WorldWideScience

Sample records for austerity plan pays

  1. Managing austerity: comparing municipal austerity plans in the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmans, Tom; Timm-Arnold, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to clarify the relationships between the politico-administrative system and responses to austerity by comparing municipal austerity plans in the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). Although austerity is a major topic in both states, the approaches differ. In our sampl

  2. Austerity

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt; Harris Dellas

    2014-01-01

    The recent sovereign debt crisis has rekindled the debate on the role of austerity. By austerity, we mean consumption levels below those desired and supported by a country's repayment capacity. We shed light on the function, properties, and optimal size of austerity by developing a model that augments the standard sovereign debt model with incomplete information and credit rationing. We establish: First, some austerity is always inevitable. Second, intermediate levels of new loans produce les...

  3. Austerity

    OpenAIRE

    Harris Dellas; Dirk Niepelt

    2014-01-01

    We shed light on the function, properties and optimal size of austerity using the standard sovereign debt model augmented to include incomplete information about credit risk. Austerity is defined as the shortfall of consumption from the level desired by a country and supported by its repayment capacity. We find that austerity serves as a tool for securing a more favourable loan package; that it is associated with over-investment even when investment does not create collateral; and that low ri...

  4. Austerity for Whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McBride

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the recent multi-billion dollar bailouts offered to leading sectors of capital, fiscal austerity is poised to make a comeback worldwide. Labour will be forced to pay for the public debt accumulated in the aftermath of the recent global financial and economic crisis. Notwithstanding change and evolution in the neoliberal model over time, this return to austerity is consistent with overall policy in the neoliberal period which can be considered an era of permanent restraint in most areas of social spending. This article examines a variety of trends that have emerged over the past thirty years of neoliberal rule: the various facets of neoliberal policy and their temporal dimensions; as well as the results of market-reliance and spending reforms: growing affluence for a minority of Canadians while the majority lose ground and inequalities are further entrenched. Asking 'austerity for whom' directs attention at the interconnections between affluence and austerity that exist in Canada.

  5. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines.

  6. Can austerity be self-defeating?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    With European governments cutting back on spending, many are asking whether this could make matters worse. In the UK for instance, recent OECD estimates suggest that 'austerity' will lead to another recession, which in turn may lead to a higher debt-to-GDP ratio than before. As the debate heats up, the following two articles attempt to provide some cool economic logic: Credible austerity plans are required by Daniel Gros and Why austerity can become self-defeating for member states of a curre...

  7. Strategic Forum. Number 287, May 2014. Strategy and Force Planning in a Time of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    technology and ac - quisition and trades size for high-end capability: ◆◆ The Army would be reduced from the 490,000 currently planned to between 380,000...and 450,000 Ac - tive-duty Soldiers for the future force. ◆◆ The Navy would be reduced from 11 carriers to 8 or 9 carriers. ◆◆ The Marine Corps would be...Greenspan Commission and the Social Security Reforms of 1983,” in Triumphs and Tragedies of the Modern Presidency: Seventy-Six Case Studies in

  8. Virtue and austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is often proposed as a third way in health-care ethics, that while consequentialism and deontology focus on action guidelines, virtue focuses on character; all three aim to help agents discern morally right action although virtue seems to have least to contribute to political issues, such as austerity. I claim: (1) This is a bad way to characterize virtue ethics. The 20th century renaissance of virtue ethics was first proposed as a response to the difficulty of making sense of 'moral rightness' outside a religious context. For Aristotle the right action is that which is practically best; that means best for the agent in order to live a flourishing life. There are no moral considerations besides this. (2) Properly characterized, virtue ethics can contribute to discussion of austerity. A criticism of virtue ethics is that fixed characteristics seem a bad idea in ever-changing environments; perhaps we should be generous in prosperity, selfish in austerity. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that people indeed do change with their environment. However, I argue that virtues concern fixed values not fixed behaviour; the values underlying virtue allow for different behaviour in different circumstances: in austerity, virtues still give the agent the best chance of flourishing. Two questions arise. (a) In austere environments might not injustice help an individual flourish by, say, obtaining material goods? No, because unjust acts undermine the type of society the agent needs for flourishing. (b) What good is virtue to those lacking the other means to flourish? The notion of degrees of flourishing shows that most people would benefit somewhat from virtue. However, in extreme circumstances virtue might harm rather than benefit the agent: such circumstances are to be avoided; virtue ethics thus has a political agenda to enable flourishing. This requires justice, a fortiori when in austerity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Making Sense of Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Riisbjerg Thomsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    elements are part of a sensemaking process where people are trying to understand their personal situation, changes to their households, and the national economy. We apply this logic to a study of online comments’ sections for 240 newspaper articles on austerity in Denmark and the United Kingdom. Characters...... such as ‘scroungers’ and ‘corporate criminals’ are identified, as are scenes such as the decline of the welfare state and the rise of technocracy. We link the storysets, story-lines, and plots together to understand how Brits and Danes are making sense of austerity. Their explanations and frustrations improve our...

  10. 77 FR 74353 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. As discussed below, PBGC will... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: This...

  11. 78 FR 49682 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective September 1, 2013... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: This...

  12. 78 FR 62426 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective November 1, 2013... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  13. 77 FR 68685 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective December 1, 2012... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 76 FR 50413 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective September 1, 2011... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 78 FR 2881 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective February 1, 2013... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  16. 78 FR 68739 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective December 1, 2013... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 76 FR 63836 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective November 1, 2011... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  18. 77 FR 62433 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective November 1, 2012... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 76 FR 70639 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective December 1, 2011... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  20. 77 FR 2015 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective February 1, 2012... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  1. Health, Austerity and Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Blake

    2012-01-01

    On September 28, 2012, the postgraduate students of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto organized a conference on the theme of "Health, Austerity and Affluence." It brought together academics, health-care professionals and public policy makers in a forum to discuss effective health care delivery at a time…

  2. The austere life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Since the 2008 financial crisis, austerity has been deployed as a public policy geared towards reducing sovereign debt and restoring economic order, on the one hand, and descried as an example of punitive moralizing by political and economic elites, on the other. This article challenges the economic understanding of the concept of austerity. Some recent examples from popular culture are adduced to indicate societal dissatisfaction with the accumulation of material things, examples of what has been called `the new minimalism'. Contextualizing this phenomenon within a culture of intensive consumption, it is argued here that there is a history of austerity as an aversion to ostentation and excess in western tradition that runs from the Stoics through to recent pronouncements by Pope Francis and that provides a vantage point from which to question the economistic deployment of the term. When understood in this way, the austere can be seen to carry an important political meaning today and may contribute to the sorts of transformation necessary in order to reduce material demand on a societal scale. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  3. May austerity be counterproductive?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact that fiscal policy has on economic activity and sovereign debt during economic downturns in the euro area, mainly Germany and Spain. Our theoretical and empirical framework shows that the macroeconomic returns of austerity crucially depend on the values of fiscal multipliers. We find that, for the Spanish economy, even if policy makers just focus on the public debt ratio, ignoring output and unemployment, policies of deficit reduction may be self-defeating, ...

  4. May Austerity be Counterproductive?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact that fiscal policy has on economic activity and sovereign debt during economic downturns in the euro area, mainly Germany and Spain. Our theoretical and empirical framework shows that the feasibility of austerity measures depends crucially on the values of the fiscal multipliers. We find that, for the Spanish economy, even if policy makers just focus on the public debt ratio, ignoring output and unemployment, policies of deficit reduction are self-defeating...

  5. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Y

    1986-11-01

    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service.

  6. 78 FR 42009 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective August 1, 2013. FOR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 76 FR 41689 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective August 1, 2011. FOR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  8. 77 FR 41270 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective August 1, 2012. FOR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  9. 78 FR 11093 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective March 1, 2013. FOR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  10. 77 FR 8730 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective March 1, 2012. FOR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  11. Paying Medicare Advantage plans by competitive bidding: how much competition is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Private health plans that enroll Medicare beneficiaries--known as Medicare Advantage (MA) plans--are being paid $11 billion more in 2009 than it would cost to cover these beneficiaries in regular fee-for-service Medicare. To generate Medicare savings for offsetting the costs of health reform, the Obama Administration has proposed eliminating these extra payments to private insurers and instituting a competitive bidding system that pays MA plans based on the bids they submit. This study examines the concentration of enrollment among MA plans and the degree to which firms offering MA plans actually face competition. The results show that in the large majority of U.S. counties, MA plan enrollment is highly concentrated in a small number of firms. Given the relative lack of competition in many markets as well as the potential impact on traditional Medicare, the authors call for careful consideration of a new system for setting MA plan payments.

  12. A poesia de Paul Auster

    OpenAIRE

    Egle Pereira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Paul Austers extremely neglected early work: his poetry. Five books were published: Unearth (1974), Wall writing (1976), Effigies (1977), Fragments from cold (1977) and Facing the music (1980), available only at antiquarians and restrective universities libraries in the United States, as well as at the New York Public Library. Studies around Austers poetic oeuvre are restricted to papers, reviews, translators introduction, and a thesis that focus on his poetry to produce ...

  13. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  14. Austere Defense: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    military advice while acquiescing to divestitures, and effectively executing the austere defense cuts required by current law through 2019 and...Could it be that our assessments of risk have, over time, become too conservative? In- deed, even with the effects of full sequestration the United... crunch . Look- ing at overhead, as Douglas Macgregor of Politico magazine reminds us, during World War II, only four four-star generals commanded a

  15. James Peacock, Understanding Paul Auster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysavgi Papayianni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul Auster’s impressive gamut of work continues to incite fascination and controversy. Indeed, his compelling storytelling style taken together with his mixing of crime fiction and absurdism has made his readers and critics vacillate between praise and condemnation. James Peacock’s Understanding Paul Auster, sheds new light to otherwise obscure aspects of Auster’s novels, films, and other works undermining in this way the negative criticism of the past and thus creating a new appreciation fo...

  16. Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; Sánchez, Mercedes

    2012-12-30

    This paper analyses whether the environmental profile of park visitors as defined by the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory, determines their willingness to pay for park conservation. The sample consists of 194 visitors to a suburban Spanish park. Under these theories, it is shown that positive attitudes, a strong orientation towards biospheric and altruistic values with strong pro-environmental and normative beliefs determine the visitors' willingness to pay. Various fit statistics and the proportion of explained variance reveal that Theory of Planned Behavior has a greater influence on willingness to pay. The managers of urban spaces should direct their efforts to obtaining greater knowledge of people's attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental values given their importance in their decisions regarding economic valuation of this sort of resources.

  17. Accountability in Times of Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    in the form of a Budget Law and new requirements for financial management. This makes it interesting to assess how these initiatives introduced in times of austerity affect accountability in central government, and to discuss the potential effects of them. Based on a democratic, a constitutional......Like other countries Denmark has been hit by the global financial, economic and fiscal crisis. The pressure on the public finances has increased and public sector reforms such as new and/or changed accountability systems for budgetng, spending controls and financial management hav been launched...

  18. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict willingness to pay for the conservation of an urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; García, Teresa; Barrena, Ramo

    2014-03-15

    This paper relates the concept of moral obligation and the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior to determine their influence on the willingness to pay of visitors for park conservation. The sample consists of 190 visitors to an urban Spanish park. The mean willingness to pay estimated was 12.67€ per year. The results also indicated that moral norm was the major factor in predicting behavioral intention, followed by attitudes. The new relations established between the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior show that social norms significantly determine the attitudes, moral norms and perceived behavioral control of individuals. The proportion of explained variance shows that the inclusion of moral norms improves the explanatory power of the original model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (32-40%). Community-based social marketing and local campaigns are the main strategies that should be followed by land managers with the objective of promoting responsible, pro-environmental attitudes as well as a greater willingness to pay for this type of goods.

  19. Accountability in Times of Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    Like other countries Denmark has been hit by the global financial, economic and fiscal crisis. The pressure on the public finances has increased and public sector reforms such as new and/or changed accountability systems for budgetng, spending controls and financial management hav been launched...... in the form of a Budget Law and new requirements for financial management. This makes it interesting to assess how these initiatives introduced in times of austerity affect accountability in central government, and to discuss the potential effects of them. Based on a democratic, a constitutional...... and a learning perspective on public accountability, we assess the two initiatives through documentary material and interviews with civil servants who have designed or implemented the initiatives. The paper shows that the two initiatives strenthen and increase accountability from a democratic...

  20. Austerity, Discipline and Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asja Hrvatin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the manifestations of the global crisis of financial capitalism and the policies arising from it was the imposition of austerity measures, which not only resulted in privatization of the commons and general expropriation of the people, but also managed to introduce new mechanisms of discipline and punishment. Debt, being the fundament of relations in society, forced itself into the system of social security: new legislation, regulating welfare benefits, has now shifted to a method for the criminalization of poverty, deepening class differences and transforming social workers (and the system of social security as a whole into a moralizing, bureaucratic machine for disciplining the population. The new legislation also shows a lack of reflection on the changes that need to be made to the welfare state in order to create social services that meet the needs and desires of individuals. Instead of improvements that provide decent living conditions and a new system of social rights (to deal with the problems resulting from precarious working conditions, people are faced with depersonalization, humiliation and increased hate speech and other fascist practices. The effect of austerity measures on the social security system does not end with the devastation of service users’ lives and their communities, which are slowly becoming exhausted, individualized and devoid of solidarity. It also means a big step backwards for the core ethics and principles of social work. Social workers are increasingly alienated from their clients and the communities they live in. They function more in the service of the government and its policies rather than as advocates of people’s rights.

  1. Fiscal Austerity Versus Growth in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of fiscal austerity has been questioned for centuries, but a rapidly increasing deficit along with the financial crisis in 2007/2008 influenced a renewed debate on the economics of austerity. This paper analyzes the role of austerity versus the role of economic growth. It also attempts to highlight the role of the theoretical context of austerity policy and the economic history lesson learned during the transition from the Bretton Woods model to Washington’s consensus. Despite numerous studies and polarized debate, no consensus on the implementation of fiscal austerity has been achieved because this complex subject has not been the subject of a sufficient methodological exploration. Emphasis should be placed on defining the methodology of austerity and gathering statistical data to influence the implementation of social transfer policies. In addition, it is necessary not only to take a hybrid approach to fiscal and monetary policy but also to adopt economic laws and quantitative economic relationships. The benchmarking country used in this paper is Croatia. The outcome of this research can serve as the basis for future decision-making and research.

  2. ON SPACELIKE AUSTERE SUBMANIFOLDS IN PSEUDO-EUCLIDEAN SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yuxin; Han Yingbo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we construct some spacelike austere submanifolds in pseduo- Euclidean spaces. We also get some indefinite special Lagrangian submanifolds by con- structing twisted normal bundle of spacelike austere submanifolds in pseduo-Euclidean spaces.

  3. 77 FR 22215 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective May 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  4. 78 FR 28490 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective June 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  5. 76 FR 27889 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective June 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 78 FR 22192 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective May 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 77 FR 28477 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... covered by the pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective June 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  8. Recreational benefits of urban forests: explaining visitors' willingness to pay in the context of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Katrin; Roschewitz, Anna

    2008-11-01

    The extension of contingent valuation models with an attitude-behavior based framework has been proposed in order to improve the descriptive and predictive ability of the models. This study examines the potential of the theory of planned behavior to explain willingness to pay (WTP) in a contingent valuation survey of the recreational benefits of the Zurich city forests. Two aspects of WTP responses, protest votes and bid levels, were analyzed separately. In both steps, models with and without the psychological predictors proposed by the theory of planned behavior were compared. Whereas the inclusion of the psychological predictors significantly improved explanations of protest votes, their ability to improve the performance of the model explaining bid levels was limited. The results indicate that the interpretation of bid levels as behavioral intention may not be appropriate and that the potential of the theory of planned behavior to improve contingent valuation models depends on which aspect of WTP responses is examined.

  9. Do Austerity Measures Harm International Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.

  10. Austerity and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Van Woensel, Lieve; Arnold, Elleke; McDaid, David

    2013-11-01

    Many European governments have abundantly cut down public expenditure on health during the financial crisis. Consequences of the financial downturn on health outcomes have begun to emerge. This recession has led to an increase in poor health status, raising rates of anxiety and depression among the economically vulnerable. In addition, the incidence of some communicable diseases along with the rate of suicide has increased significantly. The recession has also driven structural reforms, and affected the priority given to public policies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how austerity impacts health in Europe and better understand the response of European health systems to the financial crisis. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions. More innovative approaches to health should be developed by health professionals and by those responsible for health management. In addition, scientists and experts in public health should promote evidence-based approaches to economic and public health recovery by analyzing the present economic downturn and previous crisis. However, it is governance and leadership that will mostly determine how well health systems are prepared to face the crisis and find ways to mitigate its effects.

  11. Analysis to Inform Defense Planning Despite Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    envisions going to policymakers (top yellow diamond ) to discuss what capabilities they wish to pursue further given results of the first-cut analysis...envisions going to policymakers to discuss what capabilities they wish to pursue further given results of the first-cut analysis (top yellow diamond ...2008; and related discussion from a larger workshop held by OSD (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) ( Porter , Bracken, and Kneece, 2007). 89

  12. Ruled Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four

    CERN Document Server

    Ionel, Marianty

    2010-01-01

    We classify 4-dimensional austere submanifolds in Euclidean space ruled by 2-planes. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of an austere 4-fold M were classified by Bryant, falling into three types which we label A, B, and C. We show that if M is 2-ruled of Type A, then the ruling map from M into the Grassmannian of 2-planes in R^n is holomorphic, and we give a construction for M starting with a holomorphic curve in an appropriate twistor space. If M is 2-ruled of Type B, then M is either a generalized helicoid in R^6 or the product of two classical helicoids in R^3. If M is 2-ruled of Type C, then M is either a one of the above, or a generalized helicoid in R^7. We also construct examples of 2-ruled austere hypersurfaces in R^5 with degenerate Gauss map.

  13. Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2016-05-31

    Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come.

  14. Austerity, fiscal volatility, and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Curatola, Giuliano; Donadelli, Michael; Gioffré, Alessandro; Grüning, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the relationship between austerity measures and economic growth. We propose a general equilibrium model where (i) agents have recursive preferences; (ii ) economic growth is endogenously driven by investments in R&D; (iii) the government is committed to a zero-deficit policy and finances public expenditures by means of a combination of labor taxes and R&D taxes. We find that austerity measures that rely on reducing resources available to the R&D...

  15. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  16. Openness, Technologies, Business Models and Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Open education emerged when the state had an active role in shaping and financing post-secondary education. In the twenty-first century, two pressures influence the way openness is conceived. The first is the compounding of neo-liberal economics with austerity following the financial crash of 2008. The second is the consolidation of networked and…

  17. Openness, Technologies, Business Models and Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Open education emerged when the state had an active role in shaping and financing post-secondary education. In the twenty-first century, two pressures influence the way openness is conceived. The first is the compounding of neo-liberal economics with austerity following the financial crash of 2008. The second is the consolidation of networked and…

  18. Austerity and Geometric Structure of Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyfets, Arkady

    The relation between the austerity idea and the geometric structure of the three basic field theories- -electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity --is studied. The idea of austerity was originally suggested by J. A. Wheeler in an attempt to formulate the laws of physics in such a way that they would come into being only within "the gates of time" extending from big bang to big crunch, rather than exist from everlasting to everlasting. One of the most significant manifestations of the austerity idea in field theories is thought to be expressed by the boundary of a boundary principle (BBP). The BBP says that almost all content of the field theories can be deduced from the topological identity (PAR-DIFF)(CCIRC)(PAR -DIFF) = 0 used twice, at the 1-2-3-dimensional level (providing the homgeneous field equations), and at the 2-3-4-dimensional level (providing the conservation laws for the source currents). There are some difficulties in this line of thought due to the apparent lack of universality in application of the BBP to the three basic modern field theories--electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity. This dissertation: (a) analyses the difficulties by means of algebraic topology, integration theory and modern differential geometry based on the concepts of principal bundles and Ehresmann connections; (b) extends the BBP to the unified Kaluza-Klein theory; (c) reformulates the inhomogeneous field equations and the BBP in terms of E. Cartan moment of rotation, in the way universal for all the three theories and compatible with the original austerity idea; (d) underlines the important role of the soldering structure on spacetime, and indicates that the future development of the austerity idea would involve the generalized theories, including the soldering form as a dynamical variable rather than as a background structure.

  19. Paying for Retirement: Sex Differences in Inclusion in Employer-Provided Retirement Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines sex differences among Baby Boom workers in the likelihood of coverage by an employer-provided retirement plan. Design and Methods: This study used a sample of Baby Boom workers drawn from the 2009 Current Population Survey. Independent variables were selected to replicate as closely as possible those in two 1995…

  20. CRISIS, AUSTERITY, AND COHESION: EUROPE'S STAGNATING INEQUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauderstädt, Michael; Keltek, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Europe's high inequality, systematically underestimated by the European Union, has been falling for many years thanks to catch-up growth in the poorer countries and despite often-increasing inequality within member states. Crisis and austerity have curbed this development, however. After inequality rose again during the Great Recession of 2009 and the subsequent brief recovery, things are now going sideways in the context of generally weak growth.

  1. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  2. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pastiche in Paul Auster's "The New York Trilogy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare'e, Maedeh; Eslamieh, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    This article is a Jamesonian study of Auster's "The New York Trilogy" in which one of Fredric Jameson's notions of postmodernism, pastiche, has been applied on three stories of the novel. This novel is one of Auster's outstanding postmodern works to which Jameson's theories of postmodernism, in particular, pastiche can be applicable.…

  4. Exploring Willingness to Pay for QR Code Labeled Extra-Virgin Olive Oil: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Code (QR code is the representative device of a particular branch of marketing called mobile marketing. The code is found throughout various productive sectors, including the agro-food sector. This work investigates whether consumers are willing to pay a premium price for extra information on a bottle of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO by means of the QR-code. Based on data collected from 1006 interviews conducted in Italy, we implemented the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to ascertain the factors that could influence consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP for extra QR code information. Empirical results show the influence of attitudes, subjective norms and consumer personal characteristics such as mavenism and motivation for shopping (utilitarian vs. hedonic motivation in explaining willingness to pay for a bottle of QR code labeled olive oil.

  5. 薪酬体系框架与考核方式对个人绩效薪酬选择的影响%The Effects of Pay System Frame and Performance Appraisal on Individual's Acceptance of Pay for Performance Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺伟; 龙立荣

    2011-01-01

    The compensation system of pay for performance has been widely applied by organizations as a mean to attract, motivate and sustain employees in modern business society. In theoretical field, too much attention has been drawn to the incentive effects of PFP on both individual and organizational performance while only a little work were conducted to explore the antecedents of employees' reaction and acceptance of the PFP plan. Considered the risky context of PFP plan, this study initially examined two different pay system frame effects on individual' acceptance of PFP plan in perspective of behavioral decision theory. More specifically, we hypothesized that an individual may have an anticipated income frame in which a gain/loss frame is formed when actual income level is more/less than his anticipated income level respectively. Also, two different payment modes of base + performance pay and total - performance pay may lead an individual to form the positive and negative payment frame respectively. In situation of the loss frame in anticipated income and the negative frame in payment mode, individuals may more likely to accept the risky PFP plan according to rules of framing effect. Finally, the moderating effects of performance appraisal mode (open-goal and closed-goal) on above relationships were explored as well.A scenario experiment was used to test the hypotheses with a 2x2 between-subjects design, depicting two payment modes of positive/negative frame and two performance appraisal modes of open- and closed- goal. 304 undergraduates from business and economic related majors were recruited and randomly assigned to each one of the four scenarios. In consideration of that the dependant variable, whether choose a PFP plan or a fixed pay plan, is a dummy variable, we implemented logistic regression to test hypotheses with controlling risk aversion, confidence of performance, self-efficacy, and other demographic attributes.The results of our study revealed that

  6. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  7. Austerity Resistant Social Policies to Protect Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelormino, Elena; Marino, Maurizio; Leombruni, Roberto; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    During the worse phase of the economic downturn, few social policies resisted to the austerity measures imposed to Italy by the European Union. Among them, the most important is the Wage Supplementation Fund, to protect workers and entrepreneurs from bankruptcy and unemployment. Adopting a realist methodology we studied the social mechanisms which are the roots of some political and administrative choices in that period; the public policy decision making approach gave us a theoretical base. Some main mechanisms have been discovered: technical and economic mechanisms overcame politics, social attitudes pushed political choices, the fear of political and social instability drove all parties.

  8. Austerity Surveillance” in Greece under the Austerity Regime (2010−2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Samatas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have tried to analyze “austerity surveillance” (AS, its features, and its functions under the extreme austerity regime in Greece during 2010−2014, before the election of the leftist government. AS is a specific kind of coercive neoliberal surveillance, which in the name of fighting tax evasion and corruption is targeting the middle and lower economic strata and not the rich upper classes. It is based mainly on “coveillance,” i.e. citizen-informers’ grassing, public naming, and shaming. Functioning as a domination and disciplinary control mechanism of the entire population, it works within a post-democratic setting without accountability or democratic control. We provide empirical evidence of these features and functions, including some indicative personal testimonies of austerity surveillance subjects. After presenting some cases of electronic surveillance as an indispensable supplement to AS, we then briefly underline the negative personal, and socio-political impact of this surveillance. In conclusion, a tentative assessment is made of AS’ efficiency in the Greek case, comparing it with other types of past and present authoritarian surveillance in Greece and in other current surveillance societies, considering also the prospects for its abolition or its reproduction by the new leftist government.

  9. Man Thou Art Dust: Rites of Passage in Austere Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Deirdre M; Szmigin, Isabelle; McEachern, Morven G; Barbosa, Belem; Karantinou, Kalipso; Fernández-Moya, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In response to recent calls for further cross-disciplinary research on austerity and a deeper sociological understanding of the impact and aftermath of the economic crisis on individuals and societies, this article builds on extant austerity literature through an exploration of its effects on European men. Informed by theories of liminality and rites of passage, this qualitative investigation examines the experience of austerity from the perspective of 11 men through the three liminal stages of separation, transition and reaggregation and investigates its impact on their identity, responsibilities and expectations. Our findings reveal the negative experiences of alienation and outsiderhood alongside positive experiences of communitas, solidarity and comradeship. The study provides a nuanced understanding of modern male Europeans and their 'rites of passage' through austere times.

  10. Austerity: a failed experiment on the people of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Karanikolos, Marina; Belcher, Paul; Stuckler, David

    2012-08-01

    Many governments in Europe, either of their own volition or at the behest of the international financial institutions, have adopted stringent austerity policies in response to the financial crisis. By contrast, the USA launched a financial stimulus. The results of these experiments are now clear: the American economy is growing and those European countries adopting austerity, including the UK, Ireland, Greece, Portugal and Spain, are stagnating and struggling to repay rising debts. An initial recovery in the UK was halted once austerity measures hit. However, austerity has been not only an economic failure, but also a health failure, with increasing numbers of suicides and, where cuts in health budgets are being imposed, increasing numbers of people being unable to access care. Yet their stories remain largely untold. Here, we argue that there is an alternative to austerity, but that ideology is triumphing over evidence. Our paper was written to contribute to discussions among health policy leaders in Europe that will take place at the 15th European Health Forum at Gastein in October 2012, as its theme 'Crisis and Opportunity - Health in an Age of Austerity'.

  11. Austerity, Competitiveness and Neoliberalism Redux: Ontario Responds to the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fanelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the deepening integration of market imperatives throughout the province of Ontario. We do this by, first, examining neoliberalism’s theoretical underpinnings, second, reviewing Ontario’s historical context, and third, scrutinizing the Open Ontario Plan, with a focus on proposed changes to employment standards legislation. We argue that contrary to claims of shared restraint and the pressing need for public austerity, Premier McGuinty’s Liberal’s have re-branded and re-packaged core neoliberal policies in such a manner that costs are socialized and profits privatized, thereby intensifying class polarization along with its racialized and gendered diversities.

  12. Anti-Austerity Adult Education in Canada: A Survey of a Nascent Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As the realities of austerity agendas exert pressure on adult education around the globe, this paper attempts to map the developing, albeit small, field of anti-austerity adult education in Canada. In doing so, I attempt to trace the connections between anti-austerity education and existing fields of adult education. I argue that the cases we see…

  13. EU TYPE OF AUSTERITY: BRIEF ANALYSIS AND CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BALTATESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has become a common place to blame austerity policies for lengthening the economic downturn of EU economies, the figures reveal that public spending increased in most of the EU countries between 2007 and 2013. Although budget deficits from EU countries were indeed reduced in the last 4 years, the cutbacks were more the result of increasing government revenues and hiking taxes than of decreasing public expenditures. The article will feature: (1 a brief analysis of the evolution of public spending compared to government revenues in EU countries and also, (2 a concise literature review on austerity, highlighting some of the most important theoretical controversies on this topic. The main thesis defended in the article is that – although EU type of austerity, narrowly focusing on fiscal consolidation, drove indeed to unfavorable economic consequences – the criticism formulated by pro stimulus economists is rather flimsy, given the fact that public expenditures actually increased in most of the EU countries.

  14. Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four: Examples and Maximal Types

    CERN Document Server

    Ionel, Marianty

    2009-01-01

    Austere submanifolds in Euclidean space were introduced by Harvey and Lawson in connection with their study of calibrated geometries. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of 4-dimensional austere submanifolds were classified by Bryant, into three types which we label A, B, and C. In this paper, we show that type A submanifolds correspond exactly to real Kahler submanifolds, we construct new examples of such submanifolds in R^6 and R^10, and we obtain classification results on submanifolds of types B and C with maximal second fundamental forms.

  15. Austere kindness or mindless austerity: the efects of gift-giving to beggars in east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lenhard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current austerity policies in the United Kingdom are creating a precarious situation for many people on the margins of society. Employing micro-level ethnographic analysis, this article addresses how government decisions affect people living on the street. Observations of how local policies demonize gift-giving to street people led me to revisit arguments about the positive and negative effects of gifts. Four months of fieldwork amongst people who beg in the City of London confirmed the Maussian ambiguity of gift exchange. The material benefit of monetary gifts is often accompanied by shared time and conversation; gifts to beggars can go beyond materiality and are hence able to create bonds of sociability.

  16. Confirming theoretical pay constructs of a variable pay scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibangilizwe Ncube

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Return on the investment in variable pay programmes remains controversial because their cost versus contribution cannot be empirically justified. Research purpose: This study validates the findings of the model developed by De Swardt on the factors related to successful variable pay programmes.Motivation for the study: Many organisations blindly implement variable pay programmes without any means to assess the impact these programmes have on the company’s performance. This study was necessary to validate the findings of an existing instrument that validates the contribution of variable pay schemes.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using quantitative research. A total of 300 completed questionnaires from a non-purposive sample of 3000 participants in schemes across all South African industries were returned and analysed.Main findings: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the validation instrument developed by De Swardt is still largely valid in evaluating variable pay schemes. The differences between the study and the model were reported.Practical/managerial implications: The study confirmed the robustness of an existing model that enables practitioners to empirically validate the use of variable pay plans. This model assists in the design and implementation of variable pay programmes that meet critical success factors.Contribution/value-add: The study contributed to the development of a measurement instrument that will assess whether a variable pay plan contributes to an organisation’s success.

  17. Assembling, Disassembling and Reassembling "Youth Services" in Austerity Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah; McGimpsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This paper moves from a reading of processes that are transforming public services in ways that amount to a dismantling of the welfare state in the UK. In order to interrogate these processes, the paper focuses on "youth" and "youth services". Framed by an analysis of the aggressive disinvestment of "austerity", we…

  18. Democracy, Neutrality, and Value Demonstration in the Age of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Bertot, John Carlo; Sarin, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    This Libraries and Policy essay explores the interrelationships between the public library goals of supporting democracy and remaining an apolitical institution and the expectations for demonstration of value and economic contribution at a time in which public discourse emphasizes austerity from public institutions. Libraries' positions on…

  19. Reading the Conjuncture: State, Austerity and Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel; Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio

    2016-01-01

    and the rise of political capitalism are seen as leading to a loss of temporal sovereignty, problems of crisis management, an assault on democracy, and the rise of the austerity state. Closing remarks address the role of left-wing social movements and parties, such as SYRIZA and Podemos, and the difficulties...

  20. Where does political influence go when austerity sets in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    Economic crisis is argued to be an opportunity to push through political changes, which otherwise can be difficult to make. Fiscal austerity is likely to change the political agenda and in some cases also the coalitions which can be formed. Based on the asymmetric distribution of preferences betw...

  1. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed.

  2. Estimating C-17 Aircrew Seasoning Given a Prediction of Flying Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Estimating C-17 Aircrew Seasoning Given a Prediction of Flying Austerity GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Frank W. Rovello, Major, USAF AFIT-ENS...United States Government AFIT-ENS-GRP-14-J-13 Estimating C-17 Aircrew Seasoning Given a Prediction of Flying Austerity Graduate...AFIT-ENS-GRP-14-J-13 Estimating C-17 Aircrew Seasoning Given a Prediction of Flying Austerity Frank W. Rovello, MBA, BS Major, USAF Approved: Doral

  3. The lost art of whole blood transfusion in austere environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandenes, Geir; Hervig, Tor A; Bjerkvig, Christopher K; Williams, Steve; Eliassen, Håkon S; Fosse, Theodor K; Torvanger, Hans; Cap, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    The optimal resuscitation fluid for uncontrolled bleeding and hemorrhagic shock in both pre- and in-hospital settings has been an ongoing controversy for decades. Hemorrhage continues to be a major cause of death in both the civilian and military trauma population, and survival depends on adequacy of hemorrhage control and resuscitation between onset of bleeding and arrival at a medical treatment facility. The terms far-forward and austere are defined, respectively, as the environment where professional health care providers normally do not operate and a setting in which basic equipment and capabilities necessary for resuscitation are often not available. The relative austerity of a treatment setting may be a function of timing rather than just location, as life-saving interventions must be performed quickly before hemorrhagic shock becomes irreversible. Fresh whole blood transfusions in the field may be a feasible life-saving procedure when facing significant hemorrhage.

  4. Further Austerity and Wage Cuts Will Worsen the Euro Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Andini, Corrado; Cabral, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This note argues that the solutions to the euro-area crisis proposed by the EU governing institutions in cooperation with the IMF, based on further austerity and wage cuts, will worsen the crisis. They are unlikely to reduce both sovereign and external debt ratios of countries experiencing these problems. Quite in contrary, they are likely to further reduce the real GDP growth of these countries.

  5. The Politics of Austerity as Politics of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Casimiro

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980 the neoliberal agenda has become the strongest advocate against social and labour rights. However, the 2008 crisis emerged a new economic, political and juridical model based on the idea of austerity ― a muscled form of neoliberalism which deepens the neoliberal ideology by other means. Bearing this in mind, I have chosen to organise this paper around three topics. In the first section, my purpose is to suggest that, in addition to the obvious economic and financial aspects of the ...

  6. Ireland in Crisis 2008-2012: women, austerity and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Ursula; Conroy, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The is the first book to analyse the current economic crisis from a gender perspective and to explore the impact of austerity policies on women in nine selected countries in Europe and America, including a chapter on Ireland. The question is asked as to whether, and to what extent, gender equality gains made in recent decades have been undermined during the crisis years and what is the future for gender equality strategies.

  7. Austerity and the challenges of health for all in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundana Folakemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic downturn experienced by Nigeria and many sub-Saharan African countries led to the adoption of austerity to restore the country’s economy since the 1980s. Since austerity emphasizes privatization and commercialization, instead of restoration, it had, however, impacted especially the Nigerian health sector negatively. Nigeria has indeed continued to bear witness to some of the worst health and healthcare statistics in the world. Evidence from key health indicators in Nigeria also clearly shows that the country’s health situation has experienced massive deterioration. Given the above, the paper argues that austerity constitutes a major impediment to the attainment of a good state of health as well as effective and viable healthcare delivery to all in Nigeria. The paper, therefore suggests: (1 reframing and recognizing health as a human right issue; (2 integration of indigenous medicine into the Nigerian national health delivery systems; (3 recognition of State investment in social services as quite necessary and important such that budget allocation to health is increased as ways forward.

  8. Not Learning in the Workplace: Austerity and the Shattering of "Illusio" in Public Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to discuss the impact of UK government austerity policies on learning in public service work, specifically youth support work. It also aims to argue that austerity policies intensify "ethics work", create emotional suffering, and obstruct workplace learning in a variety of ways. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  9. An Analysis of "City of Glass" by Paul Auster in Terms of Postmodernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odacioglu, Mehmet Cem; Loi, Chek Kim; Çoban, Faddime

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes "City of Glass," a postmodernist detective novella (or anti-detective) of the "New York Trilogy" by Paul Auster in terms of postmodernist elements and techniques such as metafiction, parody, intertextuality, irony and like. In doing so, some information about Auster's life and the plot of the work are also…

  10. Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…

  11. Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…

  12. The Politics of Austerity as Politics of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Casimiro Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980 the neoliberal agenda has become the strongest advocate against social and labour rights. However, the 2008 crisis emerged a new economic, political and juridical model based on the idea of austerity - a muscled form of neoliberalism which deepens the neoliberal ideology by other means. Bearing this in mind, I have chosen to organise this paper around three topics. In the first section, my purpose is to suggest that, in addition to the obvious economic and financial aspects of the austerity model, there is also a social model of reality that must be characterised sociologically. In the second, assuming that to a certain concept of law there is a certain concept of society, I state that to the austerity society correspond a certain type of law and politics. Finally, I identify four possible paths of developing research and action programmes for sociology of the law of austerity. Desde 1980, el programa neoliberal se ha convertido en el mayor partidario contra los derechos sociales y laborales. Sin embargo, la crisis de 2008 dio lugar a un nuevo modelo económico, político y jurídico basado en la idea de austeridad -una forma fortalecida del neoliberalismo que acentúa la ideología neoliberal por otros medios-.Teniendo esto en mente, este trabajo se ha organizado en torno a tres temas. En la primera sección, se pretende sugerir que, además de los aspectos económicos y financieros evidentes del modelo de austeridad, hay también un modelo social de realidad que hay que caracterizar sociológicamente. En la segunda, partiendo de que un determinado concepto de derecho está relacionado con una determinada concepción de sociedad, se defiende que la sociedad de la austeridad se corresponde con un determinado tipo de derecho y política. Por último, se identifican cuatro posibles vías de desarrollo de programas de investigación y acción para la sociología jurídica de la austeridad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http

  13. Are There Austerity Related Policy Changes in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Hassel, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the existence and the extent of austerity‐oriented policies in Germany in the aftermath of the 2008‐9 recession. In contrast to the intensive phase of labour market and welfare state reforms in the early 2000s aimed at 'welfare readjustment', we do not see austerity policies in Germany, rather a continuation of the path that was adopted earlier. This can be explained by the economic conditions which were, and still are, much more favourable than in many other EU Member Sta...

  14. Renal Replacement Therapy in Austere Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobinuric renal failure is the classically described acute renal event occurring in disaster environments—commonly after an earthquake—which most tests the ingenuity and flexibility of local and regional nephrology resources. In recent decades, several nephrology organizations have developed response teams and planning protocols to address disaster events, largely focusing on patients at risk for, or with, acute kidney injury (AKI. In this paper we briefly review the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with dialysis-requiring AKI after such events, while providing greater focus on the management of the end-stage renal disease population after a disaster which incapacitates a pre-existing nephrologic infrastructure (if it existed at all. “Austere” dialysis, as such, is defined as the provision of renal replacement therapy in any setting in which traditional, first-world therapies and resources are limited, incapacitated, or nonexistent.

  15. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part II: How are configurations of crisis and austerity related to changes in population health across Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Holm Ingelsrud, Mari; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2017-08-01

    Based on the ideal type classification of European countries done in Part I of this paper, Part II explores whether the real 'danger' to public health is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than recession itself. We constructed two fuzzy sets of changes in population health based on a pooled file of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data (2008 and 2013) including 29 European countries. The linear probability analyses of 'limiting long-standing illness' and 'less than good' health were restricted to the age group 20-64 years. We performed fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and studied whether configurations of 'severe crisis' and 'austerity' were linked to changes in population health. Overall, the results of this fsQCA do not support the 'crisis-austerity' thesis. Results on 'less than good' health were highly inconsistent, while results on 'limiting long-standing illness', contrary to the thesis, showed a two-path model. Countries with either no severe crisis or no austerity were subsets of the set of countries that experienced deteriorated health. Results also show that several countries combined both paths. This fuzzy set analysis does not support Stuckler and Basu's 'crisis-austerity' thesis, as those European countries that experienced recession and austerity were not consistently the countries with deteriorating health. There may be multiple reasons for this result, including analytical approach and operationalization of key concepts, but also resilient forces such as family support. We suggest more research on the topic based on more recent data and possibly other, or more, dimensions of austerity.

  16. Managing austerity: rhetorical and real responses to fiscal stress in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmans, Tom; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Coping with fiscal stress is a major challenge. Four responses can be identified for managing austerity: decline, cutbacks, retrenchment, and downsizing. Responses are primarily fiscally oriented, or organizational; they focus predominantly on stability, or change. Explorative research indicates the

  17. Does Fiscal Austerity Affect Political Decision-Makers’ Use and Perception of Performance Information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Bækgaard, Martin; Houlberg, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether the fiscal environment that politicians face influences their use of performance information. It poses two competing hypotheses, suggesting that fiscal austerity either increases politicians’ use of performance information, because they are more concerned about k...

  18. Targeting the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to nutrient deprivation: anti-austerity compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolan, Jakob; Coster, Mark J

    2010-12-01

    The emerging "anti-austerity" anti-cancer therapeutic strategy targets the ability of certain cancer cell lines, particularly pancreatic cancer, to survive nutrient deprivation. While biochemical pathways for the tolerance to nutrient deprivation are still not well understood, a growing number of inhibitors of this process are being discovered. A number of natural products have been isolated, structurally characterized and evaluated as inhibitors of austerity, thereby providing valuable initial structure-activity relationship data.

  19. Adult literacy policy and provision in an age of austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1986-12-01

    Against a background of growing concern for the large numbers of semiliterate or completely illiterate school leavers and adults in the industrialized countries, this article examines four key aspects necessary for gauging a nation's response to the problem of adult illiteracy. The four aspects — awareness raising, high-level national commitment, resource allocation, and range and extent of in-school and out-of-school basic education/literacy provision — are analyzed with particular reference to the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Canada. The article indicates that, in a period of economic austerity when education budgets are being cut, provision for adult literacy and for remedial classes in school is one of the first areas to be sacrificed. The article ends on a pessimistic note with respect to the implementation of a `Right to Read' charter in all industrialized countries.

  20. Labour Market Policy under Conditions of Permanent Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; de la Porte, Caroline; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Social investment (SI) is part of a strategy to modernize the European welfare states by focusing on human resource development throughout the life-course, while ensuring financial sustainability. Recognizing that this strategy was only partially implemented by the EU member states prior...... to the financial and Eurozone crises, this article investigates whether reforms and expenditure patterns in labour market policy (LMP) have moved more towards or away from SI following the 2008 financial crisis. We use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the degree to which there have been shifts...... in the SI aspects of LMPs in eight countries across four welfare state regimes. We also investigate which aspects of LMPs have been strengthened and which have been weakened, enabling us to make a nuanced assessment of labour market SIs across the EU in a period of permanent austerity. We find that although...

  1. ROMANIA’S AUSTERITY POLICIES IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor ARPAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession starting in 2007 with the collapse of the US Bank Lehman Brothers triggered waves of economic shock across the world. Various states were hit more or less hard through different mechanisms and reacted with different intensities to adjust to the crisis situation. In this article, I employ a comparative methodology to assess the austerity policies undertook by Romania during the Great recession period as regards the policies adopted at the level of other EU member states. Thus, I aim to offer an initial evaluation of the degree of similarity of Romania’s recession policy responses to that of some other EU member states, and the degree to which Romania can be labeled as an outlier. The comparative analysis tests the explanatory power of three different theoretical approaches on the causal factors explaining variation in policy responses: power resources theories, functionalist approaches and blame-avoidance.

  2. Donatella della Porta, Social Movements in Times of Austerity: Bringing Capitalism Back into Protest Analysis, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2015, 248 pages, ISBN-13: 9780745688589 (hbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ioan TĂTAR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis had major social and political impact on European societies. The political consequences of the crisis mainly stem from rising unemployment, the freezing or cuts of public sector pay, declining purchasing power, pessimism about future developments and perceptions of bad governance. In this context, a new wave of protest has spread across Europe as a reaction to the austerity measures adopted during the economic crisis. Governments’ inability to deal with the crisis has generated in many places anxiety, which then turned into popular anger. People who have been hard hit by the crisis placed most of the blame with incumbent governments and condemned the corruption and lack of political responsibility of the political class in general.

  3. The impact of fiscal austerity on suicide mortality: Evidence across the 'Eurozone periphery'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Collins, Alan

    2015-11-01

    While linkages between some macroeconomic phenomena and suicides in some countries have been explored, only two studies, hitherto, have established a causal relationship between fiscal austerity and suicide, albeit in a single country. The aim of this study is to provide the first systematic multiple-country evidence of a causal relationship of fiscal austerity on time-, gender-, and age-specific suicide mortality across five Eurozone peripheral countries, namely Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain over the period 1968-2012, while controlling for various socioeconomic differences. The impact of fiscal adjustments is found to be gender-, age- and time-specific. Specifically, fiscal austerity has short-, medium- and long-run suicide increasing effects on the male population in the 65-89 age group. A 1% reduction in government spending is associated with a 1.38%, 2.42% and 3.32% increase in the short-, medium- and long-run, respectively, of male suicides rates in the 65-89 age group in the Eurozone periphery. These results are highly robust to alternative measures of fiscal austerity. Improved labour market institutions help mitigate the negative effects of fiscal austerity on suicide mortality.

  4. The ‘Common Sense’ of Austerity in Europe’s Historic Bloc: A Gramscian Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben LUONGO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Euro-area efforts to address recession have moved Europe decisively into an era of harsh austerity despite budget cuts and other fiscal measures facing massive resistance from the public. Moreover, economists continue to express doubts concerning austerity and warn Euro-area officials that fiscal tightening only increases debt relative to GDP. Far from reflecting either popular or economic opinion, I argue that Europe’s pro-austerity discourse both reflects and is constructed by the hegemonic interests of transnational capital. Specifically, advocacy groups representing the business-finance community manufacture the ‘common sense’ of fiscal tightening within narratives of European profligacy and exploding debt. In reality, however, austerity only reinforces the neoliberal structure underlying Europe’s integration into the Single Market. Forces of transnational capital not only serve as the intellectual leaders behind this neoliberal integration but, as my research shows, work to maintain this structure by advancing pro-austerity discourses in a way that ensures their hegemonic position within the historic bloc.

  5. Heptaoxygenated xanthones as anti-austerity agents from Securidaca longepedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-12-15

    In a course of our search for anticancer agent based on a novel anti-austerity strategy, we found that the CHCl3 extract of the roots of Securidaca longepedunculata (Polygalaceae), collected at Democratic Republic of Congo, killed PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM). Phytochemical investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of 28 compounds including five new polymethoxylated xanthones [1,6,8-trihydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (1), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,3,4,5,8-pentamethoxyxanthone (2), 8-hydroxy-1,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone (3), 4,6,8-trihydroxy-1,2,3,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), 4,8-dihydroxy-1,2,3,5,6-pentamethoxyxanthone (5)] and a new benzyl benzoate [benzyl 3-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzoate (6)]. Among them, 1,6,8-trihydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (1) and 1,6-dihydroxy-2,3,4,5,8-pentamethoxyxanthone (2) displayed the potent preferential cytotoxicity with PC50 of 22.8 and 17.4 μM, respectively. They triggered apoptosis-like PANC-1 cell death in NDM with a glucose-sensitive mode.

  6. Ageing with telecare: care or coercion in austerity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Maggie; Roberts, Celia; Callén, Blanca

    2013-07-01

    In recent years images of independence, active ageing and staying at home have come to characterise a successful old age in western societies. 'Telecare' technologies are heavily promoted to assist ageing-in-place and a nexus of demographic ageing, shrinking healthcare and social care budgets and technological ambition has come to promote the 'telehome' as the solution to the problem of the 'age dependency ratio'. Through the adoption of a range of monitoring and telecare devices, it seems that the normative vision of independence will also be achieved. But with falling incomes and pressure for economies of scale, what kind of independence is experienced in the telehome? In this article we engage with the concepts of 'technogenarians' and 'shared work' to illuminate our analysis of telecare in use. Drawing on European-funded research we argue that home-monitoring based telecare has the potential to coerce older people unless we are able to recognise and respect a range of responses including non-use and 'misuse' in daily practice. We propose that re-imagining the aims of telecare and redesigning systems to allow for creative engagement with technologies and the co-production of care relations would help to avoid the application of coercive forms of care technology in times of austerity.

  7. Can public managers make their welfare organizations adapt to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    2014-01-01

    How has the current austerity changed the public welfare organizations’ performance landscape in modern welfare states? Can public managers make their organizations adapt to the new performance landscape shaped by the austerity? These questions are answered on the basis of the Danish case...

  8. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert H; Williams, Jason; Bennett, Brad L; Stiller, Gregory; Islas, Arthur A; McCord, Seth

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of the injured or potentially injured spine in an austere (dangerous or compromised) environment. Recommendations are made regarding several parameters related to spinal immobilization. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. A treatment algorithm based on the guidelines is presented. This is an updated version of original WMS Practice Guidelines for Spine Immobilization in the Austere Environment published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(3):241-252. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acupuncture for the Treatment of Sports Injuries in an Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adriane E; Falconi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    For sports injuries in an austere environment, narcotic pain medications are often unavailable or have limiting side effects like sedation or constipation. Meanwhile, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications are frequently associated with gastrointestinal side effects and acetaminophen liver toxicity. A trained physician can rapidly use certain acupuncture techniques in an austere environment with potentially fewer side effects. Current medical literature notes low to moderate quality evidence for the use of acupuncture in lower back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee. There is emerging evidence for the use of acupuncture in traumatic brain injury. The U.S. military uses acupuncture in deployed settings to treat battlefield injuries with promising results. This article reviews the military's current use of acupuncture to treat injuries in a deployed setting and how this may translate to the care of a sports injury in an austere environment.

  10. Bretton Woods Institution Narratives about Inequality and Economic Vulnerability on the Eve of South African Austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, at a time when National Health Insurance should be generously funded (7 years after its approval as public policy by the ruling party), state fiscal austerity appears certain to nip the initiative in the bud. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund issued separate reports about South Africa in late 2014, following a new finance minister's mid-term budget speech. In justifying austerity, they revealed 2 important conceptual blockages regarding inequality and international financial relations. The resulting political bias in the macroeconomic debate has, in turn, given neoliberal policy advocates intellectual weaponry to impose deeper austerity. In contrast, the rise of a "united front" of labor, community-based, and social movement activists, along with a vigorous left opposition party in Parliament, ensure that one of the world's most visible class struggles ratchets up in intensity in the years ahead.

  11. Austerity Economics and the Struggle for the Soul of U.S. Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Pollin

    2013-01-01

    Amid the wreckage of the 2008-09 Wall Street collapse and Great Recession, orthodox economists and political elites in both the United States and Western Europe have been strongly pushing the idea that austerity is the only viable policy option. The basis for the austerity hawks' claim is that both the U.S. and European economies are being consumed by out-of-control levels of public indebtedness. Public spending must therefore be slashed before economic collapse becomes a real possibility. Ar...

  12. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  13. ‘Strategic navigation’ in collaborative innovation planning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr

    2013-01-01

    Today’s planning dilemmas for the urban fringe in western cities can be perceived of as a struggle between self-organization and control. This is pertinent in times of austerity. Public planning authorities are dependent on cross-sector collaboration in order to enhance the urban development...

  14. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglan; Chen; Hui; Ma; Danlu; Bu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap.Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  15. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  16. Health Professions Officer Special Pay Study HPOSPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    development (various)  Improve what ABO sees in RMT execution and what OTSG sees in the Medical Operational Data System (MODS). Specific Process...OFFICER SPECIAL PAY STUDY SUMMARY THE PROJECT PURPOSE was initially to conduct a systems review from end-to-end of the Planning, Programming...Following the meeting, the group developed options for a systems analysis review. In January 2013, Dr. Steinrauf, G-1 Plans and Resources

  17. Austerity, Ontario and Post-Secondary Education: The Case of "Canada's Capital University"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Carlo; Meades, James

    2011-01-01

    As austerity measures intensify around the world, the axe has come down particularly hard on post-secondary education (PSE). So-called education "reform" has shown itself to be a lightning rod for confrontation. In order to deal with unprecedented government budget shortfalls, caused, it must be recalled, by the lead agents of the…

  18. Training in the Public Sector in a Period of Austerity: The Case of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewson, Nick; Felstead, Alan; Green, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article examines what has happened to training in public sector organisations in the UK in a period of austerity. It draws on individual-level data collected over the period 2000-2012 and establishment-level data collected from employer surveys carried out between 2005 and 2012. To understand these data further, 75 qualitative interviews with…

  19. "Sharing One's Destiny": Effects of austerity on migrant health provisioning in the Mediterranean borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Megan A

    2017-03-01

    Italy has been on the frontlines of the European Union's "migration crisis," intercepting hundreds of thousands of migrants and asylum-seekers at sea and on its shores. Yet it has lacked adequate resources to ensure humane reception, as other forms of welfare state provisioning have also been rolled back through recent and ongoing austerity measures enforced by the EU and the IMF. While Italians face fewer employment opportunities, lower pensions, and higher taxes, migrants of precarious legal status and asylum-seekers struggle to navigate the weakened bureaucratic apparatus of the Italian state, including the health system. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the Italian provinces of Lazio and Sicily in early 2014 and 2016, this article documents the imbricated economic and health struggles of Italian citizens and noncitizens, and alludes to lived experiences of and community responses to economic austerity characterizing much of the Mediterranean borderlands. I argue that marginalization by the state of both citizens and noncitizens in this setting undergirds some of the local and community responses to economic austerity. Moreover, I suggest that contemporary struggles in this geopolitical context intersect in important ways with the repercussions of austerity legacies that have contributed to widespread displacement in neighboring regions and subsequent migration into the EU.

  20. INTRODUCTION: COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE AGE OF AUSTERITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Giuseppe; Hansen, Morten Balle; Johanson, Jan-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The five articles in this symposium examine the issues of comparative performance management and accountability in the age of austerity from different vantage points. Brusca and Montesinos carry out an international comparison of 17 countries studying key issues in the implementation of performance...

  1. Paul Auster Topógrafo: O Espaço Urbano Contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Brandão Santos

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available As narrativas de Paul Auster são representações topográficas da cultura urbana contemporânea. Escrever é esboçar mapas dos espaços sociais, investigar a instabilidade desses mapas e a dimensão ficcional de tais espaços.

  2. Welfare Cuts and Insecurity under the Rule of Austerity: the Impact of the Crisis on Portuguese Social Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hespanha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available TThis paper discusses the impact of austerity on social services in Portugal. The highly complex process of changes to public services launched by anti-crisis programmes needs to be analysed from different perspectives. On the supply side, the impacts are associated with reducing expenditure in social areas in different ways: reducing benefits by axing services, cutting staff costs, dismissing public sector workers and centralizing procurement; privatizing public management; blind cuts to the current expenses budget. On the demand side, the impacts are associated with reductions to the disposable income of families by cutting entitlements to healthcare, education, housing, social security and other benefits, cutting public sector pay, taxing pensions, and introducing or increasing restrictions on access to public services. Este artículo analiza el impacto de la austeridad en los servicios sociales de Portugal. El proceso de cambio en las políticas públicas tan complejo que se produjo como consecuencia de los programas anti-crisis requieren un análisis desde diferentes perspectivas. En el lado de la oferta, los impactos se asocian con la reducción del gasto social de diferentes formas: reduciendo beneficios por el recorte en servicios, recortando los costes de personal, despidiendo a trabajadores del sector público y centralizando las adquisiciones; privatizando la gestión pública; recortes ocultos en el presupuesto de gastos vigente. En el lado de la demanda, los impactos se asocian con la reducción de la renta de las familias mediante la reducción de derechos sanitarios, educación, vivienda, seguridad social y otros beneficios, recortando los salarios del sector público, gravando las pensiones e introduciendo o aumentando las restricciones en el acceso a servicios públicos. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2683350

  3. Can Public Managers Make Their Welfare Organizations Adapt to the New Performance Landscape Shaped by the Current Austerity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Aagaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How managers try to adapt their organizations to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity by new forms of change management in Denmark, in the public sector of citizens with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people.......How managers try to adapt their organizations to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity by new forms of change management in Denmark, in the public sector of citizens with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people....

  4. An analysis of business phenomena and austerity narratives in the arts sector from a new materialist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, H.; Oakes, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper adopts a lens of new materialism to analyse narratives of managers in the arts sector in response to the master narrative of austerity and proposed solutions using business models (including accounting). It explores the complex trajectories of the master narrative through the analysis of a diverse range of funding and arts organisations. Accounting, business models and austerity reveal rhizomatic characteristics as they diverge from their origin and are implicated in uncertainty abo...

  5. The Poor Pay More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  6. Paying for Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how interchange fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay...

  7. Patient Mobility in Times of Austerity: A Legal and Policy Analysis of the Petru Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischhut, Markus; Fahy, Nick

    2016-03-01

    The case-law of the Court of Justice (ECJ) on patient mobility was recently challenged by a ruling that a patient could go to Germany for treatment when facilities in Romanian hospitals were inadequate. Given the reported impact of austerity measures in the field of health care this raises the question; what is the impact of the ECJ's ruling on how Member States can manage expenditure and limit outflows of patients and how should such measures be legally evaluated? The objective of this article is to analyse potential impact on health systems in the context of increasing pressure on public financing for health. While the ECJ mainly referred to the requirement of treatment in due time, we also analyse possible austerity reductions of the basket of care against the background of EU law (i.e., EGJ case-law, patient mobility directive, Charter of Fundamental rights and social security regulation).

  8. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace.

  9. Austerity on the loose in Portugal: European judicial restraint in times of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho Francisco Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international bailout granted to Portugal between 2011 and 2014 was conditional on the adoption by the Portuguese State of austerity measures included in a memorandum of understanding (MoU signed by the European Commission on behalf of the European Union (EU and the Member States. The MoU was never published in an official journal or even translated into the Portuguese language. Its implementation caused a significant decrease in the level of protection of social rights.

  10. Long-run impact of the crisis in Europe: reforms and austerity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Nechio

    2011-01-01

    The euro area faces its first sovereign debt crisis, highlighting the fiscal imbalances of member countries. Troubled countries are implementing austerity measures, with adjustments focusing on the short and medium run. However, a long-run solution to Europe's problems requires economic reforms that increase competitiveness and reduce labor costs in the peripheral countries. Such reforms would promote convergence of the euro-area economies and enhance the long-run sustainability of monetary u...

  11. The austerity bargain and the social self: conceptual clarity surrounding health cutbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A

    2013-01-01

    As necessary austerity measures make major inroads into western health services, this paper investigates the philology of austerity and finds that there are two subtly similar yet importantly different derivations from the Latin and the Greek. The Latin austerus is an abstract term meaning dry, harsh, sour; whereas the Greek austeros has a more embodied and literal meaning of making the tongue dry. What seems an initially subtle difference between the metaphorical and the metonymic plays out as involving seriously different outcomes between harsh economic measures and the literal effects on the people suffering under measures that actually make the tongue dry. The paper argues that between the trope and the literal that which Wittgenstein described as 'a language game' ensues wherein the metaphorical through a sleight of grammar is passed off as being real while, the literal effects on real people is downplayed as metaphorical 'collateral damage'. The paper further argues that within this grammar that forces itself upon us, the game of capital is played out through what the author terms an austerity bargain that is levelled by the financial elites: healthy capitalism equals a healthy society. The paper then examines the six elements of the social determinants of health and what actually contributes to a healthy society. Rather than being under an individual threat of exclusion from what Marx termed a superabundance, the paper considers the irreducible differences between the game of capital's individualism, and, the social determinants of health's social inclusion, legitimization and that which Habermas termed public authentication. The paper concludes that not only do necessary austerity measures need to be critiqued but that they radically undermine what determines a healthy society. It follows also that the social determinants of health, radically undermine the bargain inherent for the privileged few within the game of capital.

  12. Austerity, cyclical adjustment and the remaining leeway for expansionary fiscal policies in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Truger, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy in the Euro area is still dominated by austerity measures implemented under the institutional setting of the 'reformed' stability and growth pact, and the even stricter 'fiscal compact'. At the same time, calls for a more expansionary fiscal policy to overcome the economic crisis have become more frequent, recently. Therefore, the article tries to assess the remaining leeway for a truly expansionary fiscal policy within the existing institutional framework. Special emphasis is p...

  13. Europe and Italy: Expansionary Austerity, Expansionary Precariousness and the Italian Jobs Act

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Antonioli; Paolo Pini

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 the economic crisis has reduced income and drastically brought down employment levels, and the recovery promised in 2014 will not reabsorb unemployment, particularly in Europe. The ILO and IMF have forecast a jobless recovery. Nevertheless, economic policy in Europe will remain in line with the past, based on two mainstays: fiscal austerity and labour flexibility. Wage policy for European countries aims to align wages to real productivity at firm level, and leaves little room for n...

  14. El ilusionista de las palabras: Paul Auster y su universo creativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez López, Esther

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Auster is one of the greatest writers of our time. Since 1994, to his work as novelist, poet and essayist he has added scriptwriting and film directing. Both literature and cinema appear closely linked in his creative production, so that one feeds the other and vice versa, by means of themes, common characters as well as self-referential and metafictional allusions. In novels, short stories and films, Auster reveals himself, in essence, as a great storyteller. They are stories that overlap at different narrative levels following the technique of the Chinese boxes. His work is also part of a large net of internal and external references in dialogue with each other, posing and pondering on questions that have to do with identity, writing or the intersections between fiction and reality, which appear recurrently both in its literary as in its filmic form.

    Paul Auster es uno de los grandes escritores de nuestro tiempo. Desde 1994, a su labor de novelista, poeta, traductor y ensayista ha añadido la de guionista y director de cine. Ambos medios, literatura y cine, aparecen estrechamente ligados en su producción creativa, de manera que uno nutre al otro y viceversa, a través de temas y personajes comunes, de guiños autorreferenciales y metaficcionales. En novelas, relatos y películas Auster se revela, en esencia, como un gran contador de historias. Se trata de historias múltiples que se superponen a distintos niveles narrativos siguiendo la técnica de cajas chinas. Su obra forma parte de una amplia red de referencias internas y externas que dialogan entre sí, al tiempo que plantean cuestiones en torno a la identidad, la escritura o las intersecciones entre ficción y realidad, que aparecen de manera recurrente tanto en forma literaria como fílmica.

  15. The impact of fiscal austerity on suicide: on the empirics of a modern Greek tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Collins, Alan

    2014-07-01

    Suicide rates in Greece (and other European countries) have been on a remarkable upward trend following the global recession of 2008 and the European sovereign debt crisis of 2009. However, recent investigations of the impact on Greek suicide rates from the 2008 financial crisis have restricted themselves to simple descriptive or correlation analyses. Controlling for various socio-economic effects, this study presents a statistically robust model to explain the influence on realised suicidality of the application of fiscal austerity measures and variations in macroeconomic performance over the period 1968-2011. The responsiveness of suicide to levels of fiscal austerity is established as a means of providing policy guidance on the extent of suicide behaviour associated with different fiscal austerity measures. The results suggest (i) significant age and gender specificity in these effects on suicide rates and that (ii) remittances have suicide-reducing effects on the youth and female population. These empirical regularities potentially offer some guidance on the demographic targeting of suicide prevention measures and the case for 'economic' migration.

  16. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M

    2015-07-01

    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated.

  17. Harnessing the opportunities of austerity: a detailed mapping of the Greek transportation sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Stamos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, shortly after the global economic crisis of 2008, Greece has entered into a deep recession phase. The multifaceted presence of austerity is experienced in an increasing number of sectors of the country. The Greek transportation sector is not immune to this state of affairs. The ongoing crisis had a significant impact on its economic (investment, employment, exports-imports turnover as well as its operational (transportation intensity, throughput, performance aspects and capabilities. In this paper, a detailed mapping of these impacts is laid out, correlating transport-related characteristics, trends and estimations with the respective economic ones. Specifically, the paper presents analyses of the Greek passenger and freight transportation, following a data-driven approach over several areas. Findings show a substantial decrease of activities overall. Paradoxically, however, austerity can also be said to offer opportunities, such as the development of innovative, cost-effective and outward-looking business schemes, for handling transportation-related issues. In the face of these opportunities, authorities and stakeholders have recently turned their attention to ways of harnessing them as they may arise. The paper conducts a detailed analysis of these efforts to discover prospects for development in the midst of austerity, and highlights the steps currently being taken in that direction.

  18. Funding nurse education in a climate of austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Alan

    Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the Government's plan to increase health professional student numbers, which is also linked to the abolition of student nurse bursaries.

  19. Paying by the Barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francis L.Sackitey; Ghana

    2012-01-01

    CHINA'S UNIPEC Asia Co. Ltd. will buy up the entire oil share from Ghana's Jubilee field for the next 15 years in a commercial agreement entered into by the government of Ghana. Under the agreement, the West African nation will be supplying China with 13,000 barrels of crude oil daily to pay for a $3 billion loan granted to Ghana by China under a Master Facility Agreement with the China Development Bank.

  20. Paying for prominence

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark; Zhou, Jidong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate three ways in which firms can become "prominent" and thereby influence the order in which consumers consider options. First, firms can affect an intermediary's sales efforts by means of commission payments. When firms pay commission to a salesman, the salesman promotes the product with the highest commission, and steers ignorant consumers towards the more expensive product. Second, sellers can advertise prices on a price comparison website, so that consumers investigate the sui...

  1. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  2. When punishment pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma.

  3. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A still understudied area in media research is how people pay attention to news in daily life. To do so, the chapter develops a theoretical framework grounded in news audience research and practice theory. This framework conceptualizes practices as different ways in which attention is directed....... In the concluding discussion, the chapter relates the findings to further perspectives on attention to news specifically and media content more generally. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to cross-media news research by analyzing ways in which people attend to news and how these ways of attending vary across...

  4. The boundary of a boundary principle in field theories and the issue of austerity of the laws of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyfets, Arkady; Miller, Warner A.

    1991-11-01

    The boundary of a boundary principle has been suggested by J. A. Wheeler as a realization of the austerity idea in field theories. This principle is described in three basic field theories—electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity. It is demonstrated that it supplies a unified geometric interpretation of the source current in each of the three theories in terms of a generalized E. Cartan moment of rotation. The extent to which the boundary of a boundary principle represents the austerity principle is discussed. It is concluded that it works in a way analogous to thermodynamic relations and it is argued that deeper principles might be needed to comprehend the nature of austerity.

  5. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part I. European countries' conformity to ideal types during the economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Ingelsrud, Mari Holm; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2017-08-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper that takes an explorative approach to assess crisis and austerity in European countries during the Great Recession. The ultimate aim of this two-part paper is to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu and assess whether it is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than the current economic crisis per se, that can led to deterioration in population health. In Part I of this paper we offer one way of operationalizing crisis severity and austerity. We examine countries as specific configurations of crisis and policy responses and classify European countries into "ideal types." Cases included were 29 countries participating in the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) surveys. Based on fuzzy set methodology, we constructed two fuzzy sets, "austerity" and "severe crisis." Austerity was measured by changes in welfare generosity; severe crisis was measured by changes in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth. In the initial phase of the Great Recession, most countries faced severe crisis combined with no austerity. From 2010-2011 onward, there was a divide between countries. Some countries consistently showed signs of austerity policies (with or without severe crisis); others consistently did not. The fuzzy set ideal-type analysis shows that the European countries position themselves, by and large, in configurations of crisis and austerity in meaningful ways that allow us to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu. This exploration is the undertaking of Part II of this paper.

  6. How to Pay for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    For years now, public education, and especially public higher education, has been under attack. Funding has been drastically reduced, fees increased, and the seemingly irresistible political force of ever-tightening austerity budgets threatens to cut it even more. But I am not going to take the standard line that government financial support for…

  7. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  8. Austerity Policies Called for in Preventing Economic Overheating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕政

    2008-01-01

    In the 10th Five-Year Plan period, China sustained rapid industrial development, registering remarkable industrial profitability and doubling industrial profits, taxes and labor productivity. With significant increases in fixed-asset investments and the rising proportion of heavy and chemical industries, however, China also found product supply and demand tensions exacerbated in such primary industries as energy and raw materials. On the upside, thanks to price escalation and production scale expansion, coal, oil, natural gas, steel, and chemical feedstock industries significantly increased sales and profit margins, contributing to over one-half of China’s total industrial profits. On the downside, however, electronic and transportation equipment manufacturing industries suffered drastic profit declines due to raw material price increases and a decrease in product sales. Energy inefficiency became more pronounced because of failures to effectively re-adjust the industrial structure in tandem with energy consumption increases, resulting in inefficient energy utilization among small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). On the environmental front, China registered significant achievements in environmental treatment, with emissions intensity of key pollutants steadily declining. To realize energy conservation and sustain pollution emission targets laid down in the 11th Five-Year Plan, China still faces daunting challenges ahead.

  9. Emerging Risks Due to New Injecting Patterns in Hungary During Austerity Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Anna; Dudás, Mária; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rusvai, Erzsébet; Tresó, Bálint; Csohán, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the massive restructuring of drug availability, heroin injection in Hungary was largely replaced by the injecting of new psychoactive substances (NPS) starting in 2010. In the following years in our sero-prevalence studies we documented higher levels of injecting paraphernalia sharing, daily injection-times, syringe reuse, and HCV prevalence among stimulant injectors, especially among NPS injectors. Despite the increasing demand, in 2012 the number of syringes distributed dropped by 35% due to austerity measures. Effects of drug market changes and the economic recession may have future epidemiological consequences. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  10. The Challenge of Complementary and Alternative Medicine After Austerity: A Response to Recent Commentaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Aida Isabel

    2015-10-26

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is frequently used in Portugal and it contributes to the improvement of people's health. CAM and Western Medicine (WM) are taken as complements both in the diagnosis and the treatment stage. The Portuguese health system is able to generate certified CAM professionals but the provision of CAM care and services is not included in the national health system. In times of austerity, this is not expected to change and access to CAM care continues to be out-of-pocket health expenditure. But the future for health in Portugal may well involve including CAM therapies in an integrated health system.

  11. The right to health in Brazil: A Constitutional guarantee threatened by fiscal austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes

    2017-06-28

    After 25 years of expanding coverage and improving the quality of preventive public health measures and publicly financed medical care associated with positive outcomes for the health of Brazil's population, our country suffers from deterioration of social policies. Among the areas of policy affected by new economic austerity measures is health-with potential to damage lives. These threats stem mainly from the 2016 approval of a Constitutional amendment that limits, for the next 20 years, public investments in health, education, social assistance, and social security. This viewpoint addresses how the changes have come about and the possible consequences.

  12. Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, D. Bruce; Marcucci, Pamela N.

    2010-01-01

    No issue in higher education is as salient, or as controversial, as finance. As demand for higher education around the world grows, so do the costs associated with it, especially as governments shoulder less of the burden. Tuition fees rise and student loan debt grows. Who pays for these surging costs? Who "should" pay? D. Bruce Johnstone and…

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  14. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  15. Self-Pay Purchase Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Calgary Board of Education has successfully operated a self-pay purchase order system to reduce the handling costs for small dollar purchases. A self-pay purchase order is basically a purchase order with a limited-amount check attached. Four exhibits illustrate the system and summarize the procedures. (MLF)

  16. Savings plan of transportation energy: Automobile running and cost reduction at the age of austerity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, T.J. [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The effect that appears due to driving small compact cars can be largely divided into national and territorial levels and another at personal level. As the use of small cars is activated, the effects at the national and territorial levels are as follows: energy savings, reduction of environmental pollution, capacity increase of transportation facilities, improvements in residential area environments. The benefits given to small car users are savings in automobile operating costs, solution of parking problems due to the decrease of required parking space, savings in fuel costs. The effects at the national and territorial levels can be the indispensable but not the sufficient condition of the use of small cars. That is, when the effect at the national and territorial levels following the use of small cars is transferred to persons and the effect is ensured, then running small compact cars will be more activated. There are a few tasks to overcome for activating the operation of small compact cars even though they have a lot of benefits. First, there should be the change of perception toward the size of cars, and second, legal and systematic supports are needed to activate the running small compact cars. 6 tabs.

  17. A New Proposal for Management of Severe Frostbite in the Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchy, Emmanuel; Davis, Christopher B; Pasquier, Mathieu; Meyer, Eric F; Hackett, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in outdoor clothing and medical management of frostbite, individuals still experience catastrophic amputations. This is a particular risk for those in austere environments, due to resource limitations and delayed definitive treatment. The emerging best therapies for severe frostbite are thrombolytics and iloprost. However, they must be started within 24 hours after rewarming for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and within 48 hours for iloprost. Evacuation of individuals experiencing frostbite from remote environments within 24 to 48 hours is often impossible. To date, use of these agents has been confined to hospitals, thus depriving most individuals in the austere environment of the best treatment. We propose that thrombolytics and iloprost be considered for field treatment to maximize chances for recovery and reduce amputations. Given the small but potentially serious risk of complications, rt-PA should only be used for grade 4 frostbite where amputation is inevitable, and within 24 hours of rewarming. Prostacyclin has less risk and can be used for grades 2 to 4 frostbite within 48 hours of rewarming. Until more field experience is reported with these agents, their use should probably be restricted to experienced physicians. Other modalities, such as local nerve blocks and improving oxygenation at high altitude may also be considered. We submit that it remains possible to improve frostbite outcomes despite delayed evacuation using resource-limited treatment strategies. We present 2 cases of frostbite treated with rt-PA at K2 basecamp to illustrate feasibility and important considerations.

  18. Metal minerals scarcity. A call for managed austerity and the elements of hope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederen, A.M.

    2009-03-15

    If we keep following the ruling paradigm of sustained global economic growth, we will soon run out of cheap and plentiful metal minerals of most types. Their extraction rates will no longer follow demand. The looming metal minerals crisis is being caused primarily by the unfolding energy crisis. Conventional mitigation strategies including recycling and substitution are necessary but insufficient without a different way of managing our world's resources. The stakes are too high to gamble on timely and adequate future technological breakthroughs to solve our problems. The precautionary principle urges us to take immediate action to prevent or at least postpone future shortages. As soon as possible we should impose a co-ordinated policy of managed austerity, not only to address metal minerals shortages but other interrelated resource constraints (energy, water, food) as well. The framework of managed austerity enables a transition towards application (wherever possible) of the 'elements of hope': the most abundant metal (and non-metal) elements. In this way we can save the many critical metal elements for essential applications where complete substitution with the elements of hope is not viable. We call for a transition from growth in tangible possessions and instant, short-lived luxuries towards growth in consciousness, meaning and sense of purpose, connection with nature and reality and good stewardship for the sake of next generations.

  19. Austerity, new public management and missed nursing care in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Eileen; Carryer, Jenny; Harvey, Clare; Pearson, Maria; Henderson, Julie

    2017-07-16

    To outline the way the culture of austerity arising from the Global Financial Crisis has been used by Australian and New Zealand governments to maintain and extend healthcare budget cuts, through new public management strategies leading to missed nursing care. Ten years on the cost of the Global Financial Crisis continues to be borne by tax payers and those employed by the welfare state, yet analysis shows clearly that it was caused by a failure to adequately regulate markets, particularly the banks and multinational corporations. In health care, one of the impacts is increased workload for nurses leading to missed care. Registered Nurses and midwives (n = 7,302) completed the MISSCARE surveys between 2012 - 2015, in four Australian states and New Zealand providing quantitative and qualitative responses. The qualitative comments were analysed using a template analysis approach based on key features of New Public Management. Sixty-two qualitative responses identified measures in place directly linked to austerity and new public management strategies that impacted on the quality of patient care and nursing work, as well as contributing to missed care. Opportunities for resistance may lie outside public and private health organizations in civil society, in the nurse union movements and other health and nursing professional associations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ultrasound in the austere environment: a review of the history, indications, and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Travis C; Crawford, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the use of ultrasound has expanded because of its portability, safety, real-time image display, and rapid data collection. Simultaneously, more people are going into the backcountry for enjoyment and employment. Increased deployment for the military and demand for remote medicine services have led to innovative use and study of ultrasound in extreme and austere environments. Ultrasound is effective to rapidly assess patients during triage and evacuation decision making. It is clinically useful for assessment of pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, blunt abdominal trauma, musculoskeletal trauma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, ocular injury, and obstetrics, whereas acute mountain sickness and stroke are perhaps still best evaluated on clinical grounds. Ultrasound performs well in the diverse environments of space, swamp, jungle, mountain, and desert. Although some training is necessary to capture and interpret images, real-time evaluation with video streaming is expected to get easier and cheaper as global communications improve. Although ultrasound is not useful in every situation, it can be a worthwhile tool in the austere or deployed environment.

  1. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  2. Innovations in Times of Austerity: Thinking outside the Box to Maintain Programs during Periods of Financial Exigency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This case represents a multitude of leadership dilemmas created by financial exigencies and the difficult decisions that must be made during times of economic austerity. Under the best of circumstances, deciding between programmatic elimination and/or employee termination is agonizing, onerous, and filled with political and social ramifications.…

  3. Local government austerity policies in the Netherlands : the effectiveness of social dialogue in preserving public service employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weske, Ulrike; Leisink, Peter; Knies, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The financial and economic crisis has led to fiscal austerity measures and reform policies in the Netherlands that have had a direct impact on municipalities. Decreased municipal budgets have forced municipalities to cut public services and lower the employment conditions of municipal employees. It

  4. Paying for Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Many schools and universities want the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED certification for their facilities, but they are concerned about cost. This certification is tangible evidence that a facility is designed to conserve resources and use energy more efficiently. "Low-cost/no-cost" upgrades can be worked into a capital plan that provides a 3-…

  5. Costing a feminist plan for a caring economy: The case of free universal childcare in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    de Henau, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes the case for providing universal and free childcare services in the UK to contribute to building a care economy as a better alternative to austerity and spending cuts, one that would foster gender equality and quality employment. It estimates the total cost of such services using different assumptions on staff pay and coverage and the related direct employment effects. It discusses the different multipliers that could be derived from such 'investment' and the related tax reve...

  6. Has Austerity Succeeded in Ameliorating the Economic Climate? The Cases of Ireland, Cyprus and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcell Zoltán Végh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession that began in 2008 hit the economy of the European Union extremely hard. The year 2009 brought decline to the majority of the member states, inducing a desperate crisis management process. The few common EU-level crisis management measures that were implemented have brought about little success due to the modest volume of the common budget and the inertia of decision making attempting to harmonize often contradicting interests. As there was no credible crisis management at the EU level, most member states introduced their own set of measures. The efficiency of these was influenced by the economic performance of primary trading and investing partners, and by the volatility of the bond markets. In terms of economic performance, member states of the EU followed various paths and experienced various levels of recession in 2009, then various levels of upswing in 2010–2011, only to be hit by a second wave of recession of various extents after 2011. Although many member states took their own measures, general tendencies in crisis management can be defined. At first, the restoration of the functioning of the markets was targeted by generating additional demand through fiscal stimulus, but was then gradually replaced by imperative fiscal consolidation and austerity measures. The effectiveness of austerity programs is questionable: while the bond markets’ volatility called for the correction of fiscal balances, tax hikes and governmental spending cuts tendentiously pushed back economic performance and postponed recovery, making economic growth possible only by increasing public debts. In this study, I present arguments in favour of the view that, in the current economic climate of the EU, prosperity could not be restored exclusively by austerity. Accordingly, I present case studies of the three member states with the largest increases in public debts: Ireland, Cyprus and Greece. My aim is to assess the efficiency of these member

  7. Pay secrecy: Pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević, Nebojša

    2016-01-01

    Pay secrecy is an intriguing, and also a controversial policy in human resources management with hardly anything written on the subject. As a form of systematic withholding of information from the employees on all or some aspects of salaries within a company, pay secrecy offers both advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages are misconceptions about distribution of compensation; negative evaluation of distributive justice; reduced motivation, satisfaction and productivity of the employee...

  8. Unions and the sword of justice: unions and pay systems, pay inequality, pay discrimination and low pay

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion in pay is lower among union members than among non-unionists. This reflects two factors. First, union members and jobs are more homogeneous than their non-union counterparts. Second, union wage policies within and across firms lower pay dispersion. Unions'' minimum wage targets also truncate the lower tail of the union distribution. There are two major consequences of these egalitarian union wage policies. First, the return to human capital is lower in firms which recognise unions ...

  9. Subterranean Currents: Research and the Radical Imagination in the Age of Austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Khasnabish

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of austerity, securitization, and the rampant enclosure of public spaces and democratic processes including the university and scholarship, this article critically explores what prefigurative engaged research – research capable of not simply documenting what is but contributing to struggles for social justice and social change – might look like, what it can contribute, and what its limitations are. Beyond familiar calls for a “public” or “applied” social science and drawing on a two-year-long project focused on radical social movements and the radical imagination in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, this article explores what politically-engaged social science research might offer to social justice struggles aiming to construct a more just, democratic, dignified, liberated, and peaceful world.

  10. Shared services – shared necessity: Austerity, reformed local government and reduced budgets1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Greg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shared services are now established as a core delivery model in local and regional governance arrangements. Shared services have emerged as a ‘common sense’ delivery vehicle with attendant efficiency and effectiveness gains. There is, however, a more complex intellectual provenance to a reliance on shared services. In essence, shared services are the logical outcome of the deliberate turn to neo-liberal thinking and the various iterations of the new public managerialism methodology which has progressively established itself in local and regional governance over the past thirty years or so. This paper explores the neo-liberal provenance of shared services and considers the consequential vulnerabilities to austerity, administrative reform and reduced public sector budgets. The central proposition of the paper is that while neo-liberal ideas have created the justification for shared services, this has embedded a set of systemic tensions in the delivery model.

  11. APPROACHES TO EUROPEAN UNION MILITARY COLLABORATION IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AUSTERITY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the economic crisis on European countries has led to serious cuts of the defense budgets and a perceived reduction in the EU’s ability to provide capabilities required by other allies, especially the US. Cooperation, in the form of pooling and sharing may not be an easy and “ready to use” solution to Europe’s defense issues generated by the budget austerity and economic downturn, but it may provide ways to lessen the defense cuts impact on the military capabilities. Nonetheless, the success of the initiative is strongly related to the degree of political and military commitment of the EU countries to put into practice the concept.

  12. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC AUSTERITY: A SPARKLE OF LIGHT FOR THE ECONOMIES IN CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini SARRI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though Social entrepreneurship as a concept dates back to the second half of the 18th, it is still poorly defined. It has been defined via the use of terms such as social enterprise, social innovation, nonprofit ventures and social responsibility. Its boundaries to the other fields are unclear and its practice is in low level. However, social entrepreneurship is an emerging area of entrepreneurship, and literature on this field, has grown the last two decades. It attracts attention mainly to its high importance for the economies in terms of social and economic value creation. This paper studies social entrepreneurship and its role in economies of austerity, with emphasis placed on European countries and it provides a mapping of the situation. “When we will stop thinking the poor people as victims and instead recognize them as creative and future entrepreneurs the sparkle of light will be the sun”.

  13. Ilana Shiloh. Paul Auster and Postmodern Quest : On the Road to Nowhere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gavillon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilana Shiloh place l’œuvre de Paul Auster sous le signe de la quête, et plus précisément de la quête de soi. L’introduction a pour objet de cerner les deux notions. L’auteur évoque les avatars littéraires de la quête, du roman picaresque au ‘road story’ postmoderne (Stout, Campbell, Gurevitz. I. Shiloh renvoie aux études de Bakhtine sur la route comme ‘chronotope’ ou de Derrida sur la chance comme hasard, inévitabilité et chute (cadere. A la suite de Hassan, Frye ou Rushdie, elle en rappell...

  14. [Perceptions of primary care physicians in Madrid on the austerity measures in the health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Otero-García, Laura; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Aranaz-Andrés, Jesús María

    2016-01-01

    To address the current economic crisis, governments have promoted austerity measures that have affected the taxpayer-funded health system. We report the findings of a study exploring the perceptions of primary care physicians in Madrid (Spain) on measures implemented in the Spanish health system. We carried out a qualitative study in two primary health care centres located in two neighbourhoods with unemployment and migrant population rates above the average of those in Madrid. Interviews were conducted with 12 primary health care physicians. Interview data were analysed by using thematic analysis and by adopting some elements of the grounded theory approach. Two categories were identified: evaluation of austerity measures and evaluation of decision-making in this process. Respondents believed there was a need to promote measures to improve the taxpayer-funded health system, but expressed their disagreement with the measures implemented. They considered that the measures were not evidence-based and responded to the need to decrease public health care expenditure in the short term. Respondents believed that they had not been properly informed about the measures and that there was adequate professional participation in the prioritization, selection and implementation of measures. They considered physician participation to be essential in the decision-making process because physicians have a more patient-centred view and have first-hand knowledge of areas requiring improvement in the system. It is essential that public authorities actively involve health care professionals in decision-making processes to ensure the implementation of evidence-based measures with strong professional support, thus maintaining the quality of care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Redistribution, recognition, power: Austerity or an alternative Kaleckian feminist macroeconomic model in the EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Paulì

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. The first is to highlight the regressive impacts on gender equality in Europe of the EU’s macroeconomic model and governance, despite the claims in official EU do­cuments that the intention is to close the gender gap, with reference to research into gender and gender-blind austerity policies and feminist commentary on the social content of macroeconomic policies. The second aim is to assess these processes from both a political-philosophical and an economic perspective. From a political-philosophical perspective this paper aims to update Nancy Fraser’s focus on “redistribu­tion/recognition”, in order to show how the austerity paradigm – by increasing economic disadvantages for women – prevents women’s equal participation in the public sphere and fosters political practices of “institu­tio­na­lized misrecognition”. The review of Fraser’s analytical perspective serves to highlight the com­­plici­ty between economic injustice and maldistribution (exploitation, female economic marginaliza­tion, insecurity, female unemployment and cultural injustice and misrecognition, and to focus attention on the fundamental need for gender-aware distributional policies. In a Feminist-Post-Keynesian/Kaleckian eco­no­­mic paradigm, new research emphasizes the economic relevance of gender-aware redistribution, star­ting from a range of hypotheses. At the same time, in this theoretical perspective, the inherently confron­tational nature of gender-aware distribution policies is shown. The interdisciplinary approach propo­sed in this paper provides an analytical framework for debating women’s political claims in Europe

  16. Inequality and Austerity after the Global Financial Crisis: Law, Gender and Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Seuffert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Onati Socio-legal Series analyses legal and economic inequality, and policies of austerity after the global financial crisis (GFC at the intersections of gender and sexuality. Each of the articles included in this issue speak to one or more of these themes. Collectively, the articles place questions of gender and sexuality at the centre of an analysis of reforms motivated by ‘economic rationalisation’ and austerity measures. They highlight the political economy of policies that differentially impact women, indigenous populations and socially or economically marginalised groups. Este número especial de la Oñati Socio-legal Series analiza la desigualdad legal y económica, y las políticas de austeridad después de la crisis financiera global (CFG en las intersecciones entre género y sexualidad. Cada uno de los artículos de este número tratan sobre uno o más de estos temas. De forma colectiva, los artículos plantean cuestiones sobre género y sexualidad en el centro de un análisis de las reformas motivadas por la “racionalización económica” y las medidas de austeridad. Destacan la política economía de las políticas que impactan de forma diferente en mujeres, población indígena y grupos marginados social o económicamente. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2736309

  17. Paying for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water.

  18. Austere conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Moyo, Francis; Kicheleri, Rose Peter

    2016-01-01

    of the word are WMAs actually community-based? We do this by studying conflicts over the regime of rules over access to land and resources. Analytically, we focus on actors, their rights and meaningful powers to exert control over resource management, and on accountability relationships amongst the actors......We explore how the regime of rules over access to land, natural, and financial resources reflects the degree of community ownership of a Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania. Being discursively associated with participatory and decentralised approaches to natural resource management, WMA...... policies have the ambition to promote the empowerment of communities to decide over rules that govern access to land and resources. Our purpose is to empirically examine the spaces for popular participation in decision-making over rules of management created by WMA policies: that is, in what sense...

  19. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... Advantage Plan (Part C) offered by a private insurance company. In a PPO Plan, you pay less ...

  20. Government-Backed Salt Reduction Efforts Could Deliver Big Health Pay Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162976.html Government-Backed Salt Reduction Efforts Could Deliver Big Health Pay Day Researchers ... found that a government-supported national plan to reduce salt would be cost-effective in nearly every country ...

  1. Annick Duperray. Paul Auster, les ambiguïtés de la négation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gavillon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avec l’ouvrage d’Annick Duperray, Paul Auster, les ambiguïtés de la négation, la collection « Voix américaines » s’est enrichie d’un nouveau titre. En un peu plus d’une centaine de pages — quatre chapitres et un épilogue, augmentés d’une chronologie et d’une bibliographie sélective, outils qui seront fort appréciés des lecteurs d’Auster (les nouveaux, comme les habitués — , Annick Duperray offre un tableau précis et complet de l’œuvre austérienne. 

Le premier chapitre, « l’homme ou l’œuvre ...

  2. Race and Gender Pay Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we review research findings from the 1980s and early 1990s on race and gender pay gaps. In addition. we present some evidence from the Current Population Surveys (1972, 1982 and 1989) regarding the impact of shifts in the industrial composition of employment and in interindustry wage differentials on these gaps. The gender gap in pay was stable in the 1970s but fell steadily in the 1980s; the opposite patterns were observed for black-white wage differentials--a trend towards con...

  3. Effects of the financial crisis and Troika austerity measures on health and health care access in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; Karanikolos, Marina; Hernandez-Plaza, Sonia; de Freitas, Cláudia; Bernardo, Luís; Padilla, Beatriz; Sá Machado, Rita; Diaz-Ordaz, Karla; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Although Portugal has been deeply affected by the global financial crisis, the impact of the recession and subsequent austerity on health and to health care has attracted relatively little attention. We used several sources of data including the European Union Statistics for Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) which tracks unmet medical need during the recession and before and after the Troika's austerity package. Our results show that the odds of respondents reporting having an unmet medical need more than doubled between 2010 and 2012 (OR=2.41, 95% CI 2.01-2.89), with the greatest impact on those in employment, followed by the unemployed, retired, and other economically inactive groups. The reasons for not seeking care involved a combination of factors, with a 68% higher odds of citing financial barriers (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.32-2.12), more than twice the odds of citing waiting times and inability to take time off work or family responsibilities (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.20-3.98), and a large increase of reporting delaying care in the hope that the problem would resolve on its own (OR=13.98, 95% CI 6.51-30.02). Individual-level studies from Portugal also suggest that co-payments at primary and hospital level are having a negative effect on the most vulnerable living in disadvantaged areas, and that health care professionals have concerns about the impact of recession and subsequent austerity measures on the quality of care provided. The Portuguese government no longer needs external assistance, but these findings suggest that measures are now needed to mitigate the damage incurred by the crisis and austerity.

  4. Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece: their impact on health promotion policies and public health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    This review study explores the available data relating to the impact of financial crisis and subsequently applied austerity measures on the health care, social services and health promotion policies in Greece. It is evident that Greece is affected more than any other European country by the financial crisis. Unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, poverty and increase of mental disorders are among the most serious consequences of crisis in the socioeconomic life. The health system is particularly affected by the severe austerity measures. The drastic curtailing of government spending has significantly affected the structure and functioning of public hospitals that cope with understaffing, deficits, drug shortage and basic medical supplies. Moreover, health promotion policies are constrained, inhibiting thus the relevant initiatives toward disease prevention and health promotion education practices. Overall, the current economic situation in Greece and its impact on real life and health care is quite concerning. Policy makers should not disregard the implications that austerity and fiscal policies have on the health sector. Greater attention is needed in order to ensure that individuals would continue getting public health care and having access to preventive and social support services. To face the economic hardship, policy makers are expected to implement human-centered approaches, safeguarding the human dignity and the moral values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Health Care Austerity Measures in Times of Crisis: The Perspectives of Primary Health Care Physicians in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-Garcia, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current financial crisis has seen severe austerity measures imposed on the Spanish health care system, including reduced public spending, copayments, salary reductions, and reduced services for undocumented migrants. However, the impacts have not been well-documented. We present findings from a qualitative study that explores the perceptions of primary health care physicians in Madrid, Spain. This article discusses the effects of austerity measures implemented in the public health care system and their potential impacts on access and utilization of primary health care services. This is the first study, to our knowledge, exploring the health care experiences during the financial crisis of general practitioners in Madrid, Spain. The majority of participating physicians disapproved of austerity measures implemented in Spain. The findings of this study suggest that undocumented migrants should regain access to health care services; copayments should be minimized and removed for patients with low incomes; and health care professionals should receive additional help to avoid burnout. Failure to implement these measures could result in the quality of health care further deteriorating and could potentially have long-term negative consequences on population health.

  6. To pay or not to pay-for-publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels

    outside the humanities where the H ead of Department believes that is a good idea to reward scholars financially for publication s; 2) teaching intensive departments from outside the humanities where the Dean uses financial incent ives in connection to research performance; 3) large, teaching intensive......Academics financial incentives to publish vary cons iderable between Danish university departments. An inherent question is why such (generally) simila r organizational units make use of pay-for- performance so differently. With starting point in a qualitative comparative fuzzy set analysis......, this paper examines managerial and organizational featur es of departments with strong financial incentives to publish compared to departments with some, weak, or no such incentives. The preliminary analysis suggests four causal recipes c onnected to the use of pay-for-publications : 1) departments from...

  7. 成本控制从源头做起——重视项目前期定位策划的成本研究%Cost Control Should Start from the Beginning: Paying Attention to Cost Study on Pre-project Location Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛; 景瑾

    2011-01-01

    房地产前期定位策划作为房地产策划的核心内容之一,在理论和实践中都得到了一定的发展.目前,随着房地产市场从扩张型向精细型转变过程中,对成本控制的作用越来越明显,本文在理论研究的基础上,对重视项目前期定位策划的成本进行了研究.%Location planning of real estate in the earlier stage as one of the core contents of a real estate planning has developed in both theory and practice. At present, along with the change of the real estate market from extensive to intensive, its role in cost control is more and more apparent. Based on theoretical research, this paper studies about paying attention to the cost of pre-project location planning.

  8. The Tragedy of Teacherly Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Michael

    1984-01-01

    In satirical verse the author affirms the value of merit pay proposals and laments the lack of action on such proposals that has resulted from indecisiveness concerning criteria for merit pay implementation. (JBM)

  9. Demonstration of novel, secure, real-time, portable ultrasound transmission from an austere international location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedegbe, Chinwe; Morchel, Herman; Hazelwood, Vikki; Hassler, Cynthia; Feldman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is not sufficient access to medical care or medical expertise in many parts of the world. An innovative telemedicine system has been developed to provide expert medical guidance to field caregivers [who have less medical expertise but can reach the patient population in need]. Real-time ultrasound video images have been securely transmitted from the Dominican Republic to Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack NJ (HackensackUMC), while the expert physician at HackensackUMC maintained direct voice communication with the field caregiver. Utilizing a portable ultrasound machine (Sonosite) integrated with portable broadcasting device (LiveU), extended Focused Assessment Sonography in Trauma (e-FAST) examinations were performed on healthy volunteers and transmitted via the local cellular network. Additionally, two e-FAST examinations were conducted from a remote location without cellular coverage and transmitted via broad ground area network (BGAN) satellites. The demonstration took the technology "out of the lab" and into a real life, austere environment. The conditions of the Dominican Republic ultrasound mission provided experience on how to manage and utilize this innovative technology in areas where reliable communications and medical coverage are not readily available. The resilient transmission capabilities coupled with the security features deem this portable Telesonography (TS) equipment highly useful in the telemedicine forefront by offering healthcare in underdeveloped areas as well as potentially enhancing throughput in disaster situations.

  10. Précarité alimentaire, austérité / Food insecurity and austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Perianu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à examiner les pratiques alimentaires quotidiennes dans le contexte des contraintes normatives exercées par la politique d’Etat dans les années quatre-vingt en Roumanie. A partir d’une démarche basée sur l’analyse micro anthropologique (observation des pratiques quotidiennes des habitants, entretiens, recueil de témoignages accrédités du point de vue scientifique sur le ravitaillement pendant la période historique en discussion, nous nous proposons d’examiner la manière dont l’accès aux aliments a structuré l’expérience sociale et nutritionnelle de l’individu, dans le cas de la société roumaine pendant sa dernière décennie communiste.This paper explores everyday food practices in the context of austerity measures, through normative constraints imposed by the Romanian government in the 1980s, as applied by State policies. Based on a micro-anthropological approach (observation of everyday food practices, focused interviews and accounts concerning the historical period above-mentioned, this work proposes to examine how food accessibility structured the social and nutritional experience of individuals, in the case of the Romanian society during the last decade of the Romanian Communist regime.

  11. From Risk Models to Loan Contracts: Austerity as the Continuation of Calculation by Other Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pénet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how financial actors sought to minimise financial uncertainties during the European sovereign debt crisis by employing simulations as legal instruments of market regulation. We first contrast two roles that simulations can play in sovereign debt markets: ‘simulation-hypotheses’, which work as bundles of constantly updated hypotheses with the goal of better predicting financial risks; and ‘simulation-fictions’, which provide fixed narratives about the present with the purpose of postponing the revision of market risks. Using ratings reports published by Moody’s on Greece and European Central Bank (ECB regulations, we show that Moody’s stuck to a simulationfiction and displayed rating inertia on Greece’s trustworthiness to prevent the destabilising effects that further downgrades would have on Greek borrowing costs. We also show that the multi-notch downgrade issued by Moody’s in June 2010 followed the ECB’s decision to remove ratings from its collateral eligibility requirements. Then, as regulators moved from ‘regulation through model’ to ‘regulation through contract’, ratings stopped functioning as simulation-fictions. Indeed, the conditions of the Greek bailout implemented in May 2010 replaced the CRAs’ models as the main simulation-fiction, which market actors employed to postpone the prospect of a Greek default. We conclude by presenting austerity measures as instruments of calculative governance rather than ideological compacts

  12. Donatella della Porta, Social Movements in Times of Austerity: Bringing Capitalism Back Into Protest Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo CINI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Over the last few years, there has been a certain degree of agreement among social movement scholars on the fact that the dominant analytical frameworks of social movement theory were not fully able to explain the recent wave of protests, triggered by the economic crisis. Followingthis concern, some authors have started a debate about how to modify and refine these frameworks in order to better account for the current dynamics of mobilization. This type of reflection is precisely at the centre of the analysis of a book recently published by Polity Press (2015: pp. 249, titled Social Movements in Times of Austerity. Bringing Capitalism Back into Protest Analysis, where the author, Donatella della Porta, one of the most prominent scholars of this field, takes a clear position in such debate by singling out some of the main limitations, which have negatively affected the developments of the theorizations of social movements over the past decades. In discussing these limitations, della Porta proposes some original remedies and solutions in terms of theories and themes to be introduced and investigated in the current agenda of social movement research.Keywords. Political economy, Social movement studies, Neoliberalism, Economic crisis, Protests.JEL. F50, F60.

  13. Advances in military, field, and austere transfusion medicine in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John R; Lelkens, Charles C M; Holcomb, John B; Scalea, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    Two decades of war in south-west Asia has demonstrated the essential role of primary resuscitation with blood products in the care of critically injured soldiers. This idea has been widely adopted and is being critically tested in civilian trauma centers. The need for red cells, plasma and platelets to be immediately available in remote locations creates a logistic burden that will best be eased by innovative new blood products such as longer-stored liquid RBCs, freeze-dried plasma, small-volume frozen platelets, and coagulation factor concentrates such as fibrinogen concentrates and prothrombin complex concentrates. Such products have long shelf-lives, low logistic burdens of weight, fragility, or needs for processing prior to use. Developing and fielding a full family of such products will improve field medical care and make products available in the evacuation chain. It also will allow treatment in other austere environments such as the hundreds of small hospitals in the US which serve as Levels 3 and 4 trauma centers but do not currently have thawed plasma or platelets available. Such small trauma centers currently care for half of all the trauma patients in the country. Proving the new generation of blood products work, will help assure their widest availability in emergencies.

  14. An Augmented Reality-Based Approach for Surgical Telementoring in Austere Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Dan; Popescu, Voicu; Cabrera, Maria Eugenia; Shanghavi, Aditya; Mullis, Brian; Marley, Sherri; Gomez, Gerardo; Wachs, Juan P

    2017-03-01

    Telementoring can improve treatment of combat trauma injuries by connecting remote experienced surgeons with local less-experienced surgeons in an austere environment. Current surgical telementoring systems force the local surgeon to regularly shift focus away from the operating field to receive expert guidance, which can lead to surgery delays or even errors. The System for Telementoring with Augmented Reality (STAR) integrates expert-created annotations directly into the local surgeon's field of view. The local surgeon views the operating field by looking at a tablet display suspended between the patient and the surgeon that captures video of the surgical field. The remote surgeon remotely adds graphical annotations to the video. The annotations are sent back and displayed to the local surgeon while being automatically anchored to the operating field elements they describe. A technical evaluation demonstrates that STAR robustly anchors annotations despite tablet repositioning and occlusions. In a user study, participants used either STAR or a conventional telementoring system to precisely mark locations on a surgical simulator under a remote surgeon's guidance. Participants who used STAR completed the task with fewer focus shifts and with greater accuracy. The STAR reduces the local surgeon's need to shift attention during surgery, allowing him or her to continuously work while looking "through" the tablet screen.

  15. Focused ultrasound: concept for automated transcutaneous control of hemorrhage in austere settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, John C; Bailey, Michael R; Kaczkowski, Peter J; Carter, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is being developed for a range of clinical applications. Of particular interest to NASA and the military is the use of HIFU for traumatic injuries because HIFU has the unique ability to transcutaneously stop bleeding. Automation of this technology would make possible its use in remote, austere settings by personnel not specialized in medical ultrasound. Here a system to automatically detect and target bleeding is tested and reported. The system uses Doppler ultrasound images from a clinical ultrasound scanner for bleeding detection and hardware for HIFU therapy. The system was tested using a moving string to simulate blood flow and targeting was visualized by Schlieren imaging to show the focusing of the HIFU acoustic waves. When instructed by the operator, a Doppler ultrasound image is acquired and processed to detect and localize the moving string, and the focus of the HIFU array is electronically adjusted to target the string. Precise and accurate targeting was verified in the Schlieren images. An automated system to detect and target simulated bleeding has been built and tested. The system could be combined with existing algorithms to detect, target, and treat clinical bleeding.

  16. PayPal Transactions Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Toader

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent threads to prominent organizations and companies have greatly increased the need for information security. Many measures have been designed and developed to guard against threats from outsider attacks. Technologies are actively implemented to prohibit such attacks that could actively prohibit rogue connections. In this paper, common vulnerabilities for PayPal transactions identified as well as solutions for defending against them.

  17. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retention. (b) Pay retention will be based on the employee's rate of base salary in effect immediately... the range of rates of base salary applicable to the employee's position. (c) Pay retention will be... the 104-week retention limit. (d) Under NSPS, pay retention will be granted when an employee's base...

  18. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate... (highest). (b) Eligibility. (1) An inmate shall accrue vacation time, longevity service credit, and shall...

  19. New thinking on how to link executive pay with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A

    1999-01-01

    As the stock market began its ascent in the mid-1990s, executive pay--always the subject of heated debate--mounted along with it. That's because among the largest U.S. companies, stock options now account for more than half of total CEO compensation and about 30% of senior operating managers' pay. One problem became particularly clear during the bull market's astonishing run: even below-average performers reap huge gains from stock options when the market is rising rapidly. The author proposes steps to close the gap between existing compensation practices and those needed to promote higher levels of achievement at all levels of the corporation. For top managers, he recommends replacing conventional stock options with options that are tied to a market or peer index. Below-average performers would not be rewarded under such plans; superior performers could, depending on the way plans were structured, receive even more. He notes that managers at the business unit level should not be judged on the company's stock price--over which they have little control--and advocates an approach that accurately measures the value added by each unit. Finally, he suggests how certain indicators of value can be used to measure the contribution of frontline managers and employees. The concept of pay for performance has gained wide acceptance, but the link between incentive pay and superior performance is still too weak. Reforms must be adopted at all levels of the organization. Shareholders will applaud changes in pay schemes that motivate companies to deliver more value.

  20. El reto de Sísifo o cómo está hecha la Trilogía de Nueva York de Paul Auster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Sanmartín Ortí

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecrire le présent représente un défi pour le genre narratif qui, par définition, s’occupe des faits du passé. Or, le roman contemporain s’est proposé de surmonter cette difficulté par plusieurs voies. Dans sa Trilogie de New York, Paul Auster s’accorde trois opportunités de réussite, trois romans ou un seul récit écrit trois fois, qui reste inachevé. À la place d’une histoire close, Auster nous propose un roman qui se réécrit et se déplace constamment, prolongeant ainsi l’expérience présente et durative de sa lecture.Writing about the present can be a challenge for the narrative genre which, by definition, deals with facts that are in the past. Yet the contemporary novel offers several ways to overcome this difficulty. Paul Auster adopts three strategies in his Trilogy of New York, three novels or just one story written three times, which remains unfinished. Instead of a closed story, Auster proposes a novel which rewrites and shifts itself constantly, turning reading into a long-lasting experience.Escribir el presente plantea un reto para un género como la narrativa que, por definición, se ocupa de hechos del pasado. La novela contemporánea se ha propuesto, sin embargo, salvar esta dificultad por varios caminos. Paul Auster se concede tres intentos para lograrlo en su Trilogía de Nueva York, tres novelas o un único relato escrito tres veces, que permanece inconcluso. En lugar de una historia cerrada, Auster nos propone una novela que se rescribe y se desplaza constantemente, prolongando la experiencia presente y durativa de su lectura.

  1. Executive pay and market value sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive pay relative to that of average workers has risen dramatically worldwide. Such a high level of executive pay raises the question of whether a steep rise in executive pay affects firm value. This study examined the relationship between executive pay and firm value. A panel smooth transition regression model is adopted to determine an optimal level of executive pay that maximizes firm value for a sample of 512 Taiwanese-listed firms over the period 2006-2011. The finding is that when the ratio of executive pay to net income after tax exceeds 2.71%, the firm value increases. The results suggest a correlation between large executive ownership (corresponding to high executive pay and both increased operational efficiencies and firm value. These findings may be useful when contemplating executive compensation policy.

  2. Smoke (Paul Auster et Wayne Wang, 1995 : une œuvre à la croisée des arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Letort

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the short story entitled “Auggie Wren’s Christmas Story” (1990 gathered the writer Paul Auster and the director Wayne Wang around a film project that allowed them to share their artistic practices in a collaborative work. This paper examines the question that underpins the narrative of the short-story by grappling with the appropriations of the real in other artistic modes. Paul Auster’s first encounter with the cinema points out the convergence between aural writing and cinematic writing, evoked through the double figure of the writer and that of the tale-teller/photographer in both the film and the short story.L’adaptation de la nouvelle « Auggie Wren’s Christmas Story » (1990 réunit l’écrivain Paul Auster et le réalisateur Wayne Wang autour d’un projet qui leur permit de croiser leurs pratiques artistiques dans un travail de collaboration. Cet article prolonge le questionnement artistique qui sous-tend le récit de la nouvelle en interrogeant les modalités de l’appropriation du réel par d’autres arts. La première rencontre entre Paul Auster et le cinéma met en relief les points de convergence entre écriture verbale et écriture cinématographique, évoqués autour de la double figure de l’écrivain et du conteur/photographe dans le film et dans la nouvelle.

  3. Following professional codes of practice and military orders in austere military environments: a controversial debate on ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    2015-12-01

    In 2004, the World Medical Association's International Code of Ethics claimed that 'medical ethics in armed conflict is identical to medical ethics in times of peace'. This paper challenges this notion and suggests that the hostile, austere and diverse environments in which military doctors and nurses serve are significantly more problematic and different to a civilian healthcare environment. It debates that there may be some incompatibility and challenges between following military orders such as the protocols written down in a Medical Rules of Eligibility matrix and professional codes of practice in these environments. This is either where fighting takes place or where the mission is for humanitarian purposes.

  4. The Social Tenant, the Law and the UK’s Politics of Austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen P Carr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers current cuts to social housing provision in the UK made in the name of austerity. It focuses particularly on the ‘bedroom tax’ —the cut to housing benefit for working-age social housing tenants whose property is deemed to provide more bedrooms than they need. It begins by explaining the long-standing political project of social housing in the UK. This background is important to explain the emergence of a discursively ghettoized population within social housing. We then turn to the ‘bedroom tax’ itself. We consider the two quite separate rationales underpinning its introduction. One rationale —fairness— is the focus of the politicians; the other —under-occupation— provides the focus for policy analysts. Both offer different versions of truth about the social in social housing and both are unconvincing. For us, this is significant because the politics of austerity require the support of public opinion. We then consider some strategies of resistance to the ‘bedroom tax’ which harness the disruptive potential of fairness before concluding that the bedroom tax requires relatively little unpacking to reveal it as an ideological device which operates to increase inequality whilst deploying a rhetoric of fairness. Este artículo analiza los recortes en las prestaciones de viviendas sociales que se realizan actualmente en el Reino Unido en nombre de la austeridad. Se centra particularmente en el 'impuesto dormitorio' -el recorte en el subsidio de vivienda para inquilinos en edad de trabajar, cuya vivienda se considera que tiene más dormitorios de los que necesitan. Comienza explicando el proyecto político de viviendas sociales, de larga tradición en el Reino Unido. Estos antecedentes son importantes para explicar el surgimiento de guetos en las viviendas sociales. A continuación se centra en el "impuesto dormitorio” en sí mismo. Se analizan los dos diferentes motivos que sustentan su promulgación. Una es

  5. Performance Measurement and Faculty Pay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Pin-liang; RUI Ming-jie

    2002-01-01

    In classic agency models, first best efficiency can't be achieved due to the trade-off between risk and incentives except that agency is risk neutral. Whereas if the principal's objective is not contractible,an alternative objective performance measurement which is contractible is always proposed. However, if the reaction of this objective performance measurement to agency's effort differs from that of the principal's objective, the agent would game performance measures, which leads to loss of efficiency, even if agency is risk neutral. By adding subjective weights on objective measures, or combination of subjective performance measurement with objective performance measurement, efficiency can be regained. Implications for faculty pay are also discussed.

  6. Paying your marketers--properly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elizabeth Zink

    2003-09-01

    Home health agencies have more freedom to market their services since the implementation of the prospective payment system. In order to do that, a number of agencies have turned to marketing professionals for help. A common method of compensating marketers in the business world, however, is through payment for referrals--something expressly forbidden by federal statute. Home health agencies need to know what they can and can't do to pay marketers and must train their marketers on the federal anti-kickback regulations to assure their compliance.

  7. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  8. Economic Crisis, Austerity Policies, Health and Fairness: Lessons Learned in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz G; Barber, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews economic and medical research publications to determine the extent to which the measures applied in Spain to control public health spending following the economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 have affected healthcare utilization, health and fairness within the public healthcare system. The majority of the studies examined focus on the most controversial cutbacks that came into force in mid-2012. The conclusions drawn, in general, are inconclusive. The consequences of this new policy of healthcare austerity are apparent in terms of access to the system, but no systematic effects on the health of the general population are reported. Studies based on indicators of premature mortality, avoidable mortality or self-perceived health have not found clear negative effects of the crisis on public health. The increased demands for co-payment provoked a short-term cutback in the consumption of medicines, but this effect faded after 12-18 months. No deterioration in the health of immigrants after the onset of the crisis was unambiguously detected. The impact of the recession on the general population in terms of diseases associated with mental health is well documented; however, the high levels of unemployment are identified as direct causes. Therefore, social policies rather than measures affecting the healthcare system would be primarily responsible. In addition, some health problems have a clear social dimension, which seems to have become more acute during the crisis, affecting in particular the most vulnerable population groups and the most disadvantaged social classes, thus widening the inequality gap.

  9. Capitalism, the state and health care in the age of austerity: a Marxist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to provide satisfactory nursing care is being increasingly compromised by current trajectories of healthcare funding and governance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how well Marxist theories of the state and its relationship with capital can explain these trajectories in this period of ever-increasing austerity. Following a brief history of the current crisis, it examines empirically the effects of the crisis, and of the current trajectory of capitalism in general, upon the funding and organization of the UK and US healthcare systems. The deleterious effect of growing income inequalities to the health of the population is also addressed. Marx's writings on the state and its relation to the capitalist class were fragmentary and historically and geographically specific. From them, we can extract three theoretical variants: the instrumentalist theory of the state, where the state has no autonomy from capital; the abdication theory, whereby capital abstains from direct political power and relies on the state to serve its interests; and the class-balance theory, whereby the struggle between two opposed classes allows the state to assert itself. Discussion of modern Marxist interpretations includes Poulantzas's abdication theory and Miliband's instrumentalist theory. It is concluded that, despite the pluralism of electoral democracies, the bourgeoisie do have an overweening influence upon the state. The bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production provides the foundation for its influence because the state is obliged to rely on it to manage the supply of goods and services and the creation of wealth. That power is further reinforced by the infiltration of the bourgeoisie into the organs of state. The level of influence has accelerated rapidly over recent decades. One of the consequences of this has been that healthcare systems have become rich pickings for the evermore confident bourgeoisie. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The problem college students' occupation planning should pay attention to under the premise of economic crisis%略谈经济危机前提下大学生职业规划应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森

    2013-01-01

    随着我国社会主义市场经济的不断深入,大学生的就业问题也成为了被社会普遍关注的焦点,受经济危机的影响,大学生的就业问题显现的日益严重。而职业规划作为大学生就业的准备阶段,其工作开展的重要性毋庸置疑。本文以经济危机的时代背景为基础,就大学生职业规划应注意的问题进行了分析与探讨。%Along with the deepening of socialist market economy continues in our country, the employment of college students has become the focus of social attention, affected by the economic crisis, the employment problem of college students is more serious. While the occupation planning as a preliminary to the employment of university students, the importance of the work without a doubt. In this paper, based on the background of economic crisis, the occupation planning is analyzed and discussed.

  11. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day...

  12. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay differential. (a) Absence on holidays or in travel status. An employee is entitled to a night pay differential...

  13. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Dobrolyubova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the progress achieved inimproving the pay system in public administration and outlines the key issues to be resolved.The cross-country comparisons presented inthe article suggest high differentiation in pay levels depending on position held. In fact,this differentiation in Russia exceeds one in OECD almost twofold The analysis of theinternal pay structure demonstrates that thelow share of the base pay leads to perversenature of ‘stimulation elements’ of the paysystem which in fact appear to be used mostlyfor compensation purposes. The analysis of regional statistical data demonstrates thatdespite high differentiation among regionsin terms of their revenue potential, averagepublic official pay is strongly correlated withthe average regional pay.

  14. Innovative strategies for self-pay segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Adam; Hansel, John

    2006-01-01

    Risk segmentation of self-pay accounts can help healthcare financial managers determine where to use collection resources. Assessment of self-pay patients should consider each patient's estimated financial condition and potential eligibility for charity care of public assistance patients. Segmenting patients on the basis of demographic variances and potential fraud can help hospitals increase self-pay collections and reduce A/R days.

  15. The toxicity of pay for performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, D M

    1995-01-01

    Despite their superficial logic, systems of merit pay or pay for performance have features that are toxic to systemic improvement. Contingent rewards doled out by supervisors cause decreased focus on customer needs, loss of accurate information about defects and improvement opportunities, avoidance of stretch goals, and decreased innovation. They may also erode teamwork. Pay for performance may mark a naive understanding of the complexity of human motivation.

  16. Pay Equity Act (No. 34 of 1987), 29 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Ontario, Canada's 1987 Pay Equity Act. The Act seeks to redress systemic gender discrimination in compensation for work performed by employees in "female job classes" and applies to all private sector employers in Ontario with 10 or more employees, all public sector employers, and the employees of applicable employers. The Act continues to apply even if an employer subsequently reduces the number of employees below 10. The Act calls for identification of systemic gender discrimination in compensation through comparisons between female job classes and male job classes in terms of compensation and value of work performed, which is a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility normally required. Pay equity is deemed achieved when the job rate for the female job class is at least equal to the rate for a male job class in the same establishment. If there is no male job class to use for comparison, pay equity is achieved when the female job rate is at least equal to the job rate of a male job class in the same establishment that, at the time of comparison, had a higher job rate while performing work of lower value than the female job class. Differences in compensation between a female and a male job class are allowed if they result from a formal seniority system that does not discriminate on basis of gender, a temporary training or development assignment equally available to males and females, a specified merit compensation plan, actions taken as the result of a gender-neutral reevaluation process, or a skills shortage leading to a temporary inflation in compensation. Pay equity will not be achieved by reducing any employee's compensation. The Act establishes a Pay Equity Commission to oversee implementation.

  17. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  18. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  19. Austerite et gestion dans les universites quebecoises: une analyse des perceptions de directeurs de departement=Austerity and Administration in Quebec's Universities: An Analysis of Department Heads' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Manuel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 25 Quebec university department chairmen concerning the management of budgetary austerity found that administrative responses are generally perceived as reactionary and short-sighted, but long-term solutions proposed by chairmen are based on conflicting views of the overall role of the institution. (MSE)

  20. The effects of the financial crisis and austerity measures on the Spanish health care system: a qualitative analysis of health professionals' perceptions in the region of Valencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervero-Liceras, Francisco; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has seen severe austerity measures imposed on the Spanish health care system. However, the impacts are not yet well documented. We describe the findings from a qualitative study that explored health care professionals' perception of the effects of austerity measures in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Valencia. A total of 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals, recorded and fully transcribed. We coded all interviews using an inductive approach, drawing on techniques used in the constant comparative method. Health professionals reported increases in mental health conditions and malnutrition linked to a loss of income from employment and cuts to social support services. Health care professionals perceived that the quality of health care had become worse and health outcomes had deteriorated as a result of austerity measures. Interviewees also suggested that increased copayments meant that a growing number of patients could not afford necessary medication. While a few supported reforms and policies, such as the increase in copayments for pharmaceuticals, most opposed the privatization of health care facilities, and the newly introduced Royal Decree-law 16/2012, particularly the exclusion of non-residents from the health care system. The prevailing perception is that austerity measures are having negative effects on the quality of the health care system and population health. In light of this evidence there is an urgent need to evaluate the austerity measures recently introduced and to consider alternatives such as the derogation of the Royal Decree-law 16/2012. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues

  2. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Diane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33, which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI levy (part of VAT is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and

  3. 76 FR 52537 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... premium pay for Sunday work. OPM issued a compensation policy memorandum (CPM-2009-21, December 8, 2009... pay-leave-policy@opm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 9, 2010, the U.S. Office of Personnel... assertion of rights under those laws. Unlike the compensation claims process, the No FEAR...

  4. 76 FR 68631 - Pay in Nonforeign Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ..., 531, and 536 RIN 3206-AM43 Pay in Nonforeign Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... certain pay administration rules dealing with employees in nonforeign areas outside the 48 contiguous... the revisions are necessary to address the effects of implementing the Non-Foreign Area...

  5. 28 CFR 551.108 - Performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance...

  6. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team......". This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly...... contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than...

  7. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team......". This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly...... contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than...

  8. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  9. Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire : Reading Paul Auster. François Gavillon. Paul Auster : gravité et légèreté de l’écriture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Maniez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Ces deux ouvrages ont en commun d’être des réécritures de thèses, mais les ressemblances s’arrêtent là : le premier, en effet, aborde quatre romans de Paul Auster à travers une grille de lecture lacanienne et derridéenne (entre autres ; le deuxième, plus essai que thèse, parcourt l’intégralité de l’œuvre en prose, de The Invention of Solitude à Leviathan, et convie son lecteur à une exploration de la « galaxie des signes » austériens.Dans An Art of Desire, Bernd Herzogenrath poursuit en fait...

  10. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous...

  11. 1997 JEMS salary survey. Long hours, modest pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, T Y

    1997-11-01

    As in years past, the 1997 Jems salary survey tracks trends in compensation and career development in both the public and private sectors. This year, we've included some information about volunteer agencies as well. While the survey serves as a barometer for EMS wages and benefits, relying solely on the absolute numbers may create an incomplete picture because of changes in the number of respondents, organizational characteristics and other variables. However, combined with other industry data, the annual salary survey is a useful tool for comparing your pay with that of your peers. The survey should also prove useful to organizations and labor groups planning and preparing competitive compensation packages.

  12. IT decisions utility computing - pay as you work

    CERN Multimedia

    Glick, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    Some of the most influential IT suppliers are developing products and services to allow customers to buy computing as a utility, paying only for what you use as you use it. .. IBM plans to build on its experience in the academic research environment. It is using a technology called Grids - networks of massive computers that appear to a user as a single, enormous processing unit. Grids allow organizations to share distributed applications, data and computing power over the internet. ... IBM is building the UK national grid for collaborative research, linking nine universities and CERN (2 pages).

  13. Data Ferrying to the Tactical Edge: A Field Experiment in Exchanging Mission Plans and Intelligence in Austere Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    activity meant to test many different technologies. As such, it occurred over the course of one day with extremely limited Fig. 5. Raspberry Pi , battery...ferry ran on a Raspberry Pi (Rev B) single-board computer with a 15000mAh external battery and connected to Persistent System’s Wave Relay MPU4...tactical radio. The external battery is capable of powering the Raspberry Pi for approximately 21 hours and the MPU4 is capable of running for 14 hours

  14. Peer advocacy in a personalized landscape: The role of peer support in a context of individualized support and austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Andrew; Bartlett, Ruth; Hall, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Whilst personalization offers the promise of more choice and control and wider participation in the community, the reality in the United Kingdom has been hampered by local council cuts and a decline in formal services. This has left many people with intellectual disabilities feeling dislocated from collective forms of support (Needham, 2015). What fills this gap and does peer advocacy have a role to play? Drawing on a co-researched study undertaken with and by persons with intellectual disabilities, we examined what role peer advocacy can play in a context of reduced day services, austerity and individualized support. The findings reveal that peer advocacy can help people reconnect in the face of declining services, problem-solve issues and informally learn knowledge and skills needed to participate in the community. We argue that peer advocacy thus offers a vital role in enabling people to take up many of the opportunities afforded by personalization.

  15. Improving data management practices in the Portuguese HIV/AIDS surveillance system during a time of public sector austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaji, Tara; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In a climate of public sector austerity, the demand for accurate information about disease epidemiology rises as health program managers try to align spending to health needs. A policy of case re-notification to improve HIV information quality resulted in a nine-fold increase in the number of case reports received in 2013 by the Portuguese HIV surveillance office. We used value stream mapping to introduce improvements to data processing practices, identify and reduce waste. Two cycles of improvement were trialled. Before intervention, processing time was nine minutes and 28 seconds (95%CI 8:53-10:58) per report. Two months post intervention, it was six minutes and 34 seconds (95% CI 6:25-6:43). One year after the start of the project, processing time was five minutes and 20 seconds (95% CI 1:46-8:52).

  16. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ben; Kinderman, Peter; Whitehead, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Several indicators of population mental health in the UK have deteriorated since the financial crisis, during a period when a number of welfare reforms and austerity measures have been implemented. We do not know which groups have been most affected by these trends or the extent to which recent economic trends or recent policies have contributed to them. We use data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey to investigate trends in self reported mental health problems by socioeconomic group and employment status in England between 2004 and 2013. We then use panel regression models to investigate the association between local trends in mental health problems and local trends in unemployment and wages to investigate the extent to which these explain increases in mental health problems during this time. We found that the trend in the prevalence of people reporting mental health problems increased significantly more between 2009 and 2013 compared to the previous trends. This increase was greatest amongst people with low levels of education and inequalities widened. The gap in prevalence between low and high educated groups widened by 1.29 percentage points for women (95% CI: 0.50 to 2.08) and 1.36 percentage points for men (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.42) between 2009 and 2013. Trends in unemployment and wages only partly explained these recent increases in mental health problems. The trend in reported mental health problems across England broadly mirrored the pattern of increases in suicides and antidepressant prescribing. Welfare policies and austerity measures implemented since 2010 may have contributed to recent increases in mental health problems and widening inequalities. This has led to rising numbers of people with low levels of education out of work with mental health problems. These trends are likely to increase social exclusion as well as demand for and reliance on social welfare systems.

  17. Austerity and old-age mortality in England: a longitudinal cross-local area analysis, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective There has been significant concern that austerity measures have negatively impacted health in the UK. We examined whether budgetary reductions in Pension Credit and social care have been associated with recent rises in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over. Design Cross-local authority longitudinal study. Setting Three hundred and twenty-four lower tier local authorities in England. Main outcome measure Annual percentage changes in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years or over. Results Between 2007 and 2013, each 1% decline in Pension Credit spending (support for low income pensioners) per beneficiary was associated with an increase in 0.68% in old-age mortality (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.95). Each reduction in the number of beneficiaries per 1000 pensioners was associated with an increase in 0.20% (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.24). Each 1% decline in social care spending was associated with a significant rise in old-age mortality (0.08%, 95% CI: 0.0006–0.12) but not after adjusting for Pension Credit spending. Similar patterns were seen in both men and women. Weaker associations observed for those aged 75 to 84 years, and none among those 65 to 74 years. Categories of service expenditure not expected to affect old-age mortality, such as transportation, showed no association. Conclusions Rising mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over were linked to reductions in spending on income support for poor pensioners and social care. Findings suggest austerity measures in England have affected vulnerable old-age adults. PMID:26980412

  18. Troubled by unequal pay rather than low pay: The incentive effects of a top management team pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationships with firm performance of the internal pay gap among individual members of the top management team (TMT and the compensation level of TMT members relative to their industry peers. We find that pay gap is positively related to firm performance and that this positive relation is stronger when the TMT pay level is higher than the industry median. However, we do not observe such effects in Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs, in which both the executive managerial market and compensation are government-regulated. We also document that cutting central SOE managers’ pay level can increase firm value, whereas doing so for local SOE managers has the opposite effect. Our findings have important implications for research on TMT compensation as well as for policy makers considering SOE compensation reform.

  19. Performance Pay and the "Time Squeeze"

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Ortega, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Earlier studies of the impact of performance pay on individuals’ behavior have primarily been concerned with the effects on their earnings and productivity. The productivity increases associated with the adoption of performance pay practices may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ out-of-work activities, testing whether performance pay contracts lead to a “time squeeze” for non-work activities. In doing so, w...

  20. Les plans de gestion de crises dans les pays francophones

    OpenAIRE

    Barkaoui, Houssem; Guinet, Alain; Tao, Wang; Meskens, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; La gestion des catastrophes, appelée plus communément gestion des situations d'urgences ou encore gestion de crises, est la discipline qui s'intéresse à l'évaluation des menaces et de leurs risques relatifs ainsi qu'aux stratégies mises en oeuvre afin d'en limiter l'occurrence ou les conséquences en cas de survenue. Dans ce papier, nous allons étudier le cadre réglementaire et les mesures prises par les gouvernements pour gérer des situations exceptionnelles de crises ...

  1. Performance Related Pay and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; Jan C. van Ours

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  2. Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    both overall and within broad occupational categories, than the pay of workers who are covered by the Gen - eral Schedule.Systematic comparisons of...possess good analytical and writing skills. Physician’s assistants, paralegal special- ists, air traffic controllers, technical writers and edi- tors...entire Gen - eral Schedule, especially in terms of linking pay with performance. Federal jobs are also classified in another way that indi- cates the

  3. Explaining personality pay gaps in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Alita; Nicoletti, Cheti

    2009-01-01

    Using the British Household Panel Survey we examine how the Big Five personality traits - openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism - affect wages. We estimate mean and quantile pay gaps between people with low and high levels of each of the Big Five, and decompose these pay gaps in the part explained by differences in workers’ characteristics and in the residual unexplained part. We find that openness to experience is the most relevant personal...

  4. Consistency of Pay-For-Performance Results Across a Geographically Dispersed Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Employee Motivation , Not the Performance System .............................. 47 Goal and Advantage of Implementation Plan...performed to better understand employee motivation in general and how best to promote that motivation through effective pay- for-performance systems...used as a part of a larger coaching and leadership effort to motivate the workforce. Leadership is the Key to Employee Motivation , Not the

  5. The Impact of Merit Pay on Teaching and Research Outcomes of Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. This study uses data from a survey of the 852 accounting programs in the United States to empirically examine the influence of merit-based salary plans. Findings indicate a strong positive association between…

  6. Meeting the education and training needs of a professional youth and community work workforce in challenging times: Austerity Britain and the fight to survive

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, SA

    2016-01-01

    As we face the challenges of enforced austerity, and their cumulative effects on the most disadvantaged in society, the profession of youth and community work has never been needed more, and yet it faces an uncertain future in both the academe and publicly-funded social services. Drawing on the recent history of professional education and training for youth and community workers in England, and the validation processes that have developed to support this, the paper will offer a view on the cu...

  7. Tax Cut Legislation: What's Fair? Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, Davis, CA.

    Front and center in 2001 domestic policy debates is President George W. Bush's proposed tax relief plan. The U.S. federal tax is a progressive tax code, predicated on the assumption that "people who are most able to pay should pay the most." A progressive tax system makes an individual's tax bill increase faster than his/her income. The…

  8. 76 FR 32859 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... and all of Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (19) Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL--consisting of the... * * *''. OPM Response The locality pay statute bases locality pay on comparisons of General Schedule and non... bases locality pay on comparisons of General Schedule (GS) and non-Federal pay for the same levels of...

  9. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept cons...

  10. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  11. Shareholder voice on executive pay : A decade of Dutch say on pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Christoph; Lafarre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands adopted shareholders’ say on pay over a decade ago. The general meeting of shareholders must approve the remuneration policy and any amendments to it. This Dutch approach offers fruitful insights into how say on pay works in practice. In the light of the recent European proposal to

  12. Motivational effects of pay dispersion in pay for performance programs implemented in Romanian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urieşi Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the motivational effects in a sample of Romanian employees in private companies that implement pay for performance programs of one of the characteristics of these programs, namely pay dispersion, and on the potential mediating role of organizational justice in these effects. To this aim, we examined the relationships between the amounts of pay dispersion introduced by the respective financial incentive system, employee perceptions of distributive and procedural justice, work motivation, and base salary, respectively. The results of the data analysis, performed through structural equation modeling, support our hypotheses concerning the positive effect of performance – related pay dispersion on motivation and the mediating role of the two dimensions of organizational justice in this effect. Larger financial rewards allocated by the financial incentive system for high performers increase employee perceptions of distributive and procedural justice, which, in turn, foster work motivation. Base salary was also found to influence pay dispersion, as well as perceived distributive justice.

  13. Laos. Un pays en mutation, Vatthana Pholsena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Bouté

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec un regard neuf et une approche originale que Vatthana Pholsena a relevé le défi d’écrire l’ouvrage Laos. Un pays en mutation, le dernier-né de la collection « Asie Plurielle » (Belin qui a déjà proposé une longue série d’ouvrages de présentation générale des pays d’Asie. Cet ouvrage vient combler un grand manque dans la littérature sur le Laos. Aucun ouvrage généraliste en langue française n’existant jusque-là sur ce petit pays d’Asie du Sud-Est, le lecteur curieux devait se référ...

  14. Estimating farmers' willingness to pay for climate change adaptation: the case of the Malaysian agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Junsheng, Ha; Akhtar, Rulia; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2015-02-01

    This paper estimates Malaysian farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. We used the contingent valuation method (CVM) for a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the sampled farmers. The study found that 74 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme and that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on their WTP. This paper clearly specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support policy makers to better design an efficient adaptation framework for adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  15. Incohérence des politiques publiques suisses envers les pays en développement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Il n’est pas fréquent que la Suisse se retrouve en bas de classement quand il s’agit de solidarité internationale et de relations avec les pays en développement, et pourtant… Le Centre pour le Développement Global (CDG, un think tank indépendant basé à Washington publie depuis 2003 un classement annuel de l’engagement des vingt-deux pays les plus riches de la planète en faveur des pays pauvres. Le classement repose sur un « Indice de l’engagement pour le développement » qui va bien au-delà d...

  16. This is the time of Tension: Collective Action and Subjective Power in the Greek Anti-Austerity Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalanti Evripidou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Greece has been one of the countries which most severely suffered the consequences of the global economic crisis during the past two years. It has also been a country with a long tradition of protest. The present paper reports a study in which we examined the ways in which people talk about subjective power and deal with the outcome of collective action in the context of defeat. Subjective power has recently become a prominent field of research and its link to collective action has been studied mainly through the concept of collective efficacy. The current study explored questions based on recent social identity accounts of subjective power in collective action. We examined participants’ experiences of subjective power before and after Mayday 2012, in Greece. Two different collective action events took place: a demonstration against austerity and a demonstration to support steel workers who were on strike. In total, 19 people were interviewed, 9 before the demonstrations and 10 after. Thematic analysis was carried out. Protest participants talked about power in terms of five first-order themes: the necessity of building power, unity, emotional effects, effects of (disorganization, and support as success. The steel workers we spoke to experienced the events more positively than the other interviewees and had different criteria for success. Theories of collective action need to take account of the fact that subjective power has important emotional as well as cognitive dimensions, and that definitions of success depend on definitions of identity.

  17. The Gap in the Fence: Austerity Cuts, Retrenchment and European Theatre’s Wake-Up Call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Freeman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Com’è ampiamente risaputo, per le piccole-medie compagnie teatrali i tagli  dovuti alla politica europea di austerità significano affrontare un futuro incerto. E questo proprio mentre l'età dell'oro del finanziamento pubblico si avvicina alla sua fine. Ma è stato aureo, di per sé, il teatro che questo finanziamento ha prodotto?  E gli Europei, quando usano il termine “austerità”, fanno di un dramma una crisi? Questo articolo  avanza la provocatoria ipotesi per la quale, con probabilità, se il sussidio da un lato sostiene il teatro, dall'alto ne sopprime l'innovazione e che, forse, il teatro funzioni al meglio come genere fuori dalla legge, libero dal controllo pubblico mascherato da sostegno. Abstract – EN As the world well knows, austerity cuts in Europe mean that small-to-medium theatre companies are facing an uncertain future, to the extent that the golden age of funding is coming to an end. But has the theatre this funding has produced been golden in itself? And are Europeans turning a drama into a crisis when they use the term “austerity”? This paper puts forward the provocative argument that subsidy is as likely to suppress innovative theatre as it is to support it and that, perhaps, theatre functions best as an outlaw genre, free from public control masquerading as support

  18. Human Security Workers Deployed in Austere Environments: A Brief Guide to Self-Care, Sustainment, and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Ditzler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the human security movement has sought to expand the concept of security beyond the traditional military defense of national borders to focus on the intra-state security needs of populations at the individual level. Specific initiatives frequently address problems of population health, ethnic conflict, religious extremism, human rights, environmental or natural disasters, and other critical issues. For expatriate human security workers in the field, the environment may present meaningful challenges to their wellbeing and productivity. This can be especially so for those who have relatively more experience in academic, business, or administrative settings, and less in the field. The authors' goal is to illuminate practices that have demonstrated their efficacy in enhancing wellness, sustainment, and productivity for human security and other humanitarian and development workers deployed to austere environments. The content represents a synoptic consensus of best general practices and guidance from a range of resources comprising United Nations agencies and activities, national and international non-governmental organizations (NGO's, private volunteer organ­izations (PVO's, national military services, and international business concerns.

  19. Between Resistance and Resilience. How Do Italian Solidarity Purchase Groups Change in Times of Crisis and Austerity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Guidi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This Paper deals with the current transformations of Solidarity Purchase Groups (SPGs in Italy. We particularly wonder if and eventually how the economic crisis and austerity policies have affected SPGs. Through an approach based on the literature on political consumerism and social movements, six hypotheses are proposed: ‘less economic resources, less SPGs,’ ‘cultural path dependency,’ ‘increased op-portunities,’ ‘isomorphism,’ ‘civic traditions,’ and ‘resilience.’ Empirical data focus on Italian and Tuscan SPGs, by both articulating different research methods and focalizing on different levels. Although our work has only an explorative aim, our analysis shows that the amount of available economic resources cannot per se lead to a satisfying understanding of the evolution of SPGs. Hypotheses based on culture and politi-cal processes seem to be more promising and can point to the resilience capacity of those groups. Post-materialistic values resulting from economic well-being might have produced organized practices of political consumerism. However, once political consumerism gets structured—this is our tentative argument—not only does it resist to external shocks but also it transforms itself and adapts to the new conditions imposed by crises, that is, it becomes ‘resilient.’ The ‘resilience hypothesis’ applied to SPGs nevertheless has to face some social cleavages.

  20. The Big Society in an age of austerity: threats and opportunities for Health Consumer and Patients' Organizations in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Health consumer and patients' organizations (HCPOs) seek to influence policy. But how are they affected by developments in the policy context and political environment? The article draws on original research into HCPOs in the UK by the authors, including a major survey undertaken in 1999 and interviews with HCPOs and policymakers between 2000 and 2003 as well as a further survey in 2010. It also draws on a review of key government policies on health and the voluntary sector since 1997. Developments in the political environment and policy context have created both opportunities and threats for HCPOs as they seek to influence policy. These include policies to promote choice and competition in public services; support for a greater role for the voluntary sector and civil society in health and welfare (including the current government's 'Big Society' idea); NHS reorganization; changes to the system of patient and public involvement; and austerity measures. Devolution of powers within the UK with regard to health policy and the rising profile of the EU in health matters have also had implications for HCPOs. This analysis raises key issues for future research in the UK and elsewhere, such as how will HCPOs be able to maintain independence in an increasingly competitive environment? And how will they fare in an era of retrenchment? There are also challenges for HCPOs in relation to maintaining relationships in a new institutional setting characterized by multilevel governance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Social Exclusion and Austerity Policies in England: The Role of Sports in a New Area of Social Polarisation and Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Collins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty still counts as the core of social exclusion from sport and many other domains of people’s lives. In the first part of this paper, we shortly describe the recent poverty trends in England, and identify groups that are more at-risk of being poor and socially excluded. We then focus on the relationship between poverty, social exclusion and leisure/sports participation, and describe a case study that addresses young people’s social exclusion through the use of sports (i.e., Positive Futures. Although further analysis is warranted, it would seem that growing structural inequalities (including sport participation—with their concomitant effects on health and quality of life—are further widened and deepened by the policy measures taken by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition in the UK. In addition, within a climate of austerity, sport-based social inclusion schemes are likely to become wholly inadequate in the face of exclusionary forces such schemes envision to combat.

  2. Pay Cable: A Viable Advertising Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Dean M.; Barban, Arnold M.

    Cable television, which cannot only clarify local signals to weak signal areas but can also bring in distant signals to areas which have been receiving few signals, has the capacity to present special television programs to customers for extra fees. The number of pay cable subscribers is growing and industry projections are that it will reach 20…

  3. The Pays de Gex on the Menu

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Did you know that you can swing from tree to tree like Tarzan (or Jane!) in the brand new forest adventure centre at the Col de la Faucille? And that, in addition to Crozet-Lélex, Mijoux-La Faucille and La Vattay, the Pays de Gex boasts a fourth ski resort at Menthières above Bellegarde-sur-Valserine? All these attractions, and hundreds of others that the Pays de Gex has to offer, were presented at a special exhibition stand in CERN's Restaurant No. 1 last week. For the tenth year running, the Pays de Gex-La Faucille Tourist Office and Geneva's fourteen Coop restaurants had organised a special week devoted to promoting the Pays de Gex-Monts Jura region. Thousands of information leaflets were handed out and visitors had the opportunity to take part in a big raffle with no fewer than 145 prizes to be won: ski passes, Juraventure entrance tickets, meal vouchers courtesy of local hotels and restaurants, and subscriptions to the Val Vital fitness centre in Divonne-les-Bains. The Coop restaur...

  4. Why it pays to 'grill' your supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Joe

    2010-03-01

    When it comes to ensuring that your cold storage operation and maintenance meets MHRA requirements, it pays to ensure that your service supplier knows what it is doing. So says Joe Fudge, instrumentation service manager for ABB's instrumentation business in the U.K., who outlines some of the key factors to consider when selecting a supplier of cold chain mapping services.

  5. 78 FR 37246 - January 2013 Pay Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...: Tameka Gillis, Pay and Leave, Employee Services, U.S. Office of Personnel Management; (202) 606-2858; FAX... or ST employees covered by a certified SL/ST performance appraisal system and $165,300 (level III of the Executive Schedule) for SL or ST employees covered by an SL/ST performance appraisal system...

  6. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We estimate how much Danish households are willing to pay for auto, home, and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from a large Danish insurance company, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates from a field experiment with a representative sample of the adult...

  7. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.

    We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... of the insurance claims....

  8. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent...

  9. Job Evaluation: Pay Equity Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecham, Robert C.

    It has been hypothesized that current methods of determining pay rates value the characteristics of jobs held primarily by men differently than the characteristics of jobs held primarily by women, resulting in lower earnings for women. A policy capturing approach using numerically rated job characteristics (PAQ data) was applied separately to the…

  10. “Cápsulas del tiempo”: a epistolografia amorosa de Paul Auster e Camilo José Cela na composição de memórias e biografias = “Time capsules”: the love epistolography of Paul Auster and Camilo José Cela in the memoir and biography’s composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoby, Sissa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as contribuições das cartas de amor escritas na juventude por Camilo José Cela e Paul Auster para a composição de um perfil auto/biográfico do primeiro e das memórias de infância e juventude do segundo. O que interessa nesses conjuntos epistolográficos tão particulares é verificar o que aportam, desde o ponto de vista da recuperação de registros de uma fase da existência – verdadeiras “cápsulas del tiempo”, como os chama Auster –, para os estudos literários, seja a elaboração do texto memorialístico, seja a relativização da imagem no texto auto/biográfico.

  11. PAY FOR PERFORMANCE: SOUTH EAST ASIA CROSS COUNTRIES COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong, Hui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Executive pay and company performance has received much attention and debate after the recent credit crisis. Policy makers and the public have since demanded for the executive pay to be regulated and to be more tightly aligned to the company performance. Scholars and economists however, have argued that the existing pay structure is not the cause of the recent credit crisis and thus need not to be over regulated. This paper thus aims to provide deeper understanding on the link between pay and...

  12. Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Performance Act of 2007, Senate bill 1046, Washington, D.C., 2007b. 38 Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance Vroom , Victor H ...identifies a potentially virtuous circle ( Vroom , 1964; Porter and Lawler, 1968). Employees will respond to an incentive or reward if they value it...Incentives in Firms,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 37, No. 1, March 1999, pp. 7–63. Prendergast, Canice, and Robert H . Topel, “Favoritism in

  13. Environmental offences: finally making the polluter pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Outhwaite, Opi

    2015-01-01

    This update focuses on developments in sentencing for environmental crimes. The imposition of appropriate penalties is crucial, not only to the use of judicial mechanisms for securing access to environmental justice, but also to respect for the polluter pays principle, a keystone of environmental law. There has been long-standing criticism in the UK of the failure of the courts to treat environmental crimes sufficiently seriously when imposing sentences. Fisher et al observed that insufficien...

  14. Tabanidae (Diptera) des pays-bas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, M.

    1967-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cette mise au point des Tabanides des Pays-Bas a été rendue possible grâce à la collaboration de M. V. S. van der Goot, département d'Entomologie, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, que nous remercions pour son amabilité. Nous avons pu étudier aussi les collections du Rijksmuseum van Natuurl

  15. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable rate of basic pay upon promotion following the rules in this section, consistent with 5 U.S.C....

  16. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made to... by such pay. The amount allocated to time lost is remuneration for every day in the period of time... evidence to the contrary, be considered sufficient for a finding that remuneration is payable with...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Performance pay increases. (a) Overview. (1) The DHS pay system provides employees in a Full Performance or... compensation under 5 U.S.C. chapter 81, subchapter I (in a leave-without-pay status or as a separated employee... SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  18. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....102 and this section, an authorized agency official may provide pay retention to an employee not... employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this section, the agency must apply the geographic... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section...

  19. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... terminate. (e) Pay retention. (1) Any GAO employee: who ceases to be entitled to a retained grade by reason... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section 5.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change of...

  20. 5 CFR 536.301 - Mandatory pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 536.102 and this section, an agency must provide pay retention to an employee who moves between... action that may entitle the employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this section, the agency.... Optional pay retention under § 536.302 may apply when an employee transfers to a different agency as a...

  1. 78 FR 5115 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... RIN 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... locality pay areas. Section 5304 of title 5, United States Code, authorizes locality pay for General...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code...

  2. 5 CFR 9901.305 - Rate of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... structure of the pay system that govern the setting and adjusting of the individual employee rates... the rate and of the eligibility requirements associated with the type and level of pay in question... pay increases, extraordinary performance recognition increases, organizational or team achievement...

  3. 75 FR 9544 - Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 545 RIN 1120-AB52 Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of...) proposes to streamline regulations on inmate work and performance pay by removing redundant language and... regulations on inmate work and performance pay by deleting redundant language and provisions that relate...

  4. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential... differential. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, nightwork is regularly scheduled work... his or her rate of basic pay plus a night pay differential amounting to 10 percent of his or her...

  5. 5 CFR 550.906 - Termination of hazard pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of hazard pay differential. 550.906 Section 550.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Termination of hazard pay differential. An agency shall discontinue payment of hazard pay differential to...

  6. Perquisites: the intrinsic form of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellig, B R

    1981-01-01

    Compensation packages, particularly for executives, are made up of five elements--salary, employee benefits, short-term incentives, long-term incentives, and perquisites. Of these, perquisites are probably the most misunderstood, according to author Bruce Ellig, vice-president of Corporate Compensation and Benefits for Pfizer Inc. The value of perquisites, or "perks," is their degree of exclusivity--that is, their worth as status symbols or "membership benefits" for those employees at or above a certain level in the company's hierarchy. And their value is enhanced when they (as some do) qualify for favorable tax treatment. True perks fall into six categories--time off with pay, executive services, nonperformance awards, health-care, survivor protection, and retirement coverage. Within these categories, perks take many forms. Time off with pay, for example, might include employment contracts, liberalized vacations, the privilege of working at home, disability benefits, sabbaticals, severance pay, or outplacement assistance. The use of perks varies among companies, but is more popular among small companies.

  7. Integrated Personnel and Pay System-Army Increment 2 (IPPS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    to ensure accurate service time, minimizing impact on individual pay, credit for service, and other benefits as well as enabling disciplined human...2003 to use a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) product to develop and implement IPPS-A. The MDA directed the continued...use of the COTS ERP product in the DIMHRS Capability Way Ahead ADM dated September 8, 2009. This decision was validated by the Army in the Army

  8. United States Military Non-Disabled Retirement Pay: Let it Stand!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    military force must be young and vibrant: Most civilian sector pension plans require employees to reach normal retirement age (typically 62-65...to be eligible for an unreduced retirement annuity . However most civilian employers do not require youth and vigor of their employees, nor are they...during the extended field service required over the period 1812- 1861. While the law provided a pension of one-half pay for disabled officers, there

  9. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  10. 29 CFR 2520.104b-2 - Summary plan description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrator of an employee benefit plan subject to the provisions of part 1 of title I shall furnish a copy of..., Company A adopts a pension plan covering the employees of Company B, contingent on the successful... benefit plan, no claims can be incurred which will result in a liability of the plan to pay benefits....

  11. The role of disease management in pay-for-performance programs for improving the care of chronically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beich, Jeff; Scanlon, Dennis P; Ulbrecht, Jan; Ford, Eric W; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A

    2006-02-01

    To date, pay-for-performance programs targeting the care of persons with chronic conditions have primarily been directed at physicians and provide an alternative to health plan-sponsored chronic disease management (DM) programs. Both approaches require similar infrastructure, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages for program implementation. Pay-for-performance programs use incentives based on patient outcomes; however, an alternative system might incorporate measures of structure and process. Using a conceptual framework, the authors explore the variation in 50 diabetes DM programs using data from the 2002 National Business Coalition on Health's eValue8 Request for Information (RFI). The authors raise issues relevant to the assignment of accountability for patient outcomes to either health plans or physicians. They analyze the association between RFI scores measuring structures and processes, and HEDIS diabetes intermediate outcome measures. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of using the RFI scores as an alternative metric for pay-for-performance programs are discussed.

  12. The Effects of Introducing Advertising in Pay TV: A Model of Asymmetric Competition between Pay TV and Free TV

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Dietl; Markus Lang; Panlang Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of asymmetric competition between a pay TV and a free TV broadcaster. Our model shows that the pay TV broadcaster has incentives to place advertising on its channel if the marginal return on advertising exceeds the viewers' disutility from advertising. In this case, however, the pay TV advertising level is always below the corresponding level on free TV. The pay TV advertising level can increase with a higher viewer disutility from advertising but the p...

  13. Developing physician pay arrangements: the cash and care equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitch, J H

    1998-11-01

    Developing physician compensation packages that help a healthcare organization meet its business objectives while satisfying physician pay expectations requires new ways of linking pay to physician performance. Such compensation arrangements specifically should include pay tied to defined performance standards, compensation linked to group performance, performance incentives based on realistic, achievable goals, work performance measured by common criteria, and similar pay ensured for similar work. Final pay arrangements also should include items that are sometimes overlooked, such as fully delineated job responsibilities, performance measures aligned correctly with performance areas, and the value of benefits considered in the cash compensation levels.

  14. Anaphylaxis, Intra-Abdominal Infections, Skin Lacerations, and Behavioral Emergencies: A Literature Review of Austere Analogs for a near Earth Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Natacha G.; Watkins, Sharmi; Menon, Anil S.

    2012-01-01

    As space exploration is directed towards destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, the consequent new set of medical risks will drive requirements for new capabilities and more resources to ensure crew health. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), developed by the Exploration Medical Capability element of the Human Research Program, addresses the risk of "unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of in-flight medical capabilities". It itemizes 85 evidence-based clinical requirements for eight different mission profiles and identifies conditions warranting further research and technology development. Each condition is given a clinical priority for each mission profile. Four conditions -- intra-abdominal infections, skin lacerations, anaphylaxis, and behavioral emergencies -- were selected as a starting point for analysis. A systematic literature review was performed to understand how these conditions are treated in austere, limited-resource, space-analog environments (i.e., high-altitude and mountain environments, submarines, military deployments, Antarctica, isolated wilderness environments, in-flight environments, and remote, resource-poor, rural environments). These environments serve as analogs to spaceflight because of their shared characteristics (limited medical resources, delay in communication, confined living quarters, difficulty with resupply, variable time to evacuation). Treatment of these four medical conditions in austere environments provides insight into medical equipment and training requirements for exploration-class missions.

  15. Who should set CEO pay? The press? Congress? Shareholders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, A R; Panner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Populist fervor in an election year has transformed executive compensation from a business issue into a political one. Critics, led by Graef Crystal, author of In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives, charge that CEOs are ripping off shareholders with their outrageous salaries while running U.S. corporations into the ground. Politicians claim overpaid CEOs are the root cause of the U.S. competitiveness problem. Add a recessionary business climate to the fact that some CEOs earn 130 times more than their lowest paid employees, and you have the makings of a populist rebellion. In a bid to appease voters, Congress is considering several bills that would limit the deductibility of "excessive executive salaries," the SEC has opened the issue to shareholder comment, and the Financial Accounting Standards Board is looking at new accounting standards for granting stock options to executives as part of company compensation schemes. Andrew R. Brownstein and Morris J. Panner say it's time to put the debate back where it belongs--in a business context. The real question is not are executives paid too much, but are shareholders getting their money's worth. Most U.S. corporations use stock compensation to link company long-term performance to executive salaries. And because of the staggering market performance of U.S. corporations in the 1980s, an overwhelming majority of CEOs are actually paid in line with their performance. Rather than cut executive pay, Brownstein and Panner suggest that corporations extend incentive-based compensation plans to all employees, thus narrowing the salary gap and establishing pay for performance at every level of the organization.

  16. Willingness to pay for obesity pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Scott; Lloyd, Andrew; Birt, Julie; Curtis, Bradley; Ali, Shehzad; Godbey, Kecia; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for obesity have received regulatory approval, but health insurers and other payers typically refuse to support access to them. Thus, patients are left to bear significant out-of-pocket costs for obesity pharmacotherapy. This study aimed to assess preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for obesity medications among people seeking weight loss in the United States and United Kingdom. An online survey was developed based on literature review, clinician interviews, and profiles of available therapies. Participants indicated their preference for hypothetical treatments which varied by seven attributes: percentage of weight loss, long-term health risk reduction, time to noticeable weight loss, delivery mode, side effects, lifestyle modification, and cost; 502 obese participants completed the survey (mean BMI 37.12 kg/m(2) (±4.63); 73.5% female; 47.7 (±12.9) years of age). The participants deemed weight loss of >21 kg (United Kingdom) and >28 kg (United State) as "acceptable". All treatment attributes were important (P < 0.001) except "time to noticeable weight loss." The survey found that percentage weight loss was the most important factor for patients and a reduction in long-term health risk was relatively less important. Patients were willing to pay £6.51/$10.49 per month per percentage point of weight loss that a pharmacotherapy could provide. Participants also highly valued therapies that did not require substantial lifestyle modifications and were willing to pay £17.78/$30.77 more per month for a one-pill-per-day treatment vs. a weekly injectable. Participants placed a high value on weight loss and avoiding changes to their lifestyle, and less value on reducing long-term risks to health.

  17. The courtship of the paying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, S S

    1993-01-01

    This article argues for a prohibition on the courtship of the paying patient by individual practitioners, groups, institutions, and corporations. Our society fails to provide universal access to health care. While we await societal resolution, the private provider retains partial responsibility for addressing issues of distributive justice. All private physicians, groups, institutions, and corporations should offer a fair share of underreimbursed, nonemergency care. If economic survival or beneficent economic commitments of a provider are at risk, the provider may explicitly limit underreimbursed services by a rational system of accepting or rejecting nonemergency, indigent patients. The system should be one that, if implemented by all providers, would meet regional societal needs. One might analyze the issue of courtship of the paying patient as a problem of distributive justice. The desire of paying patients to receive personalized care or nonmedical amenities and to have the freedom to buy the best possible medical care, and the economic interests of the providers (the desire of the already affluent provider to seek further gain and growth, the need of a threatened provider to survive, and the dependency of educational institutions on patient payments) all conflict with distributive justice. The marketing interest of providers conflicts with the greater need of the poor to receive information about health, and it conflicts with public need for protection against misleading solicitation. The possibly higher per capita cost of treating the poor, along with possibly lower success rates, create a conflict between cost-effective allocation of limited resources, on the one hand, and egalitarian distributive justice, on the other. The competitive market principle may even protect, rather than defeat, the principle of justice. The author, however, writing from the point of view of the physician, has analyzed the question in terms of a conflict between the economic

  18. Could a New Consumer Policy Pay off?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China will establish consumer finance companies in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chengdu on a trial basis, announced the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) on August 13.These companies will be allowed to provide loans to finance purchases of durable goods and other consumer expenditures, with the exception of home and auto purchases, according to the CBRC.Consumer finance companies have already demonstrated China’s ability to float domestic demand since the financial crisis hit export markets. Will the new policy pay off as predicted?Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist with Galaxy Securities Co. Ltd. offered insights to the Shanghai-based China Securities Journal on August 19. Edited excerpts follow:

  19. EMBL pay settlement will cost millions

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    A labour dispute at EMBL, Heidelberg, was settled last week at a cost of at least DM4 million for the organisation's 16 member states. The lab has asked for clarification on whether the ruling from the IL0 refers simply to a salary adjustment from 1995 or also to a backdated implementation of higher salary scales. This second option would cost considerably more - 8 percent of the budget in back pay and DM3.5 million per annum (1/2 page).

  20. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...... research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... the effectiveness of the incentive system in the individual organisational setting is determined by these relationships....

  1. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...

  2. Pay for performance and medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Marissa A

    2008-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are widely studying and implementing physician pay for performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality and control costs. However, the increasing focus on quality-driven financial incentives has some troubling implications for medical professionalism. This article examines the P4P concept in light of a notion of medical fiduciary professionalism that dates back to the 18th-century Scottish physician John Gregory. Gregory's principles serve as a framework to assess the appropriateness of P4P initiatives in disseminating the principles of high-quality care without damage to professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, and access to care for all patients.

  3. Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhu, Zhujun

    2006-12-01

    The authors assessed the willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation in Hangzhou, China, using the contingent-valuation method. The aim of the study was to provide policy makers with information that would be useful for making informed decisions in urban-development planning. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation was positively correlated with their perceptions of the benefits of green spaces and negatively correlated with perceptions of the annoyances. 2) The willingness to pay a higher premium for green-space conservation is directly related to gender, income level, and residential-ownership status. Age and education level are not significantly correlated with willingness to pay. 3) A majority of respondents view the conservation of urban green spaces as a very important function of the city, and most of them are willing to pay additional taxes for this conservation. 4) The total value per year to the public of the conservation program in Hangzhou is about $15.4 million. These qualitative and quantitative findings can be used in the policy-making process for urban-development plans.

  4. Paying for what was free: lessons from the New York Times paywall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan E; Attari, Shahzeen Z

    2012-12-01

    In a national online longitudinal survey, participants reported their attitudes and behaviors in response to the recently implemented metered paywall by the New York Times. Previously free online content now requires a digital subscription to access beyond a small free monthly allotment. Participants were surveyed shortly after the paywall was announced and again 11 weeks after it was implemented to understand how they would react and adapt to this change. Most readers planned not to pay and ultimately did not. Instead, they devalued the newspaper, visited its Web site less frequently, and used loopholes, particularly those who thought the paywall would lead to inequality. Results of an experimental justification manipulation revealed that framing the paywall in terms of financial necessity moderately increased support and willingness to pay. Framing the paywall in terms of a profit motive proved to be a noncompelling justification, sharply decreasing both support and willingness to pay. Results suggest that people react negatively to paying for previously free content, but change can be facilitated with compelling justifications that emphasize fairness.

  5. For Sale: Your Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The last several years has seen an increasingly popular trend of teachers buying and selling their lesson plans and other self-created classroom materials in online marketplaces. The leader in this space is a website called Teachers Pay Teachers, which boasts 3.8 million active users. In this article, the author examines why these sites became…

  6. 有关"紧缩"与"刺激"的辩论%Debate over Austerity vs. Stimulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祖送

    2015-01-01

    2007年下半年开始,世界经历了一次大衰退.各国奋力救市.经过两年多的刺激政策之后,新古典主义者担忧刺激的后遗症,而凯恩斯主义担心经济第二次探底.双方就紧缩还是刺激展开了一场辩论.交锋点主要集中在刺激政策的时机选择,凯恩斯乘数,消费者的理性程度和财政政策、货币政策各自的有效性.辩论并没有出现一边倒的结果,后来的理论和实践发展也表明双方各有千秋.文章梳理了这次辩论中双方的根本对立点,考察这些对立观点背后的理论假设与逻辑,探讨了这次辩论呈现的特点和对经济学理论的贡献.%Since the latter part of 2007,the world has experienced the so-called"Great Recession". Every country tried desperately to rescue its economy. After two years of stimulant policies,the neoclassical economists began to worry about their consequences,while Keynesians were concerned with possible second dip. Two groups debated over Austerity vs. Stimulus. The focal points consist of the tim?ing of stimulus,the scale of multiplier,the degree of consumers'rationality,the effectiveness and efficacy of fiscal vs. monetary policies. The outcome of debate is blurred in terms of theoretical development and aftermath practice. This article delineates the main viewpoints of two groups,scrutinizes the theoretical assumptions and logics behind these viewpoints,and discusses the main features of this debate and its contribution to the development of economics theories.

  7. Consumer-directed health plans: what happened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jeff

    2007-08-01

    CDHPs can stabilize growth in health costs, but the health plan-subscriber relationship should be more transparent. CFOs should ensure that increased cost exposure in CDHPs is paired with broad, deep disease management and employee assistance support. Hospitals should plan for the likelihood that, one way or another, consumers will be paying more of their healthcare bill.

  8. Framing the willingness-to-pay question: impact on response patterns and mean willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Jensen, Mette Lundsby; Kjaer, Trine

    2014-05-01

    In this study, respondents were randomly allocated to three variants of the payment card format and an open-ended format in order to test for convergent validity. The aim was to test whether preferences (as measured by willingness to pay additional tax) would be affected by framing the willingness-to-pay question differently. Results demonstrated that valuations were highly sensitive to whether respondents were asked to express their maximum willingness to pay per month or per year. Another important finding is that the introduction of a binary response filter prior to the payment card follow-up tends to eliminate the positive aspects of introducing a payment card and produces response patterns that are much in line with those of the open-ended contingent valuation format. However, although a filter will impact on the distribution of willingness-to-pay bids and on the rate of zero and protest bids, the overall impact on the welfare estimate is minor. The outcomes of this study indicate that valuations in the stated preference literature may be, at least in part, a function of the instrument designed to obtain the valuations.

  9. How real is mobility between low pay, high pay and non-employment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muffels, R.; Vermunt, J.K.; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of measurement error on low pay transition probabilities. Our approach combines the virtues of panel regression and latent class models, though it does not require the use of validation or reinterview data. Using British, German and Dutch panel data,

  10. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  11. Executive compensation, financial performance and say on pay votes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 was passed as a response to the late-2000s recession. A shareholder opt-in executive pay vote was introduced as a solution to the managerial power problem. We examine the results of this recommended solution and prove its viability. We find that there is a stronger association between high CEO pay and low say-on-pay vote support for firms with negative financial performance. We also find the market-to-book ratio is significantly lower for companies that failed say-on-pay votes. Furthermore, regulated industries such as financial services are more likely receive unfavourable say-on-pay votes. We document an increase in the sensitivity of CEO pay to poor performance. Overall, these finds are consistent with calls for less “rewards for failure” that led to the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

  12. The University Workers' Willingness to pay for Commuting

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, G.; Ommeren, van, Jan-Kees; Rietveld, P.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in Transportation , 2012, 39(6), 1121-1132. Using a dynamic approach, employing data on job mobility, we demonstrate that university workers' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting distance is about euro 0.25 per kilometre travelled. This corresponds to a marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time of about 75% of the net average hourly wage. For females, the willingness to pay is substantially higher than for males. It is als...

  13. Interpretation and Implications of Previous Sea Pay Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    amount of sea duty that can be gained from a rise in Career Sea Pay and Career Sea Pay Premium . The second was how to separate multiple effects of sea...linear pricing scheme that would induce personnel to reveal important information about their willingness to reenlist and their willingness to...undertake sea duty. Under this pricing mechanism, the Navy could fashion combinations of Selective Reenlistment Bonuses and sea pays that would achieve

  14. Willingness to pay for suicide prevention in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish willingness to pay for suicide prevention among taxpayers in Japan. We conducted an internet-based questionnaire survey using a double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation, and analyzed data for 956 participants. The median willingness to pay to reduce the mortality risk from suicide by 25% was JPY 1,572 ($13.67 USD). Being married was significantly associated with willingness to pay. The willingness to pay to reduce the mortality risk from suicide may be lower than that to reduce other mortality risks such as traffic accidents.

  15. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON PRE-PAY MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Madalina MEGHISAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to identify the preferences of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services young users from Romania. Approach/ methodology: The analysis of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services was made using statistical functions: descriptive statistics, t test, correlation and factor analysis. Results: According to the analysis made, we could underline the habits of usage from the part of pre-pay mobile telecommunications services consumers. Originality: The paper drew an objective analysis on the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services from the perspective of young consumers.

  16. The Pays de Gex celebrates science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From 18 to 23 October, the Fête de la Science will be celebrated at various venues in the Pays de Gex and at CERN.   Physiscope will perform awe-inspiring demonstrations in the Globe. The Physiscope team will give demonstrations for schools and the general public in the Globe, performing awe-inspiring experiments to answer questions like "Can you drive a nail in with a banana?" or "Is it possible to survive a 100,000 volt shock?" The Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains will host a Café des Sciences and performances by the children of the Lycée International in Ferney-Voltaire. The Physiscope is an educational venture of the Physics section of the University of Geneva and the research programme MaNEP. The programme of the Fête de la Science can be consulted here.      

  17. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...... decisions and optimal prices across individuals. When a good is sold at a fixed price higher than a threshold value, a price that the individual thinks is fair, the adoption of PWYW increases his utility and hence results in a weakly higher purchase rate. When a good is sold at a fixed price lower than...... this threshold, however, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, in line with previously unexplained evidence from field experiments. Moreover, an increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer's utility and may further lower the purchase rate...

  18. Paying you back or paying me forward: understanding rewarded and unrewarded organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, M Audrey; Meglino, Bruce M; Lester, Scott W; Jeong, Sophia S

    2010-03-01

    The definition of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has evolved from one in which the behavior is unrewarded to one in which rewards play a significant role. As a result, little is known about mechanisms that sustain unrewarded OCB. We used the theory of other orientation to examine 2 mechanisms based on the norm of reciprocity: the obligation to reciprocate the benefits already received from another ("paying you back") and the expected reciprocity that one's actions will stimulate future benefits from another ("paying me forward"). We propose that these mechanisms are more or less influential depending on one's motivational orientation. In 3 experiments using both trait and state indicators of other orientation, we found that the prosocial behavior of individuals higher in other orientation was more strongly influenced by the obligation to reciprocate and less affected by the expectation of reciprocity.

  19. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353... upon promotion. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, DHS... basic pay after promotion may not be less than the minimum rate of the higher band. (b) DHS will...

  20. 29 CFR 778.409 - Provision for overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Exceptions From the Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and...

  1. 5 CFR 630.204 - Fractional pay periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fractional pay periods. 630.204 Section 630.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.204 Fractional pay periods...

  2. 5 CFR 630.203 - Pay periods other than biweekly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay periods other than biweekly. 630.203 Section 630.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.203 Pay periods other...

  3. Be vigilant, this government is coming after your pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Mike

    2016-02-10

    When chancellor George Osborne accepted what might have been a couple of luncheon vouchers from Google in payment of ten years' unpaid UK tax, the Department of Health submitted its evidence to the Pay Review Body in favour of extending 'plain time working' and introducing performance-related incremental pay progression.

  4. Volume 10 No. 11 November 2010 4364 WILLINGNESS TO PAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... harmful influences their willingness to pay a premium price for ... certified organic systems (indigenous models that follow organic principles by intent ... On the demand side, there is limited information on the response to organic products .... organic products, buying preferences and willingness to pay ...

  5. 75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... 3206-AL96 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... issuing final regulations on the locality pay program for General Schedule employees. Originally...

  6. 50 CFR 510.9 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 510.9 Section 510... ACT § 510.9 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Compensation of members and staff of, and consultants to the... accordance with guidelines established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget pursuant...

  7. 22 CFR 214.42 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 214.42 Section 214.42... Advisory Committees § 214.42 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) A.I.D. follows OMB/CSC guidelines in section 11 of... experts, their compensation shall be fixed in accordance with CSC guidelines and regulations, and...

  8. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to...

  9. 77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ..., Deputy Associate Director for Pay and Leave, Office of Personnel Management, Room 7H31, 1900 E Street NW...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 531 RIN 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  10. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…

  11. 76 FR 21221 - National Equal Pay Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... economic equality for all, regardless of gender. When the Equal Pay Act was signed into law in 1963, women... exist for working women, who still earn less on average than working men. Each year, National Equal Pay... harder to close the gaps that still exist. At a time when families across this country are struggling...

  12. Performance-Based Pay in the Federal Government. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Performance-Based Pay in the Federal Government"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Steve Nelson discusses the evolution of employee pay systems in the federal government, from the inception of the General Schedule to continuing interest in creating more…

  13. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  14. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pay and compensation. 24.6 Section 24.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.6 Pay and compensation. The SBRS is an ungraded system, with a single, flexible...

  15. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to study the effect of the payment method on spending. We find that the willingness to pay is higher when subjects pay with debit cards compared to cash. The result is robust to controlling for cash-on-hand constraints, spending type, price familiarity and co...

  16. 5 CFR 536.304 - Determining an employee's pay retention entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining an employee's pay retention... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.304 Determining an employee's pay retention entitlement. (a) General. (1) When an employee becomes entitled to pay retention under § 536.301 or 536.302 or...

  17. LHCb: full-steam strategy pays off

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    LHCb looks at LHC proton collisions from a special angle. The experiment studies rare decays of the B particle to look into the physical processes that might hide new physics. Designed to operate at moderate luminosity, LHCb has been more daring for the last year and is running at conditions tougher than the nominal. The new strategy is paying off, as important physics results have just started to emerge…   Event display presented at the EPS-HEP 2011 conference showing a B0s meson decaying into a μ+ and μ- pair.  The LHCb detector was originally designed to run at moderate luminosity and low interaction pile-up. In other words, unlike the CMS and ATLAS experiments, the whole LHCb experimental set-up and data-taking infrastructure was designed to process just one proton interaction for each bunch crossing. For the last year, however, this has all been old news. A change in LHCb strategy was made possible when it became clear that the LHC was going to first i...

  18. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas

    2012-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the WTP. Two surveys were carried out in Denmark; one large-scale Internet based survey and one survey at a workplace that introduced CTA. The results from the large-scale survey suggest that this concept attracts relevant target groups; groups of individuals with a less healthy diet, low physical activity and a high body mass index. For males and individuals with low education, who also constitute relevant target groups, the results suggest no significant difference in WTP between males and females, whereas low educated individuals have a significantly lower WTP than highly educated individuals. However, the workplace study, carried out at a hospital, found that females have a significantly higher WTP for CTA compared with males. In conclusion, the concept appears to attract relevant target groups, although for a given price a smaller fraction of low educated individuals compared to high educated individuals would be willing to buy CTA.

  19. “All the others inside me” : les enjeux ambigus de la citation dans “The Book of Memory” (The Invention of Solitude de Paul Auster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie VALLAS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1982 Paul Auster, jusqu’alors poète, essayiste et traducteur connu seulement d’un petit cercle de spécialistes, fait paraître un volume étrange, The Invention of Solitude, qui marque son abandon (définitif jusqu’à ce jour de la poésie. Après une première partie biographique sur son père qui vient de mourir (dont il ne sera pas question ici, Auster se replie sur lui-même dans un second volet, “The Book of Memory”. La mort du père, on le comprend très tôt dans The Invention of Solitude, a ...

  20. Reflections on the status of the contemporary artist in the struggle against the official discourses: Paul Auster, literature and history doi:10.5007/1807-1384.2010v7n2p210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Reichert Coelho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a reading of The New York Trilogy (1987, Leviathan (1992 and The Brooklyn Follies (2005, by Paul Auster, through the articulation between subjectivities and discourses, notably literature and history. The effort was guided by the observation of the criticism constructed by the writer in relation to the United States' national myth, in the perspective of a movement that resounds other writers' criticism, overall the north-American ones, among which Auster presents himself as a genealogical heir. In digging the discursive and historical viscera on the "origin" of the American nation, the writer presents some reflections on the national identity issue, mainly in relation to the symbols and to the way the characters deal with the official representations.

  1. Towards Smarter Urban Mobility: Willingness to Pay for an Advanced Traveller Information System in Lyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pronello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced traveller information systems (ATIS are meant to assist people in their daily travel decisions as well as to prompt a shift from cars to alternative and more environmentally-friendly transport strategies. Not many comprehensive studies have been undertaken so far in order to assess the willingness to pay (WTP for ATIS, despite a development of these tools during the last two decades. This paper aims at analysing the WTP for Optymod’Lyon, a smartphone application which plans your journey travels using real-time information about all available transport modes. To this end, a quali-quantitative approach was adopted, administering a questionnaire to participants and organising focus groups before and after the test of the application. A sample of 42 people living in the metropolitan area of Lyon was involved. Results showed four clusters of participants: idealists, pragmatics, the ambiguous and opportunists. A strong majority of idealists and pragmatics were unwilling to pay, mainly for economic reasons and the availability on the market of free information. They record a lower share of trips to work and a higher share for leisure, shopping and study purposes. Those willing to pay (of which 37.8% were opportunists report a low monthly charge level (0.2–3 €/month and are mainly highly-educated car users, travelling for work.

  2. Investing in Information Technology Pays Big Dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    1999-01-01

    A college or university's investment in information technology (IT) makes possible more effective teaching methods using both traditional and IT-based techniques, as well as making both student learning and faculty use of time more productive. A possible plan for making the transition from traditional to mixed teaching methods is presented. (MSE)

  3. Non-performance of the Severance Pay Program in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vodopivec

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining information from the Firm Survey of Labor Costs with the information about claims filed with the Guarantee Fund by workers whose employers defaulted on their severance pay obligations, the paper analyzes the so-called non-performance problem of severance pay – the fact that coverage, and thus legal entitlement, does not guarantee the actual receipt of the benefit – as experienced in Slovenia in 2000. The findings are threefold: (i one-third of total obligations incurred by firms failed to be honored and only a small portion of defaulted severance pay claims was reimbursed by the Guarantee Fund; (ii while both men and women seem to be equally affected, workers older than 40 were disproportionally represented among those whose severance pay claims failed to be honored; and, (iii among firms that incurred severance pay liabilities, larger and more productive firms were more likely to observe their fiduciary obligations and pay them out. These findings corroborate the weaknesses of severance pay as an income protection program, pointing to the large scale of the non-performance problem and the inequities created by it.

  4. Who Pays for Dates? Following Versus Challenging Gender Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lever

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chivalry dictates that on a “date,” the man pays, whereas egalitarian ideals suggest that gender should not determine who pays. We examined the extent to which people embrace or reject these competing notions. Unmarried heterosexual participants (N = 17,607 reported their behaviors and attitudes regarding who does and who should pay for dates on a survey posted on NBCNews.com. Although most men (74% and women (83% report that both members of the couple contribute to dating expenses after dating for 6 months, most men (84% and women (58% reported that men still pay more expenses. Many women (39% wished men would reject their offers to pay and 44% of women were bothered when men expected women to help pay. Many women, however, were bothered when men won’t accept their money (40%. Nearly two thirds of men (64% believed that women should contribute and nearly half of men (44% said they would stop dating a woman who never pays. Nevertheless, the majority of men said they feel guilty when accepting women’s money (76%. These data illustrate how many people are resisting or conforming to traditional gender norms in one telling aspect of dating that historically was related to the male’s displaying benevolent sexism, dominance, and ability to fulfill breadwinner role during courtship.

  5. THE LOCALIZED HERO AND ESCAPE FROM FREEDOM IN THE MUSIC OF CHANCE BY PAUL AUSTER / PAUL AUSTER’IN THE MUSIC OF CHANCE ADLI ROMANINDA SINIRLANDIRILMIŞ KAHRAMAN VE ÖZGÜRLÜKTEN KAÇIŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk KALAY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paul Auster is a prominent American novelist, critic and poet: he was a Pen/Faulkner Award for Fiction finalist for his novel, The Music of Chance. This book’s protagonist, Jim Nashe, is an ex-fireman who has left his job and family to drive around the country and to earn money while running out of money. He and his friend named Pozzi found wounded on the motorway by him decide to gamble to make money easily: yet they are trapped in a house and forced to make a “wailing” wall because of their gambling debts for their losing. On the other hand, because Jim was a vagabond before his enslavement, Auster invokes Thomas Nashe’s picaresque novel, The Unfortunate Traveller. Critics allegorically address Jim’s home confinement from both spiritual and physical perspectives. Jim’s ethnic and cultural foundations inform his behaviors. An ethnic Jew, Auster illustrates the suffering of Holocaust survivors. Jim Nashe’s experiences are similar to those of Jews in the Holocaust or the Pogroms. He lives in a space that limits his freedom: he prefers death to living this way. The same characteristics of protagonist/writer offer a sophisticated plot for readers. Because the reader must know both the writer’s life and novel’s witty nuance. In this study, we examine Jim’s incarceration and the reasons for it.

  6. Paying surgeons less has cost more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Joseph; Derman, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 mandated reductions in physician reimbursement. This reduction in payments could be envisioned to limit expenditures on 2 counts: first, individual fees would be lower, producing inherent savings. Furthermore, reducing fees should depress the incentive to work, thereby generating additional savings from reduced output. A rival point of view holds that lower fees might paradoxically lead to greater spending because surgeons compensate for per-case reductions by performing more cases. If this income-targeting hypothesis is correct, lower per-case fees leads to increased volume. Increased work output has particularly sizable economic effects in fields like orthopedic surgery because the total cost of orthopedic interventions is usually many times larger than the physician's fee (largely owing to the cost of implants). As such, increases in work volume more than negate the potential savings from lower surgeon's fees.This phenomenon was studied in the context of total knee arthroplasty. In the decade spanning 1996 to 2005, inflation-adjusted physician reimbursement decreased by approximately 5% per year, leading to a cumulative drop in reimbursement from $2847 to $1685. Nonetheless, because the number of procedures performed increased from 253,841 to 498,169 and because payments to hospitals far exceeded payments to surgeons, total expenditures for total knee arthroplasty increased dramatically: more than $7.1 billion additional was spent on hospital payments. Continuing to pay surgeons less is apt to continue to cost more. Counter to intuition, the best strategy for controlling overall spending might be higher, not lower, surgical fees.

  7. The mediating effect of distributive justice in the relationship between pay design and job satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azman Ismail; Dayang Kartini Abang Ibrahim; Antonia Girardi

    2009-01-01

    ...., pay structure and pay level) significantly correlated with job satisfaction. This result confirms that distributive justice plays an important role as a mediating variable in the pay design models of the organizational sector sample...

  8. Performance-related Pay and Productivity: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, Japanese firms are known for the use of a pay system which rewards their workers for long-term skill development through on-the-job training within the firm. Changing its traditional reward system to performance-related pay (PRP) which ties pay to shorter-term performance is one of the most often-discussed topics concerning Japan's human resource management (HRM) policies/practices in the last two decades or so. Proponents of the change urge Japanese firms to abandon their trad...

  9. Meat liking, animal welfare and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three products (beef, lamb and chicken were used to assess the effect of information about animal welfare on meat liking. Each experiment was planned in three tests. In the first test the consumers were offered the product, and asked to taste it and rate their liking receiving no information (perceived liking. In the second test the subjects received the information concerning farming conditions and their effects on animal welfare. They were asked to read the information and give their liking expectation for that product (expected liking. In the third test consumers were given the product along with the information sheet. They were instructed to read the information before tasting the sample and express their liking score (actual liking. Consumers rated the products on a nine-point hedonic scale. Only for beef, a second-price sealed-bid auction was used to assess consumer willingness to pay (WTP according to the level of welfare of the animals used in the production process. Results from the three experiments showed that expectations induced by the information on animal welfare affected quality perception. Thus, if expectations were negatively disconfirmed (the product was worse than expected, the assimilation model was generally applicable, which means that hedonic ratings moved towards the expectations when external information on animal welfare was given compared to tasting without information. In addition, consumers showed a WTP for beef paired with information higher than its actual commercial value (P<0.001. In conclusion, information about animal welfare can be a major determinant of animal-based food liking and consumer WTP.

  10. Assess overall value of performance-related pay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of human resource management is that people should work as efficiently as possible in the organization. The notorious payment by the result system which does not work very well lasted for many years. So, the organization attempts to achieve their goals by using various systems of payment to encourage and reward them. Performance related pay, as one of reward systems, has a range of advantages to motivate individuals to work harder or more productively. Nevertheless, there is also evidence of weakness and failures, which have some of the unacceptable and undesirable side effects. Sometimes the problem of performance related pay cannot produce the hoped benefits. This essay will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of performance-related pay schemes. Then, it will assess the overall value of performance-related pay systems.

  11. Heart Disease: A Price Humans Pay for Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166826.html Heart Disease: A Price Humans Pay for Fertility? Study finds ... 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain genes linked to heart disease may also improve your chances of having children, ...

  12. Willingness to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A P; Reis, A; Anjos, J

    2017-03-01

    The need to improve the sustainability of public health expenditure, in a climate of growing pressure on national budgets, inevitably leads to a discussion about resource rationing, and the extent of society's responsibility for those expenditures. To contribute to this discussion empirically, this study evaluated the willingness of Portuguese respondents to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures through out-of-pocket payments. A questionnaire addressed to the general public was developed, with 296 respondents. The survey was divided into three sections: (i) sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents; (ii) health-related habits; and (iii) willingness to pay other individuals' healthcare expenditures and, if so, how much. Logit and ordered logit models were applied. Respondents were divided fairly even between those who were willing to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures and those who were not. Respondents with health insurance contracts were more willing to contribute, and the contribution value was higher. Having a degree-level education was associated with reduced willingness to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures, and reduced probability of paying a larger amount, which may be associated with holding individuals accountable for their choices. Considering self-reported risky behaviours, the respondents who consumed alcohol were more likely to be willing to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures, and to a greater extent, whereas smokers were less likely to pay larger amounts. These effects suggest that respondents with different unhealthy behaviours are not equally altruistic. These findings highlight the need to combine health policy and social beliefs. The respondents seem to be interested to discuss healthcare funding, given that they agreed to reveal their willingness to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures. Moreover, respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and health

  13. DETERMINANTS OF STUDENTS' WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR VIOLENT CRIME REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Aurora A.C.; MAFALDA SOEIRO

    2013-01-01

    We apply the contingent valuation method to estimate how much a specific group of society, which is relatively prone to falling victim to crime, is willing to pay to reduce the likelihood of being the victim of violent crime. Based on responses from 1122 students, we found that younger and female students revealed that they are more inclined to pay so as to avoid violent crime. Students' field of study, cautious behavior and a strong opinion about policies and payment vehicles with potential ...

  14. Evaluation Indicator System of Marketing Planning Ability Based on ANP

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jin

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of “Marketing planning” curriculum in higher vocational colleges should pay attention to planning ability of students which requires a set of scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability, however, there is less in-depth study in this field, especially the quantitative research. Scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability should divide the elements of marketing planning ability reasonably, and should give them reasonable weight. C...

  15. An Analysis of Merit Pay Reforms in Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brulle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.

  16. Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Kinjo, Takuji; Nakawake, Yo; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-20

    Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.

  17. Persuasive Communication and Visitors Willingness to Pay Park User Fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vujko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that persuasive messages were able to affect on the visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP park user fees (PUF. The primary aim of this study is to measure visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP such fees in Fruška Gora National Park, where no such measurement has previously been undertaken. By setting the main hypothesis that tourists need adequate motivation to pay PUF, the paper sought to answer on two very important questions with the setup of several lower-level hypotheses: are the visitors themselves actually willing to pay PUF? and what are the factors that influence visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP? Using persuasive messages was observed willingness to pay the PUF among 100% of participants. The method survey was conducted on three Park picnic areas, on a random sample of 253 participants. The data were processed with the SPSS program (version 17.0. To determine the frequency of specific deviations chi-square test is used.

  18. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Information on Computing Certain Common Deductions From Back Pay Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basic pay portion of gross back pay before adding interest or applying any offset or deduction. (b) Life insurance premiums Compute the deduction based on the basic pay portion of gross back pay before...

  19. Searching for Determinants of Pay or Not to Pay Cash Dividend in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triasesiarta Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} A dividend decision of a firm is an outcome of various considerations. These considerations differ across time and industry. Based on asymetric information – agency theory thougtht, this study re-examined various variables that have a bearing on the dividend decision of a firm. In addition to examining the impact of corporate fundamentals on  dividend policy, the study also analyzed the effect of expropriation trigger variables (family ownership, cash funds, the level of diversification and Related Party Transaction/RPT on a dividend policy. The results of panel logistic regression indicated that Cash Funds, RPT, Profitability, Size, Growth, Debt and Macroecomics variables are the determinants of the dividend policy for Indonesian listed public companies, observed during 2002 to 2010.   Keywords: dividend policy-pay and not pay cash dividend, expropriation, asymmetry information, agency theory,  family ownership, cash funds, level of diversification, related party transaction, panel data analysis.

  20. The Technical Assistance Program: A Program Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    all de- Federal retirement system. velopments which affect rates, coverage, and enroll- (2) Medicare tax. All wages paid after December ment under the...contributions. If a Federal 𔃼) To determine the appropriae minimun rate -)f agency plans to recommend an award for a State or pay, the assignment

  1. Patient mobility in the context of austerity and an enlarged EU: The European Court of Justice's ruling in the Petru Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischhut, Markus; Levaggi, Rosella

    2015-10-01

    Since 1998, the European Court of Justice (EUCJ) has established a set of principles concerning patient mobility across Member States. At present, these principles are challenged against a new background, i.e., an enlarged EU and austerity-driven measures in the field of healthcare. This is even more relevant in view of the significant differences between countries and between services on healthcare access. In the Petru case, a Romanian woman sought healthcare in Germany due to an alleged lack of basic infrastructure in her local Romanian hospital. A crucial question arises in this context of whether the patient's interests (i.e., right to cross-border healthcare) or the Member State's interests (i.e., financial stability of the healthcare system) prevail. We analyse this case and its implications for future patient mobility. From the point of view of patients, the EUCJ's decision implies that also a lack of medication and basic medical supplies can be claimed as "undue delay", however for Member States it is sufficient to provide quality treatments in at least one hospital. Although the Court has provided a solution for the Petru case, we argue that major challenges remain, such as the definition of the international state-of-the-art or other limitations to reductions of the health basket.

  2. Analysing Individual Income Tax Planning in Colleges and Universities---Based on the Normal Wage Income and Annual Salary of One-time Bonus Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hua

    2013-01-01

    Paying personal income tax is related to the vital interests of each faculty. In order to improve the faculty’s enthusiasm for work, it's very essential to make a plan for paying personal income tax.Based on the method of paying personal income tax, this essay gives a strategic analysis of tax planning with a combination of the university faculty’s actual salary situation.

  3. Performance-Related Pay and the Teaching Profession: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Rosemary; Wragg, Ted; Haynes, Gill; Wragg, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on performance-based pay in England and Wales, examining: its effects on teacher behavior; its benefits and disadvantages; and performance-based pay in the United States, and noting studies of the conditions under which performance-based pay succeeds. The paper concludes that performance-based pay works best in situations that…

  4. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....7701(l)-3 Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope. This... corporation has fast-pay stock outstanding for any part of its taxable year. (2) Fast-pay stock—(i)...

  5. Are Tourists Really Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Destinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of pro-sustainable behavior and its true economic implications is an important subject for tourism destination marketers and policymakers, especially given that limited research has focused on the economic implications of tourist preferences for more sustainable destinations. Following the identification of three different demand segments using the concept of “sustainable intelligence” (level of commitment, attitude, knowledge and/or behavior with regard to sustainability, this study hypothesizes that the tourist segment with high level of “sustainable intelligence” (called “pro-sustainable tourist” is willing to pay more to visit a more sustainable destination. The main aim of this paper is to use the logistic regression model to estimate the premium price that each segment is willing to pay to visit a sustainable destination. This paper reports the result of a willingness to pay study using data from 1118 respondents visiting the Western Costa del Sol (Andalusia, Spain, a mature sun-and-sand destination that is currently facing several developmental challenges supposedly associated with sustainability. The results obtained from this research study indicate that the tourist segment with high levels of “sustainable intelligence” is willing to pay more to visit a more sustainable tourism destination. However, there is little willingness to pay if the destination’s commitment to sustainability increases the price of the tourism product (26.6% of respondents.

  6. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  7. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  8. Coping with size: China's efforts pay off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    With a population of 1.2 billion people, China is the world's most populous country. With so many people and more than 24 million births per year, China has difficulty ensuring that all of its children have been immunized. Most difficult is keeping track of an increasingly mobile population in the current move toward a market economy. Two immunization targets, set by the Chinese government and supported by the World Health Organization and UNICEF, have been reached. By 1988, immunization programs launched in the 1980s had vaccinated at least 85% of infants under 1 year old in all provinces and regions against tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and measles. By 1990, the same coverage level had been achieved in all of China's urban districts and rural counties, and China is now well on its way to achieving 85% coverage in all townships by the end of 1995. China's coverage against individual diseases is also impressive. The incidence of targeted vaccine-preventable diseases has plummeted, while life expectancy at birth has risen from approximately 64 years in the 1970s to 69 years in 1992 for both sexes combined. Despite reducing its estimated neonatal tetanus (NT) death rate from around 55 deaths/1000 births in 1954 to 4/1000 in 1980, an estimated 98,000 infants still die annually in China due to NT. Education programs and two 1-day immunization campaigns against NT are planned for the southern province of Guizhou.

  9. The Role of Special and Incentive Pays in Retaining Military Mental Health Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    assistants, and social workers. Our chief sources are the 2009 tables for basic pay, allowances, and S&I pays. The DRM also requires reserve pay, and...social work- ers. A military career in nursing typically requires a registered nurse certification, usually obtained after a bachelor’s degree in nursing ... Basic RMC Total— nurse Total—other Active Component Earnings of Mental Health Professionals 29 We also calculated basic pay, RMC, and total pay

  10. Strategic Pay Reform: A Student Outcomes-Based Evaluation of Denver's ProComp Teacher Pay Initiative. CEDR Working Paper No. 2011-3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Walch, Joe

    2011-01-01

    There is significant and growing interest in teacher pay reform as a number of states and localities have begun experimenting with departures from the single salary schedule--a pay system employed in most school districts, which links teacher pay solely to degree and experience level (Chait, 2007; Goldhaber, 2009; Podgursky and Springer, 2007).…

  11. Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert F; Ma, Ada H Y; Scott, Anthony; Bell, David; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This novel application of spatial wage theory to health service labour markets analyses the competitiveness of nurse's pay and how this differs between local labour markets in Britain. A switching regression model is estimated to derive standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) for nurses and their comparators. An SSWD gap is constructed and its relationship to vacancies estimated. A reduction in the gap in a local area is shown to result in an increase in the long-term vacancy rate for National Health Service (NHS) nurses. The competitiveness of nursing pay is shown to have a strong effect on the ability of the NHS to attract and retain nurses.

  12. Pay Inequality in Cuba: the Special Period and After

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of pay inequality in Cuba from the early 1990s through 2004, during what was known as the “Special Period in Times of Peace” and after. We measure pay inequality across sectors and regions, using the between-groups component of Theil’s T statistic, and we map the changing components of that statistic in order to provide a compact summary of structural change in Cuba. This method helps us to observe the transition of the Cuban economy from one based fundamenta...

  13. Measuring the Willingness to Pay to Avoid Guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e. consistent with the choice...... an experiment of proposal and response conducted with a large and representative sample of the Dutch population. Our range of estimates suggests that responders are willing to pay between 0.40 and 0.80 Euro to avoid letting down proposers by 1 Euro. Furthermore, we find that WTP estimated using stated beliefs...

  14. Measuring the willingness to pay to avoid guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e., consistent with the choice...... an experiment of proposal and response conducted with a large and representative sample of the Dutch population. Our range of estimates suggests that responders are willing to pay between ¤0.40 and ¤0.80 to avoid letting down proposers by ¤1. Furthermore, we find that WTP estimated using stated beliefs...

  15. 48 CFR 52.219-16 - Liquidated Damages-Subcontracting Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause in this contract entitled “Small Business Subcontracting Plan,” or willful or intentional action... contract entitled “Small Business Subcontracting Plan,” the Contractor shall pay the Government liquidated... following clause: Liquidated Damages—Subcontracting Plan (JAN 1999) (a) Failure to make a good faith...

  16. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in “Austerity Britain”: A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rafighi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers. Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  17. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  18. Can Benford’s Law explain CEO pay?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, Shibashish

    2017-01-01

    Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Issue: This study applies the statistical properties of Benford’s Law to CEO pay. Benford’s ‘Law’ states that in an unbiased dataset, the first digit values are usually unequally allocated when considering the logical expectations of equal distribution. In this st

  19. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the redu...

  20. 5 CFR 9901.354 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9901.354... promotion. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, the employee.... The decision to grant a promotion increase exceeding 12 percent must be reviewed and approved by...

  1. Pay for Percentile. NBER Working Paper No. 17194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlevy, Gadi; Neal, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We analyze an incentive pay scheme for educators that links educator compensation to the ranks of their students within appropriately defined comparison sets, and we show that under certain conditions this scheme induces teachers to allocate socially optimal levels of effort to all students. Moreover, because this scheme employs only ordinal…

  2. Bridging the Wage Gap: Pay Equity and Job Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the growing gap between the wages of women and men and reviews arguments opposing pay equity. Cites occupational segregation and sex-based wage discrimination as causes for the wage gap, and considers some remedies that have proven to be effective: negotiation, collective bargaining, litigation, and job evaluation studies. (KH)

  3. 78 FR 21811 - National Equal Pay Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... circumstances beyond their control. Women--who make up nearly half of our Nation's workforce--face a pay gap... the new year women have to work just to make what men did in the previous one. Wage inequality... make ends meet, that gap can also mean the difference between falling behind and getting ahead....

  4. 77 FR 23595 - National Equal Pay Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... economy and sustain our middle class. For millions of families across our country, women's wages mean food... percent of what their male counterparts did. The pay gap was even greater for African American and Latina... women must work to match what men earned in the previous year, reminding us that we must keep...

  5. Ongoing pay cap is nothing short of a national scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The cost of living rose by 2.5% during 2016, as inflation climbed to its highest level since June 2014. Yet the vast majority of nurses received pay rises of only 1% and - as we all know - 1% of not much works out to very little indeed.

  6. When Unified Teacher Pay Scales Meet Differential Alternative Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent to which unified teacher pay scales and differential alternatives produce opportunity costs that are asymmetric in math and verbal skills. Data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1997 and 2003 follow-ups are used to estimate a fully parametric, selection-corrected wage equation for nonteachers, which is then used to…

  7. The Equal Pay Act: The First 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Suzanne M.; Hodge, John W.; Mishra, Jitendra M.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis by decade of the effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 shows that women's earnings relative to men's increased by 10 cents from 1960-1990. Black and Hispanic women's earnings lagged further behind. More education and experience did not help women narrow the gap. (SK)

  8. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  9. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to test whether the willingness to pay is higher for debit cards compared to cash for three consumer products. Our findings support this conjecture also after controlling for cash availability, spending type, price familiarity and consumption habits of the pr...

  10. Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four w

  11. Weight-Loss Surgery Pays Off for Severely Obese Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161700.html Weight-Loss Surgery Pays Off for Severely Obese Teens Boosts ... 26, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgeries can help severely obese teens shed pounds. ...

  12. Equal Pay Act: Wage Differentials for Time of Day Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Richard Alan

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court held in Corning Glass Works cases involving male only employees for night shifts that the time of day worked could constitute a factor other than sex whereby the wage differential might qualify as an exception under the Equal Pay Act. Shift differentials could be legal if proven to be nondiscriminatory. (LBH)

  13. 75 FR 21155 - National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    .... This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, or... importance of empowering women extends beyond our borders, my Administration created the first Office for... give our daughters and granddaughters the gift of true equality. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA...

  14. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  15. A novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Glinsky, Michael E; Unaldi, Muhlis; Nagassar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty. It is demonstrated on the Cassra/Iris Field. The theory for the stochastic wavelet derivation (which estimates the seismic noise level along with the wavelet, time-to-depth mapping, and their uncertainties), the stochastic sparse spike inversion, and the net pay estimation (using secant areas) along with its uncertainty; will be outlined. This includes benchmarking of this methodology on a synthetic model. A critical part of this process is the calibration of the secant areas. This is done in a two step process. First, a preliminary calibration is done with the stochastic reflection response modeling using rock physics relationships derived from the well logs. Second, a refinement is made to the calibration to account for the encountered net pay at the wells. Finally, a variogram structure is estimated from the extracted secant area map, then used to build in the lateral correlation to the ensemble of net pay maps while matc...

  16. Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    a comparative study of the water policies of Denmark, France, Germany and the Netherlands, he shows how, in contrast to administrative regulation, green taxes have made pollution prevention pay and promoted the "ecological modernization" of industry. He goes on, however, to challenge the prevailing orthodoxy...

  17. Willingness to pay as a measure of health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, M V; Mauskopf, J A; Wood, L L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for evaluating new healthcare interventions, present the theoretical basis for the use of willingness to pay as a method for valuing benefits in a CBA and describe how to obtain willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures of health benefits and how to use these values in a CBA. We review selected economic studies on consumer demand and consumer surplus and studies presenting WTP estimates for healthcare interventions. The theoretical foundations of willingness to pay as a measure of commodity value are rooted in consumer demand theory. The area under the fixed income consumer demand curve represents the consumer's maximum willingness to pay for the commodity. We identify 3 types of potential benefits from a new healthcare intervention, namely patient benefits, option value and altruistic value, and suggest WTP questions for valuing different combinations of these benefits. We demonstrate how responses to these questions can be adjusted for income effects and incorporated into economic evaluations. We suggest that the lack of popularity of CBAs in the health area is related to the perceived difficulty in valuing health benefits as well as concern over how CBA incorporates the distribution of income. We show that health benefits can be valued using simple survey techniques and that these values can be adjusted to any desired income distribution.

  18. Paying the Professoriate: A Global Comparison of Compensation and Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip, Ed.; Reisberg, Liz, Ed.; Yudkevich, Maria, Ed.; Androushchak, Gregory, Ed.; Pacheco, Ivan, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How are professors paid? Can the "best and brightest" be attracted to the academic profession? With universities facing international competition, which countries compensate their academics best, and which ones lag behind? "Paying the Professoriate" examines these questions and provides key insights and recommendations into the current state of…

  19. Pay-as-you-go data integration using functional dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Akbarinia, R.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Setting up a full data integration system for many application contexts, e.g. web and scientific data management, requires significant human effort which prevents it from being really scalable. In this paper, we propose IFD (Integration based on Functional Dependencies), a pay-as-you-go data integra

  20. 26 CFR 31.6151-1 - Time for paying tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time for paying tax. 31.6151-1 Section 31.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT...

  1. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  2. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such minimum... illustrated as follows: An employment agreement provides a minimum of 3 hours' pay at time and one-half for... Friday, inclusive, in a workweek beginning on Monday, and are paid overtime compensation at time and...

  3. The effect of performance related pay in employment services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Johansen, Ann; Holm, Anders; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper investigates the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) in Danish local employment administration on unemployed social clients’ employment outcomes. PRP implies here that employees in the employment administration are rewarded each time a social client gets a job. There are different...

  4. 75 FR 19878 - Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... final rule was published October 23, 2009, with an effective date of October 21, 2009 (74 FR 54751... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 279 Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation AGENCY: Office of the... COMPENSATION Sec. 279.1 Purpose. 279.2 Eligibility. 279.3 Payment. 279.4 Claims process. 279.5...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901.364 Section 9901.364 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND... particular language skills; (3) The difficulty of recruiting or retaining employees with the same...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.352 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9901.352 Section 9901.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND...., availability of candidates and labor market rates); (2) Specialized skills, knowledge, and/or education...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT..., skills, and abilities (KSAs)/competencies. DHS may set standard timeframes for progression through an...

  8. On Paying Attention: Flagpoles, Mindfulness, and Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Keith

    2008-01-01

    To pay attention--to observe, to see the richness and detail that is right before everyone--is the essence of mindfulness. It is also, the author argues, the essence of good writing--the kind of writing for which there is a long American tradition of writers such as Emerson, Thoreau, E. B. White, Barry Lopez, Annie Dillard, Joan Didion, John…

  9. Effectively managing self-pay balances using KPIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfskill, Sandra J

    2007-04-01

    Key performance indicators can be used to effectively monitor and improve self-pay processes. Two keys to success in using KPIs to identify areas for improvement are: Begin with a limited number of KPIs. Commit to refining the measurements as you modify and improve your processes.

  10. Pay As You Drive verzekering. Gedragsverandering, belonen, straffen en informatievoorziening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Lewis Evans, Ben; de Waard, Dick; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    2014-01-01

    In normal, everyday driving, behaving safely in traffic usually remains unrewarded whereas consequences for unsafe behaviours are rarely negative and can actually often be positive. The strength of Pay-As-You-Drive insurance is its potential to correct this major issue with driving by rewarding safe

  11. Merit Pay for School Administrators: A Procedural Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, Bruce

    To help school districts develop a merit pay salary system for administrators, this monograph uses a question and answer approach organized around five components necessary for implementation. These are: (1) a decision-making process that encourages input from the whole staff; (2) a salary schedule that reflects in financial terms the requirements…

  12. Teacher Professionalism and Team Performance Pay: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional behaviors when they worked in schools that awarded team performance pay. Teachers' archival responses from two questionnaires were analyzed using mixed methods data analysis techniques (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Most teachers had…

  13. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  14. 5 CFR 870.204 - Annual rates of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual rates of pay. 870.204 Section 870.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... for an employee on piecework rates is the total basic earnings for the previous calendar year,...

  15. The effect of performance related pay in employment services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Johansen, Ann; Holm, Anders; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper investigates the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) in Danish local employment administration on unemployed social clients’ employment outcomes. PRP implies here that employees in the employment administration are rewarded each time a social client gets a job. There are different...... productivity of the local employment administrations....

  16. Willingness To Pay for Social Health Insurance in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Mehrara, Mohsen; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Moeini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The substantial level of out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by the population causes policy makers to draw particular attention to the proposal of a social health insurance for uninsured members of the community. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable social health insurance. Method: The study sample included 300 household heads in all Iranian provinces. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the WTP. Result: The average WTP for social health insurance per person per month was 137 000 Rial (5.5 $US). Household heads with higher levels of education, income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. Conclusions: From a policy point of view, the WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. An important finding of this study is that although households’ Willingness To Pay is not more than the total insurance premium, households are willing to pay more than the premium they ought to pay for health insurance coverage. That is, total insurance premium is 150 000 Rials and households ought to pay approximately half of this sum. This can afford policy makers the ideal opportunity to provide good insurance coverage for medical services according to the need of society. PMID:25168979

  17. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  18. 全球经济紧缩形势下企业市场营销策略研究%A Research on Enterprise Marketing Strategies under the Situation of the Global Economic Austerity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of negative impacts on Chinese enterprises caused by economic austerity, de-ficiencies in enterprise marketing strategies are analyzed from the perspective of concept, means, applicability, etc. Many effective measures, such as adjusting the marketing concepts, boldly opening up new markets, lay-ing emphasis on brand awareness, and expanding the market share by adopting multi-channel distribution modes are proposed, which provides references for Chinese enterprises to cope with the global economic aus-terity so as to go through the difficulties.%在阐述经济紧缩给中国企业带来负面影响的基础上,从观念、手段以及适用性等多方面分析了当前企业营销策略中存在的不足,进而提出了调整营销观念、大胆开拓新市场、以客户价值为中心调整产品结构、提升品牌形象、采用多渠道销售模式扩大市场份额等一系列措施,以期为企业市场营销决策提供参考。

  19. 论奥斯特《密室中的旅行》的元小说叙事策略%Metafictional Strategies in Paul Auster's Travels in the Scriptorium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金云

    2012-01-01

    Paul Auster employs various metafictional strategies in his novel Travels in the Scriptorium, which includes: disclosing the writing process of novels and exposing their fictionality; parodying the traditional detective form and deconstructing its conventions; blurring the boundary between fiction and reality and exploring the world's fictionality. Through these strategies, Auster conveys his understanding of the postmodern novel and reality.%奥斯特在小说《密室中的旅行》中采用了多种元小说叙事策略:展示小说的构造过程,揭示其虚构性;戏仿传统侦探小说,颠覆其成规;模糊虚构与现实的界限,探讨现实世界的语言构成性。元小说策略的运用表达了奥斯特对后现代小说和世界的基本看法。

  20. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis......This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues...... of a Danish rural participatory planning project. The paper concludes that rural planning literature and analysis will benefits from paying attention to the three – in rural participatory planning projects – specific mechanisms of power ‘Institutionalising knowledge and competencies’; ‘Structuring...

  1. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues...... by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis...... of a Danish rural participatory planning project. The paper concludes that rural planning literature and analysis will benefits from paying attention to the three – in rural participatory planning projects – specific mechanisms of power ‘Institutionalising knowledge and competencies’; ‘Structuring...

  2. Do we pay our community preceptors? Results from a CERA clerkship directors' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David; Jerpbak, Christine M; Margo, Katherine L; Power, David V; Slatt, Lisa M; Tarn, Derjung M

    2014-03-01

    Family medicine clerkships depend heavily on community-based family physician preceptors to teach medical students. These preceptors have traditionally been unpaid, but in recent years some clerkships have started to pay preceptors. This study determines trends in the number and geographic region of programs that pay their community preceptors, identifies reasons programs pay or do not pay, and investigates perceived advantages and disadvantages of payment. We conducted a cross-sectional, electronic survey of 134 family medicine clerkship directors at allopathic US medical schools. The response rate was 62% (83/132 clerkship directors). Nineteen of these (23%) currently pay community preceptors, 11 of whom are located in either New England or the South Atlantic region. Sixty-three percent of programs who pay report that their community preceptors are also paid for teaching other learners, compared to 32% of those programs who do not pay. Paying respondents displayed more positive attitudes toward paying community preceptors, though a majority of non-paying respondents indicated they would pay if they had the financial resources. The majority of clerkships do not pay their community preceptors to teach medical students, but competition from other learners may drive more medical schools to consider payment to help with preceptor recruitment and retention. Medical schools located in regions where there is competition for community preceptors from other medical and non-medical schools may need to consider paying preceptors as part of recruitment and retention efforts.

  3. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Two common reasons why people end up in personal financial problems are either because they have not learned to manage a budget, or because they have unrealistic expectations of what they can afford to buy. To assess potential level for risk-seeking behavior in daily life, we created a novel test...... - The Household Planning Game (HPG) - modelled upon the well-known Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The basic foundations of the HPG were largely the same as the IGT, however illustrations of consumer goods were positioned at the top of the cards, and the participant's task was to select a card as if it was a natural...... on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...

  4. Paying health workers for performance in Battagram district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeed Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in using pay-for-performance mechanisms in low and middle-income countries in order to improve the performance of health care providers. However, at present there is a dearth of independent evaluations of such approaches which can guide understanding of their potential and risks in differing contexts. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a project managed by an international non-governmental organisation in one district of Pakistan. It aims to contribute to learning about the design and implementation of pay-for-performance systems and their impact on health worker motivation. Methods Quantitative analysis was conducted of health management information system (HMIS data, financial records, and project documents covering the period 2007-2010. Key informant interviews were carried out with stakeholders at all levels. At facility level, in-depth interviews were held, as were focus group discussions with staff and community members. Results The wider project in Battagram had contributed to rebuilding district health services at a cost of less than US$4.5 per capita and achieved growth in outputs. Staff, managers and clients were appreciative of the gains in availability and quality of services. However, the role that the performance-based incentive (PBI component played was less clear--PBI formed a relatively small component of pay, and did not increase in line with outputs. There was little evidence from interviews and data that the conditional element of the PBIs influenced behaviour. They were appreciated as a top-up to pay, but remained low in relative terms, and only slightly and indirectly related to individual performance. Moreover, they were implemented independently of the wider health system and presented a clear challenge for longer term integration and sustainability. Conclusions Challenges for performance-based pay approaches include the balance of rewarding individual

  5. 5 CFR 591.238 - How do agencies pay COLAs and post differentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Program Administration § 591.238 How do agencies pay COLAs and post differentials? (a) Agencies pay...

  6. Willingness to pay for community health insurance in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willingness to pay for community health insurance in a semi-urban ... Background: Community health insurance is now seen as a very viable and sustainable ... This study was conducted to assess the willingness of household heads' to pay ...

  7. Analysis of the Effects Special Pays Have on Retention in the Medical Service Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    and Medical Service Corps Professions Officers Special Pays. OPNAV Instruction 7220.17 (December 28, 2005). Special Pay for Medical Corps, Dental ...health and industrial hygiene officers. The specialties focused on in this study, the specialties that receive a special pay, are all located in the...level. 2. OPNAV Instruction 7220.17 The overarching instruction that establishes special pays for Medical Corps, Dental Corps, Medical Service Corps

  8. Can pay for performance improve the quality of primary care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, Martin; Olesen, Frede

    2016-01-01

    at højne kvaliteten af de udbudte sundhedsydelser. ”Pay for performance” er et af de forslag, der oftest bringes på banen. Det kan dog have utilsigtede konsekvenser og risici at anvende dette incitament inden for sundhedsvæsenet. Det kræver blandt andet større organisatoriske omlægninger, hvis det skal...... til nye former for behandling og pleje. Vi har brug for mere forskning på dette område, hvis vi på et oplyst grundlag skal beslutte, om og evt. hvordan vi bedst indfører elementer af ”pay for perfomance” for at forbedre de services, der udbydes i sundhedsvæsenet....

  9. Consumers’ willingness to pay for sustainable wine claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Remaud, Hervé; Chabin, Yann

    Purpose: The number of wineries and regions engaging in sustainable wine programs is increasing continuously. Sustainable, environmental friendly or organic wine production is now used for strategic profiling and positioning in the competition between old and new wine producing countries. While...... there a large variety of different sustainable programs exists and supply of sustainably produced wine is increasing, few is still known about the degree to which consumers actually value these wine characteristics. There is still limited knowledge about the potential market share and willingness to pay...... for wines with environmental or sustainable claims across international markets. Understanding the profile of those consumes, who show a positive willingness to pay for wine with environmental or sustainable claims would help the wine industry to better target and position their wines. Methodology: A total...

  10. Payment for ecosystem services - paying mussel producers for nitrogen mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hasler, Berit; Hansen, Line Block

    2015-01-01

    in Denmark has demonstrated that using mussels to remove nutrients from the coastal environment can be a cost-effective means of mitigation of excess load of nutrients compared to many agricultural measures. Many agricultural measures have a restricted capacity for additional reduction of nutrient load...... to the marine environment, and the costs of implementing these abatement measures for nutrient load reductions are increasing at the margin. The nutrient uptake by the mussels can be regarded an ecosystem service, that might be utilized, but which need motivation and incentives for the mussel producers...... as a transferable development right where farmers buy the right to continue current fertilizer practices by paying for N retention in another location (here in the water bodies). It is also possible to learn from the GHG policy where it is possible to pay for abatement elsewhere, where it’s more cost...

  11. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  12. Willingness to Pay in Caregivers of Patients Affected by Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltio, Claudiane Salles; Attux, Cecilia; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that often requires the affected individual to receive care from a caregiver. Willingness to Pay (WTP) technique allows a valuation of the health state preferences by assessing the impact of the disease and translating it into monetary terms. The objective was to determine the WTP of schizophrenic patients' caregivers on a hypothetical recovery scenario and correlate it to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, Knowledge of Disease, Quality of life and Burden of Disease. A convenience sample consecutively assessed 189 outpatients' caregivers from Schizophrenia Program of Federal University of Sao Paulo. A single caregiver was considered for each patient, taking into consideration their close relationship and their direct involvement in the treatment. Open WTP questionnaire for a hypothetical schizophrenia recovery scenario, KAST (Knowledge of Disease), SF-6D (Quality of life) and ZBI-22 (Burden of Disease) scales were applied. A monthly WTP mean value (SD) of US\\USD 63.63 (111.88) was found. The average value (SD) found was 12.96 (2.45) on KAST, 0.78 (0.08) on SF6D and 29.91 (16.10) on ZARIT. Income, education, social class, knowledge of disease and burden of caregiver were positively correlated to the WTP value. By linear regression model, income and education remained significant. Willingness to Pay (WTP) is a method that can be used to determine the strength of preference of patients and caregivers for a recovery in schizophrenia. The higher the income and education, the higher the willingness to pay. No clinical characteristics of patients had a statistically significant relation to the value the caregiver would pay. WTP is a potentially useful tool to determine values and health care preferences, and can be used for the development of mental health policies. Future research should be used to enhance WTP tool in mental health studies on the impact of diseases, including schizophrenia.

  13. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snider Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+ branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity, and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  14. Air Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System (AFIPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    3 Program Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule...service system. The system represents the AF commitment to modernize business practices and provide enhanced support for today’s service members and...their families . AFIPPS will align with DoD data standards for personnel, pay, and accounting, including the Common Human Resource Information

  15. Equal Pay for Unequal Work: Limiting Sabotage in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Debashis Pal; Arup Bose; David Sappington

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the value of equal pay policies in teams, even when team members have distinct abilities and make different contributions to team performance. A commitment to compensate all team members in identical fashion eliminates the incentive that each team member otherwise has to sabotage the activities of teammates in order to induce the team owner to implement a more favorable reward structure. The reduced sabotage benefits the team owner, and can secure Pareto gains under plausible c...

  16. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  17. Framing influences willingness to pay but not willingness to accept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Vosgerau, J.; Loewenstein, G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors show, with real and hypothetical payoffs, that consumers are willing to pay substantially less for a risky prospect when it is called a “lottery ticket,” “raffle,” “coin flip,” or “gamble” than when it is labeled a “gift certificate” or “voucher.” Willingness to accept, in contrast, is

  18. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2014

    2014-01-01

    You've probably heard that men are paid more than women are paid over their lifetimes. But what does that mean? Are women paid less because they choose lower-paying jobs? Is it because more women work part time than men do? Or is it because women tend to be the primary caregivers for their children? The American Association of University Women's…

  19. Evaluating the fair market value of pay for performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen; Higgins, Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    When assessing a pay-for-performance arrangement, the following factors should be considered: Existence and/or size of minimum savings threshold before savings are allocated. Savings allocation percentage available to physicians. Benchmarks used to measure quality against past performance and/or medical evidence. Ways in which quality outcomes are measured and paid for. Per member per month payments for patient management. Physician investment (participation fee, time, or capital). Existence of downside risk to physicians. Employed compensation structure (if applicable).

  20. Framing influences willingness to pay but not willingness to accept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Vosgerau, J.; Loewenstein, G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors show, with real and hypothetical payoffs, that consumers are willing to pay substantially less for a risky prospect when it is called a “lottery ticket,” “raffle,” “coin flip,” or “gamble” than when it is labeled a “gift certificate” or “voucher.” Willingness to accept, in contrast, is n

  1. Facilitations in Paying Social Security Contributions – Terminological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The provides an analysis of the term “reductions” in reference to paying contributions. It has been indicated that social insurance debt write offs are not recognized as reductions. Moreover, the author proposes a modification of the term “the mechanisms used to facilitate the payment of the contribution by the payers” and an expansion of its scope of meaning.

  2. A double-hurdle model estimation of cocoa farmers' willingness to pay for crop insurance in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Adu, Derick Taylor; Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Yayra

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector in Ghana's economy, however, with high risk due to natural factors like climate change, pests and diseases and bush fires among others. Farmers in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana which is known as one of the major cocoa producing regions, face these risks which sometimes results in crop failure. The need for farmers to therefore insure their farms against crop loss is crucial. Insurance has been a measure to guard against risk. The aim of this study was to assess cocoa farmers' willingness to access crop insurance, the factors affecting willingness to pay (WTP) for crop insurance scheme and insurance companies' willingness to provide crop insurance to cocoa farmers. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 240 farmers from four communities in the Dormaa West District in Brong-Ahafo Region. The double-hurdle model shows that age, marital status and education significantly and positively influenced cocoa farmer's willingness to insure their farms whiles household size and cropped area negatively influenced farmers' willingness to insure their farms. Similarly, age, household size and cropped area significantly and positively influenced the premium cocoa farmers were willing to pay whiles marital status and cocoa income negatively influenced the premium farmers were willing to pay. The contingent valuation method shows that the maximum, minimum and average amounts cocoa farmers are willing to pay for crop insurance per production cost per acre was GH¢128.40, GH¢32.10 and GH¢49.32 respectively. Insurance companies do not have crop insurance policy but willing to provide crop insurance policy to cocoa farmers on a condition that farmers adopt modern cultivation practices to reduce the level of risk. The study recommends that cocoa farmers should be well educated on crop insurance and should be involved in planning the crop insurance scheme in order to conclude on the premium to be paid by them.

  3. 47 CFR 64.1502 - Limitations on the provision of pay-per-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on the provision of pay-per-call... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1502 Limitations on the provision of pay-per-call services. Any...

  4. 16 CFR 308.3 - Advertising of pay-per-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of pay-per-call services. 308.3... Advertising of pay-per-call services. (a) General requirements. The following requirements apply to... of the call. (1) The provider of pay-per-call services shall clearly and conspicuously disclose...

  5. 47 CFR 64.1512 - Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1512 Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services. Nothing in...

  6. The Impact of Merit-Pay Systems on the Work and Attitudes of Mexican Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz-Fontes, Jesús Francisco; Gil-Antón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The central purpose of this work is to present data that evaluates the impact and perspectives of various merit-pay systems directed at Mexican academics. To this end a brief description is provided of recent Mexican higher education evolution, including that of merit-pay programs. It is proposed that faculty merit-pay systems, in the context of…

  7. 43 CFR 30.271 - How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? 30.271 Section 30.271 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... the tribe pay for the interests it purchases? (a) A tribe must pay the full fair market value of...

  8. 76 FR 63356 - Proposed Information Collection (Locality Pay System for Nurses and Other Health Care Personnel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... forms of information technology. Title: Locality Pay System for Nurses and Other Health Care Personnel... Collection (Locality Pay System for Nurses and Other Health Care Personnel) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine locality pay rates for nurses at VA facilities. DATES: Written comments...

  9. 5 CFR 536.308 - Loss of eligibility for or termination of pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commencement of pay retention: (1) The employee has a break in service of 1 workday or more; (2) The employee... retention ceases or entitlement to pay retention terminates under this section, the employee's rate of basic... pay retention. 536.308 Section 536.308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  10. Conversion from the National Security Personnel System to Other Pay Schedules: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    qualifies for larger pension benefits than could have been accrued in the GS.21 On the other hand, those who disagree with the employees on retained pay... annuity . DOD could provide this cash award until the GS rate of basic pay for the employee’s position eclipsed the retained NSPS pay rate. If DOD chose

  11. 78 FR 28717 - Advancing Pay Equality in the Federal Government and Learning From Successful Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... promote gender pay equality in the Federal Government and more broadly, I hereby direct the following... may be affecting gender pay equality; and (e) any best practices the agency has employed to improve gender pay equality. OPM shall provide guidance to agencies with respect to this request for information...

  12. Gender Differences in Pay Expectations: The Roles of Job Intention and Self-View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mary; Dubois, Cathy L. Z.; Fox-Cardamone, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Because pay expectations play a role in the persistent gender pay gap, we surveyed 435 undergraduate students to examine the impacts of gender, job intentions, and self-views on the pay expectations of pre-career women and men. Our findings showed a gender gap in which women expected to be paid less than men expected to be paid at the beginning…

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.419 - For what property will my agency pay property management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what property will my agency pay property management services? 302-3.419 Section 302-3.419 Public Contracts and Property....419 For what property will my agency pay property management services? Your agency will only pay for...

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.420 - How long will my agency pay for property management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay for property management services? 302-3.420 Section 302-3.420 Public Contracts and Property....420 How long will my agency pay for property management services? Your agency will pay for property management services for the duration of your TCS. ...

  15. Theory and Practice in CEO Pay: A Course Module and Integrative Case Based on Boeing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, John F.; Smith, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Business students may dream of receiving pay packages like that of Michael Eisner at Disney. However, many of them will work for the compensation consultant who determines the economics of the pay arrangements, for the valuation consultant who values the different components of the pay arrangements, for the accountant who must audit the financial…

  16. 20 CFR 30.412 - Who pays for second opinion and referee examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who pays for second opinion and referee... Related Benefits Directed Medical Examinations § 30.412 Who pays for second opinion and referee examinations? OWCP will pay second opinion and referee medical specialists directly. OWCP will also reimburse...

  17. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  18. Information on the thefts committed in the Pays de Gex

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A large number of e-mails are currently circulating regarding thefts committed in the Pays de Gex. At CERN's request, the French authorities have provided the following information: A few armed robberies, muggings and attacks at private houses were committed in the Pays de Gex in December 2006 and January 2007. As a result, a night squad has been set up to supplement the Gendarmerie's Peloton de Surveillance et d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie (PSIG) in order to reinforce the visibility of the police presence. In this context, the Authorities point out that the number of crimes and offences committed in the Pays de Gex in 2006 dropped by 16% (this figure also relates to thefts and includes break-ins). If you notice people acting suspiciously, you are advised to notify the Gendarmerie immediately (the emergency telephone number in France is 17) and to make a note of the number and appearance of the persons concerned (height, age, hair colour, build, clothing, distinguishing features, etc.), as well as t...

  19. Electronic pay and leave statements (e-Payslips)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of measures to simplify and rationalise administrative procedures, the FI and IT Departments proposed a project to introduce electronic pay and leave statements. The project was launched at the beginning of 2004 after it had been approved by the Director of the Finance and Human Resources Departments. The project was presented to the GTPA (Groupe de Travail sur les Procédures Administratives) and discussed at the meeting of the SCC (Standing Concertation Committee) on 8 July 2004. The system designed and developed by the IT Department is now operational. What will change? Members of the personnel who currently receive a paper copy of their pay and/or leave statement will, in future, receive monthly e-mail notification of their electronic pay and leave statement, instead of the paper document. The current project does not affect retired members of the personnel. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult these electronic statements by clicking on a link p...

  20. The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

  1. 77 FR 48855 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective September 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... / Wednesday, August 15, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part... AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends...

  2. More Districts Adopt Innovative Teacher Pay Plans. Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality: Policy Brief:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 the Committee for Economic Development (CED) called on district and state education officials to revamp the way that teachers are paid. New compensation systems are needed to attract highly qualified individuals into teaching under labor market conditions that have changed substantially since the typical framework for teacher salaries was…

  3. Teacher Compensation Based on Effectiveness: The Harrison (CO) School District's Pay-for-Performance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, F. Mike

    2012-01-01

    A teacher's effectiveness has a tremendous impact on a child's learning and academic trajectory. Yet knowing that, and being able to create teacher evaluation systems that successfully measure and document teacher effectiveness, are two very different things. In fact, for as long as anyone can remember, a public school teacher's effectiveness and…

  4. Is Planning Paying Attention to "the future?" Experiences in Eight South African Municipalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petzer, Engela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available service delivery backlogs, high levels of poverty, and ensure, inclusive, productive, and sustainable urban and rural areas. Municipalities are required to integrate a wide range of sectoral projects and programmes in their respective IDPs and SDFs. As a... delivering goods and services to the public” (Wholey 1992:52). Performance measures often include “volume, quantity, efficiency and outcomes of providing goods and services” (Pickrell 2005:5). Calculating assignment and employee productivity remained...

  5. Incentive Pay: A Plan to Recognize Major Contributions by Individuals, Teams, or Departmental Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An incentive program that rewards and encourages desirable work traits can improve college or university effectiveness, customer satisfaction, and employee morale without excessive cost. Processes needed, benefits to the institution, costs, program design, challenges to successful implementation, and organizational communication needs are…

  6. Progress in tourism planning and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Jamal, Tazim

    2015-01-01

    and Science Direct and thematic analysis, plus an archaeological excavation. This combined approach pays attention to the disruptions, silences and diversity of knowledge in tourism policy and planning. It highlights the way tourism planning and policy has been problematized and reveals the social...... regularities shaping the production of tourism planning and policy knowledge. Multi-disciplinary, mainstream subjects related to destination development and management dominate while critical analysis of economic and political structures, interests and values is lagging. The results point to an urgent need......This paper examines progress in tourism planning and policy knowledge and identifies gaps and future directions for research. The study employs a post-structuralist perspective presented in two analytical movements: a bibliographic study of tourism policy and planning publications in Scopus...

  7. The Causal Relationship Between Managerial Pay and Firm Performance: a Confirmatory Study with Structural Equation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YougenLi; XipingZhao; JianfangGeng

    2004-01-01

    We use structural equation technique to test four hypothesis relationships between the managerial pay and firm performance. Data from 208 Chinese listed companies is used, the evidence supports Hypothesis 3. It opens out that ownership concentration affects firm performance indirectly through managerial pay, and illustrates managerial pay is a valid mechanism in corporate governance to motivate manager to maximize firm's performance.At the same time, we find ownership concentration is negative to managerial pay, while IPO time and registration areas are positive to managerial pay obviously. It suggests that finding a correct solution to management incentive is the key to improve firm performance.

  8. Willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer: Empirical evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN K. M. Kuwornu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined farmers’ willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer in Ghana. Primary data was obtained from 461 farmers in 10 districts in the Western and Greater Accra regions of Ghana through randomized questionnaire administration. The contingent valuation method was used in eliciting the farmers’ willingness to pay decisions (WTP and maximum amount they are willing to pay. The Tobit regression model results revealed that being a household head, unit cost of current fertilizer used, and farm size positively influenced the willingness to pay amount whereas previous use of organic fertilizer influenced the willingness to pay amount negatively.

  9. Impact of a pay-for-performance program on low performing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy Ying; Kang, Ning; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Hodges, Krista A; Chung, Richard S; Legorreta, Antonio P

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that the lowest performing physicians in pay-for-performance (P4P) programs improved the most; however, it is unclear whether this would occur without the P4P program or be sustained. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of P4P in a Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) on low performing physicians over a 4-year period. We used administrative claims data from a PPO health plan in Hawaii, which implemented a P4P program, and a PPO plan in the South, which did not implement a P4P program. The difference-indifference model was used to compare the quality scores between the two physician groups in preventive measures, a heart failure measure, and an HbA1c testing measure. We found that P4P programs may be effective in incentivizing low performing physicians to improvement quality of care and sustain improvement, and the positive benefit of the P4P program may not be realized until the 3rd or 4th year of the program.

  10. Willingness to pay for voluntary community-based health insurance: findings from an exploratory study in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, A A; Hassali, M A

    2013-11-01

    Health care in Malaysia is funded primarily through taxation and is no longer sustainable. One funding option is voluntary community-based health insurance (VCHI), which provides insurance coverage for those who are unable to benefit immediately from either a social or private health insurance plan. This study is performed to assess the willingness of Malaysians to participate in a VCHI plan. A cross-sectional study was performed in the state of Penang between August and mid-September 2009 with 472 randomly selected respondents. The respondents were first asked to select their preferred health financing plan from three plans (out-of-pocket payment, compulsory social health insurance and VCHI). The extent of the household's willingness to pay for the described VCHI plan was later assessed using the contingent valuation method in an ex-ante bidding game approach until the maximum amount they would be willing to pay to obtain such a service was agreed upon. Fifty-four per cent of the participants were female, with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 11.9), the majority of whom had a monthly income of Int$1157-2312. The results indicated that more than 63.1% of the respondents were willing to join and contribute an average of Int$114.38 per month per household towards VCHI. This amount was influenced by ethnicity, educational level, household monthly income, the presence of chronic disease and the presence of private insurance coverage (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our study findings suggest that most Malaysians are willing to join the proposed VCHI and to pay an average of Int$114.38 per month per household for the plan.

  11. Factors affecting patient valuations of caries prevention: Using and validating the willingness to pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, Christopher R; Wildman, John R; Steele, Jimmy G; Whitworth, John M; Walls, Angus W G; Perry, Ross; Matthews, Roger; Hahn, Petra; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-08-01

    Determining the value of, or strength of preference for health care interventions is useful for policy makers in planning health care services. Willingness to pay (WTP) is an established economic technique to determine the strength of preferences for interventions by eliciting monetary valuations from individuals in hypothetical situations. The objective of this study was to elicit WTP values for a dental preventive intervention and to analyze the factors affecting these as well as investigating the validity of the WTP method. Patients aged 40 years plus attending dental practices in the UK and Germany were recruited on a consecutive basis over one month. Participants received information about a novel root caries prevention intervention. They then completed a questionnaire including a WTP task. Where the coating was indicated, patients were offered this for a payment and acceptance was recorded. Analysis included econometric modelling and comparison of expected (based on stated WTP) versus actual behaviour. The mean WTP for the coating was £96.41 (standard deviation 60.61). Econometric models showed that no demographic or dental history factors were significant predictors of WTP. 63% of the sample behaved as expected when using stated WTP to predict whether they would buy the coating. The remainder were split almost equally between those expected to pay but who did not and those who were expected to refuse but paid. Values for a caries preventive intervention had a large and unpredictable variance. In comparing hypothetical versus real preferences both under- and over-valuation occurs. Wide and unpredictable variation in valuations for prevention may mean that there are difficult policy questions around what resource should be allocated to dental prevention and how to target this resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, B. [Gemcom Software International (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The paper explains how Colombian coal producer and exporter, Carbones del Cerrejon, has increased recovered coal with an end-to-end mine planning solution. It was Gemcon's Minex software for geology and mine planning. 4 photos.

  13. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  14. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  15. Bring Back the Broncos for Austere Environments and Austere Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    Glass cockpits and a tuneted camera and FLlR on the belly equip it for ISR. Its six hard points, allow for laser and GPS 500 pound bombs, various...Pg 17. 8 The Economist. " Dancing on the Ceiling". 13 January 2011. http://www.economist:com/node/17906039 (accessed 17 January 2011) · . 9 Lamothe...Tactics, Training and Control of the LARA Where Employed by Marine Corps Forces. Quantico, VA: 6 February 1964. . The Econom.ist. " Dancing . on

  16. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  17. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  18. Paying attention to orthography: A visual evoked potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Thomas Herdman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In adult readers, letters and words are rapidly identified within visual networks to allow for efficient reading abilities. Neuroimaging studies of orthography have mostly used words and letter strings that recruit many hierarchical levels in reading. Understanding how single letters are processed could provide further insight into orthographic processing. The present study investigated orthographic processing using single letters and pseudoletters when adults were encouraged to pay attention to or away from orthographic features. We measured evoked potentials (EPs to single letters and pseudoletters from adults while they performed an orthographic-discrimination task (letters vs. pseudoletters, a colour-discrimination task (red vs. blue, and a target-detection task (respond to #1 and #2. Larger and later peaking N1 responses (~170ms and larger P2 responses (~250 ms occurred to pseudoletters as compared to letters. This reflected greater visual processing for pseudoletters. Dipole analyses localized this effect to bilateral fusiform and inferior temporal cortices. Moreover, this letter-pseudoletter difference was not modulated by task and thus indicates that directing attention to or away from orthographic features didn’t affect early visual processing of single letters or pseudoletters within extrastriate regions. Paying attention to orthography or colour as compared to disregarding the stimuli (target-detection task elicited selection negativities at about 175 ms, which were followed by a classical N2-P3 complexes. This indicated that the tasks sufficiently drew participant’s attention to and away from the stimuli. Together these findings revealed that visual processing of single letters and pseudoletters, in adults, appeared to be sensory-contingent and independent of paying attention to stimulus features (e.g., orthography or colour.

  19. 厉行节约形势下中国星级饭店的发展及对策研究%Development and Countermeasure Research of Chinese Star Hotel under the Austerity Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 孙凤芝; 刘慧欣

    2014-01-01

    Under the "austerity, against waste" situation, star hotel is facing the risk of re-shuffling. Five-star hotel should adjust strategies, change management mode, do the transformation and upgrading, cheap hotels should seize the opportunity to strengthen brand management, improve the level of informatization.%在“厉行节约,反对浪费”的形势下,星级饭店面临着重新洗牌的风险。五星级饭店应及时调整策略,转变经营模式,做好转型升级,中低档饭店应抓住机遇,加强品牌管理,提高信息化水平。

  20. CEO Pay and Voting Dissent Before and After the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory-Smith, I.; Thompson, S.; Wright, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Say on pay’ – that is empowering shareholders to vote on the remuneration arrangements of their firm's senior executives – has become an international policy response to the perceived explosion in rewards for top management. In this study, we examine the operation of say in pay in the UK, the country which pioneered its adoption, using the population of non-investment trust companies in the FTSE 350 over the period 2003–12. We find that executive remuneration and dissent on the remuneration ...

  1. Teacher Pay-for-Performance in School Turnaround: How Bonuses and Differentiated Pay Scales Can Help Support School Turnaround. Meeting the Turnaround Challenge: Strategies, Resources & Tools to Transform a Framework into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass Insight Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of good teaching and leadership for school success, turnaround schools should think carefully about how to structure professional environments that reward and motivate excellence. A system of "Pay-for-Contribution" that includes tools such as hard-to-staff and skill shortage pay, performance pay, and/or retention pay, will…

  2. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  3. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  4. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods and efficiency of current solid waste management facility and to estimate the willingness of the selected households to pay for the improvement of solid waste management through questionnaire survey. It was found that current Solid waste management system in the area is fair but needs more improvement in terms of improved collection efficiency and rates, recycling bins, and segregation of waste at storage. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of the respondents despite belonging to middle class incomes are willing to pay an amount less than USD 4.8 for the improvement of waste management facility in the area. The area lacks frequent collection of waste containers. Therefore, there is a need for upgradation of storage and collection facilities in terms of increase in collection efficiency and rates, introduction of recycling facility and segregation of waste at source. Waste storage and collection sites of the area should be monitored periodically and waste should be disposed of in a scientific manner in sanitary landfills.

  5. Willingness to pay: Australian consumers and "on the farm" welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nik; Signal, Tania D

    2009-01-01

    The success of welfare legislation for nonhuman animals rests upon primary producer compliance that, in turn, is affected by public willingness to pay (WTP) for such initiatives. Although the topic of the welfare of animals on farms (and relevant legislation) is becoming increasingly important to the Australian public, there remain relatively few recent assessments of the variables that may affect WTP and, therefore, support initiatives aimed at improving the welfare of animals living on farms. This study surveyed 1,224 community members in Queensland, Australia. The study assessed respondents' self-rated knowledge of, and concern regarding, farm animal welfare. In addition, the survey asked respondents how much more they would be prepared to pay for animal-based products to ensure that they came from a source where the Five Freedoms were met. Although self-rated knowledge and level of concern were found to affect WTP, the study found only concern for farm animal welfare actually predicted consumer behavior. Further analyses showed a potential confound between knowledge levels and locality. This article discusses the implications of this for future initiatives to increase WTP.

  6. Hospital responses to pay-for-performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Nahra, Tammie A; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wheeler, John R C

    2006-05-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are complex organizations and, therefore, may face unique challenges in responding to financial incentives for quality. In this research, we explore the types of behavioural changes made by not-for-profit Michigan hospitals in response to a pay-for-performance system for quality. We also identify factors that motivate or facilitate changes in effort. We apply a conceptual framework based on agency theory to motivate our research questions. Using data derived from structured interviews and surveys administered to 86 hospitals participating in a pay-for-performance system, we compare hospitals reporting and not reporting behavioural changes. Separate analyses are performed for hospitals reporting structure-related changes and hospitals reporting process-related changes. Our findings confirm that hospitals respond to incentive payments; however, our findings also reveal that hospital responses are not universal. Rather, involvement by boards of trustees, willingness to exert leverage with physicians, and financial and competitive motivations are all associated with hospitals' behavioural responses to incentives. Results of this research will help inform payers and hospital managers considering the use of incentives about the nature of hospitals' responses.

  7. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  8. 76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... release of the licensed materials from the inventors laboratory. Informal comments that NIH has received... to https://www.pay.gov and clicking on NIH in the agency list. Pay.gov is maintained by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. For more information about the Pay.gov system itself, visit https://www.pay.gov...

  9. Post-Occupancy Evaluation Data Support for Planning and Management of Building Maintenance Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Bento Pereira; Rui Calejo Rodrigues; Patrícia Fernandes Rocha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) method focused on building maintenance and then to test it on two different sets of residential buildings. The paper’s three main goals are: to obtain useful data for optimizing the buildings’ maintenance plans; to search for any correlation between the occupants’ characteristics and their expectations toward the building; to study the occupants’ willingness to pay for maintenance procedures, as well as its correlation ...

  10. Interactional justice as a mediator of the relationship between pay for performance and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the effect of pay for performance and interactional justice on job satisfaction.Design/methodology/approach: A survey method was used to collect 107 usable questionnaires from employees who work in the US subsidiary manufacturing firm operating in a silicon valley in East Malaysia, Malaysia.Findings: The outcomes showed two important findings: first, relationship between interactional justice and adequacy of pay significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Second, relationship between interactional justice and participation in pay systems significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Statistically, this result confirms that interactional justice does act as a mediating variable in the pay for performance models of the studied organization.Originality/value: Most previous research tested a direct effect of pay for performance on job satisfaction. Unlike such research approach, this study discovers that interactional justice has strengthened the effect of pay for performance on job satisfaction in a compensation system framework.

  11. WILLINGNESS TO PAY DAN ABILITY TO PAY PELANGGAN RUMAH TANGGA SEBAGAI RESPON TERHADAP PELAYANAN AIR BERSIH DARI PDAM KOTA SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRM Bambang Irawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the WTP and ATP value of household customers as theirrespond on additional benefit will be received from PDAM programs will be carried out on year 2004.Beside that, this study also analyzes all significance variables affecting WTP and ATP value.This research applying contingent valuation survey method (CVM using 500 of sample size from37,054 of targeted population covering all PDAM customers in the Solo city. The sampling techniqueapplied is proportionate stratified random sampling, and the analysis tool put on this study iseconometrics with a white heteroskedasticity-consistent standard errors & covariance model (whiteheteroskedasticity-corrected standard errors & covariance model.This research shows that the WTP value is relatively small and the ATP value is about 20% onaverage below the water bill they paid. One of reasons causing the WTP value reasonably small is thatthe respondent being sampled perceives that their answers will only become a “permit” for the PDAM tomake a policy of increasing tariff. These yields are also being expected to help the PDAM in takingpolicies relate to water tariff determination particularly from the demand side.Keyword: Willingness to Pay (WTP, Ability to Pay (ATP, Contingen Valuation.

  12. 5 CFR 531.610 - Treatment of locality rate as basic pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....S.C. chapters 83 and 84; (b) Life insurance premiums and benefits under 5 U.S.C. chapter 87; (c) Premium pay under 5 U.S.C. chapter 55, subchapter V, and 5 CFR part 550, subparts A and I (including the computation of limitations on premium pay); (d) Severance pay under 5 U.S.C. 5595 and 5 CFR part 550,...

  13. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supply: Application of the Contingent Valuation Method; Evidence from Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Kebede Hundie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water problem in developing countries like Ethiopia is twofold: low coverage levels and poor quality that require urgent attention to reduce associated health and social consequences. Understanding this fact, the government and NGOs are currently carrying out several activities to improve the coverage and quality of water supply. To this end, willingness to pay of households that are expected to be benefited from the project should be analysed. The central objective of this study is, hence, to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP of households for better-quality water service provision and identify its determinants by using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM in Jigjiga city. We estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP for better quality of water supply service on cross-sectional survey of households in Jigjiga city taking 210 sample households randomly drawn. The highest relative WTP for improved water supply service was found in the city with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with the current water supply both in terms of quality and quantity. Response to the hypothetical scenario shown that sampled households stated that their mean WTP of 94 cents per 20 litres. The results of logit model revealed that household income, family size, water source, age of the respondent and bid value have significant effects on WTP for improved water service provision. The implication is that it is better take into account the socio-economic characteristics of the households in planning and designing water supply projects, which may serve to set rigorous demand oriented projects that can sustain the service delivery.

  14. Gender Pay Gaps and the Restructuring of Graduate Labour Markets in Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Rocha, Vera; Biscaia, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate whether education-job mismatches and growing occupational diversity are important explanatory factors of gender pay gaps amongst university graduates in Southern Europe (namely in Portugal, Spain, and Italy). We use standard decomposition techniques and test...... that occupational assignment and selection into employment shape gender pay gaps amongst the highly skilled provides a more pessimistic view on the ability of educational expansion or equal pay legislation to significantly reduce gender pay inequality. Southern European economies are also particularly interesting...

  15. Cost sharing and hereditary cancer risk: predictors of willingness-to-pay for genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matro, Jennifer M; Ruth, Karen J; Wong, Yu-Ning; McCully, Katen C; Rybak, Christina M; Meropol, Neal J; Hall, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Increasing use of predictive genetic testing to gauge hereditary cancer risk has been paralleled by rising cost-sharing practices. Little is known about how demographic and psychosocial factors may influence individuals' willingness-to-pay for genetic testing. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Risk Assessment Program Registry includes individuals presenting for genetic risk assessment based on personal/family cancer history. Participants complete a baseline survey assessing cancer history and psychosocial items. Willingness-to-pay items include intention for: genetic testing only if paid by insurance; testing with self-pay; and amount willing-to-pay ($25-$2,000). Multivariable models examined predictors of willingness-to-pay out-of-pocket (versus only if paid by insurance) and willingness-to-pay a smaller versus larger sum (≤$200 vs. ≥$500). All statistical tests are two-sided (α = 0.05). Of 385 evaluable participants, a minority (42%) had a personal cancer history, while 56% had ≥1 first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. Overall, 21.3% were willing to have testing only if paid by insurance, and 78.7% were willing-to-pay. Predictors of willingness-to-pay were: 1) concern for positive result; 2) confidence to control cancer risk; 3) fewer perceived barriers to colorectal cancer screening; 4) benefit of testing to guide screening (all p willingness-to-pay for genetic services is increasingly important as testing is integrated into routine cancer care.

  16. Self-pay markets in health care: consumer Nirvana or caveat emptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ha T; May, Jessica H

    2007-01-01

    As consumers face more incentives to make cost-conscious medical care decisions, some policymakers cite self-pay markets as models for consumer shopping. An analysis of the LASIK market revealed limited shopping overall, despite the fact that patients pay the full cost. For other self-pay procedures, consumers shop even less, for reasons ranging from urgency, to costs of obtaining price quotes, to quality concerns that prompt many consumers to rely on word-of-mouth recommendations. Given that consumer shopping is not prevalent in most self-pay markets, we expect the extent of shopping to be even more limited for many services covered by insurance.

  17. Beyond Incentive Pay: Insiders' Estimates of the Value of Complementary Human Resource Management Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ichniowski, Casey; Shaw, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Do human resource management (HRM) practices, such as incentive pay, teamwork, training, and careful screening practices, raise productivity, and if so, under what conditions does productivity rise...

  18. Pay as you Go System versus Fully Funded Pension in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Guillén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper analyses the sustainability of the Peruvian “Pay as You Go System” which is provided by the Government. In Peru, the “Pay as you Go System” coexists with Private Pension Funds or “Fully Funded Pension”. Sometimes both systems compete with each other with advantages and disadvantages between them. We found that “Pay as You Go System” cannot be sustainable over a long period of time. In addition, based on a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages, we propose some recommendations to make Private Pension Funds (Fully Funded Pension the best alternative to Pay as You Go System.

  19. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchell, Robert Ian

    2016-08-01

    With the NHS under increasing financial pressure and healthcare costs soaring year on year, it is perhaps not surprising that assessment agencies focus on cost-effectiveness analysis when assessing new therapies. Such an approach does not however, always take sufficient account of treatment burden, lifestyle and patient choice and therefore new equally effective but perhaps "easier to take" formulations and faster delivery systems for current therapies do not always take precedence in current treatment guidelines. In arguing that the NHS should pay for so-called lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis the counterintuitive nature of some of the current decision making is discussed and a more holistic approach to improve NHS efficiency is presented.

  20. Paying Clinical Research Participants: One Institution's Research Ethics Committees' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Elizabeth B D; Macrina, Frank L; Markowitz, Monika

    2006-12-01

    REGULATORY GUIDELINES LEAVE determination of coercion and undue influence of research participants open to interpretation. A web-based survey was conducted of the research ethics committees members at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) to evaluate their perspectives on paying participants in clinical research via general questions, as well as 8 short cases involving hypertension placebo-controlled trials, a pilot exercise study, a survey of substance abusers, a healthy-volunteer pharmacokinetic study, a twin study involving DNA samples, and an asthma medication study in children. Research ethics committee members were asked to state what payment they would consider appropriate for a given type of protocol. The results suggest that risk, time required, reimbursement for expenses, and inconvenience were important in determining appropriate payment, while income and funding source were not. The case studies revealed wide variation in recommended payments both within type of study and between studies.