factors influencing domestic investments in Tunisia. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL modeling is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base and trade openness on domestic investments. Our results reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between investments and monetary base, the influence of the others is insignificant or rather ambiguous.
Boult, Margaret; Babidge, Wendy; Pleass, Susan; Scott, David
The John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship is a generous endowment made to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) by the young neurosurgeon's family, following his death from a brain tumour. In this article, we examine the significance and legacy of the grant since its inception in 1979. This is the highest level of research fellowship awarded by the RACS recognizing early career excellence, as part of its significant research funding programme (over $1.7 million in 2015). John Mitchell Crouch recipients have been pioneers in various areas of medicine where they have developed new technologies, established research centres, improved patient safety and military surgery and embraced evidence-based medicine. The funds they received have directly contributed to research published in numerous highly respected peer-reviewed journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine; established new laboratories, helped fund clinical trials and allowed new directions of research to be pursued. Recipients of the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship have been recognized with many awards including 11 Australian and New Zealand Honours to date. Many other significant research funds have been subsequently bestowed, including over 120 National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants to Australian and New Zealand recipients subsequent to their Fellowship. This article also shows the range of disciplines in which the award has supported cutting-edge research leading to benefits for patients and health care. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Golley, R K; McNaughton, S A; Collins, C E; Magarey, A; Garnett, S P; Campbell, K J; Mallan, K; Burrows, T
The Food and Nutrition stream of Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) aims to improve the quality of dietary methodologies and the reporting of dietary intake within Australasian child obesity research (http://www.acaorn.org.au/streams/nutrition/). With 2012 marking ACAORN's 10th anniversary, this commentary profiles a selection of child obesity nutrition research published over the last decade by Food and Nutrition Stream members. In addition, stream activities have included the development of an online selection guide to assist researchers in their selection of appropriate dietary intake methodologies (http://www.acaorn.org.au/streams/nutrition/dietary-intake/index.php). The quantity and quality of research to guide effective child obesity prevention and treatment has increased substantially over the last decade. ACAORN provides a successful case study of how research networks can provide a collegial atmosphere to foster and coordinate research efforts in an otherwise competitive environment. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Richmond, Jacqueline; Wheeler, Emily; Warner, Sherryne; Mason, Susan
Abstract Purpose: Hepatology nursing is an emerging speciality. To define best practice, the Australasian Hepatology Association developed consensus-based guidelines for the nursing care of patients with liver disease. Methods: Using the Delphi technique, six rounds of consultation were conducted with Australian hepatology nurses and non-nursing hepatology professionals. Input was captured through face-to-face and electronic communication and questionnaires. Results: The experts' opinions were collated and consensus on the delivery of hepatology nursing care was achieved. In total, 90 consensus guidelines were developed. The principles underpinning the Guidelines include patient-centred care, non-discriminatory practice, cultural competence, collaboration and partnership and working within own scope of practice. Conclusion: Internationally, the Australasian Hepatology Association Guidelines are the first to document a consensus on the scope of hepatology nursing practice. The Guidelines reflect the expansion of hepatology nursing, from viral hepatitis to caring for patients with advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, and provides a framework for future nursing practice.
Ray, Susan L
The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns.
Full Text Available The ethics is the inner law of the individual. Its application is controlled and sacked by the self-awareness and the surrounding (by ethical codecs. The self-awareness is the inner law produced by everyday life, and is therefore changeable and adaptable to the outer reality. The ethics is a common field of marketing research, within the processes of ethical dilemmas and the marketing research process itself (identified target segments: the public the consumer, the subject ordering marketing research and marketing researchers.
In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio
Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection
Engelhardt, D V
The last decades have been an increasing interest in medical ethics. Paracelsus occupies an important place in the development of ethics in medicine in the crucial cultural passage between Middle Ages and Renaissance. Paracelsus' biography is in itself connected with ethical choices and theories. In his medical doctrines ethics is rooted in the belief in a strict correspondence between micro- and macrocosmos. Love is the basis on which a correct doctor-patient relationship can be built. Ilnesses are but episodes in the human life, and care for both spiritual and bodily health should dominate the entire life, and not ony the crucial moments of birth, sickness and death.
Suhaiza Ismail; Nazli A. Mohd Ghazali
The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire i...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to outline the main economical and social benefits that can be obtained by adopting an ethical attitude of the organisations which use a performant environmental management. From the idea that the human being is the master of nature, it was passed to the view according to which the human being must ensure a balance between consumption and the use of resources. In order to achieve our goal we identified the factors that lead to long term or even permanent destructive effects over the environment and we briefly present the reasons for which the organizations adopt and implement environmental management systems. Also, the difficulties encountered in implementing environmental strategies have been briefly enumerated and the competitive and economic advantages that can be achieved by adopting an efficient environmental management and the main reasons that grant to the environmental management a special significance were exposed. This theoretical paper emphasizes the importance of the adoption by organizations of a "green behavior" and reveals correlations between sustainability, economic growth and environmental performance in organizations. The analysis of the ethical aspects of environmental management shows the links that can be created between the development of an ethical culture of organizations and the achievement of the environmental excellence. The research provides an overview of the concept of environmental ethics and encloses it within the scope of environmental management. Someone needs to explain why an increasing number of organizations, both large and small, are setting up environmental management systems, making environmental investments and reducing risks over and beyond legal requirements, even when the benefits are not at all obvious, even in the long run. Also, this paper provides some practical examples of organizations environmental problems and points out how these organizations adapted their
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
This paper presents the concept of ethical economy (Wirtschaftsethik) and the relation between ethics and economics on the basis of the work of the German ethical economist Peter Koslowski. The concept of ethical economy includes three levels: micro, meso and macro levels; and it also deals...... with the philosophical analysis of the ethical foundations of the economy. After the discussion of these elements of the ethical economy, the paper presents some possible research topics for a research agenda about economic ethics or ethical economy....
Saenz, Carla; Reveiz, Ludovic; Tisdale, John F
A key aspect to guarantee that research with human subjects is ethical is being overlooked. Ethics review committees invest great effort examining the informed consent documents of research protocols to ensure that potential participants can provide consent validly and are not deluded into thinking that the experimental intervention they may sign up for is already known to be therapeutic. However, these efforts to avoid what is called the "therapeutic misconception" might be in vain if the title with which the studies are being introduced to the potential participants escapes ethics review. Research participants might be deceived by clinical trials entitled "novel therapy" when the point of the trial is precisely to find out whether the intervention at stake is therapeutic or not. Providing potential research participants with such misleading information hampers their ability to make informed decisions. The well-established scrutiny that ethics review committees exercise with regard to consent forms is limited if the registration of clinical trials, for which a public title is chosen, constitutes a process that is independent from the ethics review. In this article, we examine this problem, assess recent measures to integrate clinical trial registration with ethics review processes, and provide specific recommendations to solve the problem and ultimately enhance the accountability, transparency, and ethics of research with human subjects. Copyright © 2015 Pan American Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...... as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...... attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics...
Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…
Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria
This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Das Gupta, Supratim
Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from
Marc Le Menestrel
This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (non-arbitrariness)....
Wen, Xingang; Hagspiel, V.; Kort, Peter
This paper studies how the subsidy support, e.g. price support and reimbursed investment cost support, affects the investment decision of a monopoly firm under uncertainty and analyzes the implications for social welfare. The analytical results show that the unconditional, i.e., subsidy support that
Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development
van Huizen, Thomas; Alessie, Rob
This paper examines the role of time preferences in career investments. We focus on the effects of patience on two types of career investments: work effort and on-the-job search. Whereas the former increases the probability of obtaining a promotion, the latter affects the chance of receiving an
van Huizen, Thomas; Alessie, Rob
This paper examines the role of time preferences in career investments.We focus on the effects of patience on two types of career investments:work effort and on-the-job search.Whereas the former increases the probability of obtaining a promotion, the latter affects the chance of receiving an outside
Baarsma, B.; Poort, J.P.; Teulings, C.N.; de Nooij, M.
The Lisbon Strategy demands large investments in transport projects, broadband networks and energy infrastructure. Despite the widely-acknowledged need for investments in new infrastructures, European and national public funds are scarce in the current economic climate. Moreover, both policy-makers
KAYITANA: The Scope and Applicability of Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) Clause in Investment Treaties: A. Survey of the Jurisprudence of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. Page | 104 chemical products in Galicia, Spain. The project was a joint venture with the Sociedad para el Desarrollo.
Bechmann, Ken L.
Dette nummer af Finans/Invest indeholder en artikel, der bidrager til den aktuelle diskussion af den såkaldte InvesteringsSpareKonto (ISK). Denne leder tager diskussionen op. I stedet for bureaukratiske begrænsninger anbefales, at det gennem uddannelse og anbefaling sikres, at den almindelige...
This study investigated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior. A total of 248 matched surveys with participant responses from insurance agents and their customers were collected. The insurance agents were asked to rate the ethical leadership of their leaders, the ethical climate in their organization, and their individual moral identity. Customers were asked to rate the perceived ethical sales behavior of the insurance agents. This empirical study utilized moderated mediation techniques to analyze the data. Results indicated that ethical climate mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior when moral identity was high, however, did not when moral identity was low. The research framework including contextual effects (i.e., ethical climate) and individual differences in moral judgment (i.e., moral identity) can provide a comprehensive picture of how ethical leadership influences ethical sales behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.
Baranov G. V.
Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.
Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah
Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.
In 2008, thousands of Malawians received soap from an American research project as a gift for survey participation. Soap was deemed an ethical, non-coercive gift by researchers and ethics boards, but took on meanings that expressed recipients' grievances and aspirations. Research participants reframed soap and research benefits as "rights" they are entitled to, wages for "work," and a symbol of exploitation. Enlisting the perspectives of Malawi's ethics board, demographers, Malawian fieldworkers, and research participants, I describe how soap is spoken about and operates in research worlds. I suggest that neither a prescriptive nor a situated frame for ethics-with their investments in standardization and attention to context, respectively-provides answers about how to compensate Malawian research participants. The conclusion gestures toward a reparative framework for thinking ethics that is responsive not just to project-based parameters but also to the histories and political economy in which projects (and ethics) are situated. © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.
The International Transmission Company (ITC) is an independent power transmission company that owns, operates and maintains the high voltage transmission system in southeastern Michigan. The company's current focus is on investing in the transmission infrastructure to improve reliability, relieve congestion, improve access to generation and reduce energy costs for consumers. There is a need for investment in power transmission. Trends indicate that power transactions are on the rise while transmission investment is lagging because pricing protocols are inadequate and there is no regional tariff mechanism to allocate the benefits of new investment. The presentation reviewed the applicability of FTRs to transmission owners and the pitfalls of participant funding pricing. It also outlined the regional benefit allocation mechanism (RBAM) with an illustrative example. It was concluded that existing pricing policies must be improved to address the growing need for transmission investment. RBAM is needed to help investors recover costs from project beneficiaries. figs
The following Master's thesis is an analysis of the terms used in both the ethical guidelines and values espoused by companies, weighed up against classical philosophical texts and normative ethical theories, as well as traditional business ethics.
Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence
There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…
Update on Law-Related Education, 1990
Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…
Research from the Schools of Integrity project identified openness, honesty, relationship-building, and constant rigorous reflection as key elements in schools that successfully balance academic rigor with ethical development. To translate these findings into the public school setting, the Institute for Global Ethics spoke to six secondary school…
Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette
, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... between agricultural science and ethics....
starting point far to the right of philosophical de- bate, in the three commonly accepted, utilitarian principles of medical ethic. If, to some, this seems to be dodging the main issue, it does at least avoid the arguments of the utilitarians and deontologists. 4 among ethicists, as well as steering reasonably clear of situational ethics ...
M.H. van Dijke (Marius); S.R. Giessner (Steffen); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); R. Gilbert (Russell)
textabstractWhat is ethical leadership? What are the benefits of developing an ethical culture within an organisation? And how can leaders implement such a culture? These are just some of the issues that are discussed in the second RSM Discovery debate.
In this thesis the work of ethics committees in Croatia is being investigated for the first time. The 1997 Law on Health Protection introduced legal standards for the establishment of the so-called 'mixed' type of ethics committees in healthcare institutions. Our study aims to examine whether this
Many ethics courses are philosophy based, others focus on building character, and many are a combination of the two. Sharpening one's moral reasoning and reinforcing one's character are certainly beneficial courses of action for those who wish to be better people and those who wish to teach others how to act more ethically. Because the empirical…
A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…
Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles
This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...
Pulliam, Sylvia Clark
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions that computer science educators have about computer ethics. The study focused on four areas: (1) the extent to which computer science educators believe that ethically inappropriate practices are taking place (both on campus and throughout society); (2) perceptions of such educators about…
Wyne, Mudasser F.
It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…
The author utilises the hermeneutic approach and emphasises the acceptance of responsibility through dialogue. He demonstrates that the dialogical way of thinking represented by Buber, Levinas, Apel and Habermas constitutes a productive approach to business ethics. By including dialogical conceptions in the ethical discussion about business activity we can hope to reach an insightful, more creative, responsive and responsible praxis of management.
Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)
This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.
Full Text Available This paper highlights the growth dynamics of public and private investment in Zambia from 1964 to 2011. The evolution of the two components of investment in Zambia has been a product of market intervention and market-based policies. Initially, after its independence in 1964, the perpetuated market economy limited public investment growth to the basic infrastructural provision – for the first three years. However, the 1967 Mulungushi and the 1968 Matero nationalisation programmes brought about rapid expansion in public investment, especially from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. The market-based reforms that have been implemented in Zambia from 1991 have promoted private investment leadership – thereby, allowing public investment growth in economic activities that have complemented the private sector growth. Although private investment has grown to a position of economic dominance in Zambia, like many developing countries, the country still faces some challenges. These include inadequate and poor infrastructure, the high cost of human capital, cumbersome administrative procedures, and the high cost of financial capital.
Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.
“Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations” – Peter F Drucker. Leadership is a special talent based on timeless wisdom that not all people possess. Leadership is based on one’s vision, principle and integrity. To be effective, a leader must be ethical. Ethical leadership involves one’s core values, to live a life of integrity and in service of the...
This paper describes four plays which illustrate ethical themes relevant to engineers and which could be used as a resource for engineers who wish to explore ethical topics and their relationship with professional practice. The plays themselves have been chosen because a character in the play is involved in engineering activities. Each play is analysed to highlight some of the ethical issues the play raises. Often ethical topics are presented in abstract terms but the plays relate ethical issues to individuals and individual actions in specific situations that connect either directly or figuratively to practical situations engineers find themselves in. The paper describes how the resources have or could be used in an educational programme.
Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)
In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.
In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible
Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...
Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard
According to the standard reception, Kierkegaard thinks of ethics as a possible stage in human life. In this paper, I do not want to contest this interpretation, but I will argue that it often overlooks how the concept of ethics plays another vital role in Kierkegaard's thinking, namely...... that of establishing a necessary connection between ethics and certain forms of philosophy. To avoid the unfruitful thinking of ‘the speculation', the philosopher must accept that her vantage point is given, not in pure objectivity, but in the fact that she is this particular human being; that is, the ethical...... dimension of her life. In this way, Kierkegaard claims that any philosophy concerning human existence must also include ethical considerations. This is a view also held by Ludwig Wittgenstein, but a comparison of the two philosophers shows that even if Kierkegaard finds such fruitful philosophy possible, he...
Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.
O'Brien, Sharon; Wilson, Sally; Gill, Fenella J; Cotterell, Elizabeth; Borland, Meredith L; Oakley, Edward; Dalziel, Stuart R
Bronchiolitis is the commonest respiratory infection in children less than 12 months and cause of hospitalisation in infants under 6 months of age in Australasia. Unfortunately there is substantial variation in management, despite high levels of supporting evidence. This paper reports on the process, strengths and challenges of the hybrid approach used to develop the first Australasian management guideline relevant to the local population. An adaption of the nine steps recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology were utilised. Following establishment of the Guideline Development Committee (GDC), we identified the population, intervention, comparator, outcomes and time of interest (PICOt) questions, undertook a systematic literature search and graded the evidence and recommendations using the NHMRC and GRADE processes. Using Nominal Group Techniques (NGT), consensus was sought in formulating the clinical practice recommendations and practice points. Key health professional bodies were consulted to ensure relevance in the Australasian emergency and ward settings. From 33 PICOT questions, clinical recommendations for practice that were deemed relevant to the Australasian population were identified. Specific considerations for the management of Australian and New Zealand indigenous infants in relation to the use of azithromycin and risk factors for more serious illness are included. Using NGT, consensus demonstrated by a median Likert score > 8 for all recommendations was achieved. The guideline presents clinical guidance, followed by the key recommendations and evidence review behind each recommendation. Developing evidence-based clinical guidelines is a complex process with considerable challenges. Challenges included having committee members located over two countries and five time zones, large volume of literature and variation of member
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Schwartz, Mark S.
To better understand the ethical decision-making process and why individuals fail to act ethically, the aim of this article is to explore what are seen as the key impediments to ethical behavior and their pedagogical implications. Using the ethical decision-making process proposed by Rest as an overarching framework, the article examines the…
Gökçe, Asiye Toker
This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…
D.R. Gasper (Des)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Work on global ethics looks at ethical connections on a global scale. It should link closely to environmental ethics, recognizing that we live in unified social-ecological systems, and to development ethics, attending systematically to the lives and interests of
Safatly, Lise; Itani, Hiba; El-Hajj, Ali; Salem, Dania
In modern and well-structured universities, ethics centers are playing a key role in hosting, organizing, and managing activities to enrich and guide students' ethical thinking and analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the goals, activities, and administration of ethics centers, as well as their role in promoting ethical thinking…
Pruzan, Peter; Thyssen, Ole
Examines reasons for the increasing demand for ethical behavior in organizations. Highlights include the organization, wholeness, and shared values; values, morals, organizational ethics, and value-based leadership; and ethical accounting, based on the Ethical Accounting Statement developed in Denmark. (LRW)
Dabscheck, E J; Steinfort, D P; Irving, L B; Hew, M
We determined current practice among Australasian thoracic physicians in the mediastinal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We focused on the availability of endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and constraints to its use, as there has been no systematic analysis regarding the availability and uptake of this new technology among thoracic physicians. Physician members of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand were emailed a survey seeking their current approach to three scenarios requiring mediastinal staging of NSCLC. Respondents were also asked for their preferred investigation for each scenario if any current constraints were removed. Relevant demographic information was sought. We received 164 responses from 512 Australasian physicians (34%). Without constraints, EBUS-TBNA was the preferred investigation for all three clinical scenarios, but only 33% of respondents had access to EBUS-TBNA. Constraints included lack of availability and lack of expertise. Reduced EBUS-TBNA access was associated with a number of clinician factors. Australasian thoracic physicians prefer EBUS-TBNA for the mediastinal staging of NSCLC, but access to EBUS-TBNA services is limited. We recommend targeted measures to improve access to EBUS-TBNA use and optimise mediastinal staging of NSCLC. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Kunde, Lauren; McMeniman, Erin; Parker, Malcolm
Clinical photography has long been an important aspect in the management of dermatological pathology and has many applications in contemporary dermatology practice. With the continuous evolution of digital and smartphone technology, clinicians must maintain ethical and medico-legal standards. This article reviews how dermatology trainees are utilising this technology in their clinical practice and what procedures they follow when taking photos of patients. We review the ethical and legal considerations of clinical photography in dermatology and present a hypothetical medico-legal scenario. Dermatology registrars were surveyed on their use of personal smartphones and digital equipment for photographing patients in their clinical practice. Numerous medico-legal providers were approached to provide medico-legal advice about a hypothetical scenario. We found that the use of these technologies is prevalent among dermatology registrars and all respondents reported regular use. Clinicians should routinely obtain and document adequate patient consent in relation to clinical photography, utilise strict privacy settings on smartphones and other digital devices and ensure that the images are stored on these devices for minimal periods. Express consent documentation in the clinical file puts the clinician in a more defensible position if a complaint is made to the medical board or privacy commissioner. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel; Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; de Vidales-Carrasco, Irene M
Aristotle, who, having predated Adam Smith by 2000 years, deserves to be recognized as the world's first economist (Solomon, 1995), distinguished between two different senses of what we call economics : oikonomikos , or household trading, which he approved of and considered essential to the working of any even slightly complex society, and chrematisike , or trade for profit, which he considered selfish and utterly devoid of virtue, calling those who engaged in such practices "parasites". Of course, consumers do not purchase and invest for solely economic reasons (Polanyi, 1944). Interest in ethics in economics has been the subject of continuous study. In this regard, the recent financial crisis has had not only economic, but also social, psychological, political, and ethical consequences, which have impacted the financial and banking system. Consumers are no longer drawn only by the economic return but also by ethical factors. Ethical banking is on the rise. This paper aims to explain the reasons for the growth in ethical banking and to answer the following questions: can banking consumers-investors change the characterization of the banking system? Can ethical banking gain ground on traditional banking? And is ethical banking really effective? To this end, it will examine the Spanish case, using econometric causal regression models to identify the reasons why consumers decide to invest in ethical banking and determine its role in the Spanish economy.
Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel; Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; de Vidales-Carrasco, Irene M.
Aristotle, who, having predated Adam Smith by 2000 years, deserves to be recognized as the world’s first economist (Solomon, 1995), distinguished between two different senses of what we call economics: oikonomikos, or household trading, which he approved of and considered essential to the working of any even slightly complex society, and chrematisike, or trade for profit, which he considered selfish and utterly devoid of virtue, calling those who engaged in such practices “parasites”. Of course, consumers do not purchase and invest for solely economic reasons (Polanyi, 1944). Interest in ethics in economics has been the subject of continuous study. In this regard, the recent financial crisis has had not only economic, but also social, psychological, political, and ethical consequences, which have impacted the financial and banking system. Consumers are no longer drawn only by the economic return but also by ethical factors. Ethical banking is on the rise. This paper aims to explain the reasons for the growth in ethical banking and to answer the following questions: can banking consumers-investors change the characterization of the banking system? Can ethical banking gain ground on traditional banking? And is ethical banking really effective? To this end, it will examine the Spanish case, using econometric causal regression models to identify the reasons why consumers decide to invest in ethical banking and determine its role in the Spanish economy. PMID:28596742
Fernando E. Callejas-Albiñana
Full Text Available Aristotle, who, having predated Adam Smith by 2000 years, deserves to be recognized as the world’s first economist (Solomon, 1995, distinguished between two different senses of what we call economics: oikonomikos, or household trading, which he approved of and considered essential to the working of any even slightly complex society, and chrematisike, or trade for profit, which he considered selfish and utterly devoid of virtue, calling those who engaged in such practices “parasites”. Of course, consumers do not purchase and invest for solely economic reasons (Polanyi, 1944. Interest in ethics in economics has been the subject of continuous study. In this regard, the recent financial crisis has had not only economic, but also social, psychological, political, and ethical consequences, which have impacted the financial and banking system. Consumers are no longer drawn only by the economic return but also by ethical factors. Ethical banking is on the rise. This paper aims to explain the reasons for the growth in ethical banking and to answer the following questions: can banking consumers-investors change the characterization of the banking system? Can ethical banking gain ground on traditional banking? And is ethical banking really effective? To this end, it will examine the Spanish case, using econometric causal regression models to identify the reasons why consumers decide to invest in ethical banking and determine its role in the Spanish economy.
Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun
When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout.
Rochania Ayu Yunanda
and also increase public confidence in the profession. However, the efforts to integrate ethical values in educational system will not work well if there are no moral commitments implanted in the individuals. Islam with its divine values plays the notable role to embed cognitive ethical values. It emphasizes on the unity of God, the accountability to God and the concept of maslahah (public benefits to be the foundations of ethics. Incorporating Islamic ethics into the system will be a significant contribution towards generating ethical accounting education. This paper attempts to elucidate how the Islamic ethics contribute its role towards ethical accountants as the products of accounting education.
Mandlis, Lane R
By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."
Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona
This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because...... it induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation...
Richmond, Jacqueline; Wheeler, Emily; Warner, Sherryne; Mason, Susan
Abstract Purpose: Hepatology nursing is an emerging speciality. To define best practice, the Australasian Hepatology Association (AHA) developed consensus-based guidelines for the nursing care of patients with liver disease. Using the Delphi technique, six rounds of consultation were conducted with Australian hepatology nurses and non-nursing hepatology professionals. Input was captured through face-to-face and electronic communication and questionnaires. The experts' opinions were collated and consensus on the delivery of hepatology nursing care was achieved. In total, 90 consensus guidelines were developed. The principles underpinning the Guidelines include patient-centred care, non-discriminatory practice, cultural competence, collaboration and partnership and working within own scope of practice. Internationally, the AHA Guidelines are the first to document a consensus on the scope of hepatology nursing practice. The Guidelines reflect the expansion of hepatology nursing, from viral hepatitis to caring for patients with advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, and provides a framework for future nursing practice.
Schnetzler, C. C.; Garvin, J. B.
Many tektite investigations have hypothesized that the impact crater that was the source of the extensive Australasian strewn field lies somewhere in or near Indochina. This is due to variations in abundance and size of tektites across the strewn field, variation of thickness of microtektite layers in ocean cores, nature and ablation characteristics across the field, and, above all, the occurrence of the large, blocky, layered Muong Nong-type tektites in Indochina. A recent study of the location and chemistry of Muong Nong-type and splash-form tektites suggests that the source region can be further narrowed to a limited area in eastern Thailand and southern Loas. Satellite multispectral imagery, a digital elevation dataset, and maps showing drainage patterns were used to search within this area for possible anomalous features that may be large degraded impact craters. Four interesting structures were identified from these datasets, and they are presented.
Richard Le Heron
Full Text Available Surprisingly little theoretical or empirical research is available on Auckland’s actual functional and geographic connectivity, including developments relating to closer economic relations with Australia. This paper draws on the geography of accumulation literatures to argue that close attention must be given to developments in the three circuits of capital (trade, production and finance if the changing character and contributions of globalising firm networks are to be discerned and understood. The empirical investigations show that for Australian owned firms globalising rather than purely Australasian networks are the norm, network complexity is considerable and that it makes sense to think of Auckland’s economy in globalising terms. A globalising networks perspective means that estimates of the magnitude and assessments of the character of employment contributions of Australian owned firms to the Auckland economy reflects these interdependencies.
Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho
According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education
Pimentel, Inácia; St.Aubyn, Miguel; Ribeiro, Nuno
In this paper we test the macroeconomic impact of investment in public-private partnerships, public and private investment in Portugal through a VAR model with four variables: public and private investment, PPP investment and GDP, to the period 1998- 2013. An assessment of crowding-in / crowding-out effects of investment in PPPs is carried out. We also proceed to the calculation of macroeconomic rates of return on investment in PPP, public investment and private investment. The...
Khajehnoori, Masoomeh; Stupart, Douglas; Watters, David
A commonly used metric for evaluating the quality and impact of presentations at a scientific meeting is the frequency with which the findings presented are published as full research papers in peer-reviewed journals. The purpose of this study was to determine the full article publication rates of abstract presentations for General Surgery and related sub-specialities at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Scientific Congress (RACS ASC) from 2010 to 2014. All General Surgical (including its sub-speciality groups) abstracts presented at the RACS ASC from 2010 to 2014 were identified from the ANZ Journal of Surgery. We determined the rates of full paper publication, time to publication, journals of publication and specialty rates of conversion. Full article publications were identified using the PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. A total of 1386 abstracts were identified, of which 356 (26%) were converted to full paper publications. The number of abstracts presented annually increased from 206 in 2010 to 386 in 2014, but the percentage of abstracts converted to full paper publications did not follow any temporal trend. The majority (74%) of full papers were published within 2 years of the abstract presentation. In total, 26% of General Surgery abstracts presented at the RACS ASC from 2010 to 2014 were converted to full paper publications. This could provide a baseline against which to judge the quality of presentations at other national General Surgical congresses, as well as at future RACS ASC meetings. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Keywords: investment, uncertainty, investment spikes, entry, exit, duration model, GMM dynamic panel data estimator, Negative Binomial model, Heckman selection model, moving window ARIMA, Principal Component analysis, horticulture
This thesis focuses on the analysis of investment
Vallance, Roger J.
Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…
Sternberg, Robert J.
Translating ethics knowledge into ethical behavior is much harder than it appears, writes Sternberg. In this article, he outlines an eight-step process that individuals must go through to act in an ethical way--for example, recognizing that there is an event to which to react, taking personal responsibility for generating an ethical solution to…
The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…
There is no specific psychiatric ethic. The ethical principles for practical actions in psychiatry have to be adapted on the basis of the generally accepted ethical principles, which are based on psychobiologically developed ethic of love: honesty, discretion, empathy, patience, distance, consistency, accountability, tolerance, economic neutrality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...
Bonilla, Alcira B
Moral philosophy or ethics holds the rank of the "first philosophy" nowadays. In this paper I try to reflect the state of art into this field. The text is divided into four sections: "Making clear the language: moral and ethics", "The phenomenon of the morality", "The technical use of the words by the current thinkers", and "'Applied Ethics' and the contemporary 'ethical turn'".
Hira, Tahira K.
Ethics are often taught in higher education. but research shows that family environment and early childhood are most influential in developing ethical behavior. The importance of ethics to work and family life suggests that ethical training should not be limited to vocational/business courses and it should start early. (SK)
Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart
turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....
Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.
Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Chadwick, Ruth
Global collaboration in genomic research is increasingly both a scientific reality and an ethical imperative. This past decade has witnessed the emergence of six new, interconnected areas of ethical consensus and emphasis for policy in genomics: governance, security, empowerment, transparency, the right not to know, and globalization. The globalization of genomic research warrants an approach to governance policies grounded in human rights. A human rights approach activates the ethical principles underpinning genomic research. It lends force to the right of all citizens to benefit from scientific progress, and to the right of all scientists to be recognized for their contributions.
Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter
makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....
Taking into account the state of the science, the ethics committee has to decide in research projects with study-related radiation exposure, whether a compelling need for the research project exists. During the critical appraisal, further ethical and legal aspects have to be considered. Even without an application according to X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) or Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), the Ethics Committee should advise the applicant whether from their perspective the project requires an approval according to RoeV and StrlSchV. This requires the regular involvement of expert members.
Jimenez Mejia, Jose Fernando
It could be said that the concept of sustainability is based on ethic postulates, because it claims to bear in mind the set of necessities of future generations as a control variable for human development models and for consumption patterns. Ethics, in its own, mainly in the spinozist line of thinking, is a philosophical proposal directed to empowering the operations of expression of the beings (not only of the human being). This ethics outlines multiple developments and conceive future generations not as undifferentiated, passive and impotent collectives, but as active and joyful communities, who are sensitive to the possibilities of their own devenir
Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de
Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter
This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....
Full Text Available The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with specific and knowable outcomes, towards actions by many unaware that they may have taken actions with unintended consequences for anyone. Responses will require a rethinking of ethical choices, the lack thereof and how this will guide scientists, governments, and corporate agencies in handling Big Data. This essay elaborates on the ways Big Data impacts on ethical conceptions.
Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan
Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a
Full Text Available Research in business ethics is vital for the expansion and credibility of this fairly recent academic field. This article argues that there are three factors that are crucially important for research in business ethics. They are (a the ontological assumptions that research in this field is premised upon, (b the choice of research strategies and methodologies and (c the role of theory in research practice. Each of these three factors is explored and pitfalls relating to each of them are identified. The article also suggests guidelines for dealing with each of these factors in business ethics research.
Iltis, Ana S.; Sheehan, Mark
The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this “knowing” or “being better at judging” is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848
Melia, K M
This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case is made for empirical work in health care ethics and it is suggested that a good way of setting about this is to ask practising nurses about the ...
Full Text Available The issue problem of paper is that base on researches connected with analysis of investments in logistics based on the review of 100 pooled manuscripts from different sources (scientific journals and online magazines from 1996 to 2012 it was showed that there don't exist quality as well as leadership has no a good overview of the investment in logistics. It was claimed that the quality point of view should be demanding part of investments in logistics. Val Log was proposed as an answer to the issues of managing quality of investments in logistics at the tactical level in organizations. By Val Log it is possible to overcome the myth that logistics projects cost money while business projects bring money. Val Log also provides detailed instructions for goals and metrics for each process. By doing changes the quality should be the obvious pillar of our affords doing it.
Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens
of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...... consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out...
Savvides, Savvakis C.
This paper was prepared for the purpose of presenting the methodology and uses of the Monte Carlo simulation technique as applied in the evaluation of investment projects to analyse and assess risk. The first part of the paper highlights the importance of risk analysis in investment appraisal. The second part presents the various stages in the application of the risk analysis process. The third part examines the interpretation of the results generated by a risk analysis application including ...
Simplice A., Asongu
Contrary to mainstream consensus on the dominance of English common law countries in investment prospects, this paper sets a new tone in the legal origins debate by providing empirical validity on the dominance of French civil-law countries in private investment. The assessment is based on 38 African countries for the period 1996-2007. The law mechanisms of regulation quality and rule of law are used to investigate how legal origins (French, English, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North A...
Vito Tanzi; Hamid R Davoodi
Corruption, particularly political or “grand” corruption, distorts the entire decision-making process connected with public investment projects. The degree of distortions is higher with weaker auditing institutions. The evidence presented shows that higher corruption is associated with (i) higher public investment; (ii) lower government revenues; (iii) lower expenditures on operations and maintenance; and (iv) lower quality of public infrastructure. The evidence also shows that corruption inc...
This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.
Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.
Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.
A. V. Russavskaya
Full Text Available Development and implementation of investment projects are usually carried out under conditions of uncertainty determined by several factors. Eleven classification features are given for external risks divided into two groups: those that can be forecasted and those that can not. Investment risks areclassified according to the following main features: situation, scale, time to take decision, admissibility, specific aspects. Author’s risk management system structure is proposed.
Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis
The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...
This study examines the choice of a multinational firm between two alternative entry modes, a greenfield investment and a joint venture, under incomplete information. The joint venture partner is selected by an auction, which distinguishes this study from other studies in the literature. A private values auction allows a multinational firm to increase its share of the joint venture profit so that a joint venture is always preferable to greenfield investment. The model also examines the nation...
Grenaa Jensen, S.; Meibom, P.
There is considerable uncertainty in the Nordic electricity system with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started with a situation of a large capacity margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime, it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The purpose of the present study is to analyze if and when investors choose to invest in new electricity production capacity depending on their existing portfolio of power producing units. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the Nordic power market, such as new transmission lines between neighbouring countries, more installed wind power, and changes in CO 2 emission trading costs, are used to investigate the consequences for investments in a natural gas fired, combined cycle power plant. The main result of the analysis is that new investments are highly sensitive to investors existing power production portfolio, as new production units affect the merit order in the power market, i.e. compete with the existing power plants. (au)
The issue of ethics in marketing continues to be a concern for marketing practitioners and researchers. Every business manager would probably agree that ethical implications are often inherent in marketing decisions. This fact has encouraged to turn to the topic of marketing ethics and to analyze the levels of marketing ethics. As an example of differences in the levels of marketing ethics in different countries, the situation in the old free market and in transition economies is compared. Be...
Daniel, S L
Essays by Thomasma and ten Have recommend hermeneutical clinical ethics. The use Thomasma makes of hermeneutics is not radical enough because it leaves out basic interpretation of clinical practice and focuses narrowly on ethical principles and rules. Ten Have, while failing to notice that the hyperreality of clinical ethics is a feature of all language, rightly distinguishes four characteristic parameters of a thoroughgoing interpretive clinical ethics: experience, attitudes and emotions, community, and ambiguity. Suggestions are made for implementing hermeneutical ethics in clinical teaching.
Samuel, Hamman W; Zaïane, Osmar R
We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository.
The author can see no sense in demanding an ethical regime to be applied exclusively to nuclear power but rather calls for an approach that discusses nuclear power as one constituent of the complex energy issue in a way spanning all dimensions involved, as e.g. the technological, economic, cultural, humanitarian, and humanistic aspects. An ethical approach does not question scientific research, or science or technology, but examines their relation to man and the future of humanity, so that an ethical approach will first of all demand that society will bring forward conscientious experts as reliable partners in the process of discussing the ethical implications of progress and development in a higly industrialised civilisation. (orig./CB) [de
Full Text Available The article aims at thinking the relation between ethics, science and technology, emphasising the problem of their re-linking, after the split into judgements of fact and judgements of value, which happened in the beginning of modern times. Once the warlike Aristocracy's ethics and the saint man's moral are examined, one tries to outline the way by taking as a reference the ethics of responsibility, whose prototype is the wise man's moral, which disappeared in the course of modern times, due to the fragmentation of knowing and the advent of the specialist. At the end of the study, the relation between ethics and metaphysics is discussed, aiming at adjusting the anthropological question to the cosmological perspective, as well as at providing the bases of a new humanism, objectifying the humanising of technique and the generation of a new man, literate at science, technology and the humanities.
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context...... of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne
'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillanceenabling technology. I call attention to a “positivist problem” that has to do with the connection between the design context...... of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....
The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...
Mishatkina, T.V.; Vishnevskaya, Yu.A.
The necessity of creating a new field of applied Ethics – Nanoethics - is justified by specificity and magnitude of potential hazards and risks associated with the development and use of nanotechnology. (authors)
Feldman, Brenda J.
Discusses how a high school journalism advisor dealt with ethical issues (including source attribution) surrounding the publication of a story about violation of school board policies by representatives of a nationally recognized ring company. (RS)
Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P
Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.
Full Text Available In order to reflect on some ethical improprieties which I had committed during the data collection phase of an information systems research study, I conducted an heuristic and psychologically-oriented self-study. As part of this heuristic reflection, I engaged in a number of self dialogues in the form of a conversation between various characters. Reported in this paper is one of these dialogues, concerning broad issues of ethics and research and discussing the notion of wisdom, maturity, meaning, and virtue. Ethical considerations are always of primary importance, and I would assert that this is even more so when considering research investigating and using new media, such as the world wide web, in which acceptable ethical practices have yet to be established and consolidated.
In my paper I examine the practice of advertising from ethical perspective. The paper informs about the ethical regulation of advertising practice in Czech Republic and highlights its interconnection with legislative regulation. It also introduces the work of the Committee for advertising - the first organization for auto-regulation of advertising in Eastern Europe - whose goal is to ensure honest, legal, decent, truthful practice of advertising in Czech Republic. In the main part of my paper...
The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist soc...
Silvia MUHCINA; Veronica POPOVICI
As well as the entire business world, marketing has its own ethics problems. Numerous marketing specialists or their representatives have consciously declared and adopted different engagements, declarations or codes of rules regarding the necessity that marketing people consider ethics regulations and values, so that they become much more responsible towards the members of society. These declarations or rules concern marketing practices in their ensemble or are guided towards certain specific...
This thesis explores the relationship between ethics, and modern mindfulness interventions. Mindfulness research is becoming increasingly popular in cognitive science, and mindfulness practices are also starting to be used as a new method in phenomenological research. However, in the past few years a number of researchers have pointed out some worrying differences between the modern, and the traditional, understanding of mindfulness – the main difference being the absence of an explicit ethic...
Banerjee, Probir K.
The community of researchers unanimously agrees that a code of ethics must be followed when engaging in research and consenting to publication of research findings in academic journals. However, unethical research practice continues to cause concern. In an effort to address the concern, several researchers have prescribed remedial action. Publishers and members of the research community have also tried to raise awareness of this malady plaguing the research community. For example, Ethics in R...
Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235
Ethics emerges in the interstices of deontology, in difficult situations generating internal conflicts for the caregiver, sources of anxiety and questioning. Ethics education has always played a major in nursing programs by initiating a reflection on human values. Faced with current uncertainties in the context of care, it is now based on the appropriation of a reflexive approach to the meaning of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Oliveira Sobrinho, Afonso Soares
The law is not the product of a univocal thought, but constructed from ethical relations, legal and political, cultural and institutional structuring-structured in the global society of the twenty-first century. The formation of the culturalist dialogical ethics law aims to encompass the diversity and pluralism of bodies and social actors through deliberative, participatory democracy in the creation, interpretation and application of law. Especially regarding the effectiveness of fundamental ...
I take issue with Frank Leavitt's sketch of a pragmatic criterion for the relevance of metaphysics to medical ethics. I argue that appeal to the potential for confusion generated by metaphysical subtlety establishes a need for better communication rather than shows philosophical insight beside the point. I demonstrate that the proposed Criterion of Relevance has absurd consequences, and I claim that the relevance of philosophical doctrines, whether ethical or metaphysical, is best accounted for in terms of improved understanding. PMID:7608933
The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with specific and knowable outcomes, towards actions by many unaware that they may have taken actions with unintended consequences for anyone. Responses will require a rethinking of ethical choices, the l...
Designed as both a teaching text and reader for students and faculty across diverse disciplines, the book provides an "ethical toolkit" - an introduction to prevailing ethical frameworks - and shows their application to both general issues and specific case-studies in digital media (privacy......, copyright, sex and violence online, and global citizenship). The book has become one of two "must-reads" in the United States for anyone interested in these topics....
One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form...... a larger picture of current trends and developments, and then explores how these relate with information ethics more broadly, including future directions for research....
Tsu, Vivien Davis; Ginsburg, Ophira
We already know what causes cervical cancer, how to prevent it, and how to treat it, even in resource-constrained settings. Inequitable access to human papillomavirus vaccine for girls and screening and precancer treatment for women in low- and middle-income countries is unacceptable on ethical, social, and financial grounds. The burden of cervical cancer falls on the poor and extends beyond the narrow bounds of the family, affecting national economic development and community life, as family resources are drained and poverty tightens its grip. Proven solutions are available and the priorities for the next few years are clear, as shown by the papers in this Supplement. Sustained political commitment and strategic investments in cervical cancer prevention can not only save millions of lives over the next 10 years, but can also pave the way for the broader fight against all cancers. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Mittelstadt, Brent; Stahl, Bernd; Fairweather, Ben
The chapter undertakes a comparison of different approaches to the ethical assessment of novel technologies by looking at two recent research projects. ETICA was a FP7 sister project to PHM-Ethics, responsible for identification and ethical evaluation of information and communication technologies emerging in the next 10-15 years. The aims, methods, outcomes and recommendations of ETICA are compared to those of PHM-Ethics, with identification of linkages and similar findings. A relationship is identified between the two projects, in which the assessment methodologies developed in the projects are shown to operate at separate, but complementary levels. ETICA sought to reform EU ethics governance for emerging ICTs. The outcomes of PHM-Ethics are analyzed within the policy recommendations of ETICA, which demonstrate how the PHM-Ethics toolbox can contribute to ethics governance reform and context-sensitive ethical assessment of the sort called for by ETICA.
Kerrie A Wilson
Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.
Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our dealings with one another. Many functioning communities tend to share some values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and quality. Rights and duties form an interconnected network of obligations that protect the security of individuals and groups. In health care, the motives and virtues of practitioners are important sources of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource constraints. Ethics and the law have similarities, but also significant differences that may cause tension between the two systems. Health care is morally grounded, and provides a bulwark against the widespread fear of disease and suffering. The way in which health care is delivered depends on both national wealth and community values. Ethical problems can be seen as dilemmas, in which there are conflicting values. Modern ethical thinking in health is complicated by the need to consider the values and interests of many stakeholders--patients, health care workers, families, politicians, administrators, health bureaucrats and many others. There are ways of ethical thinking that take account of these often countervailing interests. No universally 'right' answers can be specified. The mode and the thoroughness of ethical consideration, and the careful consideration of local community values, will help to assure that we make the best possible decisions for the time and place.
Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo
The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process.
Shaw, William H.
In the past three decades, philosophers have delved into applied ethics, pursuing a surprisingly wide range of practically oriented normative questions, and a number of fields of applied ethical research and teaching are flourishing. There have, however, been few comparative studies of different fields in applied ethics, but such studies can, I believe, teach us something. Accordingly, this essay compares and contrasts business ethics and military ethics as distinct disciplinar...
Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David
Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This chapter emphasizes a preventive ethics approach, designed to prevent ethical conflict in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a preventive ethics approach uses the informed consent process to offer cesarean delivery as a medically reasonable alternative to vaginal delivery, to recommend cesarean delivery, and to recommend against cesarean delivery. The limited role of shared decision making is also described. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics guides this multi-faceted preventive ethics approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Parantap Basu; Christoph Thoenissen
Is the relative price of investment goods a good proxy for investment frictions? We analyze investment frictions in an open economy, flexible price, two-country model and show that when the relative price of investment goods is endogenously determined in such a model, the relative price of investment can actually rise in response to a reduction in investment frictions. Only when the model is driven by TFP shocks do we observe a data congruent negative correlation between investment and the re...
Hasheminasab, Seyed Alireza; Tork Ladani, Behrouz
Security of the systems is normally interdependent in such a way that security risks of one part affect other parts and threats spread through the vulnerable links in the network. So, the risks of the systems can be mitigated through investments in the security of interconnecting links. This article takes an innovative look at the problem of security investment of nodes on their vulnerable links in a given contagious network as a game-theoretic model that can be applied to a variety of applications including information systems. In the proposed game model, each node computes its corresponding risk based on the value of its assets, vulnerabilities, and threats to determine the optimum level of security investments on its external links respecting its limited budget. Furthermore, direct and indirect nonlinear influences of a node's security investment on the risks of other nodes are considered. The existence and uniqueness of the game's Nash equilibrium in the proposed game are also proved. Further analysis of the model in a practical case revealed that taking advantage of the investment effects of other players, perfectly rational players (i.e., those who use the utility function of the proposed game model) make more cost-effective decisions than selfish nonrational or semirational players. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right