WorldWideScience

Sample records for auroral electrojets

  1. Investigating the auroral electrojets using Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley; Macmillan, Susan; Beggan, Ciaran; Whaler, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    The auroral electrojets are large horizontal currents that flow within the ionosphere in ovals around the polar regions. They are an important aspect of space weather and their position and intensity vary with solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activity. The electrojet positions are also governed by the Earth's main magnetic field. During more active periods, the auroral electrojets typically move equatorward and become more intense. This causes a range of effects on Earth and in space, including geomagnetically induced currents in power transmission networks, disturbance to radio communications and increased drag on satellites due to expansion of the atmosphere. They are also indicative of where the aurora are visible. Monitoring of the auroral electrojets in the pre-satellite era was limited to the network of ground-based magnetic observatories, from which the traditional AE activity indices are produced. These suffer in particular from the stations' poor distribution in position and so this motivates the use of satellite-based measurements. With polar low-Earth orbit satellites carrying magnetometers, all latitudes can be sampled with excellent resolution. This poster presents an investigation using Swarm's magnetometer data to detect the electrojets as the spacecraft move above them. We compare and contrast two approaches, one which uses vector data and the other which uses scalar data (Hamilton and Macmillan 2013, Vennerstrom and Moretto, 2013). Using ideas from both approaches we determine the oval positions and intensities from Swarm and earlier satellites. The variation in latitude and intensity with solar wind conditions, geomagnetic activity and secular variation of the main field is investigated. We aim to elucidate the relative importance of these factors. Hamilton, B. and Macmillan, S., 2013. Investigation of decadal scale changes in the auroral oval positions using Magsat and CHAMP data. Poster at IAGA 12th Scientific Assembly, 2013. http

  2. Substorm behavior of the auroral electrojet indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Gjerloev

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the auroral electrojet indices AU and AL during classical substorms is investigated by the use of global auroral images. A superposition of the 12 AE stations onto global auroral images and identification of the AL and AU contributing stations enable an understanding of the temporal as well as spatial behavior of the indices with respect to the substorm coordinate system and timeframe. Based on this simple technique it was found that at substorm onset the AL contributing station makes a characteristic jump from a location near the dawn terminator to the onset region, typically bypassing one or more AE stations. During the expansion phase this station typically lies at the poleward edge of the surge region. This is the location of the intense substorm current wedge electrojet in the semiempirical self-consistent substorm model of the three-dimensional current system by Gjerloev and Hoffman (2002. This current wedge is fed primarily pre-midnight by an imbalance of the Region 0 and Region 1 field-aligned currents, not from the dawnside westward electrojet. Then during the early recovery phase the AL contributing station jumps back to the dawn sector. The defining AU station does not show any similar systematic behavior. We also find that the dawn side westward electrojet seems to be unaffected by the introduction of the substorm current wedge. According to our model, much of this current is closed to the magnetosphere as it approaches midnight from dawn. Based on the characteristics of the AL station jumps, the behavior of the dawn-side electrojet, and the understanding of the three-dimensional substorm current system from our model, we provide additional experimental evidence for, and an understanding of, the concept of the two component westward electrojet, as suggested by Kamide and Kokubun (1996.

  3. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  4. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...... in the auroral electrojets. First, we examine the results during a recent geomagnetic storm. The currents derived from two satellites at different altitudes are in very good agreement, which verifies good stability of the method. Further, a very high degree of correlation (correlation coefficients of 0.......8-0.9) is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electro-jet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring...

  5. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  6. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  7. Auroral electrojets and 3D currents in the ionosphere-magnetosphere system

    OpenAIRE

    Feldstein, Y. I.; Popov, V.A.; Cumnock, Judy; Prigancova, A.; Blomberg, Lars; Kozyra, J.U.; Tsurutani, B. T.; L. I. Gromova; Levitin, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    There are shortly described results of the analysis of variations in the location and intensity of the auroral electrojets during magnetic storms and substorms using a numerical method for estimating the equivalent ionospheric currents based on data from meridian chains of magnetic observatories. It is shown that the westward electrojet adjoins to the polar electrojet located at cusp latitudes in the dayside sector. The association of electrojets with the field-aligned currents (FACs), namely...

  8. Monitoring auroral electrojets with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.

    2013-01-01

    of the satellite orbit and how it varies with local time and season in both hemispheres. Statistically, the strongest currents are observed in the predawn and predusk local time quadrants at latitudes that depend on the general magnetic activity level. We also show how the satellite-derived parameters relate......The strong horizontal ionospheric currents in the auroral oval constitute an important space weather parameter. Here we present a method to estimate the latitude location and intensity of these currents from measurements of variations in the magnetic field magnitude made by low Earth polar orbiting...... satellites. The method is simple enough to be implemented for real-time monitoring, especially since it does not require the full vector field measurement. We demonstrate the method on 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data and show how the monitoring depends on the local time...

  9. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly in the auroral electrojets. First, we examine the results during a recent geomagnetic storm. The currents derived from two satellites at different altitudes are in very good agreement, which verifies good stability of the method. Further, a very high degree of correlation (correlation coefficients of 0.8–0.9 is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electrojet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring. A specific advantage of the satellite observations over the ground-based magnetic measurements is their coverage of the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the Northern. We utilize this in an investigation of the ionospheric currents observed in both polar regions during a period of unusually steady interplanetary magnetic field with a large negative Y-component. A pronounced asymmetry is found between the currents in the two hemispheres, which indicates real inter-hemispheric differences beyond the mirror-asymmetry between hemispheres that earlier studies have revealed. The method is also applied to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning of the magnetosphere (history of the interplanetary magnetic field is seen to play an important role, and in the winther hemisphere, it seems to be harder to

  10. Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

  11. Storm time dynamics of auroral electrojets: CHAMP observation and the Space Weather Modeling Framework comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations of the location and intensity of auroral currents during two magnetic storm periods based on magnetic field measurements from CHAMP separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding auroral electrojet current densities are on average enhanced by about a factor of 7 compared to the quiet time current strengths. The nightside westward current densities are on average 1.8 (2.2 times larger than the dayside eastward current densities in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. Both eastward and westward currents are present during the storm periods with the most intense electrojets appearing during the main phase of the storm, before the ring current maximizes in strength. The eastward and westward electrojet centers can expand to 55° MLat during intense storms, as is observed on 31 March 2001 with Dst=−387 nT. The equatorward shift of auroral currents on the dayside is closely controlled by the southward IMF, while the latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. However, the equatorward and poleward motion of the nightside auroral currents occur earlier than the Dst variations. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF can capture the general dynamics of the storm time current variations. Both the model and the actual data show that the currents tend to saturate when the merging electric field is larger than 10 mV/m. However, the exact prediction of the temporal development of the currents is still not satisfactory.

  12. Storm time dynamics of auroral electrojets: CHAMP observation and the Space Weather Modeling Framework comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations of the location and intensity of auroral currents during two magnetic storm periods based on magnetic field measurements from CHAMP separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding auroral electrojet current densities are on average enhanced by about a factor of 7 compared to the quiet time current strengths. The nightside westward current densities are on average 1.8 (2.2 times larger than the dayside eastward current densities in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. Both eastward and westward currents are present during the storm periods with the most intense electrojets appearing during the main phase of the storm, before the ring current maximizes in strength. The eastward and westward electrojet centers can expand to 55° MLat during intense storms, as is observed on 31 March 2001 with Dst=−387 nT. The equatorward shift of auroral currents on the dayside is closely controlled by the southward IMF, while the latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. However, the equatorward and poleward motion of the nightside auroral currents occur earlier than the Dst variations. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF can capture the general dynamics of the storm time current variations. Both the model and the actual data show that the currents tend to saturate when the merging electric field is larger than 10 mV/m. However, the exact prediction of the temporal development of the currents is still not satisfactory.

  13. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  14. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  15. Auroral electrojets and boundaries of plasma domains in the magnetosphere during magnetically disturbed intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations in the location and intensity of the auroral electrojets during magnetic storms and substorms using a numerical method for estimating the equivalent ionospheric currents based on data from meridian chains of magnetic observatories. Special attention was paid to the complex structure of the electrojets and their interrelationship with diffuse and discrete particle precipitation and field-aligned currents in the dusk sector. During magnetospheric substorms the eastward electrojet (EE location in the evening sector changes with local time from cusp latitudes (Φ~77° during early afternoon to latitudes of diffuse auroral precipitation (Φ~65° equatorward of the auroral oval before midnight. During the main phase of an intense magnetic storm the eastward currents in the noon-early evening sector adjoin to the cusp at Φ~65° and in the pre-midnight sector are located at subauroral latitude Φ~57°. The westward electrojet (WE is located along the auroral oval from evening through night to the morning sector and adjoins to the polar electrojet (PE located at cusp latitudes in the dayside sector. The integrated values of the eastward (westward equivalent ionospheric current during the intense substorm are ~0.5 MA (~1.5 MA, whereas they are 0.7 MA (3.0 MA during the storm main phase maximum. The latitudes of auroral particle precipitation in the dusk sector are identical with those of both electrojets. The EE in the evening sector is accompanied by particle precipitation mainly from the Alfvén layer but also from the near-Earth part of the central plasma sheet. In the lower-latitude part of the EE the field-aligned currents (FACs flow into the ionosphere (Region 2 FAC, and at its higher-latitude part the FACs flow out of the ionosphere (Region 1 FAC. During intense disturbances, in addition to the Region 2 FAC and the Region 1 FAC, a Region 3 FAC with the downward current was identified. This FAC is accompanied by diffuse

  16. Auroral Electrojet (AE, AL, AO, AU) - A Global Measure of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AE index is derived from geomagnetic variations in the horizontal component observed at selected (10-13) observatories along the auroral zone in the northern...

  17. Meridional motions of the afternoon radar aurora, auroral electrojets, and absorption patches under variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Makarevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The meridional motions of the CUTLASS HF and STARE VHF coherent echoes, IMAGE equivalent electrojet currents, and IRIS absorption patches during the postnoon/early-evening event of 14 February 2000 are presented. The motions were found to be synchronous, to a first approximation, for all instruments. The temporal correlation between motions in the radar and magnetometer data was exceptionally good, although spatially the areas with the E-region backscatter and most intense equivalent currents were not coincident, with the HF (VHF echoes being shifted 100–200km (20–50km equatorward (poleward. The meridional motions of the radar echoes and electrojet currents appeared to be controlled by the IMF Bz changes; the meridional propagation direction was equatorward (poleward during the intervals when the IMF was southward (northward, with one exception when the poleward progression continued after the IMF southward turning. We relate the observed meridional motion patterns to the polar cap expansion/contraction during variable IMF conditions and discuss the relative importance of two types of processes: the dayside reconnection and IMF-triggered substorms. We also investigate the irregularity Doppler velocity for the STARE (144MHz and CUTLASS (12MHz observations at large flow angles in the context of the eastward and westward electrojet systems. We show that the 144-MHz Doppler velocity is determined by a combination of two factors: the sense of electrojet currents and the aspect angle conditions within the STARE field of view. Finally, the behavior of small dayside enhancements of the IRIS absorption (up to 0.5dB at 38.2MHz accompanying the radar echoes and electrojet currents is examined. Since the velocity of the meridional displacements was close to that of the poleward/equatorward progressing intense currents, it is suggested that the absorption patches observed during the event were related to the heating of the E

  18. On the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents and plasma convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Kellerman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents, and ionospheric plasma convection velocity is investigated using a series of new methods where temporal correlations are calculated and analysed for different events and MLT sectors. We employ cosmic noise absorption (CNA observations obtained by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS system in Kilpisjärvi, Finland, plasma convection measurements by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, and estimates of the electrojet currents derived from the Tromsø magnetometer data. The IRIS absorption and EISCAT plasma convection measurements are used as a proxy for the particle precipitation component of the Hall conductance and ionospheric electric field, respectively. It is shown that the electrojet currents are affected by both enhanced conductance and electric field but with the relative importance of these two factors varying with magnetic local time (MLT. The correlation between the current and electric field (absorption is the highest at 12:00–15:00 MLT (00:00–03:00 MLT. It is demonstrated that the electric-field-dominant region is asymmetric with respect to magnetic-noon-midnight meridian extending from 09:00 to 21:00 MLT. This may be related to the recently reported absence of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF By on the high-latitude plasma convection pattern. The conductivity-dominant region is somewhat wider than previously thought extending from 21:00 to 09:00 MLT with correlation slowly declining from midnight towards the morning, which is interpreted as being in part due to high-energy electron clouds gradually depleting and drifting from midnight towards the morning sector. The conductivity-dominant region is further investigated using the extensive IRIS riometer and Tromsø magnetometer datasets with results showing a distinct seasonal dependence. The region of high current-absorption correlation extends

  19. On the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents and plasma convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Kellerman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents, and ionospheric plasma convection velocity is investigated using a series of new methods where temporal correlations are calculated and analysed for different events and MLT sectors. We employ cosmic noise absorption (CNA observations obtained by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS system in Kilpisjärvi, Finland, plasma convection measurements by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, and estimates of the electrojet currents derived from the Tromsø magnetometer data. The IRIS absorption and EISCAT plasma convection measurements are used as a proxy for the particle precipitation component of the Hall conductance and ionospheric electric field, respectively. It is shown that the electrojet currents are affected by both enhanced conductance and electric field but with the relative importance of these two factors varying with magnetic local time (MLT. The correlation between the current and electric field (absorption is the highest at 12:00–15:00 MLT (00:00–03:00 MLT. It is demonstrated that the electric-field-dominant region is asymmetric with respect to magnetic-noon-midnight meridian extending from 09:00 to 21:00 MLT. This may be related to the recently reported absence of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF By on the high-latitude plasma convection pattern. The conductivity-dominant region is somewhat wider than previously thought extending from 21:00 to 09:00 MLT with correlation slowly declining from midnight towards the morning, which is interpreted as being in part due to high-energy electron clouds gradually depleting and drifting from midnight towards the morning sector. The conductivity-dominant region is further investigated using the extensive IRIS riometer and Tromsø magnetometer datasets with results showing a distinct seasonal dependence. The region of high current

  20. The role of natural E-region plasma turbulence in the enhanced absorption of HF radio waves in the auroral ionosphere:Implications for RF heating of the auroral electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical processes which affect the absorption of radio waves passing through the auroral E-region when Farley-Buneman irregularities are present are examined. In particular, the question of whether or not it is legitimate to include the anomalous wave-enhanced collision frequency, which has been used successfully to account for the heating effects of Farley-Buneman waves in the auroral E-region, in the usual expression for the radio-wave absorption coefficient is addressed. Effects also considered are those due to wave coupling between electromagnetic waves and high-frequency electrostatic waves in the presence of Farley-Buneman irregularities. The implications for radio-wave heating of the auroral electrojet of these processes are also discussed. In particular, a new theoretical model for calculating the effects of high-power radio-wave heating on the electron temperature in an electrojet containing Farley-Buneman turbulence is presented.

  1. Effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameter variations to the enhancement and dynamics of auroral electrojet during superstrong magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, Stepan; Boroev, Roman; Moiseyev, Alexey; Du, Aimin; Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    According to the global ground geomagnetic observations in the six meridian chains and analysis of satellite measurements the auroral elektrojet features at various conditions in the solar wind (SW) and the IMF: during a sharp rise of dynamic pressure up to 15-60 nPa and variations in the intensity and sign of the IMF Bz-component to -40 --50 nT. The data obtained during super strong magnetic storms of October 29-30, 2003, November 20-21, 2003, November 07-08, 2004 and November 09-10, 2004 (Dst = -300 --400 nT) are analysed. The following scientific results are obtained: • It is shown that a sharp increase of the SW dynamic pressure (Pd) and the excitation of a sudden impulse (SC) during IMF Bz negative (Bzcurrent system and the intensity of the western elec-trojet (Jw) in a broad sector of longitudes and expansion of Jw to the pole up to the polar cap latitudes with the velocity of VN = 1-3 km/s. • It is found that during the sharp rise of Pd up to 60 nPa for IMF Bz positive (Bz>0) 35 nT is the amplification of eastward magnetopause currents and DP2 current system are observed. Strengthening and dynamics of the westward electrojet is not observed. • We find that during periods of intensity growth of negative values of IMF Bz to -50 nT within a few hours there is a shift of the centers of auroral electrojet to the equator up to latitudes about 10-20 degrees along the meridian with a speed of 1-4 km/s with a simultaneous amplifications of Jw repeated in 1-2 hours with a duration of 1-2 hours at latitudes from low to auroral latitudes and with a possible extension to electrojets up to the polar cap latitudes and the abrupt extension of the subsequent Jw electrojets localization region by azimuth. • It is shown that after the electrojet displacement to the equator during southward direc-tion of IMF Bz and enhancement of the SW electric field the IMF Bz turning to the north accompanied by the poleward expansion of Jw electrojet at a speed of 1 km/s in a wide

  2. The convection electrojet and the substorm electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamide

    Full Text Available Enhancements in the auroral electrojets associated with magnetospheric substorms result from those in either the electric field or the ionospheric conductivities, or both. Their relative importance varies significantly, even during a single substorm, depending on the location as well as on the substorm phases. It is predicted that different parts of the electrojets tend to respond in different ways to substorm activity. The unprecedented, unique opportunity for CLUSTER spacecraft observations of electric/magnetic fields and precipitating particles, combined with radar measurements of ionospheric quantities and with ground magnetometers, will provide us with crucial information regarding the physical nature of the separation between the "electric field-dominant'' and "conductivity-dominant'' auroral electrojets. This study also discusses the implications of these two auroral-electrojet components in terms of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions.

  3. The convection electrojet and the substorm electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamide

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancements in the auroral electrojets associated with magnetospheric substorms result from those in either the electric field or the ionospheric conductivities, or both. Their relative importance varies significantly, even during a single substorm, depending on the location as well as on the substorm phases. It is predicted that different parts of the electrojets tend to respond in different ways to substorm activity. The unprecedented, unique opportunity for CLUSTER spacecraft observations of electric/magnetic fields and precipitating particles, combined with radar measurements of ionospheric quantities and with ground magnetometers, will provide us with crucial information regarding the physical nature of the separation between the "electric field-dominant'' and "conductivity-dominant'' auroral electrojets. This study also discusses the implications of these two auroral-electrojet components in terms of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions.

  4. Monitoring ionospheric response to auroral electrojet activity from sub-auroral to equatorial latitudes in the East Asian-Australian longitudinal sector over a solar cycle (1978-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, L. A.

    1999-07-01

    Large auroral and ionospheric databases, covering a solar cycle (1978-1986), were used to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the auroral electrojet effect (as inferred from the auroral AE-index) on the ionospheric response in both hemispheres from sub-auroral to equatorial latitudes. The study was limited to the East Asian-Australian longitudinal sector where data are available from a chain of nine latitudinally displaced stations. Enhancement in the standard ionospheric parameter, the virtual height of the F-region (Δh'F) recorded by vertical-incidence ionosondes, was used to trace the ionospheric disturbance. Unlike the previous studies of this type, the total magnetic and ionospheric data, in hourly intervals, were used to derive the correlation coefficient r between two intrinsically different parameters: Δh'F and AE-index for the local nighttime (20-06 LT or 10-20 UT). A suitable averaging and smoothing technique was applied to the data to enhance the correlation trend between these parameters. It is evident that the height fluctuations of sub-auroral ionosphere (for stations: Yakutsk in Siberia and Hobart and Canberra in Australia) closely resemble the auroral electrojet surges, inferred from the AE-index over the solar cycle. The linear coefficient r is highly significant, being close to 0.6 for most of the time; during the years of maximum auroral activity (1981-1983) r approached 0.8. The consistently high correlation r, regardless of the season, applies only to the most poleward station used in this study, Yakutsk. The sub-auroral stations (Hobart and Canberra) positioned further equatorwards show a strong decline in the correlation coefficient r during the local summer but have high r during winter and the equinoxes. There is a general decline in r towards lower latitudes, suggesting that the response to auroral substorms is on the whole diminishing with the distance from the auroral source to the equator. There appears to be an anomalous increase in

  5. Complex image method for calculating electric and magnetic fields produced by an auroral electrojet of finite length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pirjola

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field due to ionospheric currents has to be known when evaluating space weather effects at the earth's surface. Forecasting methods of these effects, which include geomagnetically induced currents in technological systems, are being developed. Such applications are time-critical, so the calculation techniques of the electromagnetic field have to be fast but still accurate. The contribution of secondary sources induced within the earth leads to complicated integral formulas for the field at the earth's surface with a time-consuming computation. An approximate method of calculation based on replacing the earth contribution by an image source having mathematically a complex location results in closed-form expressions and in a much faster computation. In this paper we extend the complex image method (CIM to the case of a more realistic electrojet system consisting of a horizontal line current filament with vertical currents at its ends above a layered earth. To be able to utilize previous CIM results, we prove that the current system can be replaced by a purely horizontal current distribution which is equivalent regarding the total (=primary + induced magnetic field and the total horizontal electric field at the earth's surface. The latter result is new. Numerical calculations demonstrate that CIM is very accurate and several magnitudes faster than the exact conventional approach.

    Key words. Electromagnetic theory · Geomagnetic induction · Auroral ionosphere

  6. Complex image method for calculating electric and magnetic fields produced by an auroral electrojet of finite length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pirjola

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field due to ionospheric currents has to be known when evaluating space weather effects at the earth's surface. Forecasting methods of these effects, which include geomagnetically induced currents in technological systems, are being developed. Such applications are time-critical, so the calculation techniques of the electromagnetic field have to be fast but still accurate. The contribution of secondary sources induced within the earth leads to complicated integral formulas for the field at the earth's surface with a time-consuming computation. An approximate method of calculation based on replacing the earth contribution by an image source having mathematically a complex location results in closed-form expressions and in a much faster computation. In this paper we extend the complex image method (CIM to the case of a more realistic electrojet system consisting of a horizontal line current filament with vertical currents at its ends above a layered earth. To be able to utilize previous CIM results, we prove that the current system can be replaced by a purely horizontal current distribution which is equivalent regarding the total (=primary + induced magnetic field and the total horizontal electric field at the earth's surface. The latter result is new. Numerical calculations demonstrate that CIM is very accurate and several magnitudes faster than the exact conventional approach.Key words. Electromagnetic theory · Geomagnetic induction · Auroral ionosphere

  7. What can we tell about global auroral-electrojet activity from a single meridional magnetometer chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kauristie

    Full Text Available The AE indices are generally used for monitoring the level of magnetic activity in the auroral oval region. In some cases, however, the oval is either so expanded or contracted that the latitudinal coverage of the AE magnetometer chain is not adequate. Then, a longitudinal chain in the key region would give more information of the real situation, but, of course, only during some limited UT-period. In order to find out the UT coverage of a single meridional chain, we have compared the global AL and AU indices with corresponding local indices determined using data from the meridional part of the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross during the years 1985–1987. A statistical study shows that the local indices are close (within relative error of 0.2 to the global AU and AL during periods 1500–2000 UT (~1730–2230 MLT and 2130–0130 UT (~0000–0400 MLT, respectively. In the middle of these optimal MLT-sectors the EISCAT Cross sees more than 70% of the cases when the global AE chain records activity. Then, also the correlation between the local and global indices is generally good (>0.7. Thus we conclude that five to six evenly located meridional chains are needed for covering all the UT-periods. On the other hand, already the combination of IMAGE, CANOPUS, and the Greenland chains catches ~50% of the substorms. Case-studies show that usually during 2130–1100 UT the AL achieved from these chains reproduces the real AL with good timing, although it does not follow all transient variations.

  8. What can we tell about global auroral-electrojet activity from a single meridional magnetometer chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kauristie

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The AE indices are generally used for monitoring the level of magnetic activity in the auroral oval region. In some cases, however, the oval is either so expanded or contracted that the latitudinal coverage of the AE magnetometer chain is not adequate. Then, a longitudinal chain in the key region would give more information of the real situation, but, of course, only during some limited UT-period. In order to find out the UT coverage of a single meridional chain, we have compared the global AL and AU indices with corresponding local indices determined using data from the meridional part of the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross during the years 1985–1987. A statistical study shows that the local indices are close (within relative error of 0.2 to the global AU and AL during periods 1500–2000 UT (~1730–2230 MLT and 2130–0130 UT (~0000–0400 MLT, respectively. In the middle of these optimal MLT-sectors the EISCAT Cross sees more than 70% of the cases when the global AE chain records activity. Then, also the correlation between the local and global indices is generally good (>0.7. Thus we conclude that five to six evenly located meridional chains are needed for covering all the UT-periods. On the other hand, already the combination of IMAGE, CANOPUS, and the Greenland chains catches ~50% of the substorms. Case-studies show that usually during 2130–1100 UT the AL achieved from these chains reproduces the real AL with good timing, although it does not follow all transient variations.

  9. Austral electrojet indices derived for the great storm of March 1989 1177

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Zossi de Artigas

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Available magnetic records from eight stations in the Antarctica, for the March 1989 geomagnetic storm, are used to construct the southern hemisphere auroral indices, analogous to the boreal ones. The results show a diurnal variation depending on the distribution of the stations. An acceptable correlation between the northern and southern hemisphere indices are found except for the index indicating the presence of the eastward auroral electrojet. However, differences in the amplitudes of both auroral electrojet indices were observed.

  10. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  11. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  12. Equatorial electrojet as part of the global circuit: a case-study from the IEEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kobea

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400-0600 UT coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800-0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h'F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ∆H variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.Keywords. Equatorial electrojet · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Electric fields and currents · Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric disturbances

  13. Determining polar ionospheric electrojet currents from Swarm satellite constellation magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Cecilie Drost; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We determine the strength and location of the ionospheric currents responsible for the polar electrojets from magnetic data collected by the Swarm satellite constellation on an orbit-by-orbit basis. The ionospheric currents are modelled using a simple, yet robust, method by a series of line...... currents at 110 km altitude (corresponding to the ionospheric E-layer) perpendicular to the satellite orbit, separated by 1° (about 113 km). We assess the reliability of our method, with the aim of a possible near-real-time application. A study of the effect of different regularization methods is therefore...... longer than two days. Reliability of the approach is shown by three key results: (1) a common regularization parameter for all orbits with enough data coverage, (2) 0.95 squared coherence with the Auroral Electrojet index, and (3) 0.97 squared coherence is found between the side-by-side flying satellites...

  14. Auroral particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries.

  15. Characterization and diagnostic methods for geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Justin J.

    Infrasonic perturbations resulting from auroral activity have been observed since the 1950's. In the last decade advances in infrasonic microphone sensitivity, high latitude sensor coverage, time series analysis methods and computational efficiency have elucidated new types of auroral infrasound. Persistent periods of infrasonic activity associated with geomagnetic sub-storms have been termed geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves [GAIW]. We consider 63 GAIW events recorded by the Fairbanks, AK infrasonic array I53US ranging from 2003 to 2014 and encompassing a complete solar cycle. We make observations of the acoustic features of these events alongside magnetometer, riometer, and all-sky camera data in an effort to quantify the ionospheric conditions suitable for infrasound generation. We find that, on average, the generation mechanism for GAIW is confined to a region centered about ~60 0 longitude east of the anti-Sun-Earth line and at ~770 North latitude. We note furthermore that in all cases considered wherein imaging riometer data are available, that dynamic regions of heightened ionospheric conductivity periodically cross the overhead zenith. Consistent features in concurrent magnetometer conditions are also noted, with irregular oscillations in the horizontal component of the field ubiquitous in all cases. In an effort to produce ionosphere based infrasound free from the clutter and unknowns typical of geophysical observations, an experiment was undertaken at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program [HAARP] facility in 2012. Infrasonic signals appearing to originate from a source region overhead were observed briefly on 9 August 2012. The signals were observed during a period when an electrojet current was presumed to have passed overhead and while the facilities radio transmitter was periodically heating the lower ionosphere. Our results suggest dynamic auroral electrojet currents as primary sources of much of the observed infrasound, with

  16. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which data were used in the paper. Table 1. Coordinates of stations used: IGRF year September–October 1994. Station name. Belem. Alcantara. Sao Luiz ..... Onwumechili C, Kawasaki A and Akasofu S I 1973 Relation- ship between the equatorial electrojet and polar magnetic variations; Planet. Space. Sci. 21 1–16.

  17. Field-aligned current and auroral Hall current characteristics derived from the Swarm constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Hermann, Luehr

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of field-aligned currents (FACs) and Hall currents derived from high-resolution magnetic field data of the Swarm constellation the average characteristics of these two current systems in the auroral regions are comprehensively investigated by statistical methods. This is the first study considering both current types simultaneously and for both hemispheres. The FAC distribution, derived from the Swarm dual-spacecraft approach, reveals the well-known features of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) FACs. At high latitudes, Region 0 (R0) FACs appear on the dayside. Their direction depends on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component. Of particular interest is the distribution of auroral Hall currents. The most prominent auroral electrojets are found to be closely controlled by the solar wind input. But there is no dependence on the IMF By orientation. The eastward electrojet is about twice as strong in summer as in winter. Conversely, the westward electrojet shows less dependence on season. Part of the electrojet current is closed over the polar cap. Here the seasonal variation of conductivity mainly controls the current density. There is a clear channeling of return currents over the polar cap. Depending on IMF By orientation most of the current is flowing either on the dawn or dusk side. The direction of Hall currents in the noon sector depends directly on the orientation of the IMF By. This is true for both signs of the IMF Bz component. But largest differences between summer and winter seasons are found for northward IMF Bz. Around the midnight sector the westward substorm electrojet is dominating. As expected, it is highly dependent on magnetic activity, but shows only little response to the IMF By polarity.

  18. Remote auroral activity detection and modeling using low frequency transmitter signal reception at a midlatitude site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Schmitter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The low frequency propagation conditions along the path from Iceland to Germany (52° N 8° E using the NRK/TFK 37.5 kHz transmitter (63.9° N 22.5° W prove as an easy to monitor and reliable proxy for north auroral activity. Signal processing using wavelet decomposition allows for quantitative activity level estimations. Calibration is based upon NOAA POES auroral activity data. Using an auroral oval model for the local intensity distribution of solar energetic particle precipitation and a wave propagation model ionospheric D-layer height decreases along the path can be derived. This in turn gives a hint to the low latitude extension and intensity of the auroral electrojet currents that can be responsible for communication and power systems failures.

  19. Auroral E-region electron density gradients measured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haldoupis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of E-region plasma instabilities, the ambient electric field and electron density gradient are both included in the same dispersion relation as the key parameters that provide the energy for the generation and growth of electrostatic plasma waves. While there exist numerous measurements of ionospheric electric fields, there are very few measurements and limited knowledge about the ambient electron density gradients, ∇Ne, in the E-region plasma. In this work, we took advantage of the EISCAT CP1 data base and studied statistically the vertical electron density gradient length, Lz=Ne/(dNe/dz, at auroral E-region heights during both eastward and westward electrojet conditions and different ambient electric field levels. Overall, the prevailing electron density gradients, with Lz ranging from 4 to 7 km, are found to be located below 100 km, but to move steadily up in altitude as the electric field level increases. The steepest density gradients, with Lz possibly less than 3 km, occur near 110 km mostly in the eastward electrojet during times of strong electric fields. The results and their implications are examined and discussed in the frame of the linear gradient drift instability theory. Finally, it would be interesting to test the implications of the present results with a vertical radar interferometer.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities  

  20. Auroral E-region electron density gradients measured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hussey

    Full Text Available In the theory of E-region plasma instabilities, the ambient electric field and electron density gradient are both included in the same dispersion relation as the key parameters that provide the energy for the generation and growth of electrostatic plasma waves. While there exist numerous measurements of ionospheric electric fields, there are very few measurements and limited knowledge about the ambient electron density gradients, ∇Ne, in the E-region plasma. In this work, we took advantage of the EISCAT CP1 data base and studied statistically the vertical electron density gradient length, Lz=Ne/(dNe/dz, at auroral E-region heights during both eastward and westward electrojet conditions and different ambient electric field levels. Overall, the prevailing electron density gradients, with Lz ranging from 4 to 7 km, are found to be located below 100 km, but to move steadily up in altitude as the electric field level increases. The steepest density gradients, with Lz possibly less than 3 km, occur near 110 km mostly in the eastward electrojet during times of strong electric fields. The results and their implications are examined and discussed in the frame of the linear gradient drift instability theory. Finally, it would be interesting to test the implications of the present results with a vertical radar interferometer.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities  

  1. Meridional equatorial electrojet current in the American sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Huancayo is the only equatorial electrojet station where the daytime increase of horizontal geomagnetic field (H is associated with a simultaneous increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y. It is shown that during the counter electrojet period when ∆H is negative, ∆Y also becomes negative. Thus, the diurnal variation of ∆Y at equatorial latitudes is suggested to be a constituent part of the equatorial electrojet current system. Solar flares are known to increase the H field at an equatorial station during normal electrojet conditions (nej. At Huancayo, situated north of the magnetic equator, the solar flare effect, during nej, consists of positive impulses in H and Y and negative impulse in Z field. During counter electrojet periods (cej, a solar flare produces a negative impulse in H and Y and a positive impulse in Z at Huancayo. It is concluded that both the zonal and meridional components of the equatorial electrojet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes, flows in the same, E region of the ionosphere.Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (dynamo theories · Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere disturbances

  2. Meridional equatorial electrojet current in the American sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available Huancayo is the only equatorial electrojet station where the daytime increase of horizontal geomagnetic field (H is associated with a simultaneous increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y. It is shown that during the counter electrojet period when ∆H is negative, ∆Y also becomes negative. Thus, the diurnal variation of ∆Y at equatorial latitudes is suggested to be a constituent part of the equatorial electrojet current system. Solar flares are known to increase the H field at an equatorial station during normal electrojet conditions (nej. At Huancayo, situated north of the magnetic equator, the solar flare effect, during nej, consists of positive impulses in H and Y and negative impulse in Z field. During counter electrojet periods (cej, a solar flare produces a negative impulse in H and Y and a positive impulse in Z at Huancayo. It is concluded that both the zonal and meridional components of the equatorial electrojet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes, flows in the same, E region of the ionosphere.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (dynamo theories · Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere disturbances

  3. Longitudinal variation of equatorial electrojet and the occurrence of its counter electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde Rabiu, A.; Olufunmilayo Folarin, Olanike; Uozumi, Teiji; Hamid, Nurul Shazana Abdul; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2017-04-01

    We examined the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the occurrence of its counter electrojet (CEJ) using the available records of the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field simultaneously recorded in the year 2009 (mean annual sunspot number Rz = 3.1) along the magnetic equator in the South American, African, and Philippine sectors. Our results indicate that the EEJ undergoes variability from one longitudinal representative station to another, with the strongest EEJ of about 192.5 nT at the South American axis at Huancayo and a minimum peak of 40.7 nT at Ilorin in western Africa. Obtained longitudinal inequality in the EEJ was explicable in terms of the effects of local winds, dynamics of migratory tides, propagating diurnal tide, and meridional winds. The African stations of Ilorin and Addis Ababa registered the greatest % of CEJ occurrence. Huancayo in South America, with the strongest electrojet strength, was found to have the least occurrence of the CEJ. It is suggested that activities that support strong EEJ inhibits the occurrence of the CEJ. Percentage of occurrence of the CEJ varied with seasons across the longitudes. The order of seasonal variation of morning occurrence does not tally with the evening occurrence order at any station. A semiannual equinoctial maximum in percentage of morning occurrence of the CEJ was obtained at Huancayo and Addis Ababa. Only Addis Ababa recorded equal equinoctial maxima in percentage of evening occurrence of the CEJ. The seasonal distribution of the occurrences of the CEJ at different time regimes implies a seasonal variability of causative mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of the CEJ.

  4. Longitudinal variation of equatorial electrojet and the occurrence of its counter electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rabiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ and the occurrence of its counter electrojet (CEJ using the available records of the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field simultaneously recorded in the year 2009 (mean annual sunspot number Rz  =  3.1 along the magnetic equator in the South American, African, and Philippine sectors. Our results indicate that the EEJ undergoes variability from one longitudinal representative station to another, with the strongest EEJ of about 192.5 nT at the South American axis at Huancayo and a minimum peak of 40.7 nT at Ilorin in western Africa. Obtained longitudinal inequality in the EEJ was explicable in terms of the effects of local winds, dynamics of migratory tides, propagating diurnal tide, and meridional winds. The African stations of Ilorin and Addis Ababa registered the greatest % of CEJ occurrence. Huancayo in South America, with the strongest electrojet strength, was found to have the least occurrence of the CEJ. It is suggested that activities that support strong EEJ inhibits the occurrence of the CEJ. Percentage of occurrence of the CEJ varied with seasons across the longitudes. The order of seasonal variation of morning occurrence does not tally with the evening occurrence order at any station. A semiannual equinoctial maximum in percentage of morning occurrence of the CEJ was obtained at Huancayo and Addis Ababa. Only Addis Ababa recorded equal equinoctial maxima in percentage of evening occurrence of the CEJ. The seasonal distribution of the occurrences of the CEJ at different time regimes implies a seasonal variability of causative mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of the CEJ.

  5. Longitudinal variation of equatorial electrojet and the occurrence of its counter electrojet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiu, A. Babatunde [National Space Research and Development Agency, Anyigba (Nigeria). Centre for Atmospheric Research; Folarin, Olanike Olufunmilayo [National Space Research and Development Agency, Anyigba (Nigeria). Centre for Atmospheric Research; Lagos Univ., Lagos State (Nigeria). Ionospheric and Space Physics Lab.; Uozumi, Teiji; Yoshikawa, Akimasa [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). International Center for Space Weather Science and Education ICSWSE; Hamid, Nurul Shazana Abdul [National Univ. of Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2017-07-01

    We examined the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the occurrence of its counter electrojet (CEJ) using the available records of the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field simultaneously recorded in the year 2009 (mean annual sunspot number R{sub z} = 3.1) along the magnetic equator in the South American, African, and Philippine sectors. Our results indicate that the EEJ undergoes variability from one longitudinal representative station to another, with the strongest EEJ of about 192.5 nT at the South American axis at Huancayo and a minimum peak of 40.7 nT at Ilorin in western Africa. Obtained longitudinal inequality in the EEJ was explicable in terms of the effects of local winds, dynamics of migratory tides, propagating diurnal tide, and meridional winds. The African stations of Ilorin and Addis Ababa registered the greatest % of CEJ occurrence. Huancayo in South America, with the strongest electrojet strength, was found to have the least occurrence of the CEJ. It is suggested that activities that support strong EEJ inhibits the occurrence of the CEJ. Percentage of occurrence of the CEJ varied with seasons across the longitudes. The order of seasonal variation of morning occurrence does not tally with the evening occurrence order at any station. A semiannual equinoctial maximum in percentage of morning occurrence of the CEJ was obtained at Huancayo and Addis Ababa. Only Addis Ababa recorded equal equinoctial maxima in percentage of evening occurrence of the CEJ. The seasonal distribution of the occurrences of the CEJ at different time regimes implies a seasonal variability of causative mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of the CEJ.

  6. Generation of Electrojets in Weakly Ionized Plasmas through a Collisional Dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Dimant, Yakov S; Fletcher, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    Intense electric currents called electrojets occur in weakly ionized magnetized plasmas. An example occurs in the Earth's ionosphere near the magnetic equator where neutral winds drive the plasma across the geomagnetic field. Similar processes take place in the Solar chromosphere and MHD generators. This letter argues that not all convective neutral flows generate electrojets and it introduces the corresponding universal criterion for electrojet formation, $\

  7. GPS phase scintillation and auroral electrojet currents during geomagnetic storms of March 17, 2013 and 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prikryl, P.; Ghoddousi-Fard, R.; Viljanen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) compounded by high-speed plasma streams from coronal holes caused two intense geomagnetic storms on March 17–18, 2013 and 2015 during the current solar cycle. Ionospheric responses to the storms in the northern and southern hemispheres are compared in...

  8. Simultaneous observations at different altitudes of ionospheric backscatter in the eastward electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of evening near-range ionospheric backscatter in the CUTLASS Iceland radar field of view is two parallel, approximately L-shell-aligned regions of westward flow which are attributed to irregularities in the auroral eastward electrojet region of the ionosphere. These backscatter channels are separated by approximately 100–200 km in range. The orientation of the CUTLASS Iceland radar beams and the zonally aligned nature of the flow allows an approximate determination of flow angle to be made without the necessity of bistatic measurements. The two flow channels have different azimuthal variations in flow velocity and spectral width. The nearer of the two regions has two distinct spectral signatures. The eastern beams detect spectra with velocities which saturate at or near the ion-acoustic speed, and have low spectral widths (less than 100 m s–1, while the western beams detect lower velocities and higher spectral widths (above 200 m s–1. The more distant of the two channels has only one spectral signature with velocities above the ion-acoustic speed and high spectral widths. The spectral characteristics of the backscatter are consistent with E-region scatter in the nearer channel and upper-E-region or F-region scatter in the further channel. Temporal variations in the characteristics of both channels support current theories of E-region turbulent heating and previous observations of velocity-dependent backscatter cross-section. In future, observations of this nature will provide a powerful tool for the investigation of simultaneous E- and F-region irregularity generation under similar (nearly co-located or magnetically conjugate electric field conditions.Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric irregularities · Plasma convection

  9. Equatorial electrojet in the Indian region during the geomagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1998-11-14

    Nov 14, 1998 ... 1979). In addition to the prompt penetration elec- tric fields, there are disturbance dynamo electric fields caused by the disturbed time winds that. Keywords. Equatorial electrojet; equatorial ionosphere; geomagnetic storms. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125, No. 3, April 2016, pp. 669–675 c Indian Academy of Sciences.

  10. Short Communication: Equatorial electrojet strength in the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H, which is an indicator of the strength of the equatorial eastward electric field at this station, occurs later in the local summer months than during local winter months. ... The results emphasize the importance of solar activity and local seasonal variations on the strength of the equatorial electrojet current and are shown to be ...

  11. equatorial electrojet strength in the african sector during high and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University. PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E-mail: hbeimnet@hotmail.com. ABSTRACT: The daily ..... Printing Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2. Chandra, H., Sinha, H.S.S. and Rastogi, R.G. (2000). Equatorial electrojet studies from rocket and.

  12. IMF BY dependence of the extent of substorm westward electrojet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BY-component of the IMF influences the extent of the substorm westward electrojet. This finding implies that the IMF may have a role in controlling the longitudinal extent of substorm occurrence. 1. Introduction. The substorm phenomenon was ..... of the GEOTAIL Comprehensive Plasma Instru- ment (CPI) experiment, Prof.

  13. equatorial electrojet strength in the african sector during high and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    current system magnifying the solar quiet daily variations (Sq), the lunar quiet day variations and solar flare effects. This high concentration of electric current flowing from west to east in a narrow belt flanking the dip equator on the sunward hemisphere has been termed the equatorial electrojet. The overhead current system.

  14. IMF BY dependence of the extent of substorm westward electrojet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on an initial study of the magnetograms, an arbitrary local time of 2030 MLT is fixed to define the early manifestation of the substorm westward electrojet. Using this criterion 12 substorms are identified and the possible causes examined. Many of these events are observed to be associated with a moderate to intense ...

  15. Equatorial electrojet in the south Atlantic anomaly region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peru; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Report No. 620. Hirono M 1952 A theory of diurnal magnetic variations in equatorial regions and conductivity of the ionospheric E region; J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 4 7–21. Onwumechili C A, Kawasaki K and Akasofu S I 1973. Relationship between the equatorial electrojet and polar.

  16. Possible evidence for partial demagnetization of electrons in the auroral E-region plasma during electron gas heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haldoupis

    Full Text Available A previous study, based on incoherent and coherent radar measurements, suggested that during auroral E-region electron heating conditions, the electron flow in the auroral electrojet undergoes a systematic counterclockwise rotation of several degrees relative to the E×B direction. The observational evidence is re-examined here in the light of theoretical predictions concerning E-region electron demagnetization caused by enhanced anomalous cross-field diffusion during strongly-driven Farley-Buneman instability. It is shown that the observations are in good agreement with this theory. This apparently endorses the concept of wave-induced diffusion and anomalous electron collision frequency, and consequently electron demagnetization, under circumstances of strong heating of the electron gas in the auroral electrojet plasma. We recognize, however, that the evidence for electron demagnetization presented in this report cannot be regarded as definitive because it is based on a limited set of data. More experimental research in this direction is thus needed.

  17. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  18. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  19. Astrid-2 and ground-based observations of the auroral bulge in the middle of the nightside convection throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning the electrodynamics of the nightside auroral bulge are presented based on simultaneous satellite and ground-based observations. The satellite data include Astrid-2 measurements of electric fields, currents and particles from a midnight auroral oval crossing and Polar UVI images of the large-scale auroral distribution. The ground-based observations include STARE and SuperDARN electric fields and magnetic records from the Greenland and MIRACLE magnetometer network, the latter including stations from northern Scandinavia north to Svalbard. At the time of the Astrid-2 crossing the ground-based data reveal intense electrojet activity, both to the east and west of the Astrid-2 trajectory, related to the Polar observations of the auroral bulge but not necessarily to a typical substorm. The energetic electron fluxes measured by Astrid-2 across the auroral oval were generally weak being consistent with a gap observed in the auroral luminosity distribution. The electric field across the oval was directed westward, intensifying close to the poleward boundary followed by a decrease in the polar cap. The combined observations suggests that Astrid-2 was moving close to the separatrix between the dusk and dawn convection cells in a region of low conductivity. The constant westward direction of the electric field across the oval indicates that current continuity was maintained, not by polarisation electric fields (as in a Cowling channel, but solely by localized up- and downward field-aligned currents in good agreement with the Astrid-2 magnetometer data. The absence of a polarisation electric field and thus of an intense westward closure current between the dawn and dusk convection cells is consistent with the relatively weak precipitation and low conductivity in the convection throat. Thus, the Cowling current model is not adequate for describing the electrodynamics of the nightside auroral bulge treated here.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral

  20. Equatorial electrojet in the south Atlantic anomaly region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Features of the equatorial electrojet are studied at Sao Luiz (2.6°S, 44.2°W, inclination −0.25°) in eastern Brazil and Sikasso (11.3°N, 5.7°W, inclination 0.1°) in the western African sector. The stations are situated on either side of the lowest magnetic field intensity in the region of rapid changes in the declination. The daily ...

  1. The field of the equatorial electrojet from CHAMP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Le Mouël

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We apply a simple linear transform, the along-track second derivative, to four years of scalar and vectorial data from the CHAMP satellite. This transform, reminiscent of techniques used in the interpretation of aeromagnetic surveys, is applied either to the geocentric spherical components of the field or to its intensity. After averaging in time and space, we first produce a map of the crustal field, then maps of the equatorial electrojet field at all local times and all universal times. The seasonal variation of the electrojet, its evolution with the solar cycle, and the effect of geomagnetic activity are discussed. The variation of the electrojet with longitude, an intriguing feature revealed by satellite data, is described in some detail, and it is shown that this longitude dependance is stable in time. The existence of a counterelectrojet in the morning, everywhere except over the Pacific Ocean, is established. The signatures of closure electric currents and of interhemispheric currents are also evidenced.

  2. Morphological aspects of a new type of counter electrojet event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available The study describes the time and space morphologies of a rather new type of counter electrojet event on the basis of data from the excellent chain of magnetic and ionospheric observatories along the Indo-Russian longitude sector. Abnormally large westward currents are observed during almost the whole of the daytime hours on a series of days. These events do not form any vortices in the current system and do not apparently seem to be associated with tidal effects or any solar magnetosphere events or geomagnetic disturbances. The existence of a westward electric field over the equatorial ionosphere has been confirmed by the absence of an equatorial type of sporadic E in the ionograms at Thumba precisely during the periods when ∆H at Trivandrum minus ∆H at Alibag is negative. The equatorial F region anomaly was also absent on the counter electrojet day. Such counter electrojet events during the northern winter months of low solar activity years are suggested to be the result of the modified wind system in the ionosphere associated with stratospheric warming events.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations · diurnal to secular · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere

  3. Problem of Auroral Oval Mapping and Multiscale Auroral Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, Elizaveta; Stepanova, Marina; Kirpichev, Igor; Vovchenko, Vadim; Vorobjev, Viachislav; Yagodkina, Oksana

    The problem of the auroral oval mapping to the equatorial plane is reanalyzed taking into account the latest results of the analysis of plasma pressure distribution at low altitudes and at the equatorial plane. Statistical pictures of pressure distribution at low latitudes are obtained using data of DMSP observations. We obtain the statistical pictures of pressure distribution at the equatorial plane using data of THEMIS mission. Results of THEMIS observations demonstrate the existence of plasma ring surrounding the Earth at geocentric distances from ~6 till ~12Re. Plasma pressure in the ring is near to isotropic and its averaged values are larger than 0.2 nPa. We take into account that isotropic plasma pressure is constant along the field line and that the existence of field-aligned potential drops in the region of the acceleration of auroral electrons leads to pressure decrease at low altitudes. We show that most part of quite time auroral oval does not map to the real plasma sheet. It maps to the surrounding the Earth plasma ring. We also show that transverse currents in the plasma ring are closed inside the magnetosphere forming the high latitude continuation of the ordinary ring current. The obtained results are used for the explanation of ring like form of the auroral oval. We also analyze the processes of the formation of multiscale auroral structures including thin auroral arcs and discuss the difficulties of the theories of alfvenic acceleration of auroral electrons.

  4. Longitudinal (UT effect in the onset of auroral disturbances over two solar cycles as deduced from the AE-index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Hajkowicz

    Full Text Available Statistical study on the universal time variations in the mean hourly auroral electrojet index (AE-index has been undertaken for a 21 y period over two solar cycles (1957–1968 and 1978–1986. The analysis, applied to isolated auroral substorm onsets (inferred from rapid variations in the AE-index and to the bulk of the AE data, indicates that the maximum in auroral activity is largely confined to 09–18 UT, with a distinct minimum at 03–06 UT. The diurnal effect was clearly present throughout all seasons in the first cycle but was mainly limited to northern winter in the second cycle. Severe storms (AE > 1000 nT tended to occur between 9–18 UT irrespective of the seasons whereas all larger magnetic disturbances (AE > 500 nT tended to occur in this time interval mostly in winter. On the whole the diurnal trend was strong in winter, intermediate at equinox and weak in summer. The implication of this study is that Eastern Siberia, Japan and Australia are mostly at night, during the period of maximum auroral activity whereas Europe and Eastern America are then mostly at daytime. The minimum of auroral activity coincides with near-midnight conditions in Eastern America. It appears that the diurnal UT distribution in the AE-index reflects a diurnal change between interplanetary magnetic field orientation and the Earth's magnetic dipole inclination.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms.

  5. Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —    Methodology Fly a high altitude sounding rocket with multiple sub-payloads to measure electric and magnetic fields during an auroral event. Use...

  6. Morphological aspects of a new type of counter electrojet event

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    The study describes the time and space morphologies of a rather new type of counter electrojet event on the basis of data from the excellent chain of magnetic and ionospheric observatories along the Indo-Russian longitude sector. Abnormally large westward currents are observed during almost the whole of the daytime hours on a series of days. These events do not form any vortices in the current system and do not apparently seem to be associated with tidal effects or any solar magnetosphere eve...

  7. Longitudinal Variation of the Lunar Tide in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Stolle, Claudia; Matzka, Jürgen; Siddiqui, Tarique A.; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric lunar tide is one known source of ionospheric variability. The subject received renewed attention as recent studies found a link between stratospheric sudden warmings and amplified lunar tidal perturbations in the equatorial ionosphere. There is increasing evidence from ground observations that the lunar tidal influence on the ionosphere depends on longitude. We use magnetic field measurements from the CHAMP satellite during July 2000 to September 2010 and from the two Swarm satellites during November 2013 to February 2017 to determine, for the first time, the complete seasonal-longitudinal climatology of the semidiurnal lunar tidal variation in the equatorial electrojet intensity. Significant longitudinal variability is found in the amplitude of the lunar tidal variation, while the longitudinal variability in the phase is small. The amplitude peaks in the Peruvian sector (˜285°E) during the Northern Hemisphere winter and equinoxes, and in the Brazilian sector (˜325°E) during the Northern Hemisphere summer. There are also local amplitude maxima at ˜55°E and ˜120°E. The longitudinal variation is partly due to the modulation of ionospheric conductivities by the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. Another possible cause of the longitudinal variability is neutral wind forcing by nonmigrating lunar tides. A tidal spectrum analysis of the semidiurnal lunar tidal variation in the equatorial electrojet reveals the dominance of the westward propagating mode with zonal wave number 2 (SW2), with secondary contributions by westward propagating modes with zonal wave numbers 3 (SW3) and 4 (SW4). Eastward propagating waves are largely absent from the tidal spectrum. Further study will be required for the relative importance of ionospheric conductivities and nonmigrating lunar tides.

  8. GPS phase scintillation during the geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2015: The relation to auroral electrojet currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prikryl, Paul; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Connors, Martin

    mass ejections compounded by high-speed plasma streams from coronal holes. Geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2015 was the largest in the current solar cycle. The high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers...

  9. Mapping auroral activity with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, N. A.; MacDonald, E. A.; Heavner, M.; Tapia, A. H.; Lalone, N.

    2015-05-01

    Twitter is a popular, publicly accessible, social media service that has proven useful in mapping large-scale events in real time. In this study, for the first time, the use of Twitter as a measure of auroral activity is investigated. Peaks in the number of aurora-related tweets are found to frequently coincide with geomagnetic disturbances (detection rate of 91%). Additionally, the number of daily aurora-related tweets is found to strongly correlate with several auroral strength proxies (ravg≈0.7). An examination is made of the bias for location and time of day within Twitter data, and a first-order correction of these effects is presented. Overall, the results suggest that Twitter can provide both specific details about an individual aurora and accurate real-time indication of when, and even from where, an aurora is visible.

  10. Gradient-drift instability and turbulence in the equatorial electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuanghui

    The gradient-drift instability is of the Rayleigh-Taylor type, and is excited when equilibrium density gradients point in the direction of equilibrium electric fields. The linear and nonlinear evolution of the gradient-drift waves responsible for type II irregularities is studied theoretically using observed profiles in the equatorial electrojet. An outstanding challenge for theory is to account for the dominance of kilometer-scale structures in daytime as well as nighttime despite the fact that the density profiles during such conditions are quite different. A two-dimensional numerical system is designed to simulate gradient-drift turbulence in the equatorial electrojet, and to demonstrate the nonlinear energy cascade process. In the daytime, linearly unstable kilometer-scale waves grow at maximum growth rates as a result of the competition between the density-gradient drive and the damping due to diffusion, velocity shear, and recombination. The nonlinear mode coupling cascades energy from the linearly unstable long waves to the stable short waves, and results in turbulently saturated states with kilometer-scale structures, consistent with radar and in situ measurements. The vertical electron velocity spectra, constructed from the simulation output, show 1-2 km vertical structures which are qualitatively in agreement with high-resolution radar observations at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru. The nighttime density profiles, obtained by rocket flights at Alcantara (Brazil) during the Guara campaign in 1994, are much more jagged than the daytime ones and provide a strong density-gradient drive, with alternating stable and unstable regions in the vertical direction. In contrast with the daytime, the strong density-gradient drive produces peak linear growth rates at wavelengths of 10-20 meters. However, the kilometer-scale waves are also linearly unstable with sufficiently high growth rates that they play a crucial role in the nonlinear evolution of these

  11. Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Garlick, Dean; Goldfinger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS) consists of a large constellation of small, disposable satellites in a near polar orbit. CATS is designed to collect stereoscopic views of the earth environment that will be used for tomographical and earth environmental research. Each satellite will be identical and constructed of high-grade commercial parts, thus significantly reducing the cost of design, fabrication and components. The CATS constellation will be a significant step toward the de...

  12. Statistical analysis of the polar electrojet influence on geomagnetic transfer functions estimates over wide time and space scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Daniele; Armadillo, Egidio; Manzella, Adele

    2013-04-01

    Statistical analysis of the polar electrojet influence on geomagnetic transfer functions estimates over wide time and space scales. D.Rizzello(1),E.Armadillo(1),A.Manzella(2) 1)DISTAV - University of Genoa,Italy. 2)Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources - CNR, Pisa, Italy. Magnetotelluric (MT) and magnetovariational (MV) investigations can provide original information and constraints on the electrical conductivity, thermal state and structure of the crust and mantle at the base of the polar ice sheets. These methods provide depth resolution, lacking in potential field methods, and can reach high investigation depth, an invaluable advantage where very difficult logistic conditions prevent or limit the use of active methods such as seismic surveys. However, MT/MV surveys have not been applied extensively in polar areas mainly because electromagnetic data could be biased by the polar electrojet current systems (PEJ) occurring at high geomagnetic latitude. In fact, close to the auroral oval, the electromagnetic fields at ground may violate the uniform plane wave assumption at the base of standard MT/MV data processing, resulting in possible erroneous interpretations of the Earth's deep conductivity structure. It has been shown that a careful selection of events to be analyzed may decrease bias, and different robust techniques have been developed and applied. Even if the source currents flow in complex 3D systems that change from event to event in an unpredictable way, some general rules have been observed. Violations of uniform plane wave source assumption are enhanced during higher geomagnetic activity induced by high solar activity, because PEJ equivalent geometry becomes more complicated, affecting also EM field at lower latitudes. Differences in the degree of source distortions have also been reported between day/night and seasonal observations. The ISEE (Ice Sheet Electromagnetic Experiment) project, founded by the Italian National Antarctic Research

  13. Reconstruction of Fine Scale Auroral Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael; Zettergren, Matthew; Dahlgren, Hanna; Goenka, Chhavi; Akbari, Hassanali

    2015-01-01

    We present a feasibility study for a high frame rate, short baseline auroral tomographic imaging system useful for estimating parametric variations in the precipitating electron number flux spectrum of dynamic auroral events. Of particular interest are auroral substorms, characterized by spatial variations of order 100 m and temporal variations of order 10 ms. These scales are thought to be produced by dispersive Alfv\\'en waves in the near-Earth magnetosphere. The auroral tomography system characterized in this paper reconstructs the auroral volume emission rate to estimate the characteristic energy and location in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field of peak electron precipitation flux using a distributed network of precisely synchronized ground-based cameras. As the observing baseline decreases, the tomographic inverse problem becomes highly ill-conditioned; as the sampling rate increases, the signal-to-noise ratio degrades and synchronization requirements become increasingly critical. Our a...

  14. The auroral radiating plasma cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, A. (Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1992-02-07

    The electron density profile of the nightside high latitude region has been determined from a geocentric distance 1.5 R{sub E} to 3 R{sub E} by the use of the Viking Langmuir probe. Inside this region, density depletions are observed. Most of them coincide with acceleration structure crossings. Generation of Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) is observed in the strongest depletions between 1.5 and 2.5 R{sub E}. A threshold on the ratio plasma to electron gyrofrequency for AKR generation to occur is estimated at 0.14. This is in good agreement with the cyclotron maser instability theory for AKR generation.

  15. Auroral E-region electron density height profile modificationby electric field driven vertical plasma transport:some evidence in EISCAT CP-1 data statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bösinger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A model developed several years ago by Huuskonen et al. (1984 predicted that vertical transport of ions in the nocturnal auroral E-region ionosphere can shift the electron density profiles in altitude during times of sufficiently large electric fields. If the vertical plasma transport effect was to operate over a sufficiently long enough time, then the real height of the E-region electron maximum should be shifted some km upwards (downwards in the eastward (westward auroral electrojet, respectively, when the electric field is strong, exceeding, say, 50 mV/m. Motivated by these predictions and the lack of any experimental verification so far, we made use of the large database of the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar to investigate if the anticipated vertical plasma transport is at work in the auroral E-region ionosphere and thus to test the Huuskonen et al. (1984 model. For this purpose a new type of EISCAT data display was developed which enabled us to order a large number of electron density height profiles, collected over 16 years of EISCAT operation, according to the electric field magnitude and direction as measured at the same time at the radar's magnetic field line in the F-region. Our analysis shows some signatures in tune with a vertical plasma transport in the auroral E-region of the type predicted by the Huuskonen et al. model. The evidence brought forward is, however, not unambiguous and requires more rigorous analysis.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection; electric fields and currents

  16. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  17. Auroral effects in the D region of the ionosphere. [interactions between auroral particles and electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    1974-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the interaction between auroral particles and electromagnetic fields, auroral energy flow, and the propagation of auroral effects to low altitudes are discussed in detail. It is concluded that energy deposition of soft auroral X-rays would be negligible at stratospheric altitudes. New data from incoherent backscatter measurements of neutral winds in the auroral region indicate a lack of correlation between stratospheric winds and winds in the auroral ionosphere. Magnetograms are used to show that sector boundary crossings with a time scale of approximately one hour (as opposed to the sector structure itself with a time scale of several days) do not couple effectively with the magnetosphere and are not significant energy inputs to it.

  18. Evidence and effects of a wave-driven nonlinear current in the equatorial electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oppenheim

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric two-stream waves and gradient-drift waves nonlinearly drive a large-scale (D.C. current in the E-region ionosphere. This current flows parallel to, and with a comparable magnitude to, the fundamental Pedersen current. Evidence for the existence and magnitude of wave-driven currents derives from a theoretical understanding of E-region waves, supported by a series of nonlinear 2D simulations of two-stream waves and by data collected by rocket instruments in the equatorial electrojet. Wave-driven currents will modify the large-scale dynamics of the equatorial electrojet during highly active periods. A simple model shows how a wave-driven current appreciably reduces the horizontally flowing electron current of the electrojet. This reduction may account for the observation that type-I radar echoes almost always have a Doppler velocity close to the acoustic speed, and also for the rocket observation that electrojet regions containing gradient-drift waves do not appear also to contain horizontally propagating two-stream waves. Additionally, a simple model of a gradient-drift instability shows that wave-driven currents can cause nonsinusoidal electric fields similar to those measured in situ.

  19. A study of Sq(H) variations over equatorial electrojet regions | Okeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The newly established geomagnetic field observations in Japan, have enabled us to analyse the 1998 data of Huancayo, Kiritimati (Christmas Island) and Pohnpei where the geomagnetic Sq(H) variations of equatorial electrojet have been studied. The diurnal variation of the monthly means of Sq(H) on the five international ...

  20. Effect of solar flare on the equatorial electrojet in eastern Brazil region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of solar flare, sudden commencement of magnetic storm and of the disturbances ring current on the equatorial electrojet in the Eastern Brazil region, where the ground magnetic declination is as large as 20∘W is studied based on geomagnetic data with one minute resolution from Bacabal during ...

  1. Auroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn

    OpenAIRE

    Grodent, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter.

  2. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de Concepción, Concepción CHILE foppiano@udec.cl ABSTRACT A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de...UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED MORPHOLOGY OF SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE RIOMETER AURORAL ABSORPTION Alberto J. Foppiano Departamento de

  3. A substorm in midnight auroral precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available DMSP F7 spacecraft observations for the whole of 1986 were used to construct the empirical model of the midnight auroral precipitation during a substorm. The model includes the dynamics of different auroral precipitation boundaries and simultaneous changes in average electron precipitation energy and energy flux in different precipitation regions during all substorm phases, as well as the IMF and solar wind plasma signatures during a substorm. The analysis of the model shows a few important features of precipitation. (1 During the magnetic quietness and just before the beginning of the substorm expansive phase the latitudinal width of the auroral precipitation in the nightside sector is about 5 – 6° CGL, while that of the auroral oval is about 2 – 3° CGL during such periods. (2 For about 5 min before the substorm onset a decrease in the average precipitating electron energy in the equatorward part of auroral zone was observed simultaneously, with an increase in both the average electron energy and energy flux of electron precipitation in the poleward part of the auroral zone. (3 The isotropy boundary position in the beginning of the substorm expansive phase coincides well with the inner edge of the central plasma sheet. The analysis of interplanetary medium parameters shows that, on average, during the substorm development, the solar wind dynamic pressure was about 1.5 times that of the magnetic quietness period. Substorms occurred predominantly during the southward IMF orientation, suggesting that substorm onset often was not associated with the northern turn or decrease in the southward interplanetary Bz . The Northern Hemisphere’s substorms occurred generally during the positive interplanetary By in winter, and they were observed when the interplanetary By was negative in summer.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (storm and substorm; magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction

  4. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  5. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998–2014 of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (Kp>3 have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  6. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Inst. for Scientific Research; Carter, Brett A. [RMIT Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). SPACE Research Centre

    2017-07-01

    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K{sub p}>3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  7. Counter electrojet features in the Brazilian sector: simultaneous observation by radar, digital sounder and magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show new results regarding equatorial counter electrojet (CEJ events in the Brazilian sector, based on the RESCO radar, two set of fluxgate magnetometer systems and a digital sounder. RESCO radar is a 50 MHz backscatter coherent radar installed in 1998 at São Luís (SLZ, 2.33° S, 44.60° W, an equatorial site. The Digital sounder routinely monitors the electron density profile at the radar site. The magnetometer systems are fluxgate-type installed at SLZ and Eusébio (EUS, 03.89° S, 38.44° W. From the difference between the horizontal component of magnetic field at SLZ station and the same component at EUS (EEJ ground strength several cases of westward morning electrojet and its normal inversion to the eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ have been observed. Also, the EEJ ground strength has shown some cases of CEJ events, which been detected with the RESCO radar too. Detection of these events were investigated with respect to their time and height of occurrence, correlation with sporadic E (Es layers at the same time, and their spectral characteristics as well as the radar echo power intensity.

  8. Experimental studies of auroral arc generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszcynsky, D.M.; Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An all-sky video camera system was deployed in Eagle, Alaska at the foot of the magnetic field line that threads geosynchronous satellite 1989-046 as part of a campaign to study correlations of ground-based auroral activity with satellite-based plasma and energetic particle measurements. The overall intent of the project was to study magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling as it relates to the aurora, and, in particular, to look for signatures that may help to identify various auroral generator mechanism(s). During this study, our efforts were primarily directed towards identifying the generator mechanism(s) for pulsating aurora. Our data, though not conclusive, are found to support theories that propose a cyclotron resonance mechanism for the generation of auroral pulsations.

  9. Numerical modeling of the equatorial electrojet UT-variation on the basis of the model GSM TIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klimenko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presented work the results of numerical modeling of the UT-variation of the equatorial electrojet, executed on the basis of the model GSM TIP are presented, taking into account the dynamo electric fields generated by thermospheric winds in a current-carrying layer of the ionosphere at heights 80–175 km above a surface of the Earth. To the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP, developed in WD IZMIRAN, a new block for the calculation of electric fields in the ionosphere has been added. In this block the solution of the three-dimensional equation describing the conservation law of the full current in the Earth's ionosphere is reduced to the solution of the two-dimensional equation by integration along geomagnetic field lines. Calculations of parameters of the near-Earth space plasmas have been executed for quiet equinoctial conditions on 22 March 1987 during the minimum of solar activity.

    It has been shown, that there is a distinct semidiurnal harmonic in the diurnal behavior of the linear density of the equatorial electrojet with maxima at 23:00 UT and 15:00 UT, as well as with minima at 06:00 UT and 20:00 UT. The greatest and smallest values of the peak intensity of the equatorial electrojet with respect to the diurnal behavior can differ by a factor of two. The longitudinal extent of the area of the equatorial electrojet does hardly show any UT-variation, but the greatest longitudinal extent is at 06 UT. With the growth of the peak intensity of the equatorial electrojet its latitudinal extent also increases (on ~5–10° a little. At the same time the equatorial electrojet in the maxima of intensity has approximately an identical width, whereas in the minima the electrojet is narrow in the morning and wide in the afternoon.

    As for the surface density of the equatorial electrojet, its UT-variation is much weaker and equals ~1–3 A/km2 and the peak

  10. Correlation Between Low Frequency Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) and Auroral Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxamickas, Katherine A.; Green, James L.; Gallagher, Dennis L.; Boardsen, Scott; Mende, Stephen; Frey, Harald; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2005-01-01

    Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) is a radio wave emission that has long been associated with auroral activity. AKR is normally observed in the frequency range from -60 - 600 kHz. Low frequency AKR (or LF-AKR) events are characterized as a rapid extension of AKR related emissions to 30 kHz or lower in frequency for typically much less than 10 minutes. LF-AKR emissions predominantly occur within a frequency range of 20 kHz - 30 kHz, but there are LF-AKR related emissions that reach to a frequency of 5 kHz. This study correlates all instances of LF-AKR events during the first four years of observations from the IMAGE spacecraft's Radio Plasma Imager (WI) instrument with auroral observations from the wideband imaging camera (WIC) onboard IMAGE. The correlation between LF-AKR occurrence and WIC auroral observations shows that in the 295 confirmed cases of LF-AKR emissions, bifurcation of the aurora is seen in 74% of the cases. The bifurcation is seen in the dusk and midnight sectors of the auroral oval, where AKR is believed to be generated. The polarization of these LF-AKR emissions has yet to be identified. Although LF-AKR may not be the only phenomena correlated with bifurcated auroral structures, bifurcation will occur in most instances when LF-AKR is observed. The LF-AKR emissions may be an indicator of specific auroral processes sometimes occurring during storm-time conditions in which field-aligned density cavities extend a distance of perhaps 5-6 RE tailward from the Earth for a period of 10 minutes or less.

  11. Fractal approach to description of the auroral structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Kozelov

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades the fractal geometry has become a powerful approach to different physical problems. It is also found to be useful in image processing applications. A numerical quantity that characterizes the auroral structure would be important for auroral investigations. We try to obtain the quantity on the basis of the box-counting dimension of the line of equal intensity. In this paper we present results of some tests of our procedure by simulated images. The possibilities that the approach gives us for analysis of the auroral dynamics are discussed. The auroral dynamics during several typical auroral events are considered.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (nonlinear phenomena

  12. Waterhole - An auroral-ionosphere perturbation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, B. A.; Yau, A. W.; Creutzberg, F.; Pongratz, M. B.

    Preliminary results of the effect of the detonation of 100 kg of high explosives into the field lines of an auroral arc are presented. The payload was rocket-borne to an altitude of 300 km, and caused a depletion of the local ionospheric F region. The explosives were a mixture of the nitromethane and ammonium nitrate, and were housed in the front of the rocket while an instrument package trailed behind. The launch vehicle was a Black Brant X, and created an expanding cloud 40 km in diam. For 130 sec, a hole was cut in the electron precipitation field, and energetic electron precipitation in the hole dropped to background levels. The luminosity of the auroral arc observed by a ground-based scanning photometer decreased by a factor of two, and the ionospheric E region density below the hole decayed at a rate implying a reduction in particle precipitation.

  13. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  14. Variabilities of mesospheric tides and equatorial electrojet strength during major stratospheric warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridharan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the relationship between the high latitude northern hemispheric major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW events and the reversal in the afternoon equatorial electrojet (EEJ, often called the counter-electrojet (CEJ, during the winter months of 1998–1999, 2001–2002, 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. As the EEJ current system is driven by tidal winds, an investigation of tidal variabilities in the MF radar observed zonal winds during the winters of 1998–1999 and 2005–2006 at 88 km over Tirunelveli, a site close to the magnetic equator, shows that there is an enhancement of semi-diurnal tidal amplitude during the days of a major SSW event and a suppression of the same immediately after the event. The significance of the present results lies in demonstrating the latitudinal coupling between the high latitude SSW phenomenon and the equatorial ionospheric current system with clear evidence for major SSW events influencing the day-to-day variability of the CEJ.

  15. Statistical study of auroral omega bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partamies, Noora; Weygand, James M.; Juusola, Liisa

    2017-09-01

    The presence of very few statistical studies on auroral omega bands motivated us to test-use a semi-automatic method for identifying large-scale undulations of the diffuse aurora boundary and to investigate their occurrence. Five identical all-sky cameras with overlapping fields of view provided data for 438 auroral omega-like structures over Fennoscandian Lapland from 1996 to 2007. The results from this set of omega band events agree remarkably well with previous observations of omega band occurrence in magnetic local time (MLT), lifetime, location between the region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents, as well as current density estimates. The average peak emission height of omega forms corresponds to the estimated precipitation energies of a few keV, which experienced no significant change during the events. Analysis of both local and global magnetic indices demonstrates that omega bands are observed during substorm expansion and recovery phases that are more intense than average substorm expansion and recovery phases in the same region. The omega occurrence with respect to the substorm expansion and recovery phases is in a very good agreement with an earlier observed distribution of fast earthward flows in the plasma sheet during expansion and recovery phases. These findings support the theory that omegas are produced by fast earthward flows and auroral streamers, despite the rarity of good conjugate observations.

  16. Pulsating Aurora in Eveningside Giant Auroral Undulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns, M. J.; Hampton, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Giant auroral undulation events are characterized by large, periodic wavelike auroral structures occurring in at the boundary of the diffuse electron aurora and the subauroral zone. Previous papers regarding giant undulations (e.g. Lui et. al. 1982) were limited to satellite overpasses which provided only a snapshot of the event. We present high temporal and spatial resolution allsky camera imagery of several events. This imagery reveals pulsating aurora to be associated with giant undulations. This pulsating aurora is unusual in that it is in the evening sector, occurring within a very well-defined area, and is not closely associated with substorm activity. The data also yields undulation amplitude, phase speed, and wavelength, which is presented along with radar measurements of the ionospheric plasma drift for several events. Preliminary results suggest the undulations appear at areas of strong shear flow near the auroral/subauroral boundary, and give a dispersion relationship by comparing the wavelength and phase speed for various events. Lui, A. T. Y., C. I. Meng, and S. Ismail (1982), Large amplitude undulations on the equatorward boundary of the diffuse aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 2385-2400.

  17. Statistical study of auroral omega bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of very few statistical studies on auroral omega bands motivated us to test-use a semi-automatic method for identifying large-scale undulations of the diffuse aurora boundary and to investigate their occurrence. Five identical all-sky cameras with overlapping fields of view provided data for 438 auroral omega-like structures over Fennoscandian Lapland from 1996 to 2007. The results from this set of omega band events agree remarkably well with previous observations of omega band occurrence in magnetic local time (MLT, lifetime, location between the region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents, as well as current density estimates. The average peak emission height of omega forms corresponds to the estimated precipitation energies of a few keV, which experienced no significant change during the events. Analysis of both local and global magnetic indices demonstrates that omega bands are observed during substorm expansion and recovery phases that are more intense than average substorm expansion and recovery phases in the same region. The omega occurrence with respect to the substorm expansion and recovery phases is in a very good agreement with an earlier observed distribution of fast earthward flows in the plasma sheet during expansion and recovery phases. These findings support the theory that omegas are produced by fast earthward flows and auroral streamers, despite the rarity of good conjugate observations.

  18. Changes in the Martian atmosphere induced by auroral electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.

    2017-09-01

    Typical auroral events in the Martian atmosphere, such as discrete and diffuse auroral emissions detected by UV spectrometers onboard ESA Mars Express and NASA MAVEN, are investigated. Auroral electron kinetic energy distribution functions and energy spectra of the upward and downward electron fluxes are obtained by electron transport calculations using the kinetic Monte Carlo model. These characteristics of auroral electron fluxes make it possible to calculate both the precipitation-induced changes in the atmosphere and the observed manifestations of auroral events on Mars. In particular, intensities of discrete and diffuse auroral emissions in the UV and visible wavelength ranges (Soret et al., 2016; Bisikalo et al., 2017; Gérard et al., 2017). For these conditions of auroral events, the analysis is carried out, and the contribution of the fluxes of precipitating electrons to the heating and ionization of the Martian atmosphere is estimated. Numerical calculations show that in the case of discrete auroral events the effect of the residual crustal magnetic field leads to a significant increase in the upward fluxes of electrons, which causes a decrease in the rates of heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas in comparison with the calculations without taking into account the residual magnetic field. It is shown that all the above-mentioned impact factors of auroral electron precipitation processes should be taken into account both in the photochemical models of the Martian atmosphere and in the interpretation of observations of the chemical composition and its variations using the ACS instrument onboard ExoMars.

  19. Velocity of small-scale auroral ionospheric current systems over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    triangulation experiment at MAI is as follows. It is an established fact that the auroral regions of the. Earth form the locale for field-aligned currents aris- ing from precipitation of energetic magnetospheric. Keywords. Geomagnetic pulsations; mobile auroral current systems; field-aligned currents; Antarctica. Proc. Indian Acad.

  20. How do double layers form inside the auroral cavity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Daniel; Newman, David; Scholz, Clark; Ergun, Robert

    2011-10-01

    One of the unresolved questions in auroral physics is how the auroral potential drop is distributed. One view is that a near-uniform ambipolar electric field (with ~ mV/m electric field amplitudes) exists along auroral magnetic field lines which, when integrated, leads to auroral potential drops of ~104 V. Another view is that the field lines are populated by a number of discrete double layers (with amplitudes of a few hundred mV/m) which, when added up, can also leads to auroral potential drops of ~104 V. The actual field distribution may combine elements of both models. Here, we consider the second model focusing on the upward current region. We present results from one and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations of double layers (DLs) in the interior of the auroral cavity, known as ``mid-cavity'' DLs (Ergun et. al.,2004). The simulations include hot H+ magnetospheric ions and electrons, cold dense ionospheric electrons, and H+ and O+ beams. We show that upon the formation of a DL at the ionosphere-auroral cavity boundary, the non-linear evolution of the ion beams in the auroral cavity leads to an earthward traveling H+ beam. This H+ beam interacts with the anti-earthward H+ beam forming an ion acoustic soliton and a candidate mid-cavity DL. FAST data in support of this interpretation are presented.

  1. Vlasov simulations of auroral flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunell, Herbert; De Keyser, Johan; Mann, Ingrid

    2013-04-01

    Electric fields that are parallel to the earth's magnetic field are known to exist in the auroral zone, where they contribute to the acceleration of auroral electrons. Thus, parallel electric fields form an integral part of the auroral current circuit. Transverse electric fields at high altitude result in parallel electric fields as a consequence of the closure of the field-aligned currents through the conducting ionosphere (L. R. Lyons, JGR, vol. 85, 1724, 1980). These parallel electric fields can be supported by the magnetic mirror field (Alfvén and Fälthammar, Cosmical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., 1963). The current-voltage characteristics of an auroral flux tube has been studied using stationary kinetic models (Knight, Planet. and Space Sci., vol. 21, 741-750, 1973). Observations have shown that field-aligned potential drops often are concentrated in electric double layers (e.g. Ergun, et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, 3685-3694, 2002). In the upward current region, 20-50% of the total potential drop has been identified as localised. How the rest of the potential is spread out as function of altitude is not yet known from observations (Ergun et al., J. Geophys. Res., vol. 109, A12220, doi:101.1029/2004JA010545, 2004). We have performed Vlasov simulations, using a model that is one-dimensional in configuration space and two-dimensional in velocity space. In the upward current region, most of the potential drop is found in a thin, stationary, double layer. The rest is in a region, which extends a few earth radii above it. The current-voltage characteristic approximately follows the Knight relation. The altitude of the double layer decreases with an increasing field-aligned potential drop. In the downward current region, the voltage is significantly lower than in the upward current region for the same value of the current. Double layers have been observed also in the downward current region (Andersson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, 3600-3609, doi:10

  2. The auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Wayne R; Rymer, Abigail M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hill, Thomas W; Young, David T; Saur, Joachim; Jones, Geraint H; Jacobsen, Sven; Cowley, Stan W H; Mauk, Barry H; Coates, Andrew J; Gustin, Jacques; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Lamy, Laurent; Nichols, Jonathan D; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Esposito, Larry W; Dougherty, Michele K; Jouchoux, Alain J; Stewart, A Ian F; McClintock, William E; Holsclaw, Gregory M; Ajello, Joseph M; Colwell, Joshua E; Hendrix, Amanda R; Crary, Frank J; Clarke, John T; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-21

    Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between Enceladus and Saturn like that which links Jupiter with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Powerful field-aligned electron beams associated with the Io-Jupiter coupling, for example, create an auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. Auroral ultraviolet emission associated with Enceladus-Saturn coupling is anticipated to be just a few tenths of a kilorayleigh (ref. 12), about an order of magnitude dimmer than Io's footprint and below the observable threshold, consistent with its non-detection. Here we report the detection of magnetic-field-aligned ion and electron beams (offset several moon radii downstream from Enceladus) with sufficient power to stimulate detectable aurora, and the subsequent discovery of Enceladus-associated aurora in a few per cent of the scans of the moon's footprint. The footprint varies in emission magnitude more than can plausibly be explained by changes in magnetospheric parameters--and as such is probably indicative of variable plume activity.

  3. Carl Størmer Auroral Pioneer

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    2013-01-01

    This biography summarizes the seminal contributions to auroral and space science of Carl Størmer (1874 - 1957). He was the first to develop precise photographic methods to calculate heights and morphologies of diverse auroral forms during four solar cycles. Størmer independently devised numerical techniques to determine the trajectories of high-energy charged particles allowed and forbidden in the Earth’s magnetic field. His theoretical analyses explained cosmic ray access to the upper atmosphere, 20 years before they were identified by other scientists. Størmer’s crowning achievement, “The Polar Aurora,” published when he was 81 years old, stands to this day as a regularly cited guide in graduate-level courses on space physics.   The authors present the life of this prodigious scientist in relation to the cultural life of early 20th century in Norway and to the development of the space sciences in the post-Sputnik era.

  4. Cluster in the Auroral Acceleration Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S.; Fazakerley, Andrew N.; Marklund, Gorun; Dandouras, Iannis; Christopher, Ivar W.; Kistler, Lynn; Lucek, Elizabeth; Masson, Arnaud; Taylor, Matthew G.; Mutel, Robert L.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Due to a fortuitous evolution of the Cluster orbit, the Cluster spacecraft penetrated for the first time in its mission the heart of Earth's auroral acceleration region (AAR) in December 2009 and January 2010. During this time a special AAR campaign was carried out by the various Cluster instrument teams with special support from ESA and NASA facilities. We present some of the first multi-spacecraft observations of the waves, particles and fields made during that campaign. The Cluster spacecraft configuration during these AAR passages was such that it allowed us to explore the differences in the signatures of waves, particles, and fields on the various spacecraft in ways not possible with single spacecraft. For example, one spacecraft was more poleward than the other three (C2), one was at higher altitude (C1), and one of them (0) followed another (C4) through the AAR on approximately the same track but delayed by three minutes. Their separations were generally on the order of a few thousand km or less and occasionally two of them were lying along the same magnetic field line. We will show some of the first analyses of the data obtained during the AAR campaign, where upward and downward current regions, and the waves specifically associated with those regions, as well as the auroral cavities, were observed similarly and differently on the various spacecraft, helping us to explore the spatial, as well as the temporal, aspects of processes occurring in the AAR.

  5. Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, K.; Stauning, P.

    2012-03-01

    The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851-1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962) and Feldstein (1963) more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a), he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898). Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education - not a university - he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

  6. Auroral omens of the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aurorae are a splendid night-time sight: coruscations of green, purple, and red fluorescent light in the form of gently wafting ribbons, billowing curtains, and flashing rays. Mostly seen at high latitudes, in the north aurorae are often called the northern lights or aurora borealis, and, in the south, the southern lights or aurora australis. The mystery of their cause has historically been the subject of wonder. The folklore and mythology of some far-northern civilizations attributed auroral light to celestial deities. And, in ironic contrast with their heavenly beauty, unusual auroral displays, such as those seen on rare occasions at lower southern latitudes, have sometimes been interpreted as portending unfavorable future events. Today we understand aurorae to be a visual manifestation of the dynamic conditions in the space environment surrounding the earth. Important direct evidence in support of this theory came on September 1, 1859. On that day, an English astronomer named Richard Carrington was situated at his telescope, which was pointed at the sun. While observing and sketching a large group of sunspots, he saw a solar flare—intense patches of white light that were superimposed upon the darker sunspot group and which were illuminated for about a minute. One day later, a magnetic storm was recorded at specially designed observatories in Europe, across Russia, and in India. By many measures, the amplitude of magnetic disturbance was the greatest ever recorded. In the United States, the effects of the Carrington storm could be seen as irregular backand-forth deflections of a few degrees in the magnetized needle of a compass. Rapid magnetic variation also induced electric fields in the earth’s conducting lithosphere, and interfered with the operation of telegraph systems. The Carrington magnetic storm, and an earlier storm that had occurred on August 28, 1859, caused spectacular displays of aurora borealis in the night-time sky over the entire United

  7. ULF wave measurements onboard the Interball auroral probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perraut

    Full Text Available The IESP experiment implemented onboard the Interball auroral probe measures the six components (3B, 3E of the waves in the ULF range: 0.1–10 Hz and from time to time 0–30 Hz. Two different kinds of waves have been observed in the auroral region at altitudes between 10 000 and 20 000 km: (1 electrostatic emissions which consist of quasi-monochromatic structures with frequencies above the oxygen gyrofrequency, superimposed on a wide band signal interpreted as a Doppler broadening, (2 electromagnetic wide band spectrum fluctuations. These emissions are interpreted as current-driven electromagnetic or electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The electromagnetic/electrostatic character is controlled by the plasma parameter βi and by the O+ concentration.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Auroral phenomena · Plasma waves and instabilities · Interball Auroral probe

  8. RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex (AMM) Mission star tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This document is in response to the John Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission star tracker.It describes the functionality, the requirements and the performance of the ASC Star Tracker....

  9. JUNO SW JOVIAN AURORAL DISTRIBUTION UNCALIBRATED V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of all of the uncalibrated data collected by the JADE (Jovian Auroral Plasma Distributions Experiment) on-board the Juno spacecraft. For more...

  10. Solar wind control of stratospheric temperatures in Jupiter's auroral regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James Andrew; Orton, Glenn; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Tao, Chihiro; Waite, J. Hunter; Cravens, Thomas; Houston, Stephen; Fletcher, Leigh; Irwin, Patrick; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2017-10-01

    Auroral emissions are the process through which the interaction of a planet’s atmosphere and its external magnetosphere can be studied. Jupiter exhibits auroral emission at a multitude of wavelengths including the X-ray, ultraviolet and near-infrared. Enhanced emission of CH4 and other stratospheric hydrocarbons is also observed coincident with Jupiter’s shorter-wavelength auroral emission (e.g. Caldwell et al., 1980, Icarus 44, 667-675, Kostiuk et al., 1993, JGR 98, 18823). This indicates that auroral processes modify the thermal structure and composition of the auroral stratosphere. The exact mechanism responsible for this auroral-related heating of the stratosphere has however remained elusive (Sinclair et al., 2017a, Icarus 292, 182-207, Sinclair et al., 2017b, GRL, 44, 5345-5354). We will present an analysis of 7.8-μm images of Jupiter measured by COMICS (Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrograph, Kataza et al., 2000, Proc. SPIE(4008), 1144-1152) on the Subaru telescope. These images were acquired on January 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, February 4, 5th and May 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th in 2017, allowing the daily variability of Jupiter’s auroral-related stratospheric heating to be tracked. Preliminary results suggest lower stratospheric temperatures are directly forced by the solar wind dynamical pressure. The southern auroral hotspot exhibited a significant increase in brightness temperature over a 24-hour period. Over the same time period, a solar wind propagation model (Tao et al. 2005, JGR 110, A11208) predicts a strong increase in the solar wind dynamical pressure at Jupiter.

  11. Astrid-2, an advanced microsatellite for auroral research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Swedish microsatellite Astrid-2 in December 1998 began a new era of auroral research, with advanced microprobes of 30 kg or less used as research tools. Innovative technologies and low-mass solutions were used for the sensors and deployment systems to allow a fairly complete set of scientific instruments within the 10 kg allocated for the scientific payload. A newly developed wire boom deployment system proved to function excellently. During its seven month lifetime Astrid-2 collected more than 26 Gbytes of high-quality data of auroral electric and magnetic fields, and auroral particle and plasma characteristics from approximately 3000 orbits at an inclination of 83° and an altitude of about 1000 km. Scientific results cover a broad range of topics, from the physics of energization of auroral particles to how the magnetosphere responds to the energy input from the solar wind and global magnetic field modelling. The fulfilment of both the technological and the scientific mission objectives has opened entirely new possibilities to carry out low-budget multipoint measurements in near-Earth space.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; instruments and techniques – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  12. Astrid-2, an advanced microsatellite for auroral research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Swedish microsatellite Astrid-2 in December 1998 began a new era of auroral research, with advanced microprobes of 30 kg or less used as research tools. Innovative technologies and low-mass solutions were used for the sensors and deployment systems to allow a fairly complete set of scientific instruments within the 10 kg allocated for the scientific payload. A newly developed wire boom deployment system proved to function excellently. During its seven month lifetime Astrid-2 collected more than 26 Gbytes of high-quality data of auroral electric and magnetic fields, and auroral particle and plasma characteristics from approximately 3000 orbits at an inclination of 83° and an altitude of about 1000 km. Scientific results cover a broad range of topics, from the physics of energization of auroral particles to how the magnetosphere responds to the energy input from the solar wind and global magnetic field modelling. The fulfilment of both the technological and the scientific mission objectives has opened entirely new possibilities to carry out low-budget multipoint measurements in near-Earth space.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; instruments and techniques – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  13. Asymmetry of the TEC Anomaly from the Meridional Neutral Wind and Equatorial Electrojet Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Pradipta, R.; Sheehan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) is significant ionospheric phenomena caused by the so-called fountain effect, which is driven by a zonal eastward electric field. This process involves the altitudinal coupling, electrodynamics and inhomogeneity of ionospheric plasma densities in the equatorial and low latitude regions. Not only eastward electric field, but neutral winds also play a role in controlling the actual configuration of the EIA. In the present study, an attempt is made to reveal the effect of the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strengths associated with eastward electric field and meridional neutral winds for the generation and control of the asymmetries on EIA crests of TEC (Total Electron Content) about the magnetic equator in the American sector. Our results show that as EEJ is stronger (weaker), EIA crests are formed farther (closer) from equator on the western (eastern) side of South America. A physics-based numerical model is used to study the effects of daytime meridional neutral winds and EEJ on consequent evolution of asymmetry in equatorial TEC anomalies during afternoon and onwards. This result implies that the electric field associated with the EEJ together with meridional neutral winds may play a key role in the development of observed asymmetries of EIA crests and dictate the shape, size, amplitude and separation of the EIA crests as seen through ionospheric TEC distribution measured using GPS (Global Positioning System) in the low latitudes ionosphere.

  14. High altitude large-scale plasma waves in the equatorial electrojet at twilight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Jicamarca radar observations of a new class of large-scale plasma waves in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ are presented and characterized. The study is based on long-term (204 days, single-baseline interferometry observations made in 2003 using a low-power radar mode, also known as JULIA mode, along with a few hours of observations made in an aperture synthesis imaging mode. The large-scale waves are found to occur at high altitudes in the E-region, mainly between 120 and 140km, around twilight (between 18:30 and 20:00 LT, with durations of a few minutes to an hour. In our long-term observations, these large-scale waves occur very often (between 1 and 5 out 10 nights, drift westward (~70 ms–1, exhibit very narrow spectral widths, and have both positive and negative Doppler shifts. The imaging results show that the large-scale waves occur along tilted bands that sweep westward and downward (~30–60ms–1, with a horizontal separation between bands of about 10–15km. The cause of the waves remains unknown.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; equatorial ionosphere; instruments and techniques

  15. The longitudinal variability of equatorial electrojet and vertical drift velocity in the African and American sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While the formation of equatorial electrojet (EEJ and its temporal variation is believed to be fairly well understood, the longitudinal variability at all local times is still unknown. This paper presents a case and statistical study of the longitudinal variability of dayside EEJ for all local times using ground-based observations. We found EEJ is stronger in the west American sector and decreases from west to east longitudinal sectors. We also confirm the presence of significant longitudinal difference in the dusk sector pre-reversal drift, using the ion velocity meter (IVM instrument onboard the C/NOFS satellite, with stronger pre-reversal drift in the west American sector compared to the African sector. Previous satellite observations have shown that the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This study's results raises the question if the vertical drift, which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh–Taylor (RT instability growth rate, is stronger in the American sector and weaker in the African sector – why are the occurrence and amplitude of equatorial irregularities stronger in the African sector?

  16. Dawn Auroral Breakup at Saturn Initiated by Auroral Arcs: UVIS/Cassini Beginning of Grand Finale Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Yao, Z. H.; Gérard, J.-C.; Badman, S. V.; Pryor, W.; Bonfond, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present Cassini auroral observations obtained on 11 November 2016 with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph at the beginning of the F-ring orbits and the Grand Finale phase of the mission. The spacecraft made a close approach to Saturn's southern pole and offered a remarkable view of the dayside and nightside aurora. With this sequence we identify, for the first time, the presence of dusk/midnight arcs, which are azimuthally spread from high to low latitudes, suggesting that their source region extends from the outer to middle/inner magnetosphere. The observed arcs could be auroral manifestations of plasma flows propagating toward the planet from the magnetotail, similar to terrestrial "auroral streamers." During the sequence the dawn auroral region brightens and expands poleward. We suggest that the dawn auroral breakup results from a combination of plasma instability and global-scale magnetic field reconfiguration, which is initiated by plasma flows propagating toward the planet. Alternatively, the dawn auroral enhancement could be triggered by tail magnetic reconnection.

  17. The afternoon counter-electrojet current system along the 75°E meridian during the IEEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, S. K.; Subba Rao, P. B. V.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the technique of principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to analyze the hourly mean values of geomagnetic field components D, H, and Z along an Indo-Russian chain of stations during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) from January 1992 to June 1993. This technique (PCA) is found to be suitable for separating the normal electrojet (NEJ) and counter-electrojet (CEJ) variations, and the first two principal components (PCs) are able to describe the characteristics of NEJ- and CEJ-related field variations. It is found that the first principal component (PC-1) for H, D, and Z varies as a function of time with latitude and depicts the well-known Sq variations, whereas PC-2(H) does not show any variations at all latitudes during NEJ days. On CEJ days, PC-2(H) shows a large negative excursion at equatorial stations (KAN to BAN). The NEJ- and CEJ-related current systems are determined by combining the hourly inequalities in D and H. PC-1 brings out a well-defined anticlockwise loop for NEJ days, with its focus near the dip latitude ( 35°N), and a clockwise loop for CEJ days with a well-defined focus near the dip latitude ( 20°N) around noon local time. The CEJ-related current system is marked by intense westward current flow in the equatorial belt and is shown to close its path by forming a clockwise loop extending from the dip equator to midlatitudes. Comparison with a numerically simulated current system, caused by various tidal modes, emphasizes the significance of antisymmetric semidiurnal tidal modes in the generation of CEJ events.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Diurnal auroral occurrence statistics obtained via machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Syrjäsuo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern ground-based digital auroral All-Sky Imager (ASI networks capture millions of images annually. Machine vision techniques are widely utilised in the retrieval of images from large data bases. Clearly, they can play an important scientific role in dealing with data from auroral ASI networks, facilitating both efficient searches and statistical studies. Furthermore, the development of automated techniques for identifying specific types of aurora opens up the potential of ASI control software that would change instrument operation in response to evolving geophysical conditions. In this paper, we describe machine vision techniques that we have developed for use on large auroral image data sets. We present the results of application of these techniques to a 350000 image subset of the CANOPUS Gillam ASI in the years 1993–1998. In particular, we obtain occurrence statistics for auroral arcs, patches, and Omega-bands. These results agree with those of previous manual auroral surveys.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Instruments and techniques General (new fields

  19. Diurnal auroral occurrence statistics obtained via machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Syrjäsuo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern ground-based digital auroral All-Sky Imager (ASI networks capture millions of images annually. Machine vision techniques are widely utilised in the retrieval of images from large data bases. Clearly, they can play an important scientific role in dealing with data from auroral ASI networks, facilitating both efficient searches and statistical studies. Furthermore, the development of automated techniques for identifying specific types of aurora opens up the potential of ASI control software that would change instrument operation in response to evolving geophysical conditions. In this paper, we describe machine vision techniques that we have developed for use on large auroral image data sets. We present the results of application of these techniques to a 350000 image subset of the CANOPUS Gillam ASI in the years 1993–1998. In particular, we obtain occurrence statistics for auroral arcs, patches, and Omega-bands. These results agree with those of previous manual auroral surveys.Key words. Ionosphere (Instruments and techniques General (new fields

  20. Electrojet control of ambient ionization near the crest of the equatorial anomaly in the Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Chakraborty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term (1978–1990 database of total electron content (TEC from a location (Calcutta: 22.58° N, 88.38° E geographic, dip: 32° N near the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly has extensively been studied to characterize the contribution of fountain effect in the maintenance of ambient ionization. The equatorial electrojet (EEJ data obtained from ground magnetometer recording are used to assess the contribution of equatorial fountain. Analysis made with instantaneous values, day's maximum values and time-integrated values of EEJ strength exhibit more or less similar features. When instantaneous values of EEJ are considered TEC variations exhibit two maxima in correlation, one around 10:00–12:00 IST and the other around 18:00–20:00 IST. The later maximum in correlation coefficient is conspicuously absent when integrated values of EEJ are considered. An impulse-like feature is reflected in the diurnal TEC variation during the time intervals (09:00–10:00 IST and (18:00–19:00 IST. The statistical analysis reveals greater correspondence with high level of significance between diurnal TEC and EEJ in the descending epoch of solar cycle than in the ascending one. On the seasonal basis, TEC in the summer solstitial months are observed to be more sensitive to the changes in EEJ strength than in the equinoctial and winter solstitial months. Combining the effects of solar flux, season, local time and EEJ an empirical formula for monthly mean diurnal TEC has been developed and validated using observed TEC data. An estimation of the relative contributions of the several terms appearing in the formula reveals much more solar flux contribution (~50–70% in the maintenance of ambient ionization around the present location than the EEJ effects (maximum~20%.

  1. Electrojet control of ambient ionization near the crest of the equatorial anomaly in the Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Chakraborty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term (1978–1990 database of total electron content (TEC from a location (Calcutta: 22.58° N, 88.38° E geographic, dip: 32° N near the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly has extensively been studied to characterize the contribution of fountain effect in the maintenance of ambient ionization. The equatorial electrojet (EEJ data obtained from ground magnetometer recording are used to assess the contribution of equatorial fountain. Analysis made with instantaneous values, day's maximum values and time-integrated values of EEJ strength exhibit more or less similar features. When instantaneous values of EEJ are considered TEC variations exhibit two maxima in correlation, one around 10:00–12:00 IST and the other around 18:00–20:00 IST. The later maximum in correlation coefficient is conspicuously absent when integrated values of EEJ are considered. An impulse-like feature is reflected in the diurnal TEC variation during the time intervals (09:00–10:00 IST and (18:00–19:00 IST. The statistical analysis reveals greater correspondence with high level of significance between diurnal TEC and EEJ in the descending epoch of solar cycle than in the ascending one. On the seasonal basis, TEC in the summer solstitial months are observed to be more sensitive to the changes in EEJ strength than in the equinoctial and winter solstitial months. Combining the effects of solar flux, season, local time and EEJ an empirical formula for monthly mean diurnal TEC has been developed and validated using observed TEC data. An estimation of the relative contributions of the several terms appearing in the formula reveals much more solar flux contribution (~50–70% in the maintenance of ambient ionization around the present location than the EEJ effects (maximum~20%.

  2. Global characteristics of the lunar tidal modulation of the equatorial electrojet derived from CHAMP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known since many decades that lunar tide has an influence on the strength of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. There has, however, never been a comprehensive study of the tidal effect on a global scale. Based on the continuous magnetic field measurements by the CHAMP satellite over 10 years it is possible to investigate the various aspects of lunar effects on the EEJ. The EEJ intensity is enhanced around times when the moon is overhead or at the antipode. This effect is particularly strong around noon, shortly after new and full moon. The lunar tide manifests itself as a semi-diurnal wave that precesses through all local times within one lunar month. The largest tidal amplitudes are observed around December solstice and smallest around June solstice. The tidal wave crest lags behind the moon phase. During December this amounts to about 4 days while it is around 2 days during other times of the year. We have not found significant longitudinal variations of the lunar influence on the EEJ. When comparing the average EEJ amplitude at high solar activity with that during periods of solar minimum conditions a solar cycle dependence can be found, but the ratio between tidal amplitude and EEJ intensity stays the same. Actually, tidal signatures standout clearer during times of low solar activity. We suggest that the tidal variations are caused by a current system added to the EEJ rather than by modulating the EEJ. Gravitational forcing of the lower atmosphere by the moon and the sun is assumed to be the driver of an upward propagating tidal wave. The larger tidal amplitudes around December solstice can be related to stratospheric warming events which seem to improve the conditions for upward propagation. The results described here have to large extent been presented as a Julius-Bartels Medal Lecture during the General Assembly 2011 of the European Geosciences Union.

  3. Analysis of auroral infrared emissions observed during the ELIAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Caledonia

    Full Text Available The ELIAS (Earth Limb Infrared Atmospheric Structure experiment was flown from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska in 1983 and successfully monitored visible and infrared emissions from an IBC III+ aurora. Measurements were performed in both staring and scanning modes over several hundred seconds. The data for short- and mid-wave infrared regions have been analyzed in terms of auroral excitation of the NO and NO+ vibrational bands. Auroral excitation efficiencies and kinetic implications are presented.

  4. First results of the Auroral Turbulance II rocket experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielides, M.A.; Ranta, A.; Ivchenco, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Auroral Turbulance II sounding rocket was launched on February 11, 1997 into moderately active nightside aurora from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, US. The experiment consisted of three independent, completely instrumented payloads launched by a single vehicle. The aim of the experiment...

  5. New frontiers in H-Beta auroral photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unick, C.; Donovan, E.; Connors, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.; Greffen, M. J.; Wilson, C.; Little, J.; Chaddock, D.; Schofield, I.; MacRae, A.; Chen, S.; Crowther, A.; James, S.; Read, A.; Willis, T.

    2013-12-01

    The proton aurora provides valuable information about magnetotail structure and dynamics. For example, the location of the equatorward boundary of the proton aurora is a robust indicator of magnetotail stretching. Also, proton auroral luminosities combined with in situ ion measurements provide important information about magnetic mapping between the inner CPS and the auroral ionosphere. In this paper, we present a new and innovative proton-auroral (H-Beta) meridian-scanning photometer (MSP) capable of higher spatial and temporal resolution than has been achieved in the past. This H-Beta MSP is the first of a new dual-wavelength (signal/background) MSP design with a single scanning mirror and no other moving parts. The novel filtering architecture allows for a near 100% duty cycle with a 30-second meridian scan and configurable operating modes. The new design is significantly more sensitive than the legacy CANOPUS MSPs. The increased SNR can be employed in a variety of ways, such as to achieve significantly higher time resolution. Here, we present the new instrument design, test data from a commissioning campaign in Athabasca, and some thoughts on how the enhance proton auroral capability can increase the science value of these measurements.

  6. Excitation of low-frequency electrostatic instability on the auroral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-Frequency Electrostatic Instability That Is Observed By Both Ground Facilities And Satellites Have Been Studied In The Auroral Acceleration Region Consisting Of Hot Precipitating Electron Beam From The Magnetosphere, Cold Background Electron And Ion Beam Moving Upward Away From The Earth Along The ...

  7. Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) for the e-POP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Leroy; Howarth, Andrew; Yau, Andrew; White, Andrew; Enno, Greg; Trondsen, Trond; Asquin, Don; Gordon, Blair; Marchand, Paul; Ng, Danny; Burley, Greg; Lessard, Marc; Sadler, Brent

    2015-06-01

    The Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) consists of two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras: one to measure the 630 nm emission of atomic oxygen in aurora and enhanced night airglow; and the other to observe the prompt auroral emissions in the 650 to 1100 nm range. High sensitivity is realized through the combination of fast lens systems ( f/0.8) and CCDs of high quantum efficiency (>90 % max). The cameras have a common 26 degree field-of-view to provide nighttime images of about 650 km diameter from apogee at 1500 km. The near infrared camera provides up to two images of 0.1 s exposure per second with a spatial resolution of a few km when the camera is pointing in the nadir direction, making it suitable for studies of dynamic auroral phenomena. The 630-nm camera has been designed to provide one image of 0.5 s exposure every 30 seconds. Launch of the satellite occurred on September 29, 2013. Following a description of the instrument, sample auroral images are presented.

  8. Height-integrated conductivity in auroral substorms - 2. Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Calculations of height-integrated conductivity from 31 individual Dynamics Explorer (DE 2) substorm crossings presented by Gjerloev and Hoffman [this issue] are used to compile empirical models of the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities (conductances) in a bulge-type auroral substorm...

  9. Velocity of small-scale auroral ionospheric current systems over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While several magnetometer arrays exist in the northern auroral regions (e.g., the Alberta array in Canada, the Alaskan array in the U.S. and the IMS Scandinavian array), there is no report in literature of triangulation through arrays in Antarctica, except for a one-day study by Neudegg et al 1995 for ULF pulsations of the Pc1 ...

  10. Improving level set method for fast auroral oval segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2014-07-01

    Auroral oval segmentation from ultraviolet imager images is of significance in the field of spatial physics. Compared with various existing image segmentation methods, level set is a promising auroral oval segmentation method with satisfactory precision. However, the traditional level set methods are time consuming, which is not suitable for the processing of large aurora image database. For this purpose, an improving level set method is proposed for fast auroral oval segmentation. The proposed algorithm combines four strategies to solve the four problems leading to the high-time complexity. The first two strategies, including our shape knowledge-based initial evolving curve and neighbor embedded level set formulation, can not only accelerate the segmentation process but also improve the segmentation accuracy. And then, the latter two strategies, including the universal lattice Boltzmann method and sparse field method, can further reduce the time cost with an unlimited time step and narrow band computation. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory performance for auroral oval segmentation within a very short processing time.

  11. Azimuthal expansion of high-latitude auroral arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Safargaleev

    Full Text Available We used the TV auroral observations in Barentsburg (78.05° N 14.12° E in Spitsbergen archipelago, together with the data of the CUTLASS HF radars and the POLAR satellite images to study azimuthal (in the east-west direction expansion of the high-latitude auroral arcs. It is shown that the east or west edge of the arc moved in the same direction as the convection flow, westward in the pre-midnight sector and eastward in the post-midnight sector. The velocity of arc expansion was of the order of 2.5 km/s, which is 2–3 times larger than the convection velocity measured in the arc vicinity and 2–3 times smaller than the velocity of the bright patches propagating along the arc. The arc expanded from the active auroras seen from the POLAR satellite around midnight as a region of enhanced luminosity, which might be the auroral bulge or WTS. The pole- or equatorward drift of the arcs occurred at the velocity of the order of 100 m/s that was close to the convection velocity in the same direction. These experimental results can be well explained in terms of the interchange (or flute instability.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  12. The relationship between the magnetosphere and magnetospheric/auroral substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-I. Akasofu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of auroral and polar magnetic substorm studies, the relationship between the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo (the DD dynamo current and the substorm dynamo (the UL dynamo current is studied. The characteristics of both the DD and UL currents reveal why auroral substorms consist of the three distinct phases after the input power ε is increased above 1018 erg s−1. (a The growth phase; the magnetosphere can accumulate magnetic energy for auroral substorms, when the ionosphere cannot dissipate the power before the expansion phase. (b The expansion phase; the magnetosphere releases the accumulated magnetic energy during the growth phase in a pulse-like manner in a few hours, because it tries to stabilize itself when the accumulated energy reaches to about 1023 erg s−1. (c The recovery phase; the magnetosphere becomes an ordinary dissipative system after the expansion phase, because the ionosphere becomes capable of dissipating the power with the rate of 1018 ~ 1019 erg s−1. On the basis of the above conclusion, it is suggested that the magnetosphere accomplishes the pulse-like release process (resulting in spectacular auroral activities by producing plasma instabilities in the current sheet, thus reducing the current. The resulting contraction of the magnetic field lines (expending the accumulated magnetic energy, together with break down of the "frozen-in" field condition at distances of less than 10 RE, establishes the substorm dynamo that generates an earthward electric field (Lui and Kamide, 2003; Akasofu, 2011. It is this electric field which manifests as the expansion phase. A recent satellite observation at a distance of as close as 8.1 RE by Lui (2011 seems to support strongly the occurrence of the chain of processes suggested in the above. It is hoped that although the concept presented here is very crude, it will serve in providing one way of studying the three phases of auroral substorms. In turn, a better understanding

  13. Effects of including electrojet turbulence in LFM-RCM simulations of geospace storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, M. M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Merkin, V. G.; Zhang, B.; Toffoletto, F.; Wang, W.; Lyon, J.; Liu, J.; Dimant, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    during the strongest driving conditions, significant increases in the ionospheric conductivity in the auroral oval, and better agreement with DMSP observations of sub-auroral polarization streams. We conclude that accurate MIT simulations of geospace storms require the inclusion of turbulent conductivities.

  14. Variations of auroral hydrogen emission near substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Borovkov

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of coordinated optical ground-based observations of the auroral substorm on 26 March 2004 in the Kola Peninsula are described. Imaging spectrograph data with high spectral and temporal resolution recorded the Doppler profile of the Hα hydrogen emission; this allows us to estimate the average energy of precipitating protons and the emission intensity of the hydrogen Balmer line. Two different populations of precipitating protons were observed during an auroral substorm. The first of these is associated with a diffuse hydrogen emission that is usually observed in the evening sector of the auroral oval and located equatorward of the discrete electron arcs associated with substorm onset. The average energy of the protons during this precipitation was ~20–35 keV, and the energy flux was ~3x10–4Joule/m2s. The second proton population was observed 1–2min after the breakup during 4–5min of the expansion phase of substorm into the zone of bright, discrete auroral structures (N-S arcs. The average energy of the protons in this population was ~60 keV, and the energy flux was ~2.2x10–3Joule/m2s. The observed spatial structure of hydrogen emission is additional evidence of the higher energy of precipitated protons in the second population, relative to the protons in the diffuse aurora. We believe that the most probable mechanism of precipitation of the second population protons was pitch-angle scattering of particles due to non-adiabatic motion in the region of local dipolarization near the equatorial plane.

    Keywords. Auroral ionosphere; Particle precipitation; Storms and substorms

  15. Variations of auroral hydrogen emission near substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Borovkov

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of coordinated optical ground-based observations of the auroral substorm on 26 March 2004 in the Kola Peninsula are described. Imaging spectrograph data with high spectral and temporal resolution recorded the Doppler profile of the Hα hydrogen emission; this allows us to estimate the average energy of precipitating protons and the emission intensity of the hydrogen Balmer line. Two different populations of precipitating protons were observed during an auroral substorm. The first of these is associated with a diffuse hydrogen emission that is usually observed in the evening sector of the auroral oval and located equatorward of the discrete electron arcs associated with substorm onset. The average energy of the protons during this precipitation was ~20–35 keV, and the energy flux was ~3x10–4Joule/m2s. The second proton population was observed 1–2min after the breakup during 4–5min of the expansion phase of substorm into the zone of bright, discrete auroral structures (N-S arcs. The average energy of the protons in this population was ~60 keV, and the energy flux was ~2.2x10–3Joule/m2s. The observed spatial structure of hydrogen emission is additional evidence of the higher energy of precipitated protons in the second population, relative to the protons in the diffuse aurora. We believe that the most probable mechanism of precipitation of the second population protons was pitch-angle scattering of particles due to non-adiabatic motion in the region of local dipolarization near the equatorial plane.Keywords. Auroral ionosphere; Particle precipitation; Storms and substorms

  16. On induction effects of geomagnetic daily variations from equatorial electrojet and solar quiet sources at low and middle latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Manoj, C; Olsen, Nils

    2007-01-01

    local times. At CHAMP altitude (400 km) the magnetic signal induced by EEJ above the oceans does not exceed 2–5% of the external field during local noon. This, in particular, means that considering the induction effects is not necessary when modeling the EEJ current strength from inland surface magnetic......We investigate the spatiotemporal behavior of the magnetic vertical component, Z, of the daily ionospheric current systems: the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and solar quiet (Sq)variations, considering induction in the mantle and oceans. The inducing EEJ and Sq current systems are provided...... by the comprehensive model of Sabaka et al.(2004). The three-dimensional (3-D) conductivity model of the Earth includes oceans of laterally variable conductance and a spherical conductor (1-D) underneath. Our model studies demonstrate that induction effects in Z due to the EEJ are negligible everywhere inland for all...

  17. Unusual rainbows as auroral candidates: Another point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Víctor M. S.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2017-04-01

    Several auroral events that occurred in the past have not been cataloged as such due to the fact that they were described in the historical sources with different terminologies. Hayakawa et al. (2016, PASJ, 68, 33) have reviewed historical Oriental chronicles and proposed the terms “unusual rainbow” and “white rainbow” as candidates for auroras. In this work, we present three events that took place in the 18th century in two different settings (the Iberian Peninsula and Brazil) that were originally described with similar definitions or wording to that used by the Oriental chronicles, despite the inherent differences in terms associated with Oriental and Latin languages. We show that these terms are indeed applicable to the three case studies from Europe and South America. Thus, the auroral catalogs available can be extended to Occidental sources using this new terminology.

  18. Threshold of auroral intensification reduced by electron precipitation effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that discrete aurora suddenly intensifies and deforms from an arc-like to a variety of wavy/vortex structures, especially during a substorm period. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been analyzed in order to comprehend the ignition process of auroral intensification. It was presented that the prime key is an enhancement of plasma convection, and the convection electric field has a threshold. This study examined effects of auroral electron precipitation, causing the ionization of neutral atmosphere, on the linear instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves. It was found that the threshold of convection electric fields is significantly reduced by increasing the ionization rate, the realistic range of which could be estimated from observed electron energy spectra.

  19. Height-integrated conductivity in auroral substorms. 1. Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    We present height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivity (conductance) calculations from 31 individual Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) substorm crossings. All are northern hemisphere (except one) nighttime passes which took place from September 1981 to January 1982. Global auroral images are used...... to select substorms which display a typical bulge-type auroral emission pattern and to organize the position of individual DE 2 passes with respect to key features in the emission pattern. The Hall and Pedersen conductances are calculated from electron precipitation data obtained by the low altitude plasma...... instrument (LAPI) carried on DE 2 and the monoenergetic conductance model by Reiff [1984]. This method is shown to effectively minimize undesirable smearing of parameters in statistical substorm studies. Large spatial gradients in the conductance profiles are common in high-latitude part of the premidnight...

  20. A simple kinetic theory of auroral arc scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y. T.

    1986-01-01

    A kinetic theory of the origins of the auroral arc scale spectrum is presented in this paper. The conceptual basis of the theory is current conservation in a turbulent plasma at the magnetospheric equatorial region in which a field-aligned current is generated and the local electrostatic potential structure is forced to adjust to the presence of the field-aligned current. This simple model uses an ad hoc Ohm's law relationship between the perpendicular current and the perpendicular electric field, but with a negative conductance in the generator region so that J(perpendicular) x E(perpendicular) is less than 0. An exact solution of a simple model of the concept yields a bistatic auroral generator for which multiple-arc formation is predicted if the field-aligned current exceeds a critical value. The predicted scale spectrum is inversely proportional to the square root of the field-aligned current strength spectrum.

  1. Nonlinear radiation generation processes in the auroral acceleration region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottelette, Raymond; Berthomier, Matthieu

    2017-11-01

    It is known from laboratory plasma experiments that double layers (DLs) radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum; but this is only known qualitatively. In these experiments, it was shown that the electron beam created on the high-potential side of a DL generates nonlinear structures which couple to electromagnetic waves and act as a sender antenna. In the Earth auroral region, observations performed by auroral spacecraft have shown that DLs occur naturally in the source region of intense radio emissions called auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). Very high time-, spatial-, and temporal-resolution measurements are needed in order to characterize waves and particle distributions in the vicinity of DLs, which are moving transient structures. We report observations from the FAST satellite of a localized large-amplitude parallel electric field (˜ 300 mV m-1) recorded at the edges of the auroral density cavity. In agreement with laboratory experiments, on the high-potential side of the DL, elementary radiation events are detected. They occur substantially above the local electron gyrofrequency and are associated with the presence of electron holes. The velocity of these nonlinear structures can be derived from the measurement of the Doppler-shifted AKR frequency spectrum above the electron gyrofrequency. The generated electron holes appear as the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic waves generated by the electron-electron two-stream instability because they propagate at about half the beam velocity. It is pointed out that, in the vicinity of a DL, the shape of the electron distribution gives rise to a significant power recorded in the left-hand polarized ordinary (LO) mode.

  2. Auroral kilometric radiation triggered by type II solar radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    The previously-reported triggering of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) during type III solar radio bursts was attributed to the incoming radio waves rather than other aspects of the burst's causative solar flare. This conclusion has now been confirmed by ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 observations showing AKR which seems to have been triggered also by a subsequent type II solar radio burst, up to eleven hours after the flare.

  3. MITHRAS Studies of the Auroral Oval and Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Klobuchar , "Recent studies of the structure and morphology of auroral zone F region irregularities," Radio ScL, 18, 1167-1180, 1983. Caudal, G., 0. de la...Minimum, M.E. Hagan, M.J. Buonsanto, R.G. Burnside, G.J. Fraser, J.A. Klobuchar , A.H. Manson, and V.B. Wickwar. IAGA Scientific Assembly, July 1989

  4. Nonlinear radiation generation processes in the auroral acceleration region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known from laboratory plasma experiments that double layers (DLs radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum; but this is only known qualitatively. In these experiments, it was shown that the electron beam created on the high-potential side of a DL generates nonlinear structures which couple to electromagnetic waves and act as a sender antenna. In the Earth auroral region, observations performed by auroral spacecraft have shown that DLs occur naturally in the source region of intense radio emissions called auroral kilometric radiation (AKR. Very high time-, spatial-, and temporal-resolution measurements are needed in order to characterize waves and particle distributions in the vicinity of DLs, which are moving transient structures. We report observations from the FAST satellite of a localized large-amplitude parallel electric field (∼ 300 mV m−1 recorded at the edges of the auroral density cavity. In agreement with laboratory experiments, on the high-potential side of the DL, elementary radiation events are detected. They occur substantially above the local electron gyrofrequency and are associated with the presence of electron holes. The velocity of these nonlinear structures can be derived from the measurement of the Doppler-shifted AKR frequency spectrum above the electron gyrofrequency. The generated electron holes appear as the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic waves generated by the electron–electron two-stream instability because they propagate at about half the beam velocity. It is pointed out that, in the vicinity of a DL, the shape of the electron distribution gives rise to a significant power recorded in the left-hand polarized ordinary (LO mode.

  5. Imaging and EISCAT radar measurements of an auroral prebreakup event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Safargaleev

    Full Text Available The results of coordinated EISCAT and TV-camera observations of a prebreakup event on 15 November 1993 have been considered. The variations of the luminosity of two parallel auroral arcs, plasma depletion on the poleward edge of one of these arcs as well as electron and ion temperatures in front of a westward travelling surge were studied. It was found that a short-lived brightening of a weak zenith arc before an auroral breakup was accompanied by fading of an equatorial arc and, vice versa. A plasma depletion in the E region was detected by the EISCAT radar on the poleward edge of the zenith arc just before the auroral breakup. The plasma depletion was associated with an enhancement of ion (at the altitudes of 150–200 km and electron (in E region temperatures. During its occurrence, the electric field in the E-region was extremely large (~150 mV/m. A significant increase in ion temperature was also observed 1 min before the arrival of a westward travelling surge (WTS at the radar zenith. This was interpreted as the existence of an extended area of enhanced electric field ahead of the WTS.

  6. A hybrid simulation model for a stable auroral arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    Full Text Available We present a new type of hybrid simulation model, intended to simulate a single stable auroral arc in the latitude/altitude plane. The ionospheric ions are treated as particles, the electrons are assumed to follow a Boltzmann response and the magnetospheric ions are assumed to be so hot that they form a background population unaffected by the electric fields that arise. The system is driven by assumed parallel electron energisation causing a primary negative charge cloud and an associated potential structure to build up. The results show how a closed potential structure and density depletion of an auroral arc build up and how they decay after the driver is turned off. The model also produces upgoing energetic ion beams and predicts strong static perpendicular electric fields to be found in a relatively narrow altitude range (~ 5000–11 000 km.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; auroral phenomena – Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies

  7. E-region echo characteristics governed by auroral arc electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of a pair of auroral arc features by two imagers, one ground- and one space-based, allows the associated field-aligned current (FAC and electric field structure to be inferred. Simultaneous observations of HF radar echoes provide an insight into the irregularity-generating mechanisms. This is especially interesting for the E-region echoes observed, which form the focus of our analysis, and from which several conclusions can be drawn, summarized as follows. Latitudinal variations in echo characteristics are governed by the FAC and electric field background. Particularly sharp boundaries are found at the edges of auroral arcs. Within regions of auroral luminosity, echoes have Doppler shifts below the ion-acoustic speed and are proportional to the electric field, suggesting scatter from gradient drift waves. Regions of downward FAC are associated with mixed high and low Doppler shift echoes. The high Doppler shift component is greatly in excess of the ion-acoustic speed, but seems to be commensurate with the driving electric field. The low Doppler shift component appears to be much depressed below expectations.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; electric fields and currents

  8. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  9. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  10. Latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of energetic auroral protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lorentzen

    Full Text Available Using a collision by collision model from Lorentzen et al., the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of single auroral protons are calculated. The proton energies varies from 1 to 50 keV, and are released into the atmosphere at 700 km altitude. The dipole magnetic field has a dip-angle of 8 degrees. Results show that the main dispersion region is at high altitudes (300-350 km and occurs during the first few charge exchange collisions. As the proton travels further down the atmosphere the mean free path becomes smaller, and as a result the spreading effect will not be as pronounced. This means that the first few charge exchange collisions fully determines the width of both the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion. The volume emission rate was calculated for energies between 1 and 50 keV, and it was found that dayside auroral hydrogen emissions rates were approximately 10 times weaker than nightside emission rates. Simulations were also performed to obtain the dependence of the particle dispersion as a function of initial pitch-angle. It was found that the dispersion varies greatly with initial pitch-angle, and the results are summarized in two tables; a main and an extreme dispersion region.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; · particle precipitation · Space plasma physics · (transport processes

  11. A case study of HF radar spectra and 630.0 nm auroral emission in the pre-midnight sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of HF radar backscatter observed by the CUTLASS Finland radar, meridian scanning photometer data from Longyearbyen, magnetic field variations from IMAGE stations, and particle precipitation measured by the DMSP F12 spacecraft is presented. The interval under discussion occurred in the pre-midnight local time sector, during a period of weakly northward interplanetary magnetic field. A region of HF backscatter, typically 8 degrees wide, occurred in the field of view of the CUTLASS Finland radar. A well defined gradient in the spectral width parameter was present, with mainly low (< 200 m s - 1 spectral widths in the lower latitude part of the scatter and predominantly large (> 200 ms - 1 spectral widths in the higher latitude part. The relationship between the spectral width and the red line (630.0 nm emission measured by the meridian scanning photometer is considered. The poleward border of the red line emission, which has, in the past, been proposed as being representative of the polar cap boundary, was co-located to within 1° of magnetic latitude with the gradient in spectral width for part of the interval. Statistically, large spectral widths occurred poleward of the red line emission, while small spectral widths occurred within or equatorward of the red line emission. Near simultaneous DMSP particle observations in the 20 eV to 20 keV range indicate that the poleward border of the red line emission and the gradient in spectral width occurred at the same latitude as the transition from auroral oval to polar rain particle energies. We conclude that the large spectral widths were not caused by particle precipitation associated with the auroral oval. There were two periods of special interest when the relationship between the red line and the spectral width broke down. The first of these happened during enhanced red line and green line (557.7 nm emission, with a drop out of the radar scatter and an enhanced, narrow westward

  12. Vlasov simulations of electron trapping on auroral field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunell, H.; Mann, I.; De Keyser, J.; Andersson, L.

    2012-04-01

    In the auroral zone, electric fields that are parallel to the earth's magnetic field are known to exist and to contribute to the acceleration of auroral electrons. Transverse electric fields at high altitude result in parallel electric fields as a consequence of the closure of the field-aligned currents through the conducting ionosphere (L. R. Lyons, JGR, vol. 85, 1724, 1980). These parallel electric fields can be supported by the magnetic mirror field (Alfvén and Fälthammar, Cosmical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., 1963). Stationary kinetic models have been used to study the current-voltage characteristics of the auroral current circuit (Knight, Planet. and Space Sci., vol. 21, 741-750, 1973). Fluid and hybrid simulations have been used to model parallel electric fields and Alfvén waves, and to study the relationship between them (e.g., Vedin and Rönnmark, JGR, vol. 111, 12201, 2006). Ergun, et al. (GRL, vol. 27, 4053-4056, 2000) found stationary Vlasov solutions over regions extending several Earth radii, and Main, et al. (PRL, vol. 97, 185001, 2006) performed Vlasov simulations of the auroral acceleration region. Observations have shown that field-aligned potential drops often are concentrated in electric double layers (e.g. Ergun, et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, 3685-3694, 2002). In the upward current region, 20-50% of the total potential drop has been identified as localised. How the rest of the potential is spread out as function of altitude is not yet known from observations. Gunell et al. (submitted to GRL, 2012) performed Vlasov simulations, using a model that is one-dimensional in configuration space and two-dimensional in velocity space, and found that about half of the potential drop is found in a thin double layer. The other half is in a region, which extends a few earth radii above it. The double layer itself is stationary, while there are oscillations in the longer low-field region. The current-voltage characteristic approximately follows the Knight

  13. FAST/Polar Conjunction Study of Field-Aligned Auroral Acceleration and Corresponding Magnetotail Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Richard, R. L.; Klezting, C.; Dotan, Y.; Wygant, J.

    2003-01-01

    The discrete aurora results when energized electrons bombard the Earth's atmosphere at high latitudes. This paper examines the physical processes that can cause field-aligned acceleration of plasma particles in the auroral region. A data and theoretical study has been carried out to examine the acceleration mechanisms that operate in the auroral zone and to identi@ the magnetospheric drivers of these acceleration mechanisms. The observations used in the study were collected by the Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) and Polar satellites when the two satellites were in approximate magnetic conjunction in the auroral region. During these events FAST was in the middle of the auroral zone and Polar was above the auroral zone in the near-Earth plasma sheet. Polar data were used to determine the conditions in the magnetotail at the time field-aligned acceleration was measured by FAST in the auroral zone. For each of the magnetotail drivers identified in the data study, the physics of field-aligned acceleration in the auroral region was examined using existing theoretical efforts and/or a long-system particle in cell simulation to model the magnetically connected region between the two satellites. Results from the study indicate that there are three main drivers of auroral acceleration: (1) field-aligned currents that lead to quasistatic parallel potential drops (parallel electric fields), (2) earthward flow of high-energy plasma beams from the magnetotail into the auroral zone that lead to quasistatic parallel potential drops, and (3) large-amplitude Alfven waves that propagate into the auroral region from the magnetotail. The events examined thus far confm the previously established invariant latitudinal dependence of the drivers and show a strong dependence on magnetic activity. Alfven waves tend to occur primarily at the poleward edge of the auroral region during more magnetically active times and are correlated with intense electron precipitation. At lower latitudes away

  14. Dynamic auroral storms on Saturn as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J D; Badman, S V; Baines, K H; Brown, R H; Bunce, E J; Clarke, J T; Cowley, S W H; Crary, F J; Dougherty, M K; Gérard, J-C; Grocott, A; Grodent, D; Kurth, W S; Melin, H; Mitchell, D G; Pryor, W R; Stallard, T S

    2014-05-28

    We present observations of significant dynamics within two UV auroral storms observed on Saturn using the Hubble Space Telescope in April/May 2013. Specifically, we discuss bursts of auroral emission observed at the poleward boundary of a solar wind-induced auroral storm, propagating at ∼330% rigid corotation from near ∼01 h LT toward ∼08 h LT. We suggest that these are indicative of ongoing, bursty reconnection of lobe flux in the magnetotail, providing strong evidence that Saturn's auroral storms are caused by large-scale flux closure. We also discuss the later evolution of a similar storm and show that the emission maps to the trailing region of an energetic neutral atom enhancement. We thus identify the auroral form with the upward field-aligned continuity currents flowing into the associated partial ring current.

  15. Theory and observation of auroral substorms: A magnetohydrodynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.W.; Xu, B.L.; Samson, J.C.; Rostoker, G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a theory to explain the dynamics of auroral substorms, considering the interaction of MHD waves with the coupled magnetosphere/ionosphere system. Their model considers the substorm to originate with the loss of stability of the nightside magnetosphere. This frees a large amount of energy, producing compressional waves. The propagation of these waves, and their interaction with the magnetospheric system then encompass the dynamic aspects of the substorm. They compare their model with information from a storm in Feb 1990 observed by the photometer array of CANOPUS. 39 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Energy of auroral electrons and Z mode generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Wong, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of Z-mode radiation generation, in light of observational results indicating that the O mode and second-harmonic X-mode emissions can prevail over the X-mode fundamental radiation when suprathermal electron energy is low, gives attention to whether the thermal effect on the Z-mode dispersion can be equally important, and whether the Z-mode can compete for the available free-energy source. It is found that, under suitable circumstances, the growth rate of the Z-mode can be substantial even for low suprathermal auroral electron energies. Growth is generally maximized for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  17. Ion acoustic double layers in the auroral plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Bujarbarua, S.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of negative ions on the rarefactive ion acoustic double layers (DLs) observed by Bujarbarua and Goswami (1985) are investigated. A homogeneous and infinite plasma in the presence of negative ions is considered, and DL solutions are derived. The proposed theory is applied to auroral plasma observations of Temerin et al. (1982), and good correlation between the data is observed. The data reveal that small amplitude ion acoustic DLs with negative potential exist in a plasma containing negative ions. It is concluded that the rarefactive ion acoustic DLs in the presence of negative ions move upward from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere of the earth.

  18. Auroral phenomenology and magnetospheric processes earth and other planets

    CERN Document Server

    Keiling, Andreas; Bagenal, Fran; Karlsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series. Many of the most basic aspects of the aurora remain unexplained. While in the past terrestrial and planetary auroras have been largely treated in separate books, Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets takes a holistic approach, treating the aurora as a fundamental process and discussing the phenomenology, physics, and relationship with the respective planetary magnetospheres in one volume. While there are some behaviors common in auroras of the diffe

  19. Magnetosphere of Neptune - Auroral zone field-aligned potential drops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper explores some possibilities for plasma populations, field-aligned currents, and field-aligned potentials in the magnetosphere of Neptune. Observed plasma populations at Saturn and Uranus may provide reasonable upper and low limits, respectively, to those at Neptune. Field-aligned current densities comparable to those at Earth may be observed by the Voyager magnetometer above Neptune's auroral zone. Inverted-V events reaching energies of several tens of keV may also be observed by the Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle experiment.

  20. Relation between stratospheric sudden warming and the lunar effect on the equatorial electrojet based on Huancayo recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for many decades that the lunar tidal influence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ is noticeably enhanced during Northern Hemisphere winters. Recent literature has discussed the role of stratospheric sudden warming (SSW events behind the enhancement of lunar tides and the findings suggest a positive correlation between the lunar tidal amplitude and lower stratospheric parameters (zonal mean air temperature and zonal mean zonal wind during SSW events. The positive correlation raises the question whether an inverse approach could also be developed which makes it possible to deduce the occurrence of SSW events before their direct observations (before 1952 from the amplitude of the lunar tides. This study presents an analysis technique based on the phase of the semi-monthly lunar tide to determine the lunar tidal modulation of the EEJ. A statistical approach using the superposed epoch analysis is also carried out to formulate a relation between the EEJ tidal amplitude and lower stratospheric parameters. Using these results, we have estimated a threshold value for the tidal wave power that could be used to identify years with SSW events from magnetic field observations.

  1. A New DMSP Magnetometer & Auroral Boundary Dataset and Estimates of Field Aligned Currents in Dynamic Auroral Boundary Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcommons, Liam M; Redmon, Robert J; Knipp, Delores J

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a method for reprocessing the multi-decadal, multi-spacecraft Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Magnetometer (DMSP SSM) dataset and have applied it to fifteen spacecraft-years of data (DMSP Flight 16-18, 2010-2014). This Level-2 dataset improves on other available SSM datasets with recalculated spacecraft locations and magnetic perturbations, artifact signal removal, representations of the observations in geomagnetic coordinates, and in-situ auroral boundaries. Spacecraft locations have been recalculated using ground-tracking information. Magnetic perturbations (measured field minus modeled main-field) are recomputed. The updated locations ensure the appropriate model field is used. We characterize and remove a slow-varying signal in the magnetic field measurements. This signal is a combination of ring current and measurement artifacts. A final artifact remains after processing: step-discontinuities in the baseline caused by activation/deactivation of spacecraft electronics. Using coincident data from the DMSP precipitating electrons and ions instrument (SSJ4/5), we detect the in-situ auroral boundaries with an improvement to the Redmon et al. [2010] algorithm. We embed the location of the aurora and an accompanying figure of merit in the Level-2 SSM data product. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this new dataset by estimating field-aligned current (FAC) density using the Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) technique. The FAC estimates are then expressed in dynamic auroral boundary coordinates using the SSJ-derived boundaries, demonstrating a dawn-dusk asymmetry in average FAC location relative to the equatorward edge of the aurora. The new SSM dataset is now available in several public repositories.

  2. The Detectability of Radio Auroral Emission from Proxima b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Magnetically active stars possess stellar winds whose interactions with planetary magnetic fields produce radio auroral emission. We examine the detectability of radio auroral emission from Proxima b, the closest known exosolar planet orbiting our nearest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri. Using the radiometric Bode’s law, we estimate the radio flux produced by the interaction of Proxima Centauri’s stellar wind and Proxima b’s magnetosphere for different planetary magnetic field strengths. For plausible planetary masses, Proxima b could produce radio fluxes of 100 mJy or more in a frequency range of 0.02–3 MHz for planetary magnetic field strengths of 0.007–1 G. According to recent MHD models that vary the orbital parameters of the system, this emission is expected to be highly variable. This variability is due to large fluctuations in the size of Proxima b’s magnetosphere as it crosses the equatorial streamer regions of dense stellar wind and high dynamic pressure. Using the MHD model of Garraffo et al. for the variation of the magnetosphere radius during the orbit, we estimate that the observed radio flux can vary nearly by an order of magnitude over the 11.2-day period of Proxima b. The detailed amplitude variation depends on the stellar wind, orbital, and planetary magnetic field parameters. We discuss observing strategies for proposed future space-based observatories to reach frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff (∼10 MHz), which would be required to detect the signal we investigate.

  3. The effect of parallel currents on auroral micropulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, M.; Roth, I.; Vinas, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Field aligned currents play an important role in the global coupling between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere and in their relationship to the auroral phenomena. Moreover, there exists evidence that resonant oscillations are related to large-scale Birkeland currents. The spatial confinement of the field-aligned currents forms an inhomogeneous system susceptible to low-frequency oscillations, which can be excited due to periodic variations in the solar wind pressure or to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In this paper we present a study of ultralow-frequency (ULF) oscillations in an inhomogeneous magnetic field formed by a large-scale current. We investigate the effects of the field-aligned currents on the generation of localized Alfven waves. The field oscillations are described by an eigenvalue wave equation which includes the effects of the field aligned currents and which produces a discrete spectrum of Alfven waves. These waves are observed mainly in three regions of the magnetosphere: in the magnetosheath, in the polar cusp, and in the plasmasphere. In the present study we limit our investigation to the auroral region.

  4. The effect of parallel currents on auroral micropulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, M.; Roth, I.; Vinas, A.F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Field aligned currents play an important role in the global coupling between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere and in their relationship to the auroral phenomena. Moreover, there exists evidence that resonant oscillations are related to large-scale Birkeland currents. The spatial confinement of the field-aligned currents forms an inhomogeneous system susceptible to low-frequency oscillations, which can be excited due to periodic variations in the solar wind pressure or to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In this paper the authors present a study of ultralow-frequency (ULF) oscillations in an inhomogeneous magnetic field formed by a large-scale current. They investigate the effects of the field-aligned currents on the generation of localized Alfven waves. The field oscillations are described by an eigenvalue wave equation which includes the effects of the field aligned currents and which produces a discrete spectrum of Alfven waves. These waves are observed mainly in three regions of the magnetosphere: in the magnetosheath, in the polar cusp, and in the plasmasphere. In the present study the authors limit their investigation to the auroral region.

  5. A pulsating auroral X-ray hot spot on Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G R; Waite, J H; Grodent, D; Lewis, W S; Crary, F J; Elsner, R F; Weisskopf, M C; Majeed, T; Jahn, J-M; Bhardwaj, A; Clarke, J T; Young, D T; Dougherty, M K; Espinosa, S A; Cravens, T E

    2002-02-28

    Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions. Here we report high-spatial-resolution observations that demonstrate that most of Jupiter's northern auroral X-rays come from a 'hot spot' located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. The hot spot seems to be fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and occurs in a region where anomalous infrared and ultraviolet emissions have also been observed. We infer from the data that the particles that excite the aurora originate in the outer magnetosphere. The hot spot X-rays pulsate with an approximately 45-min period, a period similar to that reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft. These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral X-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the X-rays seem to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths.

  6. A study of transient variations in the Earth's electromagnetic field at equatorial electrojet latitudes in western Africa (Mali and the Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vassal

    Full Text Available In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at

  7. A study of transient variations in the Earth's electromagnetic field at equatorial electrojet latitudes in western Africa (Mali and the Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vassal

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at dip equator latitudes with the

  8. Auroral streamer and its role in driving wave-like pre-onset aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhonghua; Pu, Z. Y.; Rae, I. J.; Radioti, A.; Kubyshkina, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    The time scales of reconnection outflow, substorm expansion, and development of instabilities in the terrestrial magnetosphere are comparable, i.e., from several to tens of minutes, and their existence is related. In this paper, we investigate the physical relations among those phenomena with measurements during a substorm event on January 29, 2008. We present conjugate measurements from ground-based high-temporal resolution all-sky imagers and in situ THEMIS measurements. An auroral streamer (north-south aligned thin auroral layer) was formed and propagated equatorward, which usually implies an earthward propagating plasma flow in the magnetotail. At the most equatorward part of the auroral streamer, a wave-like auroral band was formed aligning in the east-west direction. The wave-like auroral structure is usually explained as a consequence of instability development. Using AM03 model, we trace the auroral structure to magnetotail and estimate a wavelength of 0.5 R E. The scale is comparable to the drift mode wavelength determined by the in situ measurements from THEMIS-A, whose footpoint is on the wave-like auroral arc. We also present similar wave-like aurora observations from Cassini ultraviolet imaging spectrograph at Saturn and from Hubble space telescope at Jupiter, suggesting that the wave-like aurora structure is likely a result of fundamental plasma dynamics in the solar system planetary magnetospheres.

  9. Radar observations of auroral zone flows during a multiple-onset substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Morelli

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ground magnetic field, ionospheric flow, geosynchronous particle, and interplanetary data during a multiple-onset substorm on 12 April 1988. Our principal results concern the modulations of the ionospheric flow which occur during the impulsive electrojet activations associated with each onset. During the first hour of the disturbance these take place every ~12.5 min and involve the formation of a new intense westward current filament in the premidnight sector, just poleward of the pre-existing extended current system driven by the large-scale flow. These filaments are ~1 h MLT wide (~600 km, and initially expand poleward to a width of ~300 km before contracting equatorward and coalescing with the pre-existing current, generally leaving the latter enhanced in magnitude and/or expanded in latitude. Within the impulsive electrojets the flow is found to be suppressed to values 50–100 m s–1 or less during the first few minutes, before surging equatorward at 0.5–1.0 km s–1 during the phase of rapid coalescence. The implication is that the precipitation-induced Hall conductivity within the impulsive electrojet initially rises to exceed ~100 mho, before decaying over a few minutes. This value compares with Hall conductivities of ~20 mho in the quasi-steady current regions, and a few mho or less in the regions poleward of the electrojets and in the preonset ionosphere. Preliminary evidence has also been found that the flow surges propagate from midnight to the morning sector where they are associated with arrested equatorward motion or poleward contractions of the current system. These observations are discussed in terms of present theoretical paradigms of the global behaviour of fields and flows which occur during substorms.

  10. Relationship between the lunar tidal amplification in the equatorial electrojet and weakening of the northern polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan Siddiqui, Tarique; Luehr, Hermann; Stolle, Claudia; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced lunar tidal effects in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) during boreal winters have been reported in the form of so-called "big L days" for a long time. Recent studies have suggested a relation between these enhanced lunar tidal observations and stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events in the northern hemisphere through changes in tidal propagation conditions due to increased planetary wave activity. In this study we have used the horizontal component of the magnetic field recorded at Huancayo, Peru from 1997-2013 to study the relation between the timing and magnitude of the semimonthly lunar tide in the EEJ and the stratospheric polar vortex weakening (PVW). The definition of PVW is used to characterize the individual SSW events, and the intensity of PVW during each winter is estimated by taking into account the stratospheric temperature and wind conditions at polar latitudes. Our results indicate that the semimonthly lunar tide in the EEJ gets enhanced during boreal winters when a significant weakening in the polar vortex occurs and its timing and magnitude is correlated with the timing and intensity of the PVW. Our results suggest that the initiation of the lunar tidal enhancement in most of the cases is closely related to a PVW event. Further, we also discuss the longitudinal differences in lunar tidal enhancements of the EEJ during the SSW years. Finally, we extend the lunar tidal time series by utilizing the recently digitized magnetic recordings from Huancayo. The additional data of Huancayo recordings between 1962-1984 will open new perspectives in investigating long term trends of equatorial electrodynamics.

  11. Low-Altitude Satellite Measurements of Pulsating Auroral Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and Reimei satellites, where common-volume high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging data are available. These satellite overpasses of ground-based all-sky imagers reveal the specific features of the electron populations responsible for different types of pulsating aurora modulations. The energies causing the pulsating aurora mostly range from 3 keV to 20 keV but can at times extend up to 30 keV. The secondary, low-energy electrons (electrons in the precipitating populations. The reduction of secondary electrons is consistent with the strongly temporally varying pulsating aurora being associated with field-aligned currents and hence parallel potential drops of up to 1 kV.

  12. In situ analysis of measurements of auroral dynamics and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Meghan R.

    Two auroral sounding rocket case studies, one in the dayside and one in the nightside, explore aspects of poleward boundary aurora. The nightside sounding rocket, Cascades-2 was launched on 20 March 2009 at 11:04:00 UT from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska, and flew across a series of poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs). Each of the crossings have fundamentally different in situ electron energy and pitch angle structure, and different ground optics images of visible aurora. The different particle distributions show signatures of both a quasistatic acceleration mechanism and an Alfvenic acceleration mechanism, as well as combinations of both. The Cascades-2 experiment is the first sounding rocket observation of a PBI sequence, enabling a detailed investigation of the electron signatures and optical aurora associated with various stages of a PBI sequence as it evolves from an Alfvenic to a more quasistatic structure. The dayside sounding rocket, Scifer-2 was launched on 18 January 2008 at 7:30 UT from the Andoya Rocket Range in Andenes, Norway. It flew northward through the cleft region during a Poleward Moving Auroral Form (PMAF) event. Both the dayside and nightside flights observe dispersed, precipitating ions, each of a different nature. The dispersion signatures are dependent on, among other things, the MLT sector, altitude, source region, and precipitation mechanism. It is found that small changes in the shape of the dispersion have a large influence on whether the precipitation was localized or extended over a range of altitudes. It is also found that a single Maxwellian source will not replicate the data, but rather, a sum of Maxwellians of different temperature, similar to a Kappa distribution, most closely reproduces the data. The various particle signatures are used to argue that both events have similar magnetospheric drivers, that is, Bursty Bulk Flows in the magnetotail.

  13. Height-integrated conductivity in auroral substorms. 2. Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerloev, J. W.; Hoffman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Calculations of height-integrated conductivity from 31 individual Dynamics Explorer (DE 2) substorm crossing presented by Gjerloev and Hoffman [this issue] are used to compile empirical models of the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities (conductances) in a bulge-type auroral substorm. Global auroral images obtained by Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) were used to select substorms displaying a typical bulge-type emission pattern and each individual DE 2 pass was positioned with respect to key features in the observed emission pattern. The conductances were calculated for each DE 2 pass using electron precipitation data and a monoenergetic conductance model. All passes were divided into six different sectors, and average conductance profiles were carefully deduced for each of these sectors. Using a simple boxcar filter, smoothed average sector passes were calculated and from linear interpolation between these, two-dimensional conductance models were compiled. The characteristics of our models are (1) the Hall conductance maximizes in the high-latitude part of the surge at 48 mho with a Hall to Pedersen ratio of 2.4; (2) two channels of enhanced conductance are overlapping in local time near midnight and are fairly separated in latitude; (3) the conductance has a sharp gradient at the high-latitude boundary in the premidnight sector while in the postmidnight sector a broad region of low conductance stretches up to 10° invariant latitude poleward of the local peak; and finally, (4) the enhanced conductance region displays a characteristic broadening toward dawn primarily owing to a poleward shift of the high-latitude boundary.

  14. Constraining Substellar Magnetic Dynamos using Auroral Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Melodie; Hallinan, Gregg; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Escala, Ivanna; Burgasser, Adam J.; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-01-01

    An important outstanding problem in dynamo theory is understanding how magnetic fields are generated and sustained in fully convective stellar objects. A number of models for possible dynamo mechanisms in this regime have been proposed but constraining data on magnetic field strengths and topologies across a wide range of mass, age, rotation rate, and temperature are sorely lacking, particularly in the brown dwarf regime. Detections of highly circularly polarized pulsed radio emission provide our only window into magnetic field measurements for objects in the ultracool brown dwarf regime. However, these detections are very rare; previous radio surveys encompassing ˜60 L6 or later targets have yielded only one detection. We have developed a selection strategy for biasing survey targets based on possible optical and infrared tracers of auroral activity. Using our selection strategy, we previously observed six late L and T dwarfs with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and detected the presence of highly circularly polarized radio emission for five targets. Our initial detections at 4-8 GHz provided the most robust constraints on dynamo theory in this regime, confirming magnetic fields >2.5 kG. To further develop our understanding of magnetic fields in the ultracool brown dwarf mass regime bridging planets and stars, we present constraints on surface magnetic field strengths for two Y-dwarfs as well as higher frequency observations of the previously detected L/T dwarfs corresponding ~3.6 kG fields. By carefully comparing magnetic field measurements derived from auroral radio emission to measurements derived from Zeeman broadening and Zeeman Doppler imaging, we provide tentative evidence that the dynamo operating in this mass regime may be inconsistent with predicted values from currently in vogue models. This suggests that parameters beyond convective flux may influence magnetic field generation in brown dwarfs.

  15. Simultaneous auroral observations described in the historical records of China, Japan and Korea from ancient times to AD 1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Early auroral observations recorded in various oriental histories are examined in order to search for examples of strictly simultaneous and indisputably independent observations of the aurora borealis from spatially separated sites in East Asia. In the period up to ad 1700, only five examples have been found of two or more oriental auroral observations from separate sites on the same night. These occurred during the nights of ad 1101 January 31, ad 1138 October 6, ad 1363 July 30, ad 1582 March 8 and ad 1653 March 2. The independent historical evidence describing observations of mid-latitude auroral displays at more than one site in East Asia on the same night provides virtually incontrovertible proof that auroral displays actually occurred on these five special occasions. This conclusion is corroborated by the good level of agreement between the detailed auroral descriptions recorded in the different oriental histories, which furnish essentially compatible information on both the colour (or colours of each auroral display and its approximate position in the sky. In addition, the occurrence of auroral displays in Europe within two days of auroral displays in East Asia, on two (possibly three out of these five special occasions, suggests that a substantial number of the mid-latitude auroral displays recorded in the oriental histories are associated with intense geomagnetic storms.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms

  16. Simultaneous auroral observations described in the historical records of China, Japan and Korea from ancient times to AD 1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    Full Text Available Early auroral observations recorded in various oriental histories are examined in order to search for examples of strictly simultaneous and indisputably independent observations of the aurora borealis from spatially separated sites in East Asia. In the period up to ad 1700, only five examples have been found of two or more oriental auroral observations from separate sites on the same night. These occurred during the nights of ad 1101 January 31, ad 1138 October 6, ad 1363 July 30, ad 1582 March 8 and ad 1653 March 2. The independent historical evidence describing observations of mid-latitude auroral displays at more than one site in East Asia on the same night provides virtually incontrovertible proof that auroral displays actually occurred on these five special occasions. This conclusion is corroborated by the good level of agreement between the detailed auroral descriptions recorded in the different oriental histories, which furnish essentially compatible information on both the colour (or colours of each auroral display and its approximate position in the sky. In addition, the occurrence of auroral displays in Europe within two days of auroral displays in East Asia, on two (possibly three out of these five special occasions, suggests that a substantial number of the mid-latitude auroral displays recorded in the oriental histories are associated with intense geomagnetic storms.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms

  17. Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma

  18. Rocket-borne investigation of auroral patches in the evening sector during substorm recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Danielides

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available On 11 February 1997 at 08:36 UT after a substorm onset the Auroral Turbulence 2 sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska into a moderately active auroral region. This experiment has allowed us to investigate evening (21:00 MLT auroral forms at the substorm recovery, which were discrete multiple auroral arcs stretched to, the east and southeast from the breakup region, and bright auroral patches propagating westward along the arcs like a luminosity wave, which is a typical feature of the disturbed arc. The rocket crossed an auroral arc of about 40 km width, stretched along southeast direction. Auroral patches and associated electric fields formed a 200 km long periodical structure, which propagated along the arc westward at a velocity of 3 km/s, whereas the ionospheric plasma velocity inside the arc was 300 m/s westward. The spatial periodicity in the rocket data was found from optical ground-based observations, from electric field in situ measurements, as well as from ground-based magnetic observations. The bright patches were co-located with equatorward plasma flow across the arc of the order of 200 m/s in magnitude, whereas the plasma flow tended to be poleward at the intervals between the patches, where the electric field reached the magnitude of up to 20 mV/m, and these maxima were co-located with the peaks in electron precipitations indicated by the electron counter on board the rocket. Pulsations of a 70-s period were observed on the ground in the eastern component of the magnetic field and this is consistent with the moving auroral patches and the north-south plasma flows associated with them. The enhanced patch-associated electric field and fast westward propagation suggest essential differences between evening auroral patches and those occurring in the morning ionosphere. We propose the wave that propagates along the plasma sheet boundary to be a promising mechanism for the evening auroral patches.Key words

  19. Rocket-borne investigation of auroral patches in the evening sector during substorm recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Danielides

    Full Text Available On 11 February 1997 at 08:36 UT after a substorm onset the Auroral Turbulence 2 sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska into a moderately active auroral region. This experiment has allowed us to investigate evening (21:00 MLT auroral forms at the substorm recovery, which were discrete multiple auroral arcs stretched to, the east and southeast from the breakup region, and bright auroral patches propagating westward along the arcs like a luminosity wave, which is a typical feature of the disturbed arc. The rocket crossed an auroral arc of about 40 km width, stretched along southeast direction. Auroral patches and associated electric fields formed a 200 km long periodical structure, which propagated along the arc westward at a velocity of 3 km/s, whereas the ionospheric plasma velocity inside the arc was 300 m/s westward. The spatial periodicity in the rocket data was found from optical ground-based observations, from electric field in situ measurements, as well as from ground-based magnetic observations. The bright patches were co-located with equatorward plasma flow across the arc of the order of 200 m/s in magnitude, whereas the plasma flow tended to be poleward at the intervals between the patches, where the electric field reached the magnitude of up to 20 mV/m, and these maxima were co-located with the peaks in electron precipitations indicated by the electron counter on board the rocket. Pulsations of a 70-s period were observed on the ground in the eastern component of the magnetic field and this is consistent with the moving auroral patches and the north-south plasma flows associated with them. The enhanced patch-associated electric field and fast westward propagation suggest essential differences between evening auroral patches and those occurring in the morning ionosphere. We propose the wave that propagates along the plasma sheet boundary to be a promising mechanism for the evening auroral patches

  20. Severe and localized GNSS scintillation at the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval during intense substorm aurora

    CERN Document Server

    van der Meeren, Christer; Lorentzen, Dag A; Rietveld, Michael T; Clausen, Lasse B N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study how GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo navigation signals are compromised by strong irregularities causing severe phase scintillation ($\\mathit{\\sigma }_{\\phi }$ > 1) in the nightside high-latitude ionosphere during a substorm on 3 November 2013. Substorm onset and a later intensification coincided with polar cap patches entering the auroral oval to become auroral blobs. Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers and optical data, we show severe scintillation driven by intense auroral emissions in the line of sight between the receiver and the satellites. During substorm expansion, the area of scintillation followed the intense poleward edge of the auroral oval. The intense auroral emissions were colocated with polar cap patches (blobs). The patches did not contain strong irregularities, neither before entering the auroral oval nor after the aurora had faded. Signals from all three GNSS constellations were similarly affected by the irregularities. Furthermore, two receivers space...

  1. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  2. Comparison of Energy Deposition in the Auroral Oval and Cap Regions for Cases Where Transpolar Structures Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    For several cases where the full auroral zone is imaged and transpolar structures exist, we compare the total energy input to the auroral oval with the total energy input in the polar cap. This comparison is made for cases where auroral intensification near local midnight is and is not observed. Temporal evolution of the energy balance between the energy deposited in the oval and polar cap can be used to understand the mechanism that triggers substorms.

  3. Temporal and spatial evolution of discrete auroral arcs as seen by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Figueiredo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two event studies are presented in this paper where intense convergent electric fields, with mapped intensities up to 1350 mV/m, are measured in the auroral upward current region by the Cluster spacecraft, at altitudes between 3 and 5 Earth radii. Both events are from May 2003, Southern Hemisphere, with equatorward crossings by the Cluster spacecraft of the pre-midnight auroral oval. Event 1 occurs during the end of the recovery phase of a strong substorm. A system of auroral arcs associated with convergent electric field structures, with a maximum perpendicular potential drop of about ~10 kV, and upflowing field-aligned currents with densities of 3 µA/m2 (mapped to the ionosphere, was detected at the boundary between the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL and the Plasma Sheet (PS. The auroral arc structures evolve in shape and in magnitude on a timescale of tens of minutes, merging, broadening and intensifying, until finally fading away after about 50 min. Throughout this time, both the PS region and the auroral arc structure in its poleward part remain relatively fixed in space, reflecting the rather quiet auroral conditions during the end of the substorm. The auroral upward acceleration region is shown for this event to extend beyond 3.9 Earth radii altitude. Event 2 occurs during a more active period associated with the expansion phase of a moderate substorm. Images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 spacecraft show that the Cluster spacecraft crossed the horn region of a surge-type aurora. Conjugated with the Cluster spacecraft crossing above the surge horn, the South Pole All Sky Imager recorded the motion and the temporal evolution of an east-west aligned auroral arc, 30 to 50 km wide. Intense electric field variations are measured by the Cluster spacecraft when crossing above the auroral arc structure, collocated with the density gradient at the PS poleward boundary, and coupled to intense upflowing field

  4. Interactive Auroral Science for Hearing-Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Jahn, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Ibarra, S.; Hampton, D. L.; Powell, D.

    2012-12-01

    Under a NASA E/PO grant, we have partnered with San Antonio's Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children to develop a science class experience where students directly interact with scientists and participate in a research-grade space science measurement campaign. The unique aspect of partnering with Sunshine Cottage lies in Sunshine's approach of auditory-verbal communication. Aided by technology (hearing aids, cochlear implants), a diverse student body with students of all levels of hearing loss (moderate through profound) is taught in an entirely auditory-verbal environment at Sunshine Cottage. Bringing these students into early contact with research work can lay the foundation for future careers in the STEM field that normally they might not consider as indicated by the first year of this collaboration where the student response was distinctly positive. Here we report on the first year of those activities, as they related to a ground based imaging approach to exploring the northern lights and from the point of view of the scientists that participated. The major components of that activity included a site visit to SwRI by the students and their teachers, a semester long lab at school utilizing current research tools and a real-time campaign night. The students used a number of diagnostics to first predict and then verify auroral activity. One of the tools used was the MOOSE observatory which is a community resource state of the art observatory comprised of 5 EMCCD imagers in Alaska, established through an NSF MRI grant. We will discuss the approach and lessons learned during the first year of the project and the directions that we will likely take in the second year. Lessons learned from teaching these students space science related topic can be flowed right back into mainstream classroom settings. One other significant and unexpected aspect of this first year was that we were able to connect two groups of students through skype (in the 4th to 5th grades) that

  5. Substorm correlated absorption on a 3200 km trans-auroral HF propagation path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available A high-frequency transmitter located at Clyde River, NWT, Canada, and a receiver located near Boston, USA, provide a 3200 km trans-auroral, near-meridional propagation path over which the propagation characteristics have been measured. Out of the fourteen frequencies in the HF band sampled every hour for the duration of the experimental campaign (16 January–8 February 1989, the signal level measurements of 6.800 MHz transmissions were selected in order to determine the extent and occurrence of auroral absorption. The median level of auroral absorption along the path is found to increase with geomagnetic activity, quantified by the index Kp, with the increase being greater in the post-midnight sector than in the pre-midnight sector. This asymmetric behaviour is attributed to the precipitation of high energy electrons into the midnight and morning sector auroral D region. The measured diurnal variation in the median level of absorption is consistent with previous models describing the extent and magnitude of auroral absorption and electron precipitation. Individual substorms, identified from geosynchronous satellite data, are found to cause short-lived absorption events in the HF signal level of ~30 dB at 6.800 MHz. The occurrence of substorm correlated auroral absorption events is confined to the midnight and morning sectors, consistent with the location of the electron precipitation. The magnitude of absorption is related to the magnetotail stress during the substorm growth phase and the magnetotail relaxation during the substorm expansion phase onset. The absorption magnitude and the occurrence of substorms during the period of the campaign increase at times of high Kp , leading to an increase in median auroral absorption during disturbed periods.

  6. Generation of Z mode radiation by diffuse auroral electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of Z mode waves by diffuse auroral electron precipitation is investigated assuming that a loss cone exists in the upgoing portion of the distribution due to electron interactions with the atmosphere. The waves are generated at frequencies above, but very near, the local electron cyclotron frequency omega(e) and at wave normal angles larger than 90 deg. In agreement with Hewitt et al. (1983), the group velocity is directed downward in regions where the ratio of the upper hybrid frequency omega(pe) to Omega(e) is less than 0.5, so that Z mode waves excited above a satellite propagate toward it and away from the upper hybrid resonance. Z mode waves are excited in a frequency band between Omega(e) and about 1.02 Omega(e), and with maximum growth rates of about 0.001 Omega(e). The amplification length is about 100 km, which allows Z mode waves to grow to the intensities observed by high-altitude satellites.

  7. New DMSP Database of Precipitating Auroral Electrons and Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Robert J; Denig, William F; Kilcommons, Liam M; Knipp, Delores J

    2017-08-01

    Since the mid 1970's, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft have operated instruments for monitoring the space environment from low earth orbit. As the program evolved, so to have the measurement capabilities such that modern DMSP spacecraft include a comprehensive suite of instruments providing estimates of precipitating electron and ion fluxes, cold/bulk plasma composition and moments, the geomagnetic field, and optical emissions in the far and extreme ultraviolet. We describe the creation of a new public database of precipitating electrons and ions from the Special Sensor J (SSJ) instrument, complete with original counts, calibrated differential fluxes adjusted for penetrating radiation, estimates of the total kinetic energy flux and characteristic energy, uncertainty estimates, and accurate ephemerides. These are provided in a common and self-describing format that covers 30+ years of DMSP spacecraft from F06 (launched in 1982) through F18 (launched in 2009). This new database is accessible at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and the Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb). We describe how the new database is being applied to high latitude studies of: the co-location of kinetic and electromagnetic energy inputs, ionospheric conductivity variability, field aligned currents and auroral boundary identification. We anticipate that this new database will support a broad range of space science endeavors from single observatory studies to coordinated system science investigations.

  8. New DMSP database of precipitating auroral electrons and ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Robert J.; Denig, William F.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.

    2017-08-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft have operated instruments for monitoring the space environment from low Earth orbit. As the program evolved, so have the measurement capabilities such that modern DMSP spacecraft include a comprehensive suite of instruments providing estimates of precipitating electron and ion fluxes, cold/bulk plasma composition and moments, the geomagnetic field, and optical emissions in the far and extreme ultraviolet. We describe the creation of a new public database of precipitating electrons and ions from the Special Sensor J (SSJ) instrument, complete with original counts, calibrated differential fluxes adjusted for penetrating radiation, estimates of the total kinetic energy flux and characteristic energy, uncertainty estimates, and accurate ephemerides. These are provided in a common and self-describing format that covers 30+ years of DMSP spacecraft from F06 (launched in 1982) to F18 (launched in 2009). This new database is accessible at the National Centers for Environmental Information and the Coordinated Data Analysis Web. We describe how the new database is being applied to high-latitude studies of the colocation of kinetic and electromagnetic energy inputs, ionospheric conductivity variability, field-aligned currents, and auroral boundary identification. We anticipate that this new database will support a broad range of space science endeavors from single observatory studies to coordinated system science investigations.

  9. Ionospheric current system accompanied by auroral vortex streets

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical measurements have revealed that a sudden brightening of aurora and its deformation from an arc-like to a vortex street structure appear just at the onset of substorm. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been studied by means of magnetohydrodynamic simulations in order to comprehend the formation of auroral vortex streets. Our previous work reported that an initially placed arc intensifies, splits, and deforms into a vortex street during a couple of minutes, and the prime key is an enhancement of the convection electric field. This study elaborated physics of the ionospheric horizontal currents related to the vortex street in the context of so-called Cowling polarization. One component is due to the perturbed electric field by Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves, and the other is due to the perturbed electron density (or polarization) in the ionosphere. It was found that, when a vortex street develops, upward/downward pair currents in its leading/trail...

  10. Parameterization of ionization rate by auroral electron precipitation in Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hiraki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulate auroral electron precipitation into the Jovian atmosphere in which electron multi-directional scattering and energy degradation processes are treated exactly with a Monte Carlo technique. We make a parameterization of the calculated ionization rate of the neutral gas by electron impact in a similar way as used for the Earth's aurora. Our method allows the altitude distribution of the ionization rate to be obtained as a function of an arbitrary initial energy spectrum in the range of 1–200 keV. It also includes incident angle dependence and an arbitrary density distribution of molecular hydrogen. We show that there is little dependence of the estimated ionospheric conductance on atomic species such as H and He. We compare our results with those of recent studies with different electron transport schemes by adapting our parameterization to their atmospheric conditions. We discuss the intrinsic problem of their simplified assumption. The ionospheric conductance, which is important for Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, is estimated to vary by a factor depending on the electron energy spectrum based on recent observation and modeling. We discuss this difference through the relation with field-aligned current and electron spectrum.

  11. Artificial auroral effects from a bare conducting tether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, M.; Sanmartín, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    An electrically floating metallic bare tether in a low Earth orbit would be highly negative with respect to the ambient plasma over most of its length, and would be bombarded by ambient ions. This would liberate secondary electrons, which, after acceleration through the same voltage, would form a magnetically guided two-sided planar e beam, and result in auroral effects (ionization and light emission) upon impact on the atmospheric E layer, at about 120-140 km altitude. This paper examines in a preliminary way the feasibility of using this effect as an upper atmospheric probe. Ionization rates can reach up to 105cm-3s-1 if a tape, instead of a wire, is used as tether. Contrary to standard e beams, the beam from the tether is free of spacecraft charging and plasma interaction problems, and its energy flux varies across the cross section, which is quite large; this would make possible continuous observation from the satellite, with high resolution, both spectral and vertical, of the induced optical emissions. Ground observation might be possible at latitudes around 40°, for night, magnetically quiet conditions.

  12. H(+) - O(+) two-stream interaction on auroral field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Rachelle

    1990-01-01

    Upflowing beams of hydrogen, oxygen, and minor ion species, and downward accelerated electrons have been observed above several thousand kilometers altitude on evening auroral field lines. The mechanism for electron and ion acceleration is generally accepted to be the presence of a quasi-static electric field with a component parallel to the earth's magnetic field. The thermal energy of the observed beams is much larger than ionospheric ion temperatures indicating that the beams have been heated as they are accelerated upward. This heating is probably due to a two-stream interaction between beams of different mass ions. The beams gain equal energy in the potential drop and so have different average velocities. Their relative streaming initiates an ion-ion two-stream interaction which then mediates a transfer of energy and momentum between the beams and causes thermalization of each beam. The qualitative evidence that supports this scenario is reviewed. Properties of the two-stream instability are presented in order to demonstrate that a calculation of the evolution of ion beams requires a model that includes field-aligned spatial structure.

  13. Parameterization of ionization rate by auroral electron precipitation in Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hiraki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulate auroral electron precipitation into the Jovian atmosphere in which electron multi-directional scattering and energy degradation processes are treated exactly with a Monte Carlo technique. We make a parameterization of the calculated ionization rate of the neutral gas by electron impact in a similar way as used for the Earth's aurora. Our method allows the altitude distribution of the ionization rate to be obtained as a function of an arbitrary initial energy spectrum in the range of 1–200 keV. It also includes incident angle dependence and an arbitrary density distribution of molecular hydrogen. We show that there is little dependence of the estimated ionospheric conductance on atomic species such as H and He. We compare our results with those of recent studies with different electron transport schemes by adapting our parameterization to their atmospheric conditions. We discuss the intrinsic problem of their simplified assumption. The ionospheric conductance, which is important for Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, is estimated to vary by a factor depending on the electron energy spectrum based on recent observation and modeling. We discuss this difference through the relation with field-aligned current and electron spectrum.

  14. Ground-based and satellite observations of high-latitude auroral activity in the dusk sector of the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kauristie

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, during 13:30–15:30 UT the MIRACLE all-sky camera at Ny Ålesund observed auroras at high-latitudes (MLAT ~ 76 simultaneously when the Cluster spacecraft were skimming the magnetopause in the same MLT sector (at ~ 16:00–18:00 MLT. The location of the auroras (near the ionospheric convection reversal boundary and the clear correlation between their dynamics and IMF variations suggests their close relationship with R1 currents. Consequently, we can assume that the Cluster spacecraft were making observations in the magnetospheric region associated with the auroras, although exact magnetic conjugacy between the ground-based and satellite observations did not exist. The solar wind variations appeared to control both the behaviour of the auroras and the magnetopause dynamics. Auroral structures were observed at Ny Ålesund especially during periods of negative IMF BZ. In addition, the Cluster spacecraft experienced periodic (T ~ 4 - 6 min encounters between magnetospheric and magnetosheath plasmas. These undulations of the boundary can be interpreted as a consequence of tailward propagating magnetopause surface waves. Simultaneous dusk sector ground-based observations show weak, but discernible magnetic pulsations (Pc 5 and occasionally periodic variations (T ~ 2 - 3 min in the high-latitude auroras. In the dusk sector, Pc 5 activity was stronger and had characteristics that were consistent with a field line resonance type of activity. When IMF BZ stayed positive for a longer period, the auroras were dimmer and the spacecraft stayed at the outer edge of the magnetopause where they observed electromagnetic pulsations with T ~ 1 min. We find these observations interesting especially from the viewpoint of previously presented studies relating poleward-moving high-latitude auroras with pulsation activity and MHD waves propagating at the magnetospheric boundary layers

  15. Numerical simulation for a vortex street near the poleward boundary of the nighttime auroral oval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.

    2012-02-01

    The formation of a vortex street is numerically studied as an aftermath of a transient (≈1 min) depression of the energy density of injected particles. It is basically assumed that the kinetic energies of auroral particles are substantially provided by nonadiabatic acceleration in the tail current sheet. One of the causes of such energy density depression is an outward (away from the Earth) movement of the neutral line because in such situation, a particle passes the acceleration zone for a shorter time interval while it is inwardly transported in the current sheet. The numerical simulation shows that a long chain of many (≥5) vortices can be formed in the nighttime high-latitude auroral oval as a result of the hybrid Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH/RT) instability. The main characteristics of long vortex chains in the simulation such as the short lifetime (≲2 min) and the correlation between wavelength, λ, and arc system width, A, compare well with those of the periodic auroral distortions observed primarily in the high-latitude auroral oval. Specifically, either λ-A relationship from simulation or observation shows a positive correlation between λ and A but with considerable dispersion in λ. Since auroral vortices arising from the hybrid KH/RT instability are not accompanied by significant rotational motions, the magnetic shear instability caused by undulations in the field-aligned current (FAC) sheet could turn the vortices into spirals which wind or unwind in response to increase or decrease of FACs, respectively.

  16. On the role of vertical electron density gradients in the generation of type II irregularities associated with blanketing ES (ESb) during counter equatorial electrojet events: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, C. V.; Jyoti, N.; Subbarao, K. S. V.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Reddi, C. Raghava; Sridharan, R.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristics of different types of Sporadic E (ES) layers and the associated plasma density irregularities over the magnetic equator have been studied in a campaign mode using VHF backscatter radar, digital ionosonde, and ground magnetometer data from Trivandrum (dip latitude 0.5°N, geographic latitude 8.5°N, geographic longitude 77°E), India. The presence of blanketing type ES (ESb) in the ionograms with varying intensity and duration were observed in association with afternoon Counter Equatorial Electrojet (CEEJ) events. ESb was associated with intense backscatter returns and with either very low zonal electric field and/or with distortions present in the altitude profile of the drift velocity of the type II irregularities. The results of the coordinated study indicate the possible role of vertical electron density gradients in ESb layers in addition to providing evidence for the local winds to be responsible for the vertical gradients themselves.

  17. Records of auroral candidates and sunspots in Rikkokushi, chronicles of ancient Japan from early 7th century to 887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki; Namiki, Katsuko; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of the surveys on sunspots and auroral candidates in Rikkokushi, Japanese official histories from the early 7th century to 887, to review the solar and auroral activities. In total, we found one sunspot record and 13 auroral candidates in Rikkokushi. We then examine the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates, compare the auroral candidates with the lunar phase to estimate their reliability, and compare the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates with the contemporary total solar irradiance reconstructed from radioisotope data. We also identify the locations of the observational sites to review possible equatorward expansion of the auroral oval. These discussions suggest a major gap in auroral candidates from the late 7th to early 9th centuries, which includes the candidate of the grand minimum reconstructed from the radioisotope data, a similar tendency as the distributions of sunspot records in contemporary China, and a relatively high magnetic latitude of observational sites with a higher potential for observing aurorae more frequently than at present.

  18. Current-voltage relationship in the auroral particle acceleration region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morooka

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The current-voltage relationship in the auroral particle acceleration region has been studied statistically by the Akebono (EXOS-D satellite in terms of the charge carriers of the upward field-aligned current. The Akebono satellite often observed field-aligned currents which were significantly larger than the model value predicted by Knight (1973. We compared the upward field-aligned current estimated by three different methods, and found that low-energy electrons often play an important role as additional current carriers, together with the high-energy primary electrons which are expected from Knight's relation. Such additional currents have been observed especially at high and middle altitudes of the particle acceleration region. Some particular features of electron distribution functions, such as "cylindrical distribution functions" and "electron conics", have often been observed coinciding with the additional currents. They indicated time variability of the particle acceleration region. Therefore, we have concluded that the low-energy electrons within the "forbidden" region of electron phase space in the stationary model often contribute to charge carriers of the current because of the rapid time variability of the particle acceleration region. "Cylindrical distribution functions" are expected to be found below the time-varying potential difference. We statistically examined the locations of "cylindrical distribution function", and found that their altitudes are related to the location where the additional currents have been observed. This result is consistent with the idea that the low-energy electrons can also carry significant current when the acceleration region changes in time.

  19. Why does substorm-associated auroral surge travel westward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2018-01-01

    A substorm is a long-standing unsolved issue in solar-terrestrial physics. One of the big challenges is to explain reasonably the evolution of the morphological structure of the aurora associated with the substorm. The sudden appearance of a bright aurora and an auroral surge traveling westward (westward traveling surge, WTS) are noticeable features of the aurora during the substorm expansion phase. By using a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation, we obtained the following results regarding the WTS. When the interplanetary magnetic field turns southward, a persistent dynamo appears in the cusp/mantle region, driving the two-cell magnetospheric convection. Then, the substorm growth phase begins. When magnetic reconnection takes place in the magnetotail, plasma is accelerated earthward in the plasma sheet, and accelerated toward the equatorial plane in the lobe. The second dynamo appears in the near-Earth region, which is closely associated with the generation of the field-aligned current (FAC) on the nightside. When the FAC reaches the ionosphere, the aurora becomes bright, and the onset of the expansion phase begins. In the ionosphere, the conductivity is intensified in the bright aurora due to the precipitation of accelerated electrons. The conductivity gradient gives rise to the overflow of the Hall current, which acts as the third dynamo. The overflow results in the accumulation of space charge, which causes a divergent electric field. The divergent electric field generates a thin, structured upward FAC adjacent to the bright aurora. The opposite process takes place on the opposite side of the bright aurora. In short, the upward FAC increases (appearance of aurora) at the leading edge of the surge, and decreases (disappearance of aurora) at the trailing edge of the surge. By repeating these processes, the surge seems to travel westward.

  20. Summary of Quantitative Interpretation of Image Far Ultraviolet Auroral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. U.; Immel, T. J.; Mende, S. B.; Gerard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Habraken, S.; Span, J.; Gladstone, G. R.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; hide

    2002-01-01

    Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by instruments on the IMAGE spacecraft is supplemented by simultaneous observations of the global aurora in three far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelength bands. The purpose of the multi-wavelength imaging is to study the global auroral particle and energy input from thc magnetosphere into the atmosphere. This paper describes provides the method for quantitative interpretation of FUV measurements. The Wide-Band Imaging Camera (WIC) provides broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora with maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the nitrogen lines and bands between 140 and 180 nm wavelength. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a dual wavelength monochromatic instrument, images both Doppler-shifted Lyman alpha emissions produced by precipitating protons, in the SI-12 channel and OI 135.6 nm emissions in the SI-13 channel. From the SI-12 Doppler shifted Lyman alpha images it is possible to obtain the precipitating proton flux provided assumptions are made regarding the mean energy of the protons. Knowledge of the proton (flux and energy) component allows the calculation of the contribution produced by protons in the WIC and SI-13 instruments. Comparison of the corrected WIC and SI-13 signals provides a measure of the electron mean energy, which can then be used to determine the electron energy fluxun-. To accomplish this reliable modeling emission modeling and instrument calibrations are required. In-flight calibration using early-type stars was used to validate the pre-flight laboratory calibrations and determine long-term trends in sensitivity. In general, very reasonable agreement is found between in-situ measurements and remote quantitative determinations.

  1. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  2. Positive amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in auroral plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Lakhina, G. S.

    Rapidly moving positive potential pulses have been observed by FAST and POLAR satellites in downward current region of auroral plasma. They are characterized by their high velocities (> 1000 km/s) which are of the order of the electron drift velocities and are found to be associated with electron beams. Interestingly, it is observed that the width of such electron mode solitary waves increases with the amplitude [Ergun et al. (1998)]. Theoretically, they are interpreted as BGK electron phase space holes. However, Berthomier et al. (2000) have shown that a positive amplitude solitary wave may well exist for an electron acoustic mode. According to a weakly nonlinear theory, the width of such an electron acoustic solitary wave is expected to decrease with increasing amplitude which contradicts the observation. On the other hand, in our previous work, we have shown that the width of a large amplitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary wave increases with an increasing amplitude [Ghosh et al. (2004)]. In the present work, we have extended our analysis to an electron acoustic solitary wave. A fully nonlinear solution of positive amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves (electron acoustic solitary holes) has been obtained by adopting the Sagdeev pseudopotetial technique. The plasma is assumed to be magnetized and traversed by the electron beam. The existence domain of such electron acoustic solitary holes is studied in detail. It is found that the width of electron acoustic solitary holes increases with increasing amplitude. Theoretically estimated width-amplitude variation profiles have been compared with recent satellite observations. It is proposed that a model based on electron acoustic mode may well interpret the fast moving solitary holes for an appropriate parameter space. References:Berthomier et al., Phys. Plasma, 7, 2987 (2000).Ergun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 826, (1998).Ghosh and Lakhina,, Nonlin. Process. Geophys, (2004), (to be appeared).

  3. Auroral radio emission from ultracool dwarfs: a Jovian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnpenney, S.; Nichols, J. D.; Wynn, G. A.; Casewell, S. L.

    2017-10-01

    A number of fast-rotating ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) emit pulsed coherent radiation, attributed to the electron-cyclotron maser instability, a phenomenon that occurs in the Solar system at planets with strong auroral emission. In this paper, we examine magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in UCDs, adopting processes used in models of Jovian emission. We consider the angular velocity gradient arising from a steady outward flux of angular momentum from an internal plasma source, as analogous to the Jovian main oval current system, as well as the interaction of a rotating magnetosphere with the external medium. Both of these mechanisms are seen in the Solar system to be responsible for the production of radio emission. We present the results of an investigation over a range of relevant plasma and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling parameters to determine regimes consistent with observed UCD radio luminosities. Both processes are able to explain observed UCD luminosities with ionospheric Pedersen conductances of ˜1-2 mho, either for a closed magnetosphere with a plasma mass outflow rate of ˜105 kg s-1, I.e. a factor of ˜100 larger than that observed at Jupiter's moon Io, or for a dwarf with an open magnetosphere moving through the interstellar medium at ˜50 km s-1 and a plasma mass outflow rate of ˜1000 kg s-1. The radio luminosity resulting from these mechanisms has opposing dependencies on the magnetic field strength, a point that may be used to discriminate between the two models as more data become available.

  4. Continuous auroral activity related to high speed streams with interplaneraty ALFV&N wave trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Kamide, Yosuke; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a type of intense magnetospheric/auroral activity that is not always substorms: High-Intensity, Long-Duration, Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) events, which occur during high speed solar wind streams. The high speed streams contain large-amplitude, nonlinear Alfvtn waves. Analyses of POLAR UV images, demonstrate that the AE increases/AL decreases in HILDCAAs are not always substorm expansion phases (although some substorms may occur). The associated auroral W energy deposition is throughout a continuous (360') auroral oval. During some image intervals, the dayside aurora is the most remarkable feature. Our hypothesis is that solar wind energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily directly driven due to the finite wavelength Alfv6n waves and the rapid dBz/dt variability.

  5. The response of the azimuthal component of the ionospheric electric field to auroral arc brightening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Safargaleev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the response of azimuthal component of the ionospheric electric field to auroral arc activity. We have chosen for analysis three intervals of coordinated EISCAT and TV observations on 18 February, 1993. These intervals include three kinds of arc activity: the appearance of a new auroral arc, the gradual brightening of the existing arc and variations of the arc luminosity. The arcs were mostly east-west aligned. In all cases, the enhancement of arc luminosity is accompanied by a decrease in the westward component of the ionospheric electric field. In contrast, an increase of that component seems to be connected with arc fading. The observed response is assumed to have the same nature as the "short circuit" of an external electric field by the conductor. The possible consequence of this phenomenon is discussed..Keywords. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionospheric irregularities · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  6. Plasma sheet fast flows and auroral dynamics during substorm: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Borodkova

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Interball-1 observations of a substorm development in the mid-tail on 16 December 1998 are compared with the auroral dynamics obtained from the Polar UV imager. Using these data, the relationship between plasma flow directions in the tail and the location of the auroral activation is examined. Main attention is given to tailward and earth-ward plasma flows, interpreted as signatures of a Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL. It is unambiguously shown that in the mid-plasma sheet the flows were directed tailward when the auroral bulge developed equatorward of the spacecraft ionospheric footprint. On the contrary, when active auroras moved poleward of the Interball-1 projection, earthward fast flow bursts were observed. This confirms the concept that the NENL (or flow reversal region is the source of auroras forming the poleward edge of the auroral bulge. The observed earthward flow bursts have all typical signatures of Bursty Bulk Flows (BBFs, described by Angelopolous et al. (1992. These BBFs are related to substorm activations starting at the poleward edge of the expanded auroral bulge. We interpret the BBFs as a result of reconnection pulses occurring tail-ward of Interball-1. In addition, some non-typically observed phenomena were detected in the plasma sheet during this substorm: (i tailward/earthward flows were superimposed on a very strong duskward flow, and (ii wavy structures of both magnetic field and plasma density were registered. The latter observation is probably linked to the filamentary structure of the current sheet.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  7. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  8. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  9. Travelling ionospheric disturbance properties deduced from Super Dual Auroral Radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. MacDougall

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on modeling of the perturbations in power and elevation angle produced by travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs, and observed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network, procedures for determining the TID properties are suggested. These procedures are shown to produce reasonable agreement with those properties of the TIDs that can be measured from simultaneous ionosonde measurements. The modeling shows that measurements of angle-of-elevation perturbations by SuperDARN allows for better determination of the TID properties than using only the perturbations of power as is commonly done.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions

  10. Auroral spectrograph data annals of the international geophysical year, v.25

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Anne; Norman, S J

    1964-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 25: Auroral Spectrograph Data is a five-chapter text that contains tabulations of auroral spectrograph data. The patrol spectrograph built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation for the Aurora and Airglow Program of the IGY is a high-speed, low-dispersion, automatic instrument designed to photograph spectra of aurora occurring along a given magnetic meridian of the sky. Data from each spectral frame were recorded on an IBM punched card. The data recorded on the cards are printed onto the tabulations in this volume. These tabulations are available

  11. Comparison and significance of auroral studies during the Swedish and Russian bilateral expedition to Spitsbergen in 1899–1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of measurements and visual observations of aurora at Spitsbergen, carried out by the joint Swedish-Russian expedition during 1899–1900, are described. Auroral observations took place during the great bilateral Arc-of-Meridian expedition, which was patronized by the Swedish Royal Family and the Russian Imperial Family. The Russian-Swedish Arc-of-Meridian measurements were closely coordinated but auroral measurements from the two sites in the Spitsbergen Archipelago were almost independent of each other. The basic auroral data for our presentation are reports of the Russian astronomer Josef Sykora and the Swedish geophysicist Jonas Westman. Both scientists used similar types of photo cameras and spectrographs, which were the best at that time and were made in Potsdam by Toepfer. Detailed descriptions of the optical devices and the system of spectral calibration are presented. A Toepfer spectrograph, possibly the one used by Westman, is still kept at IRF in Kiruna. We present a comparative analysis of auroral data from the Russian and Swedish stations on three themes: visual observations of aurora, describing features of auroral forms and giving us statistical data on aurora occurrence and the heights of aurora, photos of aurora, and auroral spectra. It is shown that the observations contain enough data to construct an auroral oval and to determine the heights of aurora. The expedition obtained the first photographic observations of the aurora in the Arctic. The auroral spectra demonstrate a high spectral resolution and show not only the main auroral emissions in the blue-green spectral range but also some weak emissions in the violet and ultraviolet region. All data are interpreted from a modern point of view. The Russian-Swedish 1899–1900 expedition carried out the first complex auroral investigations in the Arctic using optical instruments and presented well documented data and new results.

  12. Solar and auroral evidence for an intense recurrent geomagnetic storm during December in AD 1128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The earliest known drawing of sunspots appears in The Chronicle of John of Worcester, which was compiled in the first half of the twelfth century. In this medieval chronicle, the Latin text describing the sunspots is accompanied by a colourful drawing, albeit idealised, which shows the apparent positions and sizes of two sunspots on the solar disk. The date of this observation of sunspots from Worcester, England is firmly established as AD 1128 December 8. Assuming that the drawing was prepared fairly carefully, the angular diameters of the two sunspots are at least about 3 arcmin and 2 arcmin in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Similarly, the heliographic latitudes of both sunspots are within the approximate range of 25°–35°. About five days after this observation of sunspots on the solar disk, on the night of AD 1128 December 13, a red auroral display was observed from Songdo, Korea (the modern city of Kaesong. This auroral observation was recorded in the Koryo-sa, the official Korean chronicle of the period. In addition, five Chinese and five Korean descriptions of auroral displays were recorded in various East-Asian histories between the middle of AD 1127 and the middle of AD 1129. The ten oriental auroral records in this particular interval correspond to six distinct auroral events, which provide evidence for recurrent, though possibly intermittent, auroral activity on a timescale almost exactly equal to the synodic-solar-rotation period (approximately 27 days. The six distinct auroral events were apparently associated with two series of recurrent geomagnetic storms, both of which were sufficiently intense to produce mid-latitude auroral displays in East Asia. These ancient solar and auroral observations are interpreted in terms of present-day understanding of solar-terrestrial physics. Con-temporary ground-based and satellite measurements during the last few decades have indicated that recurrent geomagnetic storms

  13. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Design and Operations in Auroral Charging Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun-synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth s land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems are episodically exposed to environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.1 to 10 s kilovolt) electrons in regions of very low background plasma density which is similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. While it is well established that charging conditions in geostationary orbit are responsible for many anomalies and even spacecraft failures, to date there have been relatively few such reports due to charging in auroral environments. This presentation first reviews the physics of the space environment and its interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments and discuss how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  14. Development of a near-infrared balloon-borne camera for dayside and sunlit auroral observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.-Y.; Lummerzheim, D.; Gladstone, R.; Rafol, S. B.; Gunapala, S.; He, Y.-T.; Hampton, D.

    2017-04-01

    Imaging aurora in daylight is a difficult and challenging task. The brightness of the sunlit atmosphere overwhelms the auroral emissions at visible wavelengths. Modeling of atmospheric brightness suggests that the contrast between auroral brightness and sky brightness makes it possible to image the aurora at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths from sufficient altitudes. Preliminary experiments confirmed that the auroral N2+ Meinel emissions at about 1100 nm are bright enough to be extracted from atmospheric background brightness during daylight at about 40 km of a balloon altitude, which lead to the development of a high-performance NIR InGaAs camera that can be flown on a high-altitude and long-duration balloon. Auroral observations from such a platform are highly accommodated to current space missions (such as Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms/Acceleration Reconnection Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun, Magnetospheric Multiscale, Cluster, Geotail, and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) and many ground-based measurements and will enhance the science return significantly.

  15. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  16. Alfven Waves and Electron Energization and Their Interaction with Auroral Ionospheric Plasma Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari, F. B.; Horwitz, J. L.; Jones, S.; Su, Y.; Zeng, W.

    2008-12-01

    When inertial Alfvén waves propagate along auroral field lines, they involve parallel electric fields which can accelerate auroral electrons. Here, we simulate the propagation of Alfvén waves through O+ and H+ auroral ionosphere-magnetosphere density profiles obtained from the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid- Kinetic (DyFK) ionospheric plasma transport model. A linear one dimensional gyrofluid code [Jones and Parker, 2003] is used for the Alfvén wave description, incorporating electron inertia, electron pressure gradient and finite ion gyroradius effects. Then, the test particle approach of Su et al. [2004] is used to simulate the response of a distribution of electrons to these Alfvén wave electric fields. These electrons are incorporated into the DyFK model to produce a partially-self-consistent approach to producing the associated ionization and thermal electron heating within the ionosphere-magnetosphere system. Jones, S. T., and S. E. Parker (2003), Including electron inertia without advancing electron flow, J. Comput. Phys., 191, 322. Su, Y.-J., S. T. Jones, R. E. Ergun, and S. E. Parker (2004), Modeling of field-aligned electron bursts by dispersive Alfvén waves in the dayside auroral region, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A11201, doi:10.1029/2003JA010344.

  17. The interaction of Alfvenic electrons and the auroral ionosphere: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, James; Jaafari, Fajer; Su, Yi-Jiun; Jones, Sam

    Inertial Alfven waves propagating along auroral field lines produce parallel electric fields which accelerate auroral precipitating electrons. In this presentation, we examine the propagation of Alfven waves within O+ and H+ auroral ionosphere-magnetosphere density profiles from the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic (DyFK) ionospheric plasma transport model. For the Alfven wave description, a linear one dimensional gyrofluid code [Jones and Parker, 2003] is used, in which electron inertia, electron pressure gradient and finite ion gyroradius effects are incorporated. This Alfven wave propagation code determines the characteristics of propagating Alfven waves which generate the inertial parallel electric field responsible for energizing electrons. A test particle model developed by Su et al.[2004] is then used to simulate the response of a distribution of electrons to these Alfven wave electric fields. The integrated energy flux of the resulting precipitating electrons will be obtained, and the effect of such Alfvenic electrons on the plasma evolution in the DyFK code will be presented. Jones, S. T., and S. E. Parker (2003), Including electron inertia without advancing electron flow, J. Comput. Phys., 191, 322. Su, Y.-J., S. T. Jones, R. E. Ergun, and S. E. Parker (2004), Modeling of field-aligned electron bursts by dispersive Alfvén waves in the dayside auroral region, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A11201, e doi:10.1029/2003JA010344

  18. Observations of the auroral width spectrum at kilometre-scale size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines auroral colour camera data from the Canadian Dense Array Imaging SYstem (DAISY. The Dense Array consists of three imagers with different narrow (compared to all-sky view field-of-view optics. The main scientific motivation arises from an earlier study by Knudsen et al. (2001 who used All-Sky Imager (ASI combined with even earlier TV camera observations (Maggs and Davis, 1968 to suggest that there is a gap in the distribution of auroral arc widths at around 1 km. With DAISY observations we are able to show that the gap is an instrument artifact and due to limited spatial resolution and coverage of commonly used instrumentation, namely ASIs and TV cameras. If the auroral scale size spectrum is indeed continuous, the mechanisms forming these structures should be able to produce all of the different scale sizes. So far, such a single process has not been proposed in the literature and very few models are designed to interact with each other even though the range of their favourable conditions do overlap. All scale-sizes should be considered in the future studies of auroral forms and electron acceleration regions, both in observational and theoretical approaches.

  19. Changes of dayside auroral distribution caused by a solar wind pressure pulse and associated interplanetary magnetic field disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kozlovsky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Global auroral images from the IMAGE satellite were used to study statistically changes of the dayside aurora spatial distribution after an abrupt solar wind pressure increase, or so-called "Sudden Impulse" (SI. Contributions from IMF changes associated with a SI were also investigated. The effects of the IMF and pressure variations were separated using a multi-factor correlation analysis. The first prominent effect due to pressure increase is the auroral intensification equatorward of the middle dayside oval within 6 min after a SI occurred. This is consistent with the midday sub-auroral patches. The second effect due to pressure increase is the auroral intensification at high latitudes in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. For the first 6 min the auroral intensification is most prominent in the postnoon sector. Later on (6–20 min the intensification occurs in the prenoon sector. The most obvious effect of IMF changes is the "IMF By" effect, an intensification (fading of the most poleward auroral forms when IMF By becomes negative (positive. This effect occurs 6–20 min after changes in the interplanetary medium. Such an effect is consistent with the IMF By-related system of field-aligned currents. No significant motion of the dayside auroral oval was observed associated with IMF Bz variations. This can be explained by a response time to IMF Bz changes larger than 20 min.

  20. Characteristics of 630nm auroral polarization observed at Pokar Flat, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpei, T.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Hampton, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report the result of OI 630 nm auroral polarization observation at Poker Flat Research Range (Glat=65.12N, Glon=147.43W, Mlat=65.72N) during the period from December 2013 to April 2014. OI 630nm auroral emission is theoretically expected to show linear polarization with degrees up to 17% [Bommier et al., 2011]. The important point is that, the degree of linear polarization depends on energy and velocity anisotropy of precipitating electrons [Fujimoto et al., 1997]. Recent observation data also showed that 630nm auroral emission related to polar rain at high-latitudes linear polarization parallel to field with degrees of 2-7%[Lilensten et al., 2013]. However, these past measurements were limited in the polar cap region and its polarization characteristics are not clear. To examine auroral polarization with an accuracy of 1% polarization degree, we developed an imaging spectrograph which can measure auroral polarization in the wide field-of-view of 130 deg covering the wavelength range from 420 nm to 680 nm (resolution 2 nm). This new instrument enables us to obtain the linear polarization degrees at 557.7 nm and 630 nm auroral emissions simultaneously. Here, we can regard 557.7 nm aurora as a standard polarization light source because it does not produce polarization theoretically. We installed the spectrograph at Poker Flat Research Range and carried out precise calibration to estimate artificial polarization which is produced inside the optical system using an LED light source with a linear polarizer every 3 hours on five nights in December 2013. Since then, automatic operation was continuously carried every night out till the beginning of April 2014.We obtained the linear polarization of 630 nm aurora with degree of 5% showing elevation angle dependence. On the other hand, we unexpectedly measured the polarization of 557.7 nm emission which shows similar polarization property as 630 nm. We are considering two possibilities to interpret the results as follows

  1. Temporal and spatial evolution of discrete auroral arcs as seen by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Figueiredo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two event studies are presented in this paper where intense convergent electric fields, with mapped intensities up to 1350 mV/m, are measured in the auroral upward current region by the Cluster spacecraft, at altitudes between 3 and 5 Earth radii. Both events are from May 2003, Southern Hemisphere, with equatorward crossings by the Cluster spacecraft of the pre-midnight auroral oval.

    Event 1 occurs during the end of the recovery phase of a strong substorm. A system of auroral arcs associated with convergent electric field structures, with a maximum perpendicular potential drop of about ~10 kV, and upflowing field-aligned currents with densities of 3 µA/m2 (mapped to the ionosphere, was detected at the boundary between the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL and the Plasma Sheet (PS. The auroral arc structures evolve in shape and in magnitude on a timescale of tens of minutes, merging, broadening and intensifying, until finally fading away after about 50 min. Throughout this time, both the PS region and the auroral arc structure in its poleward part remain relatively fixed in space, reflecting the rather quiet auroral conditions during the end of the substorm. The auroral upward acceleration region is shown for this event to extend beyond 3.9 Earth radii altitude.

    Event 2 occurs during a more active period associated with the expansion phase of a moderate substorm. Images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 spacecraft show that the Cluster spacecraft crossed the horn region of a surge-type aurora. Conjugated with the Cluster spacecraft crossing above the surge horn, the South Pole All Sky Imager recorded the motion and the temporal evolution of an east-west aligned auroral arc, 30 to 50 km wide. Intense electric field variations are measured by the Cluster spacecraft when crossing above the auroral arc structure, collocated with the

  2. Space Weather Products and Tools Used in Auroral Monitoring and Forecasting at CCMC/SWRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Key points discussed in this chapter are (1) the importance of aurora research to scientific advances and space weather applications, (2) space weather products at CCMC that are relevant to aurora monitoring and forecasting, and (3) the need for more effort from the whole community to achieve a better and long-lead-time forecast of auroral activity. Aurora, as manifestations of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling that occurs in a region of space that is relatively easy to access for sounding rockets, satellites, and other types of observational platforms, serves as a natural laboratory for studying the underlying physics of the complex system. From a space weather application perspective, auroras can cause surface charging of technological assets passing through the region, result in scintillation effects affecting communication and navigation, and cause radar cluttering that hinders military and civilian applications. Indirectly, an aurora and its currents can induce geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on the ground, which poses major concerns for the wellbeing and operation of power grids, particularly during periods of intense geomagnetic activity. In addition, accurate auroral forecasting is desired for auroral tourism. In this chapter, we first review some of the existing auroral models and discuss past validation efforts. Such efforts are crucial in transitioning a model(s) from research to operations and for further model improvement and development that also benefits scientific endeavors. Then we will focus on products and tools that are used for auroral monitoring and forecasting at the Space Weather Research Center (SWRC). As part of the CCMC (Community Coordinated Modeling Center), SWRC has been providing space weather services since 2010.

  3. Nonlinear model of short-scale electrodynamics in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. A. Noël

    Full Text Available The optical detection of auroral subarcs a few tens of m wide as well as the direct observation of shears several m/s per m over km to sub km scales by rocket instrumentation both indicate that violent and highly localized electrodynamics can occur at times in the auroral ionosphere over scales 100 m or less in width. These observations as well as the detection of unstable ion-acoustic waves observed by incoherent radars along the geomagnetic field lines has motivated us to develop a detailed time-dependent two-dimensional model of short-scale auroral electrodynamics that uses current continuity, Ohm's law, and 8-moment transport equations for the ions and electrons in the presence of large ambient electric fields to describe wide auroral arcs with sharp edges in response to sharp cut-offs in precipitation (even though it may be possible to describe thin arcs and ultra-thin arcs with our model, we have left such a study for future work. We present the essential elements of this new model and illustrate the model's usefulness with a sample run for which the ambient electric field is 100 mV/m away from the arc and for which electron precipitation cuts off over a region 100 m wide. The sample run demonstrates that parallel current densities of the order of several hundred µA m-2 can be triggered in these circumstances, together with shears several m/s per m in magnitude and parallel electric fields of the order of 0.1 mV/m around 130 km altitude. It also illustrates that the local ionospheric properties like densities, temperature and composition can strongly be affected by the violent localized electrodynamics and vice-versa.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere, electric fields and currents, ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions

  4. Substorm associated radar auroral surges: a statistical study and possible generation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available Substorm-associated radar auroral surges (SARAS are a short lived (15–90 minutes and spatially localised (~5° of latitude perturbation of the plasma convection pattern observed within the auroral E-region. The understanding of such phenomena has important ramifications for the investigation of the larger scale plasma convection and ultimately the coupling of the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere system. A statistical investigation is undertaken of SARAS, observed by the Sweden And Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE, in order to provide a more extensive examination of the local time occurrence and propagation characteristics of the events. The statistical analysis has determined a local time occurrence of observations between 1420 MLT and 2200 MLT with a maximum occurrence centred around 1700 MLT. The propagation velocity of the SARAS feature through the SABRE field of view was found to be predominately L-shell aligned with a velocity centred around 1750 m s–1 and within the range 500 m s–1 and 3500 m s–1. This comprehensive examination of the SARAS provides the opportunity to discuss, qualitatively, a possible generation mechanism for SARAS based on a proposed model for the production of a similar phenomenon referred to as sub-auroral ion drifts (SAIDs. The results of the comparison suggests that SARAS may result from a similar geophysical mechanism to that which produces SAID events, but probably occurs at a different time in the evolution of the event.

    Key words. Substorms · Auroral surges · Plasma con-vection · Sub-auroral ion drifts

  5. On the role of vertical electron density gradients in the generation of type II irregularities associated with blanketing Es during counter electrojet events - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, C.; Jyoti, N.; Sridharan, R.; Raghava Reddi, C.; Diwakar, T.; Subba Rao, K.

    The characteristics of different types of Sporadic E (ES) layers and the associated plasma density irregularities over the magnetic equator have been studied in a campaign mode, using VHF backscatter radar, digital ionosonde and ground magnetometer data from Trivandrum (dip lat. 0.5°N, geog. lat. 8.5°N, geog. long. 77°E), India. Blanketing type Es (ESb) with varying intensity and duration were observed in association with afternoon counter electrojet (CEJ). ESb was associated with intense backscatter returns and with either very low zonal electric fields and/or with distortion present in the altitude profile of the phase velocity of the type II irregularities. The results of the coordinator study indicate the possible role of electron density gradients and the role of local winds in their generation, eventually resulting in the ESb layers. Evidences for the local winds to be responsible for the generation of steep vertical gradients based on the VHF backscatter radar data are provided and discussed.

  6. The sub-auroral electric field as observed by DMSP and the new SuperDARN mid-latitude radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Sotirelis, T.; Hairston, M. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present analyses of the sub-auroral electric field environment as observed from both space and ground. We discuss the dependency of the configuration and strength of the sub-auroral electric field on IMF and geomagnetic activity, longitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle variability. Primarily, e use ~20 years of electric field measurement dataset derived from the suite of DMSP ion drift meters. A major component of our analysis is correctly specifying the aurora boundary, as the behavior and magnitude of these fields will be drastically different away from the high-conductance auroral oval. As such, we use the coincident particle flux measurements from the DMSP SSJ4 monitors. We also present the solar minimum observations of the sub-auroral flow newly available from the mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops and Blackstone in Virginia. Preliminary comparisons between these flows and the DMSP climatology are discussed.

  7. Combined ESR and EISCAT observations of the dayside polar cap and auroral oval during the May 15, 1997 storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-latitude ionospheric response to a major magnetic storm on May 15, 1997 is studied and different responses in the polar cap and the auroral oval are highlighted. Depletion of the F2 region electron density occurred in both the polar cap and the auroral zone, but due to different physical processes. The increased recombination rate of O+ ions caused by a strong electric field played a crucial role in the auroral zone. The transport effect, however, especially the strong upward ion flow was also of great importance in the dayside polar cap. During the main phase and the beginning of the recovery phase soft particle precipitation in the polar cap showed a clear relation to the dynamic pressure of the solar wind, with a maximum cross-correlation coefficient of 0.63 at a time lag of 5 min.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  8. On auroral dynamics observed by HF radar: 1. Equatorward edge of the afternoon-evening diffuse luminosity belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations and modelling are presented which illustrate the ability of the Finland CUTLASS HF radar to monitor the afternoon-evening equatorward auroral boundary during weak geomagnetic activity. The subsequent substorm growth phase development was also observed in the late evening sector as a natural continuation of the preceding auroral oval dynamics. Over an 8 h period the CUTLASS Finland radar observed a narrow (in range and persistent region of auroral F- and (later E-layer echoes which gradually moved equatorward, consistent with the auroral oval diurnal rotation. This echo region corresponds to the subvisual equatorward edge of the diffuse luminosity belt (SEEL and the ionospheric footprint of the inner boundary of the electron plasma sheet. The capability of the Finland CUTLASS radar to monitor the E-layer SEEL-echoes is a consequence of the nearly zero E-layer rectilinear aspect angles in a region 5–10° poleward of the radar site. The F-layer echoes are probably the boundary blob echoes. The UHF EISCAT radar was in operation and observed a similar subvisual auroral arc and an F-layer electron density enhancement when it appeared in its antenna beam.Key words: Ionsophere (ionospheric irregularities · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere–ionosphere interactions

  9. On auroral dynamics observed by HF radar: 1. Equatorward edge of the afternoon-evening diffuse luminosity belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky

    Full Text Available Observations and modelling are presented which illustrate the ability of the Finland CUTLASS HF radar to monitor the afternoon-evening equatorward auroral boundary during weak geomagnetic activity. The subsequent substorm growth phase development was also observed in the late evening sector as a natural continuation of the preceding auroral oval dynamics. Over an 8 h period the CUTLASS Finland radar observed a narrow (in range and persistent region of auroral F- and (later E-layer echoes which gradually moved equatorward, consistent with the auroral oval diurnal rotation. This echo region corresponds to the subvisual equatorward edge of the diffuse luminosity belt (SEEL and the ionospheric footprint of the inner boundary of the electron plasma sheet. The capability of the Finland CUTLASS radar to monitor the E-layer SEEL-echoes is a consequence of the nearly zero E-layer rectilinear aspect angles in a region 5–10° poleward of the radar site. The F-layer echoes are probably the boundary blob echoes. The UHF EISCAT radar was in operation and observed a similar subvisual auroral arc and an F-layer electron density enhancement when it appeared in its antenna beam.

    Key words: Ionsophere (ionospheric irregularities · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere–ionosphere interactions

  10. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  11. Cluster observations and theoretical identification of broadband waves in the auroral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Backrud-Ivgren

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadband waves are common on auroral field lines. We use two different methods to study the polarization of the waves at 10 to 180 Hz observed by the Cluster spacecraft at altitudes of about 4 Earth radii in the nightside auroral region. Observations of electric and magnetic wave fields, together with electron and ion data, are used as input to the methods. We find that much of the wave emissions are consistent with linear waves in homogeneous plasma. Observed waves with a large electric field perpendicular to the geomagnetic field are more common (electrostatic ion cyclotron waves, while ion acoustic waves with a large parallel electric field appear in smaller regions without suprathermal (tens of eV plasma. The regions void of suprathermal plasma are interpreted as parallel potential drops of a few hundred volts.

  12. A remarkable auroral event on jupiter observed in the ultraviolet with the hubble space telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, J C; Grodent, D; Dols, V; Prangé, R; Waite, J H; Gladstone, G R; Franke, K A; Paresce, F; Storrs, A; Jaffel, L B

    1994-12-09

    Two sets of ultraviolet images of the Jovian north aurora were obtained with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The first series shows an intense discrete arc in near corotation with the planet. The maximum apparent molecular hydrogen emission rate corresponds to an electron precipitation of approximately 1 watt per square meter, which is about 30,000 times larger than the solar heating by extreme ultraviolet radiation. Such a particle heating rate of the auroral upper atmosphere of Jupiter should cause a large transient temperature increase and generate strong thermospheric winds. Twenty hours after initial observation, the discrete arc had decreased in brightness by more than one order of magnitude. The time scale and magnitude of the change in the ultraviolet aurora leads us to suggest that the discrete Jovian auroral precipitation is related to large-scale variations in the current system, as is the case for Earth's discrete aurorae.

  13. Densities and vibrational distribution of H(3+) in the Jovian auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. H.; Fox, J. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption that H(3+) is in LTE in the region of the Jovian ionosphere from which the emissions originate is tested by calculating the vibrational distribution of H(3+) over the altitude range of 350 to 1500 km above the methane cloud tops. A model of the Jovian auroral ionosphere is constructed in which the neutral temperatures are enhanced over those of the midlatitude ionosphere, as suggested by observations and models of the auroral region. The energy and energy flux were found to be less than those involved in the production of the UV aurora. A computation of the densities and vibrational distribution shows that the distribution of the six lowest states of H(3+) can be determined fairly well in spite of uncertainties in the atomic and molecular data. The computed altitude profiles and vibrational distributions of H(3+) and H2 are consistent with the observations of IR emission in the 2- and 4-micron regions.

  14. Nonlinear wave structures in collisional plasma of auroral E-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volosevich

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the auroral plasma with small-scale inhomogenieties producing the VHF-radar reflections (radar aurora when observed in conditions of the saturated Farley-Buneman instability within the auroral E region, show strong nonlinear interactions and density fluctuations of 5–15%. Such nonlinearity and high fluctation amplitudes are inconsistent with the limitations of the weak turbulence theory, and thus a theory for arbitrary amplitudes is needed. To this end, a nonlinear theory is described for electrostatic MHD moving plasma structures of arbitrary amplitude for conditions throughout the altitude range of the collisional auroral E region. The equations are derived, from electron and ion motion self-consistent with the electric field, for the general case of the one-dimensional problem. They take into account nonlinearity, electron and ion inertia, diffusion, deviation from quasi-neutrality, and dynamical ion viscosity. The importance of the ion viscosity for dispersion is stressed, while deviation from the quasi-neutrality can be important only at rather low plasma densities, not typical for the auroral E region. In a small amplitude limit these equations have classical nonlinear solutions of the type of "electrostatic shock wave" or of knoidal waves. In a particular case these knoidal waves degrade to a dissipative soliton. A two-dimensional case of a quasi-neutral plasma is considered in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field by way of the Poisson brackets, but neglecting the nonlinearity and ion inertia. It is shown that in these conditions an effective saturation can be achieved at the stationary turbulence level of order of 10%.

  15. Nonlinear wave structures in collisional plasma of auroral E-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volosevich

    Full Text Available Studies of the auroral plasma with small-scale inhomogenieties producing the VHF-radar reflections (radar aurora when observed in conditions of the saturated Farley-Buneman instability within the auroral E region, show strong nonlinear interactions and density fluctuations of 5–15%. Such nonlinearity and high fluctation amplitudes are inconsistent with the limitations of the weak turbulence theory, and thus a theory for arbitrary amplitudes is needed. To this end, a nonlinear theory is described for electrostatic MHD moving plasma structures of arbitrary amplitude for conditions throughout the altitude range of the collisional auroral E region. The equations are derived, from electron and ion motion self-consistent with the electric field, for the general case of the one-dimensional problem. They take into account nonlinearity, electron and ion inertia, diffusion, deviation from quasi-neutrality, and dynamical ion viscosity. The importance of the ion viscosity for dispersion is stressed, while deviation from the quasi-neutrality can be important only at rather low plasma densities, not typical for the auroral E region. In a small amplitude limit these equations have classical nonlinear solutions of the type of "electrostatic shock wave" or of knoidal waves. In a particular case these knoidal waves degrade to a dissipative soliton. A two-dimensional case of a quasi-neutral plasma is considered in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field by way of the Poisson brackets, but neglecting the nonlinearity and ion inertia. It is shown that in these conditions an effective saturation can be achieved at the stationary turbulence level of order of 10%.

  16. Polar Plasma Wave Observations in the Auroral Region and Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kirchner, D. L.; Pickett, J. S.; Persoon, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR), sometimes associated with auroral myriametric radiation (AMR), has been observed by the plasma wave instrument on board Polar on almost every northern hemisphere pass. High spectral resolution plots of the AKR obtained by the wide-band receiver of the plasma wave instrument on board the spacecraft often show discrete, negative-slope striations each extending over a period of several seconds. A preliminary survey of over 4000 spectrograms (each for 48 seconds of data) indicates that the striations are seen in the northern hemisphere near apogee about 5% of the time. The frequency range is 40 kHz less than f less than 100 kHz, but a few observations of signatures have been made at higher frequency (f less than 225 khz. The frequency drift rates R, are similar ranging from -9.0 kHz/sec less than R less than -1.0 kHz/sec. No data is currently available for perigee (southern hemisphere) passes. The paucity of positive-slope features may be due to the location of the satellite at altitudes well above the AKR source region. Past studies have suggested these features are due to AKR wave growth stimulated by the propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves travelling up (-R) or down (+R) the field line, through the source region. High-resolution waveform data from both Polar and FAST show the presence of solitary waves in the auroral region which may also be a source of these striations. AMR is seen as diffuse emission associated with, but at lower frequency than the lower AKR. Direction finding of these emissions is not conclusive, but for one case, they have a source region distinct from the magnetic field line containing the AKR source, but possibly associated with the auroral cavity density gradient.

  17. MITHRAS: A Program of Simultaneous Radar Observations of the High-Latitude Auroral Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Beaujardi~re, 0., R. Vondrak, and M. Baron, "Radar Observations of * Electric Fields and Currents Associated with Auroral Arcs ," J. Geophys. Res., 82, 5051...and A. R. Hessing, to be submitted to J. Geophys. Res. (1982). "Measures Simultanies des Champs Electriques de l’Ionosphere Aurorale par les Radars...Senior, URSI Symposium, Fairbanks, Alaska, August 1982. "Mesures Simultanges des Champs Electriques de l’Ionosphere Aurorale par lea Radars d’EISCAT et de

  18. Calibrating the Swarm: Networked Small Satellite Magnetometers for Auroral Plasma Science

    OpenAIRE

    Parham, Jonathan; Van Dessel, Osi; Kromis, Maria; Teng, Phillip; Semeter, Joshua; Zosuls, Alexks; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by small-scale auroral plasma science, ANDESITE, a 6U CubeSat with eight deployable picosatellites, will fly a network of magnetometers through the Northern Lights. With the spacecraft due to launch on the upcoming ELaNa XIX mission, this work details its science mission architecture along with the payload design and calibration. Each three-axis magnetometer instrument is hosted by a deployable picosatellite about the size of a piece of toast. Calibration of these sensors included a...

  19. Energetic electron precipitation and auroral morphology at the substorm recovery phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, S.; Kero, A.; Rodger, C. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Partamies, N.; Turunen, E.; Raita, T.; Verronen, P. T.; Saito, S.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that auroral patterns at the substorm recovery phase are characterized by diffuse or patch structures with intensity pulsation. According to satellite measurements and simulation studies, the precipitating electrons associated with these aurorae can reach or exceed energies of a few hundreds of keV through resonant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. However, because of difficulty of simultaneous measurements, the dependency of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on auroral morphological changes in the mesoscale has not been investigated to date. In order to study this dependency, we have analyzed data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer, collocated cameras, ground-based magnetometers, the Van Allen Probe satellites, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt (Dynamic) Deposition-VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortium (AARDDVARK). Here we undertake a detailed examination of two case studies. The selected two events suggest that the highest energy of EEP on those days occurred with auroral patch formation from postmidnight to dawn, coinciding with the substorm onset at local midnight. Measurements of the EISCAT radar showed ionization as low as 65 km altitude, corresponding to EEP with energies of about 500 keV.Plain Language SummaryAurora is emission of the atmospheric particles excited by electrons coming from the magnetosphere. The electrons have energies of 1-10 keV or higher. In particular, it is known that the energy can increase more than 100 keV in association with the pulsating aurora and that morphology of the pulsating aurora changes with time. However, relationships between the energy increase and the morphological change have not been studied well. This study analyzed the ionospheric density and auroral images and found that significant increases of the energy coincides with evolution of the

  20. Towards a synthesis of substorm electrodynamics: HF radar and auroral observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At 08:35 UT on 21 November 2004, the onset of an interval of substorm activity was captured in the southern hemisphere by the Far UltraViolet (FUV instrument on board the IMAGE spacecraft. This was accompanied by the onset of Pi2 activity and subsequent magnetic bays, evident in ground magnetic data from both hemispheres. Further intensifications were then observed in both the auroral and ground magnetic data over the following ~3 h. During this interval the fields-of-view of the two southern hemisphere Tasman International Geospace Enviroment Radars (TIGER moved through the evening sector towards midnight. Whilst initially low, the amount of backscatter from TIGER increased considerably during the early stages of the expansion phase such that by ~09:20 UT an enhanced dusk flow cell was clearly evident. During the expansion phase the equatorward portion of this flow cell developed into a narrow high-speed flow channel, indicative of the auroral and sub-auroral flows identified in previous studies (e.g. Freeman et al., 1992; Parkinson et al., 2003. At the same time, higher latitude transient flow features were observed and as the interval progressed the flow reversal region and Harang discontinuity became very well defined. Overall, this study has enabled the spatial and temporal development of many different elements of the substorm process to be resolved and placed within a simple conceptual framework of magnetospheric convection. Specifically, the detailed observations of ionospheric flows have illustrated the complex interplay between substorm electric fields and associated auroral dynamics. They have helped define the distinct nature of different substorm current systems such as the traditional substorm current wedge and the more equatorward currents associated with polarisation electric fields. Additionally, they have revealed a radar signature of nightside reconnection which provides the promise of quantifying nightside reconnection in a

  1. Pre-noon high-latitude auroral arcs as a manifestation of the interchange instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kozlovsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, TV ASC camera in Barentsburg (Svalbard observed pre-noon (at 09:00–10:00 MLT rayed auroral arcs, which occurred at the pole-ward edge of the auroral oval after an IMF transition from By -dominated (By = + 8.8, Bz = + 4.3 to strongly northward dominated (By = + 2.7, Bz = + 8.6. The arcs appeared from the area of enhanced luminosity seen in the western (nightside horizon, and developed to the east, progressing at a velocity of about 1.5 km/s. Simultaneously, the arcs were drifting poleward at a velocity of 300–500 m/s, whose value was equal to the F-region ionospheric plasma drift velocity observed by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ESR. The arc appearance and motion corresponded well to the poleward expansion of the auroral oval following the IMF shift, which was observed by the UVI on board the Polar satellite. The observed auroras were associated with closed LLBL indicated by the particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites showing also several-keV electrons of PS origin. The observations allow us to suggest that the arcs arise due to the interchange instability that starts to develop at the boundary between the magnetospheric plasma and the magnetosheath flux tubes entering the closed magnetosphere due to the reconnection beyond the cusp after the IMF changes. The interchange instability can be suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of the LLBL. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  2. Pre-noon high-latitude auroral arcs as a manifestation of the interchange instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kozlovsky

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, TV ASC camera in Barentsburg (Svalbard observed pre-noon (at 09:00–10:00 MLT rayed auroral arcs, which occurred at the pole-ward edge of the auroral oval after an IMF transition from By -dominated (By = + 8.8, Bz = + 4.3 to strongly northward dominated (By = + 2.7, Bz = + 8.6. The arcs appeared from the area of enhanced luminosity seen in the western (nightside horizon, and developed to the east, progressing at a velocity of about 1.5 km/s. Simultaneously, the arcs were drifting poleward at a velocity of 300–500 m/s, whose value was equal to the F-region ionospheric plasma drift velocity observed by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ESR. The arc appearance and motion corresponded well to the poleward expansion of the auroral oval following the IMF shift, which was observed by the UVI on board the Polar satellite. The observed auroras were associated with closed LLBL indicated by the particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites showing also several-keV electrons of PS origin. The observations allow us to suggest that the arcs arise due to the interchange instability that starts to develop at the boundary between the magnetospheric plasma and the magnetosheath flux tubes entering the closed magnetosphere due to the reconnection beyond the cusp after the IMF changes. The interchange instability can be suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of the LLBL. 

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  3. A Survey of Electron Cyclotron Waves in the Magnetosphere and the Diffuse Auroral Electron Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-09

    nature of these waves. Based on the cases examined in detail using the methods presented in Figures 1-6, we have found that the majority of emis- sions...precipitation can be identified, it will be difficult to access quantitatively its effects on the magnetospheric system. It seems that the only method of solving...REFERENCES Ashour-Abdalla, H., and C. F. Kennel, Diffuse auroral precipitation, J. Geomag. Geoelectr ., 30, 239-255, 1978. Barbosa, D. D., On the convective

  4. Characterization of Jupiter's secondary auroral oval and its response to hot plasma injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. L.; Badman, S. V.; Woodfield, E. E.; Tao, C.

    2017-06-01

    We present Jovian auroral observations from the 2014 January Hubble Space Telescope (HST) campaign and characterize the auroral second oval feature with particular attention to the response to hot plasma injections. The location of the second oval feature lies between the Ganymede and Europa moon footprint contours between 150 and 240° system III longitude, corresponding to a source in the inner magnetosphere between 9 and 13 RJ. At the examined longitudes, this is in the same region of 11-16 RJ known as the pitch angle distribution boundary, beyond which electrons are thought to be scattered into a field-aligned configuration and cause auroral precipitation. The feature is enhanced in both brightness and longitudinal spread 1-3 days after large hot plasma injections. The precipitating electrons have a higher-energy and lower flux than the electrons generating large injection signatures. We suggest that wave-particle interactions are responsible for the scattering of electrons in this region. We also suggest that the plasma injections can act as a temperature anisotropy and particle source to enhance electron scattering into the aurora and the brightness of the second oval feature. Changes to the magnetic field topology around an injection may also generate shear Alfvén waves and therefore accelerate electrons parallel to the magnetic field resulting in precipitation.

  5. Study of AKR hollow pattern characteristics at sub-auroral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is expected to exhibit a hollow pattern similar to that reported for the comparable emissions from Jupiter (e.g. Jovian decametric emissions - DAM). The hollow pattern is a hollow cone beam with apex at the point of AKR emission, axis tangent to the magnetic field direction, and an opening angle of the order of 80°. The properties of the hollow cone can be derived from the so-called dynamic spectrum which displays the radiation versus the observation time and the frequency. We analyze the auroral kilometric radiation recorded by the electric field experiment (ICE) onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. The dynamic spectra lead us to study the occurrence of the AKR recorded in the sub-auroral regions when the micro-satellite was at altitudes of about 700 km. We address in this contribution issues concerning the characteristics (occurrence, latitude and longitude) of the AKR hollow beam and their relations to the seasonal and solar activity variations.

  6. Dynamic variability in F-region ionospheric composition at auroral arc boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zettergren

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a data-model synthesis examining the response of the auroral F-region ion temperature, composition, and density to short time scale (<1 min electric field disturbances associated with auroral arcs. Ion temperature profiles recorded by the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar (ISR are critically analyzed with the aid of theoretical calculations to infer ion composition variability. The analyses presented include a partial accounting for the effects of neutral winds on frictional heating and show promise as the groundwork for future attempts to address ion temperature-mass ambiguities in short-integration ISR data sets. Results indicate that large NO+ enchancements in the F-region can occur in as little as 20 s in response to impulsive changes in ion frictional heating. Enhancements in molecular ion density result in recombination and a depletion in plasma, which is shown to occur on time scales of several minutes. This depletion process, thus, appears to be of comparable importance to electrodynamic evacuation processes in producing auroral arc-related plasma depletions. Furthermore, the potential of ionospheric composition in regulating the amounts and types of ions supplied to the magnetosphere is outlined.

  7. A statistical study of solar type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrences of type III solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation were observed by Calvert (1981) using ISEE 1 spectrograms. Calvert presented evidence suggesting that the incoming type III burst stimulates the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). This paper presents a statistical study of the correlation between type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation. A superposed epoch analysis was performed on as many as 186 type III events. The type III bursts were detected by the ISEE 3 spacecraft on the sunward side of the earth. At the same time the IMP 8 spacecraft was used to detect onsets of kilometric radiation on the nightside of the earth. For each event the intensities measured by ISEE 3 (type III intensities) were subtracted from the intensities measured by IMP 8 (type III and possible AKR intensities). The resulting intensities for each event were then added to determine if kilometric radiation was preferentially observed following a type III burst. This analysis was performed at frequencies of 100, 178, and 500 kHz. The results of this study show that a statistically significant correlation exists between incoming type III bursts from the sun and kilometric radiation from the earth.

  8. Dynamic variability in F-region ionospheric composition at auroral arc boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zettergren

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a data-model synthesis examining the response of the auroral F-region ion temperature, composition, and density to short time scale (<1 min electric field disturbances associated with auroral arcs. Ion temperature profiles recorded by the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar (ISR are critically analyzed with the aid of theoretical calculations to infer ion composition variability. The analyses presented include a partial accounting for the effects of neutral winds on frictional heating and show promise as the groundwork for future attempts to address ion temperature-mass ambiguities in short-integration ISR data sets. Results indicate that large NO+ enchancements in the F-region can occur in as little as 20 s in response to impulsive changes in ion frictional heating. Enhancements in molecular ion density result in recombination and a depletion in plasma, which is shown to occur on time scales of several minutes. This depletion process, thus, appears to be of comparable importance to electrodynamic evacuation processes in producing auroral arc-related plasma depletions. Furthermore, the potential of ionospheric composition in regulating the amounts and types of ions supplied to the magnetosphere is outlined.

  9. A Novel ASI Array for Redline Auroral Imaging across Northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unick, C.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.; Groves, P.; McGuffin, N.; Chaddock, D.; James, S.; Lambrinoudis, C.

    2014-12-01

    The redline aurora is a tracer of magnetospheric structure and dynamics. From drifting polar cap patches to bursty bulk flows (BBFs) in the mid-tail, the redline aurora provides key information about system-level dynamics and coupling between plasma regimes. In this paper we present a new all-sky imager (ASI) array that measures the 6300Å emission line from neutral Oxygen in the aurora. The array coverage extends from south of Gillam, Manitoba, to north of Resolute Bay, Nunavut, and to the west of Fort Smith, NWT, and the array is synchronized at 3 second cadence in the same manner that the THEMIS ASI array is. The camera has superior resolution and noise performance compared to previous generations of auroral cameras. The imager employs only one filter and thus monitors one auroral line throughout the array simultaneously and continuously (at high cadence). The new design has better immunity to internal scatter and produces images of faint aurora when the moon is in the field of view, which corrects another deficiency of some currently deployed auroral imager systems. We present the new instrument design, test data from the commissioning phase of the array deployment, and thoughts on the scientific potential of the array.

  10. Using spectral characteristics to interpret auroral imaging in the 731.9 nm O+ line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations were made of dynamic aurora during substorm activity on 26 January 2006 with three high spatial and temporal resolution instruments: the ASK (Auroral Structure and Kinetics instrument, SIF (Spectrographic Imaging Facility and ESR (EISCAT Svalbard Radar, all located on Svalbard (78° N, 16.2° E. One of the narrow field of view ASK cameras is designed to detect O+ ion emission at 731.9 nm. From the spectrographic data we have been able to determine the amount of contaminating N2 and OH emission detected in the same filter. This is of great importance to further studies using the ASK instrument, when the O+ ion emission will be used to detect flows and afterglows in active aurora. The ratio of O+ to N2 emission is dependent on the energy spectra of electron precipitation, and was found to be related to changes in the morphology of the small-scale aurora. The ESR measured height profiles of electron densities, which allowed estimates to be made of the energy spectrum of the precipitation during the events studied with optical data from ASK and SIF. It was found that the higher energy precipitation corresponded to discrete and dynamic features, including curls, and low energy precipitation corresponded to auroral signatures that were dominated by rays. The evolution of these changes on time scales of seconds is of importance to theories of auroral acceleration mechanisms.

  11. Investigation of the relationship between optical auroral forms and HF radar E region backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The SuperDARN HF radars have been employed in the past to investigate the spectral characteristics of coherent backscatter from L-shell aligned features in the auroral E region. The present study employs all-sky camera observations of the aurora from Husafell, Iceland, and the two SuperDARN radars located on Iceland, Þykkvibær and Stokkseyri, to determine the optical signature of such backscatter features. It is shown that, especially during quiet geomagnetic conditions, the backscatter region is closely associated with east-west aligned diffuse auroral features, and that the two move in tandem with each other. This association between optical and radar aurora has repercussions for the instability mechanisms responsible for generating the E region irregularities from which radars scatter. This is discussed and compared with previous studies investigating the relationship between optical and VHF radar aurora. In addition, although it is known that E region backscatter is commonly observed by SuperDARN radars, the present study demonstrates for the first time that multiple radars can observe the same feature to extend over at least 3 h of magnetic local time, allowing precipitation features to be mapped over large portions of the auroral zone.Key words: Ionosphere (particle precipitation; plasma waves and instabilities

  12. ;Long-hissler; fine structure within auroral hiss: A review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Howard F.; LaBelle, James; Spasojević, Maria

    2017-04-01

    One of the most prominent fine-structures of auroral hiss is the ;long-hissler;, defined here as a dispersed feature embedded within broadband auroral hiss emissions in the frequency range 1-40 kHz and lasting longer than 0.3 s. While theory is limited, there is evidence that hisslers can be used in remote sensing of density characteristics at altitudes of thousands of km. By applying an automatic threshold algorithm to VLF data collected at South Pole 2230-0130 UT daily during June-August 2014, 22 h of auroral hiss are identified on 49 of 93 days analyzed, for an occurrence rate of 9.7% during the applicable MLT interval. From manual inspection of these intervals, 414 groups (trains) of long hisslers are identified on 34 of the 49 days on which hiss occurred. Median lower (upper) frequency bounds of these features are 8 (22) kHz, median frequency-time slope is -10 kHz/s, and median hissler repetition time within a train (hissler period) is 1.2 s. Hissler period and frequency-time slope are inversely related. Data from previous studies are reviewed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenomenon. Contrary to some previous studies, subsequent long hissler features are found to commonly overlap in time, and no evidence is found for an inverse relationship between hissler train duration and geomagnetic activity.

  13. Coordinated ground-based and geosynchronous satellite-based measurements of auroral pulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; McComas, David J.; Belian, Richard D.

    1996-09-01

    We describe a technique that uses a ground-based all-sky video camera and geosynchronous satellite-based plasma and energetic particle detectors to study ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling as it relates to the aurora. The video camera system was deployed in Eagle, Alaska for a seven month period at the foot of the magnetic field line that threads geosynchronous satellite 1989-046. Since 1989-046 corotates with the earth, its footprint remains nearly fixed in the vicinity of Eagle, allowing for routine continuous monitoring of an auroral field line at its intersections with the ground and with geosynchronous orbit. As an example of the utility of this technique, we present coordinated ground-based and satellite based observations during periods of auroral pulsations and compare this data to the predictions of both the relaxation oscillator theory and flow cyclotron maser theory for the generation of pulsating aurorae. The observed plasma and energetic particle characteristics at geosynchronous orbit during pulsating aurorae displays are found to be in agreement with the predictions of both theories lending further support that a cyclotron resonance mechanism is responsible for auroral pulsations.

  14. Anomalous width variation of rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves in the context of auroral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ghosh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.

  15. GREECE -- Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment: High resolution rocket and ground-based investigations of small-scale auroral structure and dynamics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Methodology The methodology is based on making comparisons between downward electron flux, DC electric fields, electromagnetic waves, and auroral morphology. The...

  16. Auroral Spectra as a Tool for Detecting Extra-Etrrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S.; Lummerzheim, D.; Frey, H. U.

    2001-12-01

    One of the most prominent emissions from the aurora is the greenish-white light from oxygen atoms, while the Jovian aurora contains atomic hydrogen emissions. The oxygen emission, the so-called "green line" (557.7 nm), of the terrestrial aurora, arises mostly from the fact that plants release abundant free oxygen into the atmosphere by the photosynthesis process. Thus, the green line shows that plant life exists on Earth. It was recently reported that Upsilon Andromedae, has three planets. This star is a solar-type star. This discovery and many others in recent years are significant because they show the planetary system, like the solar system, is not quite unique. It is expected that a number of stars are accompanied by several planets, and it may not be too long before the aurora on such planets can be discovered. One possible way to detect plant life on such planets is to examine their auroral emissions. If the strong line emission at 557.7 nm and other UV/EUV emissions from oxygen can be detected among other emissions in the planetary aurora, the possibility of the presence of plant life is high. Further, if plant life exists, animal life, whether lower or higher, can also exist there. The Earth-like auroral processes leading to the oxygen emissions require, in addition to plant life, both stellar wind and planetary magnetism. It is highly probable that solar-type stars have stellar wind. If such a planet does not have a strong dipole-like magnetic field, the stellar wind can cause atmospheric glow in which the oxygen emissions may be present. In any case, if the oxygen emissions are detected in the planetary auroral spectra, the possibility of plant life there is high. The dissociation of CO2 can also release oxygen. However, if the condition of the planets is similar to that of the Earth, its contribution is very small. It is expected that auroral science will evolve in a variety of ways in the future. It is suggested that the subject dealt with here is such

  17. The first full-resolution measurements of Auroral Medium Frequency Burst Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, N. L.; Labelle, J.; Weatherwax, A.; Hughes, J.

    2008-12-01

    Auroral MF burst is a naturally occurring auroral radio emission which appears unstructured on resolution of previous measurements, is observed in the frequency range of 0.8-4.5 MHz, and has typical amplitudes of around 10-14 V2/m2Hz, and durations of a few minutes. The emission occurs at substorm onset. Since Sept 2006, Dartmouth has operated a broadband (0-5 MHz) interferometer at Toolik Lake, Alaska (68° 38' N, 149° 36' W, 68.51 deg. magnetic latitude), designed for the study of auroral MF burst emissions. Normal operation involves taking snapshots of waveforms from four spaced antennas from which wave spectral and directional information is obtained. However, the experiment can also be run in "continuous mode" whereby the signal from a selected antenna is sampled continuously at 10 M samples/second. A "continuous mode" campaign was run 0800-1200 UT (~2200-0200 MLT) daily from March 21 to April 19, 2008. During this campaign more than twenty auroral MF burst emissions were observed, including three extraordinarily intense examples lasting approximately two minutes each. These observations represent the highest time and frequency resolution data ever collected of MF burst emissions. These data allow us to better characterize the null near twice the electron gyrofrequency identified in previous experiments, since examples of this feature observed during this campaign display a strong null ~50 kHz in bandwidth, with sharp boundaries and occasionally coincident with 2 fce auroral roar. These data also allow us to search for frequency-time structures embedded in MF-burst. One prominent feature appears to be a strong single frequency emission which broadens down to lower frequencies over time, spreading to approximately 500 kHz in bandwidth over ~10 ms. Among other features observed are a diffuse and unstructured emission, as well as what could potentially be several separate emission sources, with multiple emissions occurring simultaneously, appearing as weaker

  18. Interhemispheric asymmetries in the occurrence of magnetically conjugate sub-auroral polarisation streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthward injections of energetic ions and electrons mark the onset of magnetospheric substorms. In the inner magnetosphere (L4, the energetic ions drift westward and the electrons eastward, thereby enhancing the equatorial ring current. Wave-particle interactions can accelerate these particles to radiation belt energies. The ions are injected slightly closer to Earth in the pre-midnight sector, leading to the formation of a radial polarisation field in the inner magnetosphere. This maps to a poleward electric field just equatorward of the auroral oval in the ionosphere. The poleward electric field is subsequently amplified by ionospheric feedback, thereby producing auroral westward flow channels (AWFCs. In terms of electric field strength, AWFCs are the strongest manifestation of substorms in the ionosphere. Because geomagnetic flux tubes are essentially equi-potentials, similar AWFC signatures should be observed simultaneously in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Here we present magnetically conjugate SuperDARN radar observations of AWFC activity observed in the pre-midnight sector during two substorm intervals including multiple onsets during the evening of 30 November 2002. The Northern Hemisphere observations were made with the Japanese radar located at King Salmon, Alaska (57, and the Southern Hemisphere observations with the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER located at Bruny Island, Tasmania (55. LANL geosynchronous satellite observations of energetic ion and electron fluxes monitored the effects of substorms in the inner magnetosphere (L6. The radar-observed AWFC activity was coincident with activity observed at geosynchronous orbit, as well as westward current surges in the ionosphere observed using ground-based magnetometers. The location of AWFCs with respect to the auroral oval was inferred from FUV auroral images recorded on board the IMAGE spacecraft. DMSP SSIES ion drift measurements confirmed the

  19. The Formation and Evolution of Double Layers in Earth's Auroral Upward Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Observations from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft indicate that a strong localized electric field often exists at the boundary separating the ionosphere from the auroral cavity in the upward current region. The localized electric field observed at the boundary usually has components that are both parallel and perpendicular to earth's magnetic field and therefore are said to be an “oblique” electric field. The boundary electric field has been modeled as an oblique BGK DL in prior efforts. In addition, FAST observations indicate that the auroral cavity has a density that is ~ 1/10 that of the ionosphere. We have used parameters derived from FAST to initialize a 1D3V (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity dimensions) open boundary particle-in-cell simulation. We assume that a density cavity that is 1/10 - 1/20 the density of the ionosphere is initially present (as indicated by observations). However, unlike previous efforts, we do not assume that a self-consistent electric field is initially present. The initial plasma consists of anti-earthward O+ and H+ beams, hot magnetospheric H+ population, hot magnetospheric electron population and a cold dense electron population. We assume that the initial population is composed entirely of ionospheric species. At the two boundaries, plasma particles are injected based on the initial population with one key exception. The magnetospheric boundary does not include the cold electrons since observations indicate a lack of these species in the auroral cavity. We demonstrate that a DL readily forms out of the initial conditions at the interface of the dense and tenuous plasma. Furthermore the DL is quasi-stable for the entire simulation if the initial cold electrons are cold enough (~ 40 eV) and dense enough (0.3% of the total electron population). We also show that the oblique DLs are quasi-stable and also persist for the entire simulation. We find that to ensure the stability of the oblique DL, it is necessary to make

  20. Correlated variations of UV and radio emissions during an outstanding Jovian auroral event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, R.; Zarka, P.; Ballester, G. E.; Livengood, T. A.; Denis, L.; Carr, T.; Reyes, F.; Bame, S. J.; Moos, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    An exceptional Jovian aurora was detected in the FUV on December 21, 1990, by means of Vilspa and Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC) International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations. This event included intensification by a factor of three between December 20 and 21, leading to the brightest aurora identified in the IUE data analyzed, and, in the north, to a shift of the emission peak towards larger longitudes. The Jovian radio emission simultaneously recorded at decameter wavelengths in Nancay also exhibits significant changes, from a weak and short-duration emission on December 20 to a very intense one, lasting several hours, on December 21. Confirmation of this intense radio event is also found in the observations at the University of Florida on December 21. The emissions are identified as right-handed Io-independent 'A' (or 'non Io-A') components from the northern hemisphere. The radio source region deduced from the Nancay observations lies, for both days, close to the UV peak emission, exhibiting in particular a similar shift of the source region toward larger longitudes from one day to the next. A significant broadening of the radio source was also observed and it is shown that on both days, the extent of the radio source closely followed the longitude range for which the UV brightness exceeds a given threshold. The correlated variations, both in intensity and longitude, strongly suggest that a common cause triggered the variation of the UV and radio emissions during this exceptional event. On one hand, the variation of the UV aurora could possibly be interpreted according to the Prange and Elkhamsi (1991) model of diffuse multicomponent auroral precipitation (electron and ion): it would arise from an increase in the precipitation rate of ions together with an inward shift of their precipitation locus from L approximately equal 10 to L approximately equal 6. On the other hand, the analysis of Ulysses observations in the upstream solar wind suggests that

  1. Possible relationship between the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and daytime vertical E × B drift velocities in F region from ROCSAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Veenadhari, B.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Su, S.-Y.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-10-01

    The vertical E × B drift is very important parameter as its day to day variability has great influence on the variability in the low latitude F-region ion and electron density distributions. The measurements of vertical ion velocity from the first Republic of China Satellite (ROCSAT-1) provide a unique data base for the development of possible relationship between vertical E × B drifts and ground based magnetometer observation. An attempt has been made to derive quantitative relationship between F-region vertical E × B drifts measured by ROCSAT-1 (600 km) and ground measured equatorial electrojet for the solar maximum period 2001-2003 for Indian and Japanese sectors. The results consistently indicate existence of linear relationship between the measured vertical E × B drifts at topside F-region and EEJ for both the sectors, with a moderate to high correlation coefficients. The linear relationship between ROCSAT-1 measured E × B drifts and EEJ for Indian and Japanese sectors has been compared with a similar relationship with Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Ionosphere Atmosphere Radar (JULIA) measured E × B drifts (150 km echos) and EEJ strength from Peruvian sector during 2003. It has been found that ROCSAT-1 measured E × B drifts shows linear relationship with EEJ, however, exhibits a larger scatter unlike JULIA radar observed E × B drifts. This may be attributed to the large height difference as ROCSAT-1 measures E × B drifts at 600 km altitude and the EEJ is E-region (110 km) phenomenon.

  2. Changes of dayside auroral distribution caused by a solar wind pressure pulse and associated interplanetary magnetic field disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kozlovsky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Global auroral images from the IMAGE satellite were used to study statistically changes of the dayside aurora spatial distribution after an abrupt solar wind pressure increase, or so-called "Sudden Impulse" (SI. Contributions from IMF changes associated with a SI were also investigated. The effects of the IMF and pressure variations were separated using a multi-factor correlation analysis. The first prominent effect due to pressure increase is the auroral intensification equatorward of the middle dayside oval within 6 min after a SI occurred. This is consistent with the midday sub-auroral patches. The second effect due to pressure increase is the auroral intensification at high latitudes in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. For the first 6 min the auroral intensification is most prominent in the postnoon sector. Later on (6–20 min the intensification occurs in the prenoon sector. The most obvious effect of IMF changes is the "IMF By" effect, an intensification (fading of the most poleward auroral forms when IMF By becomes negative (positive. This effect occurs 6–20 min after changes in the interplanetary medium. Such an effect is consistent with the IMF By-related system of field-aligned currents. No significant motion of the dayside auroral oval was observed associated with IMF Bz variations. This can be explained by a response time to IMF Bz changes larger than 20 min.

  3. Model-based optical and radar remote sensing of transport and composition in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Matthew David

    The terrestrial ionosphere is heavily influenced by electrodynamic and inertial coupling with the magnetosphere. This coupling is most apparent at high latitudes where precipitating electrons and electromagnetic disturbances associated with auroras greatly alter temperatures and motions of the ionospheric plasma. Among other effects, auroral electrons are responsible for heating ionospheric electrons and producing ion upflows. Perpendicular electric fields frictionally heat ionospheric ions, resulting in drastic modifications to chemical reaction rates which control F-region ion composition. The lasting effects of upflows and composition on the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are poorly understood due to a sparsity of measurements of these processes. This shortage of measurements is addressed by developing two new remote sensing techniques: one for estimating ion upflows from optical measurements and another for estimating ion composition from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) data. This research develops an underutilized diagnostic for ion upflows: auroral optical emissions. Systematic theoretical modeling efforts demonstrate that emission features with wavelengths of 630.0 nm, 732-733 nm, and 844.6 nm are ideal indicators of upflow. A technique is then developed which uses multi-spectral auroral optical measurements to estimate ion upflow. This technique is applied in two steps: (1) multi-spectral optical data are inverted, using a physics-based kinetic model of electron energy deposition, to estimate electron precipitation; (2) this precipitation is used as input to a ionospheric model to calculate the resulting ion upflow. This technique is applied to near-infrared (700-850 nm wavelength) optical observations from an event occurring on 17 February 2001 at the Sondrestrom research facility. Estimated ion upflow is shown to be accurate through quantitative comparisons with concurrent ISR observations. A method for estimating ion composition from ISR data is also

  4. Parallel electric field in the auroral ionosphere: excitation of acoustic waves by Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a new mechanism for the formation of a parallel electric field observed in the auroral ionosphere. For this purpose, the excitation of acoustic waves by propagating Alfvén waves was studied numerically. We find that the magnetic pressure perturbation due to finite amplitude Alfvén waves causes the perturbation of the plasma pressure that propagates in the form of acoustic waves, and gives rise to a parallel electric field. This mechanism explains the observations of the strong parallel electric field in the small-scale electromagnetic perturbations of the auroral ionosphere. For the cases when the parallel electric current in the small-scale auroral perturbations is so strong that the velocity of current carriers exceeds the threshold of the ion sound instability, the excited ion acoustic waves may account for the parallel electric fields as strong as tens of mV/m.

  5. Observations of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere from the Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Frederic; Valek, Phil; Bagenal, Fran; Bolton, Scott; Clark, George; Connerney, Jack; Ebert, Rob; Gladstone, Randy; Kim, Thomas; Kurth, William; Levin, Steve; Louarn, Philippe; Loeffler, Chad; Mauk, Barry; McComas, David; Pollock, Craig; Ranquist, Drake; Reno, Michelle; Szalay, Jamey; Thomsen, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The Juno mission employs a suite of instruments to perform the first-ever in situ measurements of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. Observations of the plasma environment are performed by the Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE). JADE measures the plasma using two nearly identical electron sensors and an ion sensor. The electron sensors (JADE-E) measure electron distributions in the range of 100 eV to 100 keV. The un-deflected field-of-view (FOV) of each electron sensor is in the spin plane of the spacecraft; approximately the plane which includes the spacecraft velocity direction and the local magnetic field. Around perijove, the JADE-E sensors use electrostatic deflection to track the local magnetic field in order to measure pitch angle distributions at 1 s time resolution. The JADE ion sensor (JADE-I) measures the energy per charge and time of flight (TOF) of incident ions (mass/q < 64 amu/e) to produce composition separated ion distributions in the range of 10 eV/e to 50 keV/e. Using the spacecraft spin to sweep its FOV, JADE-I measures a full 4Pi sr ion distribution function every 30 s. The first two opportunities to observe the plasma in Jupiter's polar magnetosphere by JADE occurred on 27 August and 11 December 2016. During both of these passes, JADE crossed field lines connected to the northern and southern auroral ovals and measured polar and sub-auroral plasmas. JADE observed ions of ionospheric and Iogenic origin and a range of electron distributions, including narrow beams and distributions with emptied loss cones. We present here in situ plasma observations of the Jovian polar magnetosphere made by the JADE instrument.

  6. On the relation of Langmuir turbulence radar signatures to auroral conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, N. M.; Ivchenko, N.; Häggström, I.

    2014-10-01

    We present a statistical study of anomalous radar echoes observed in the auroral ionosphere thought to be signatures of Langmuir turbulence (LT). Data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar during the international polar year (IPY) were searched for these anomalous echoes in the auroral F region. In incoherent scatter radar experiments LT may in certain circumstances be observed as enhanced backscattered radar power at the ion line frequencies, plasma line frequencies, and at zero Doppler shift. The power enhancement at zero Doppler shift could arise due to Bragg scattering from nonpropagating density fluctuations caused by strong LT. In the IPY data set, around 0.02% of the data comply with our search criteria for altitudes above 190 km based on the ion line spectrum including enhancement at zero Doppler shift. The occurrence frequency of the identified events peaks in the premidnight sector and increases with local geomagnetic disturbance. Enhanced backscattered power is observed with limited altitude extent (below 20 km in 70% of the events), and the altitude distribution of identified radar signatures in the ion line channel has a peak at about 220 km. Enhancement of the plasma line is observed with the ion line enhancements in more than 60% of the events. Two classes of enhanced plasma lines occur. In the first class, plasma lines are limited in frequency and altitude and occur at altitudes of ion line enhancements. In the second class, the plasma lines are spread in frequency and range and are observed at lower altitudes than the first class (at about 170 km) with frequencies close to 3 MHz. Available optical data available indicate that the identified events to occur during auroral breakup with high-energy electron precipitation.

  7. The statistical dependence of auroral absorption on geomagnetic and solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kavanagh

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS at Kilpisjärvi, Finland, have been compiled to form statistics of auroral absorption based on seven years of observations. In a previous study a linear relationship between the logarithm of the absorption and the Kp index provided a link between the observations of precipitation with the level of geomagnetic activity. A better fit to the absorption data is found in the form of a quadratic in Kp for eight magnetic local time sectors. Past statistical investigations of absorption have hinted at the possibility of using the solar wind velocity as a proxy for the auroral absorption, although the lack of available satellite data made such an investigation difficult. Here we employ data from the solar wind monitors, WIND and ACE, and derive a linear relationship between the solar wind velocity and the cosmic noise absorption at IRIS for the same eight magnetic local time sectors. As far as the authors are aware this is the first time that in situ measurements of the solar wind velocity have been used to create a direct link with absorption on a statistical basis. The results are promising although, it is clear that some other factor is necessary in providing reliable absorption predictions. Due to the substorm related nature of auroral absorption, this is likely formed by the recent time history of the geomagnetic activity, or by some other indicator of the energy stored within the magnetotail. For example, a dependence on the southward IMF (interplanetary magnetic field is demonstrated with absorption increasing with successive decreases in Bz; a northward IMF appears to have little effect and neither does the eastward component, By. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – Ionosphere (modeling and forecasting

  8. The statistical dependence of auroral absorption on geomagnetic and solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kavanagh

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS at Kilpisjärvi, Finland, have been compiled to form statistics of auroral absorption based on seven years of observations. In a previous study a linear relationship between the logarithm of the absorption and the Kp index provided a link between the observations of precipitation with the level of geomagnetic activity. A better fit to the absorption data is found in the form of a quadratic in Kp for eight magnetic local time sectors. Past statistical investigations of absorption have hinted at the possibility of using the solar wind velocity as a proxy for the auroral absorption, although the lack of available satellite data made such an investigation difficult. Here we employ data from the solar wind monitors, WIND and ACE, and derive a linear relationship between the solar wind velocity and the cosmic noise absorption at IRIS for the same eight magnetic local time sectors. As far as the authors are aware this is the first time that in situ measurements of the solar wind velocity have been used to create a direct link with absorption on a statistical basis. The results are promising although, it is clear that some other factor is necessary in providing reliable absorption predictions. Due to the substorm related nature of auroral absorption, this is likely formed by the recent time history of the geomagnetic activity, or by some other indicator of the energy stored within the magnetotail. For example, a dependence on the southward IMF (interplanetary magnetic field is demonstrated with absorption increasing with successive decreases in Bz; a northward IMF appears to have little effect and neither does the eastward component, By.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – Ionosphere (modeling and forecasting

  9. On the current-voltage relationship in auroral breakups and westwards-travelling surges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Auroral precipitating electrons pass through an acceleration region before entering the atmosphere. Regardless of what produces it, a parallel electric field is assumed to cause the acceleration. It is well known that from kinetic theory an expression for the corresponding upward field-aligned current can be calculated, which under certain assumptions can be linearized to j∥=KV. The K constant, referred to as the Lyons-Evans-Lundin constant, depends on the source density and thermal energy of the magnetospheric electrons; it is an important parameter in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling models. However, the K parameter is still rather unknown, and values are found in a wide range of 10–8–10–10 S m–2. In this study, we investigated how the type of auroral structure affects the K values. We look at onset and westwards-travelling surge (WTS events and make comparisons with earlier results from observations of more stable auroral arcs. A new analysis technique for studying those magnetospheric parameters using ground-based measurements is introduced. Electron density measurements are taken with the EISCAT radar, and through an inversion technique the flux-energy spectra are calculated. Source densities, thermal energies and potential drops are estimated from fittings of accelerated Maxwellian distributions. With this radar technique we have the possibility to study the changes of the mentioned parameters during the development of onsets and the passage of surges over EISCAT. The study indicates that the linearization of the full Knight formulation holds even for the very high potential drops and thermal temperatures found in the dynamic onset and WTS events. The values of K are found to be very low, around 10–11 S m–2 in onset cases as well as WTS events. The results may establish a new technique where ionospheric measurements are used for studying the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling processes.

  10. A Wide Field Auroral Imager (WFAI for low Earth orbit missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Bannister

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the solar wind interaction with Earth's coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system requires an ability to observe the charged particle environment and auroral activity from the same platform, generating particle and photon image data which are matched in time and location. While unambiguous identification of the particles giving rise to the aurora requires a Low Earth Orbit satellite, obtaining adequate spatial coverage of aurorae with the relatively limited field of view of current space bourne auroral imaging systems requires much higher orbits. A goal for future satellite missions, therefore, is the development of compact, wide field-of-view optics permitting high spatial and temporal resolution ultraviolet imaging of the aurora from small spacecraft in low polar orbit. Microchannel plate optics offer a method of achieving the required performance. We describe a new, compact instrument design which can observe a wide field-of-view with the required spatial resolution. We report the focusing of 121.6 nm radiation using a spherically-slumped, square-pore microchannel plate with a focal length of 32 mm and an F number of 0.7. Measurements are compared with detailed ray-trace simulations of imaging performance. The angular resolution is 2.7±0.2° for the prototype, corresponding to a footprint ~33 km in diameter for an aurora altitude of 110 km and a spacecraft altitude of 800 km. In preliminary analysis, a more recent optic has demonstrated a full width at half maximum of 5.0±0.3 arcminutes, corresponding to a footprint of ~1 km from the same spacecraft altitude. We further report the imaging properties of a convex microchannel plate detector with planar resistive anode readout; this detector, whose active surface has a radius of curvature of only 100 mm, is shown to meet the spatial resolution and sensitivity requirements of the new wide field auroral imager (WFAI.

  11. GPS amplitude and phase scintillation associated with polar cap auroral forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, P. T.; Hamza, A. M.; Hosokawa, K.; Mezaoui, H.; Shiokawa, K.

    2017-11-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) signal amplitude and phase scintillation occurrence were observed in close association with polar cap auroral forms. Scintillation were present on most GPS ray paths irrespective of the ray path's location and orientation relative to arc alignment, motion and the direction of E × B drift. Spectra of amplitude and phase scintillation show similar power law behaviour with close to identical power law coefficients. The distribution of power law coefficients shows an average power law coefficient of ∼-2.3, which is different from the spectral characteristics of equatorial and low latitude scintillation.

  12. Stellar spectral flux calibration of auroral H-beta photometer signal and background channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, Brian J.; Unick, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Observations of optical aurora typically require the operation of sensitive instruments at remote field sites. Absolute radiometric calibration of these devices is essential for quantitative comparison over time and with other measurements. In this study we present absolute calibration of a proton auroral photometer using star transits observed during regular data collection. This requires absolute flux spectra with sufficient resolution to account for structure in stellar Hβ absorption line profiles. Several flux spectral catalogs are combined and corrected for systematic differences. The resulting estimates of instrumental sensitivity are consistent with darkroom calibration to roughly 15%.

  13. Measurement of diffraction-pattern parameters during the probing of the auroral ionosphere by satellite signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoliubov, A. A.; Erukhimov, L. M.; Miasnikov, E. N.; Ogloblina, O. F.; Chekalev, S. P.; Cheremnyi, V. A.

    1984-02-01

    In a study of the irregular structure of the auroral ionosphere over the Murmansk region, 150-MHz signals were received from an NNSSA satellite in April 1979. It is shown that, during the radio probing of ionospheric irregularities by satellite signals, the observed motion of the diffraction pattern is significantly determined by the magnetic-field geometry. Motion inducing signal fluctuations occurs in a directional that is almost perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Measured fluctuation power spectra therefore reflect the cross section of irregularities that is transverse to the H field.

  14. Representation of the Auroral and Polar Ionosphere in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2013-01-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research presents a selection of papers that document the progress in developing and improving the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), a widely used standard for the parameters that describe the Earths ionosphere. The core set of papers was presented during the 2010 General Assembly of the Committee on Space Research in Bremen, Germany in a session that focused on the representation of the auroral and polar ionosphere in the IRI model. In addition, papers were solicited and submitted from the scientific community in a general call for appropriate papers.

  15. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  16. Heavy ion dynamics and auroral arc formation in the Jovian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of some of the current controversial issues surrounding the Jovian aurora. In particular, the manner of its excitation be it that of electron or heavy ion precipitation is examined critically in the context of proposed models for magnetospheric dynamics, particle energization, and auroral energy input. A model for the X-ray aurora based on bremsstrahlung by a primary electron beam and its ionization secondaries is high-lighted and the connection to the outward magnetospheric transport of heavy ion plasma from the satellite Io is made.

  17. Spatial Relationships of Auroral Particle Acceleration Relative to High Latitude Plasma Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    This final report describes the activities under NASA contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. It covers the period from 10-1-94 to 12-31-97. The objective of this investigation is to identify and characterize the spatial relationships of auroral particle acceleration features relative to the characteristic transition features in the surrounding polar ionospheric plasmas. Due to the reduced funding level approved for this contract, the original scope of the proposed work was readjusted with the focus placed on examining spatial relationships with respect to particle structures.

  18. Polar Wind in the Context of the Auroral Plasma Fountain for 2 to 8 RE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.; Giles, B. L.; Chandler, M. O.; Chappell, C. R.; Craven, P. D.; Su, Y.-J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Operations of the POLAR Plasma Source Instrument have provided adequate observing time with controlled spacecraft potential to begin a 3D characterization of the polar wind as it exists in the context of the auroral plasma fountain. The principal periods of such polar wind observation to date have been 15-18 Apr. 96, 28 may 96, 14 Jun. - 6 Sep. 96, 17-29 Mar. 97, 29 May - 12 Jun. 97, 13-27 Aug. 97. Separate observations have been made near 2 RE geocentric in the south polar perigee passes and between 6-8 RE geocentric in the north polar apogee passes. Analyses of data from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment during these periods are used to characterize the altitude, local time, and invariant latitude distribution of the polar wind. Data from these and other periods are used to establish the auroral plasma heating context within which the polar wind outflows exist. The available data will be used to address the temporal variability of the polar wind during the period of operations to date. Comparisons between the observations and a coupled fluid-semikinetic model are used to interpret the observed spatial structure and temporal variability.

  19. a Simulation Study of Beam Driven Instabilities and Solitary Structures in the Auroral Acceleration Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Perry Clayton

    Various problems associated with the model particle distributions and assumptions for auroral acceleration are considered using particle in cell plasma simulation techniques. We have considered the presence and effects of microinstabilities in two regions along auroral field lines. At low altitude, where ions which have been accelerated up out of the ionosphere have a small relative drift (due to mass ratio), the plasma is unstable to an ion two-stream instability. We will show that the heating due to the two-stream instability does not distort the distribution function sufficiently to prevent double layer formation at higher altitude. However, under certain circumstances heating by the oblique two-stream modes is capable of forming conic like distributions. At higher altitude, it has been suggested that the presence of a background ion population may have a significant effect on the formation of weak double layers. We will show that in such a system, a weak beam-plasma instability couples to the acoustic modes in the background ion population seeding the formation of ion phase space holes. Such structures propagate at the acoustic speed of the background ion population, in the direction of the ion beam (opposite of the direction of propagation for such structures in the standart two-species model) and, given a drift of the background electrons, they may develop into double layers. This may explain previous discrepancies between observations of such structures and theoretical prediction of their behavior.

  20. The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter – Part 2: Vertical emission profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonfond

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aurorae at Jupiter are made up of many different features associated with a variety of generation mechanisms. The main auroral emission, also known as the main oval, is the most prominent of them as it accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range. The energy of the precipitating electrons is a crucial parameter to characterize the processes at play which give rise to these auroral emissions, and the altitude of the emissions directly depends on this energy. Here we make use of far-UV (FUV images acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to measure the vertical profile of the main emissions. The altitude of the brightness peak as seen above the limb is ~ 400 km, which is significantly higher than the 250 km measured in the post-dusk sector by Galileo in the visible domain. However, a detailed analysis of the effect of hydrocarbon absorption, including both simulations and FUV spectral observations, indicates that FUV apparent vertical profiles should be considered with caution, as these observations are not incompatible with an emission peak located at 250 km. The analysis also calls for spectral observations to be carried out with an optimized geometry in order to remove observational ambiguities.

  1. Development and performance of a suprathermal electron spectrometer to study auroral precipitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi, E-mail: kogasawara@swri.edu; Stange, Jason L.; Trevino, John A.; Webster, James [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States); Grubbs, Guy [University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Michell, Robert G.; Samara, Marilia [Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Jahn, Jörg-Micha [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States); University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The design, development, and performance of Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), dedicated to the in situ observation of suprathermal electrons in the auroral ionosphere, are summarized in this paper. MESP employs a permanent magnet filter with a light tight structure to select electrons with proper energies guided to the detectors. A combination of two avalanche photodiodes and a large area solid-state detector (SSD) provided 46 total energy bins (1 keV resolution for 3−20 keV range for APDs, and 7 keV resolution for >20 keV range for SSDs). Multi-channel ultra-low power application-specific integrated circuits are also verified for the flight operation to read-out and analyze the detector signals. MESP was launched from Poker Flat Research Range on 3 March 2014 as a part of ground-to-rocket electrodynamics-electrons correlative experiment (GREECE) mission. MESP successfully measured the precipitating electrons from 3 to 120 keV in 120-ms time resolution and characterized the features of suprathermal distributions associated with auroral arcs throughout the flight. The measured electrons were showing the inverted-V type spectra, consistent with the past measurements. In addition, investigations of the suprathermal electron population indicated the existence of the energetic non-thermal distribution corresponding to the brightest aurora.

  2. Generation of auroral kilometric and Z mode radiation by the cyclotron maser mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, N.; Gurnett, D. A.; Wu, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance condition for EM wave interactions with a plasma defines an ellipse in velocity space when the product of the index of refraction and cosine of the wave normal angle is less than or equal to unity, and defines a partial ellipse when the product is greater than unity. It is also noted that waves with frequencies greater than the gyrofrequency can only resonate with particles moving in the same direction along the magnetic field, while waves with lower frequencies than these resonate with particles moving in both directions along the magnetic field. It is found, in the case of auroral kilometric radiation, that both the upgoing and the downgoing electrons are unstable and can give rise to this radiation's growth. The magnitudes of the growth rates for both the upgoing and downgoing auroral kilometric radiation are comparable, and indicate that the path lengths needed to account for the observed intensities of this radiation are of the order of a few hundred km, which is probably too large. Growth rate calculations for the Z mode radiation show that, for wave frequencies just below the gyrofrequency and wave normal angles at or near 90 deg, the electron distribution is unstable and the growth rates are large enough to account for the observed intensities.

  3. The solar wind plasma density control of night-time auroral particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available DMSP F6 and F7 spacecraft observations of the average electron and ion energy, and energy fluxes in different night-time precipitation regions for the whole of 1986 were used to examine the precipitation features associated with solar wind density changes. It was found that during magnetic quietness |AL|<100nT, the enhancement of average ion fluxes was observed at least two times, along with the solar wind plasma density increase from 2 to 24cm–3. More pronounced was the ion flux enhancement that occurred in the b2i–b4s and b4s–b5 regions, which are approximately corresponding to the statistical auroral oval and map to the magnetospheric plasma sheet tailward of the isotropy boundary. The average ion energy decrease of about 2–4kev was registered simultaneously with this ion flux enhancement. The results verify the occurrence of effective penetration of the solar wind plasma into the magnetospheric tail plasma sheet. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere, particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (solar windmagnetosphere interaction

  4. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  5. The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter. Pt. 2. Vertical emission profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfond, B.; Gustin, J.; Gerard, J.C.; Grodent, D.; Radioti, A. [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physique Atmospherique et Planetaire; Palmaerts, B. [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physique Atmospherique et Planetaire; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Goettingen (Germany); Badman, S.V. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Khurana, K.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tao, C. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France)

    2015-07-01

    The aurorae at Jupiter are made up of many different features associated with a variety of generation mechanisms. The main auroral emission, also known as the main oval, is the most prominent of them as it accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range. The energy of the precipitating electrons is a crucial parameter to characterize the processes at play which give rise to these auroral emissions, and the altitude of the emissions directly depends on this energy. Here we make use of far-UV (FUV) images acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to measure the vertical profile of the main emissions. The altitude of the brightness peak as seen above the limb is ∝ 400 km, which is significantly higher than the 250 km measured in the post-dusk sector by Galileo in the visible domain. However, a detailed analysis of the effect of hydrocarbon absorption, including both simulations and FUV spectral observations, indicates that FUV apparent vertical profiles should be considered with caution, as these observations are not incompatible with an emission peak located at 250 km. The analysis also calls for spectral observations to be carried out with an optimized geometry in order to remove observational ambiguities.

  6. Shape-Constrained Sparse and Low-Rank Decomposition for Auroral Substorm Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Han, Bing; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An auroral substorm is an important geophysical phenomenon that reflects the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Detecting substorms is of practical significance in order to prevent disruption to communication and global positioning systems. However, existing detection methods can be inaccurate or require time-consuming manual analysis and are therefore impractical for large-scale data sets. In this paper, we propose an automatic auroral substorm detection method based on a shape-constrained sparse and low-rank decomposition (SCSLD) framework. Our method automatically detects real substorm onsets in large-scale aurora sequences, which overcomes the limitations of manual detection. To reduce noise interference inherent in current SLD methods, we introduce a shape constraint to force the noise to be assigned to the low-rank part (stationary background), thus ensuring the accuracy of the sparse part (moving object) and improving the performance. Experiments conducted on aurora sequences in solar cycle 23 (1996-2008) show that the proposed SCSLD method achieves good performance for motion analysis of aurora sequences. Moreover, the obtained results are highly consistent with manual analysis, suggesting that the proposed automatic method is useful and effective in practice.

  7. Simultaneous optical and radar signatures of poleward-moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thorolfsson

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Dayside poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs were detected between 06:30 and 07:00 UT on December 16, 1998, by the meridian scanning photometer and the all-sky camera at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. Simultaneous SuperDARN HF radar measurements permitted the study of the associated ionospheric velocity pattern. A good general agreement is observed between the location and movement of velocity enhancements (flow channels and the PMAFs. Clear signatures of equatorward flow were detected in the vicinity of PMAFs. This flow is believed to be the signature of a return flow outside the reconnected flux tube, as predicted by the Southwood model. The simulated signatures of this model reproduce globally the measured signatures, and differences with the experimental data can be explained by the simplifications of the model. Proposed schemes of the flow modification due to the presence of several flow channels and the modification of cusp and region 1 field-aligned currents at the time of sporadic reconnection events are shown to fit well with the observations.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection - Magnetospheric physics  (magnetopause; cusp and boundary layers

  8. Features of stable diffuse arcs observed by means of auroral tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Dashkevich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the spatial distribution of optical volume emission rates and peculiarities of the luminosity intensity within weak diffuse auroral arcs recovered by means of auroral tomography. The tomographic images are obtained from sets of scanning multi-channel photometer data obtained in February 1999 on the Kola Peninsula in Russia at three sites of a chain extending 226 km along the geomagnetic meridian. The 427.8- and 557.7-nm emissions of a 15-s time resolution observed within one hour during low geomagnetic activity are analyzed. We found that the intensity profile of an individual arc along the geomagnetic meridian has an inverted-V-shape. The luminosity maximum altitude decrease by 4–14 km at about 140 km distance in the south-north direction can be observed during two or more diffuse arcs. The parameters of the precipitating electron flux are obtained from an integral equation, which determines the best relationship between the 427.8-nm intensity height profile and an arbitrary particle energy spectrum. A dimensionless function of the energy dissipation is used as the core in the integral equation. The estimated average energy of electron flux, which generated the isolated diffuse arc, is 1–2 keV higher in the central part of the arc in comparison to values at its borders.

  9. Enabling Future Large Searches for Exoplanet Auroral Emission with the EPIC Correlator Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.

    2017-05-01

    Extrasolar planets are expected to emit strong ``auroral'' emission at radio frequencies generated by the interaction of the host star's stellar winds with the planet's magnetosphere through electron-cyclotron maser emission. This transient emission lasts a few seconds to days and is almost fully circularly polarized. Detecting this emission in exoplanets is a critical probe of their magnetospheres and thus their interior compositions and habitability. The intensity and detectability of the emission depends on the suitability of many factors to the observing parameters such as the strength of the stellar wind power, the planetary magnetosphere cross-section, the highly beamed and coherent nature of electron-cyclotron emission, and narrow ranges of the planet's orbital phase. Large areas of sky must be surveyed continuously to high sensitivity to detect auroral emission. Next-generation radio telescopes with wide fields of view, large collecting areas and high efficiency are needed for these searches. This poses challenges to traditional correlator architectures whose computational cost scales as the square of the number of antennas. I will present a novel radio aperture synthesis imaging architecture - E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator (EPIC) - whose all-sky and full Stokes imaging capabilities will not only address the aforementioned factors preventing detection but also solve the computational challenges posed by large arrays. Compared to traditional imaging, EPIC is inherently fast and thus presents the unique advantage of probing transient timescales ranging orders of magnitude from tens of microseconds to days at no additional cost.

  10. Interhemispheric asymmetries in the occurrence of magnetically conjugate sub-auroral polarisation streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthward injections of energetic ions and electrons mark the onset of magnetospheric substorms. In the inner magnetosphere (L${sim}$4, the energetic ions drift westward and the electrons eastward, thereby enhancing the equatorial ring current. Wave-particle interactions can accelerate these particles to radiation belt energies. The ions are injected slightly closer to Earth in the pre-midnight sector, leading to the formation of a radial polarisation field in the inner magnetosphere. This maps to a poleward electric field just equatorward of the auroral oval in the ionosphere. The poleward electric field is subsequently amplified by ionospheric feedback, thereby producing auroral westward flow channels (AWFCs. In terms of electric field strength, AWFCs are the strongest manifestation of substorms in the ionosphere. Because geomagnetic flux tubes are essentially equi-potentials, similar AWFC signatures should be observed simultaneously in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Here we present magnetically conjugate SuperDARN radar observations of AWFC activity observed in the pre-midnight sector during two substorm intervals including multiple onsets during the evening of 30 November 2002. The Northern Hemisphere observations were made with the Japanese radar located at King Salmon, Alaska (57$^{circ}$$Lambda $, and the Southern Hemisphere observations with the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER located at Bruny Island, Tasmania (

  11. A superposed epoch analysis of auroral evolution during substorm growth, onset and recovery: open magnetic flux control of substorm intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform two superposed epoch analyses of the auroral evolution during substorms using the FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Explorer (IMAGE spacecraft. The larger of the two studies includes nearly 2000 substorms. We subdivide the substorms by onset latitude, a measure of the open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere, and determine average auroral images before and after substorm onset, for both electron and proton aurora. Our results indicate that substorms are more intense in terms of auroral brightness when the open flux content of the magnetosphere is larger, and that magnetic flux closure is more significant. The increase in auroral brightness at onset is larger for electrons than protons. We also show that there is a dawn-dusk offset in the location of the electron and proton aurora that mirrors the relative locations of the region 1 and region 2 current systems. Superposed epoch analyses of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, and geomagnetic indices for the substorms under study indicate that dayside reconnection is expected to occur at a faster rate prior to low latitude onsets, but also that the ring current is enhanced for these events.

  12. Combined ESR and EISCAT observations of the dayside polar cap and auroral oval during the May 15, 1997 storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    Full Text Available The high-latitude ionospheric response to a major magnetic storm on May 15, 1997 is studied and different responses in the polar cap and the auroral oval are highlighted. Depletion of the F2 region electron density occurred in both the polar cap and the auroral zone, but due to different physical processes. The increased recombination rate of O+ ions caused by a strong electric field played a crucial role in the auroral zone. The transport effect, however, especially the strong upward ion flow was also of great importance in the dayside polar cap. During the main phase and the beginning of the recovery phase soft particle precipitation in the polar cap showed a clear relation to the dynamic pressure of the solar wind, with a maximum cross-correlation coefficient of 0.63 at a time lag of 5 min.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  13. Ion shell distributions as free energy source for plasma waves on auroral field lines mapping to plasma sheet boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion shell distributions are hollow spherical shells in velocity space that can be formed by many processes and occur in several regions of geospace. They are interesting because they have free energy that can, in principle, be transmitted to ions and electrons. Recently, a technique has been developed to estimate the original free energy available in shell distributions from in-situ data, where some of the energy has already been lost (or consumed. We report a systematic survey of three years of data from the Polar satellite. We present an estimate of the free energy available from ion shell distributions on auroral field lines sampled by the Polar satellite below 6 RE geocentric radius. At these altitudes the type of ion shells that we are especially interested in is most common on auroral field lines close to the polar cap (i.e. field lines mapping to the plasma sheet boundary layer, PSBL. Our analysis shows that ion shell distributions that have lost some of their free energy are commonly found not only in the PSBL, but also on auroral field lines mapping to the boundary plasma sheet (BPS, especially in the evening sector auroral field lines. We suggest that the PSBL ion shell distributions are formed during the so-called Velocity Dispersed Ion Signatures (VDIS events. Furthermore, we find that the partly consumed shells often occur in association with enhanced wave activity and middle-energy electron anisotropies. The maximum downward ion energy flux associated with a shell distribution is often 10mWm-2 and sometimes exceeds 40mWm-2 when mapped to the ionosphere and thus may be enough to power many auroral processes. Earlier simulation studies have shown that ion shell distributions can excite ion Bernstein waves which, in turn, energise electrons in the parallel direction. It is possible that ion shell distributions are the link between the X-line and the auroral wave activity and electron

  14. Upward high-energy field-aligned electron beams above the polar edge of auroral oval: observations from the SKA-3 instruments onboard the Auroral Probe (Interball-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenon was found at the polar edge of the auroral oval in the postmidnight-morning sectors: field-aligned (FA high-energy upward electron beams in the energy range 20–40 keV at altitudes about 3RE, accompanied by bidirectional electron FA beams of keV energy. The beam intensity often reaches more than 0.5·103 electrons/s·sr·keV·cm2, and the beams are observed for a relatively long time (~3·102–103s, when the satellite at the apogee moves slowly in the ILAT-MLT frame. A qualitative scenario of the acceleration mechanism is proposed, according to which the satellite is within a region of bidirectional acceleration where a stochastic FA acceleration is accomplished by waves with fluctuating FA electric field components in both directions.Key words. Ionosphere (particle acceleration; wave-particle interactions · Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  15. 3D kinetic picture of magnetotail explosions and characteristic auroral features prior to and after substorm onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Merkin, V. G.; Motoba, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent findings in theory, observations and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of magnetotail explosions reveal a complex picture of reconnection, buoyancy and flapping motions, which have interesting correlations with the auroral morphology. First, the formation of the tailward Bz gradient as a theoretical prerequisite for tearing, ballooning/interchange and flapping instabilities is consistent with the structure of the pre-onset quiet arc and the associated deep minimum of Bz. Another distinctive pre-onset feature, equatorward extension of the auroral oval in the late growth phase, is conventionally associated with earthward motion of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. However, if open magnetic flux saturates in the late growth phase, it may also be treated as a signature of magnetic flux accumulation tailward of the Bz minimum, which is also favorable for the tail plasma sheet instabilities. 3D PIC simulations of similar magnetotail equilibria with a tailward Bz gradient show spontaneous formation of earthward flows led by dipolarization fronts. They are structured in the dawn-dusk direction on the ion inertial scale, consistent with the minimum scales of the observed auroral beads. At the same time, simulations show the formation of a new X-line in the wake of the dipolarization front with no significant spatial modulation in the dawn-dusk direction suggesting smooth profiles of the substorm current wedge as well as poleward parts of auroral streamers. Flapping motions, which also grow at the dipolarization front, extend beyond it, up to the new X-line region. To understand auroral manifestations of tail structures in our simulations we investigate the plasma moments at the plasma sheet boundary.

  16. ELF wave production by an electron beam emitting rocket system and its suppression on auroral field lines - Evidence for Alfven and drift waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.; Abe, Y.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Orthogonal probes on a free-flying plasma diagnostics payload are used to study ELF electric disturbances in the auroral ionosphere that are due to the injection of powerful electron beams. Frequency spectrograms are presented for various pitch angles, pulsing characteristics, and other properties of the injected beams; the large scale DC ionospheric convection electric field is measured, together with auroral particle precipitation, visual auroral forms, and ionospheric parameters. In view of the experimental results obtained, it is postulated that the observed ELF waves are in the Alfven and drift modes, and are generated by the positive vehicle potential during beam injection.

  17. Solitary waves observed in the auroral zone: the Cluster multi-spacecraft perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on recent measurements of solitary waves made by the Wideband Plasma Wave Receiver located on each of the four Cluster spacecraft at 4.5-6.5RE (well above the auroral acceleration region as they cross field lines that map to the auroral zones. These solitary waves are observed in the Wideband data as isolated bipolar and tripolar waveforms. Examples of the two types of pulses are provided. The time durations of the majority of both types of solitary waves observed in this region range from about 0.3 up to 5ms. Their peak-to-peak amplitudes range from about 0.05 up to 20mV/m, with a few reaching up to almost 70mV/m. There is essentially no potential change across the bipolar pulses. There appears to be a small, measurable potential change, up to 0.5V, across the tripolar pulses, which is consistent with weak or hybrid double layers. A limited cross-spacecraft correlation study was carried out in order to identify the same solitary wave on more than one spacecraft. We found no convincing correlations of the bipolar solitary waves. In the two cases of possible correlation of the tripolar pulses, we found that the solitary waves are propagating at several hundred to a few thousand km/s and that they are possibly evolving (growing, decaying as they propagate from one spacecraft to the next. Further, they have a perpendicular (to the magnetic field width of 50km or greater and a parallel width of about 2-5km. We conclude, in general, however, that the Cluster spacecraft at separations along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field direction of tens of km and greater are too large to obtain positive correlations in this region. Looking at the macroscale of the auroral zone at 4.5-6.5RE, we find that the onsets of the broadband electrostatic noise associated with the solitary waves observed in the spectrograms of the WBD data are generally consistent with propagation of the solitary waves up the field lines (away from Earth, or with

  18. Thermal ion measurements on board Interball Auroral Probe by the Hyperboloid experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dubouloz

    Full Text Available Hyperboloid is a multi-directional mass spectrometer measuring ion distribution functions in the auroral and polar magnetosphere of the Earth in the thermal and suprathermal energy range. The instrument encompasses two analyzers containing a total of 26 entrance windows, and viewing in two almost mutually perpendicular half-planes. The nominal angular resolution is defined by the field of view of individual windows ≈13° × 12.5°. Energy analysis is performed using spherical electrostatic analyzers providing differential measurements between 1 and 80 eV. An ion beam emitter (RON experiment and/or a potential bias applied to Hyperboloid entrance surface are used to counteract adverse effects of spacecraft potential and thus enable ion measurements down to very low energies. A magnetic analyzer focuses ions on one of four micro-channel plate (MCP detectors, depending on their mass/charge ratio. Normal modes of operation enable to measure H+, He+, O++, and O+ simultaneously. An automatic MCP gain control software is used to adapt the instrument to the great flux dynamics encountered between spacecraft perigee (700 km and apogee (20 000 km. Distribution functions in the main analyzer half-plane are obtained after a complete scan of windows and energies with temporal resolution between one and a few seconds. Three-dimensional (3D distributions are measured in one spacecraft spin period (120 s. The secondary analyzer has a much smaller geometrical factor, but offers partial access to the 3D dependence of the distributions with a few seconds temporal resolution. Preliminary results are presented. Simultaneous, local heating of both H+ and O+ ions resulting in conical distributions below 80 eV is observed up to 3 Earth's radii altitudes. The thermal ion signatures associated with large-scale nightside magnetospheric boundaries are investigated and a new ion outflow feature is

  19. On the current-voltage relationship in auroral breakups and westwards-travelling surges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    Full Text Available Auroral precipitating electrons pass through an acceleration region before entering the atmosphere. Regardless of what produces it, a parallel electric field is assumed to cause the acceleration. It is well known that from kinetic theory an expression for the corresponding upward field-aligned current can be calculated, which under certain assumptions can be linearized to j=KV. The K constant, referred to as the Lyons-Evans-Lundin constant, depends on the source density and thermal energy of the magnetospheric electrons; it is an important parameter in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling models. However, the K parameter is still rather unknown, and values are found in a wide range of 10–8–10–10 S m–2. In this study, we investigated how the type of auroral structure affects the K values. We look at onset and westwards-travelling surge (WTS events and make comparisons with earlier results from observations of more stable auroral arcs. A new analysis technique for studying those magnetospheric parameters using ground-based measurements is introduced. Electron density measurements are taken with the EISCAT radar, and through an inversion technique the flux-energy spectra are calculated. Source densities, thermal energies and potential drops are estimated from fittings of accelerated Maxwellian distributions. With this radar technique we have the possibility to study the changes of the mentioned parameters during the development of onsets and the passage of surges over EISCAT. The study indicates that the linearization of the full Knight formulation holds even for the very high potential drops and thermal temperatures found in the dynamic onset and WTS events. The values of K are found to be very low, around 10–11 S m–2 in onset cases as well as WTS events. The results may establish a new technique where ionospheric

  20. Ray tracing model of the auroral kilometric radiation generation in the 3-D plasma cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Burinskaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation and amplification of the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR in a three-dimensional plasma cavity is investigated using the approximation of the geometrical optics, and taking into account both the slightly relativistic electrons propagating inside a cavity and the background cold electrons. It is shown that the global magnetic field inhomogeneity plays a key role in a wave escape from a thin plasma cavity. The main contribution to the AKR spectrum is made by waves initially generated with the component of group velocity directed to the Earth and with the optimum relationship between the wave vector components, controlling the value of the linear grow rate and duration of the ray lifetime inside a source.

  1. Saturn's polar ionospheric flows and their relation to the main auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flows and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere which are implied by a three-component picture of large-scale magnetospheric flow driven both by planetary rotation and the solar wind interaction. With increasing radial distance in the equatorial plane, these components consist of a region dominated by planetary rotation where planetary plasma sub-corotates on closed field lines, a surrounding region where planetary plasma is lost down the dusk tail by the stretching out of closed field lines followed by plasmoid formation and pinch-off, as first described for Jupiter by Vasyliunas, and an outer region driven by the interaction with the solar wind, specifically by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the dawn tail, first discussed for Earth by Dungey. The sub-corotating flow on closed field lines in the dayside magnetosphere is constrained by Voyager plasma observations, showing that the plasma angular velocity falls to around half of rigid corotation in the outer magnetosphere, possibly increasing somewhat near the dayside magnetopause, while here we provide theoretical arguments which indicate that the flow should drop to considerably smaller values on open field lines in the polar cap. The implied ionospheric current system requires a four-ring pattern of field-aligned currents, with distributed downward currents on open field lines in the polar cap, a narrow ring of upward current near the boundary of open and closed field lines, and regions of distributed downward and upward current on closed field lines at lower latitudes associated with the transfer of angular momentum from the planetary atmosphere to the sub-corotating planetary magnetospheric plasma. Recent work has shown that the upward current associated with sub-corotation is not sufficiently intense to produce significant auroral acceleration and emission. Here we suggest that the observed auroral oval at Saturn instead corresponds to the ring of

  2. Substorm dynamics revealed by ground observations of two-dimensional auroral structures on 9 October 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observations of a small substorm event on 9 October 2000 provide, with high time resolution, two-dimensional information about substorm dynamics. A sequence of three optical intensifications, each associated with a Pi2 burst, were found, in which the third auroral intensification marked the onset of a small substorm. All three intensifications originated close to midnight, but evolved progressively eastward. Within each of the three optical intensifications, a few azimuthally-spaced patches appeared, the first one near midnight and the subsequent patches successively eastward in the postmidnight sector, providing evidence for drift wave activity in the near-geosynchronous-orbit plasma sheet (NGOPS. The SuperDARN measurements reveal the development of eastward electric fields at NGOPS latitude within each Pi2 burst interval. These observations can be interpreted as supporting the drift-Alfvén-ballooning (DAB mode instability and its role in substorm expansion at NGOPS.

  3. A comparison of EISCAT and Dynasonde measurements of the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. F. Sedgemore

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Incoherent-scatter radar and ionospheric sounding are powerful and complementary techniques in the study of the Earth's ionosphere. The work presented here involves the use of the Tromsø Dynasonde as a correlative diagnostic with the EISCAT incoherent-scatter radar. A comparison of electron-density profiles shows how a Dynasonde can be used to calibrate an incoherent-scatter radar and to monitor changes in the system. Skymaps of the direction of Dynasonde echoes are compared with EISCAT-derived density profiles to illustrate how a Dynasonde can be used to measure the drift velocity of auroral features. Vector velocities fitted to Dynasonde echoes are compared with EISCAT-derived plasma velocities. The results show good agreement when the data are taken during quiet to moderately active conditions and averaged over time scales of 30 min or more.

  4. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Pettit, D. R.; Hartman, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data in support of a variety of ISS engineering and operations activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS from 2006 to the present time to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to the combined effects of electrostatic current collection processes from the plasma environment and inductive (vxB) effects due to the motion of the vehicle across the Earth's magnetic field. An ongoing effort to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and document ISS frame charging as the vehicle passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons is challenged by restrictions on the available FPMU operation time. The instruments can only be operated during campaign periods limited to about a third of a year in accumulated operation time and FPMU data is down linked through the ISS Ku band telemetry system, a shared resource. As a result, FPMU campaign periods of a few days to weeks have typically been scheduled for periods of a week or two in advance. Capturing geomagnetic storm data under these conditions depended on the fortuitous event of a storm starting during a previously planned FPMU campaign period, an unlikely event at a time when Solar Cycle 24 was ending and a protracted solar minimum gave little in the way of geoeffective solar disturbances. However, with the start of Solar Cycle 24 the number of solar disturbances and associated geomagnetic storms started to increase and we modified our strategy to improve the chances of capturing geomagnetic storm data. We now monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times

  5. Saturn's polar ionospheric flows and their relation to the main auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flows and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere which are implied by a three-component picture of large-scale magnetospheric flow driven both by planetary rotation and the solar wind interaction. With increasing radial distance in the equatorial plane, these components consist of a region dominated by planetary rotation where planetary plasma sub-corotates on closed field lines, a surrounding region where planetary plasma is lost down the dusk tail by the stretching out of closed field lines followed by plasmoid formation and pinch-off, as first described for Jupiter by Vasyliunas, and an outer region driven by the interaction with the solar wind, specifically by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the dawn tail, first discussed for Earth by Dungey. The sub-corotating flow on closed field lines in the dayside magnetosphere is constrained by Voyager plasma observations, showing that the plasma angular velocity falls to around half of rigid corotation in the outer magnetosphere, possibly increasing somewhat near the dayside magnetopause, while here we provide theoretical arguments which indicate that the flow should drop to considerably smaller values on open field lines in the polar cap. The implied ionospheric current system requires a four-ring pattern of field-aligned currents, with distributed downward currents on open field lines in the polar cap, a narrow ring of upward current near the boundary of open and closed field lines, and regions of distributed downward and upward current on closed field lines at lower latitudes associated with the transfer of angular momentum from the planetary atmosphere to the sub-corotating planetary magnetospheric plasma. Recent work has shown that the upward current associated with sub-corotation is not sufficiently intense to produce significant auroral acceleration and emission. Here we suggest that the observed auroral oval at Saturn instead corresponds to the ring of upward

  6. Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Su, Zhenpeng; He, Zhaoguo; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei

    2016-12-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4-6 April and 18-20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR's spatial distribution and frequency range, and the current results have a wide application to all other magnetized astrophysical objects in the universe.

  7. Radar observations in the vicinity of pre-noon auroral arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A combination of EISCAT incoherent scatter radar measurements, optical and magnetometer data is used to study the plasma in and around pre-noon structured precipitation and auroral arcs. Particular attention is paid to regions of comparatively low E-region density observed adjacent to arcs or structured precipitation in the EISCAT Svalbard radar field-aligned measurements. Comparison between luminosity and incoherent scatter electron density measurements shows that the low-density regions occur primarily due to the absence of diffuse precipitation rather than to a cavity formation process. Two cases of arcs and low density/luminosity regions are identified. The first is related to a strong Pc5 pulsation event, and the absence of diffuse precipitation is due to a large-scale modulation of the diffuse precipitation. In the second case the equatormost arc is on a shielding boundary and the low-density region coincides with a strong flow region just poleward of this arc. Regions of high electric field and low luminosity and conductance are observed prior to intensification of the structured precipitation in both cases. The ionospheric current is enhanced in the low conductance region, indicating that the strong electric fields do not result solely from ionospheric polarization electric fields, and thus are mainly driven by magnetospheric processes. The average energy of the precipitating electrons in the arcs and structured precipitation is, according to EISCAT measurements, 500eV and the energy spectra are similar for the pulsation and shielding cases. The average energy is thus significantly less than in the diffuse precipitation region which shows central CPS-like energy spectra. We suggest that the low ionospheric conductance of 0.7S in the low density regions is favorable for the arc formation process. This is in quantitative agreement with recent simulations of the ionospheric feedback instability. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral

  8. Experimental investigation of auroral generator regions with conjugate Cluster and FAST data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marghitu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Here and in the companion paper, Hamrin et al. (2006, we present experimental evidence for the crossing of auroral generator regions, based on conjugate Cluster and FAST data. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation that concentrates on the evaluation of the power density, E·J, in auroral generator regions, by using in-situ measurements. The Cluster data we discuss were collected within the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL, during a quiet magnetospheric interval, as judged from the geophysical indices, and several minutes before the onset of a small substorm, as indicated by the FAST data. Even at quiet times, the PSBL is an active location: electric fields are associated with plasma motion, caused by the dynamics of the plasma-sheet/lobe interface, while electrical currents are induced by pressure gradients. In the example we show, these ingredients do indeed sustain the conversion of mechanical energy into electromagnetic energy, as proved by the negative power density, E·J<0. The plasma characteristics in the vicinity of the generator regions indicate a complicated 3-D wavy structure of the plasma sheet boundary. Consistent with this structure, we suggest that at least part of the generated electromagnetic energy is carried away by Alfvén waves, to be dissipated in the ionosphere, near the polar cap boundary. Such a scenario is supported by the FAST data, which show energetic electron precipitation conjugated with the generator regions crossed by Cluster. A careful examination of the conjunction timing contributes to the validation of the generator signatures.

  9. The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, D. J.; Alexander, N.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Beebe, C.; Clark, G.; Crary, F.; Desai, M. I.; De Los Santos, A.; Demkee, D.; Dickinson, J.; Everett, D.; Finley, T.; Gribanova, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kofoed, C.; Loeffler, C.; Louarn, P.; Maple, M.; Mills, W.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Rodriguez, B.; Rouzaud, J.; Santos-Costa, D.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R. J.; White, D.

    2017-11-01

    The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on Juno provides the critical in situ measurements of electrons and ions needed to understand the plasma energy particles and processes that fill the Jovian magnetosphere and ultimately produce its strong aurora. JADE is an instrument suite that includes three essentially identical electron sensors (JADE-Es), a single ion sensor (JADE-I), and a highly capable Electronics Box (EBox) that resides in the Juno Radiation Vault and provides all necessary control, low and high voltages, and computing support for the four sensors. The three JADE-Es are arrayed 120∘ apart around the Juno spacecraft to measure complete electron distributions from ˜0.1 to 100 keV and provide detailed electron pitch-angle distributions at a 1 s cadence, independent of spacecraft spin phase. JADE-I measures ions from ˜5 eV to ˜50 keV over an instantaneous field of view of 270∘×90∘ in 4 s and makes observations over all directions in space each 30 s rotation of the Juno spacecraft. JADE-I also provides ion composition measurements from 1 to 50 amu with m/Δ m˜2.5, which is sufficient to separate the heavy and light ions, as well as O+ vs S+, in the Jovian magnetosphere. All four sensors were extensively tested and calibrated in specialized facilities, ensuring excellent on-orbit observations at Jupiter. This paper documents the JADE design, construction, calibration, and planned science operations, data processing, and data products. Finally, the Appendix describes the Southwest Research Institute [SwRI] electron calibration facility, which was developed and used for all JADE-E calibrations. Collectively, JADE provides remarkably broad and detailed measurements of the Jovian auroral region and magnetospheric plasmas, which will surely revolutionize our understanding of these important and complex regions.

  10. The thermospheric auroral red line polarization: confirmation of detection and first quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Joran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermospheric atomic oxygen red line is among the brightest in the auroral spectrum. Previous observations in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, indicated that it may be intrinsically polarized, but a possible contamination by light pollution could not be ruled out. During the winter 2010/2011, the polarization of the red line was measured for the first time at the Polish Hornsund polar base without contamination. Two methods of data analysis are presented to compute the degree of linear polarization (DoLP and angle of linear polarization (AoLP: one is based on averaging and the other one on filtering. Results are compared and are in qualitative agreement. For solar zenith angles (SZA larger than 108° (with no contribution from Rayleigh scattering, the DoLP ranges between 2 and 7%. The AoLP is more or less aligned with the direction of the magnetic field line, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of Bommier et al. (2010. However, the AoLP values range between ±20° around this direction, depending on the auroral conditions. Correlations between the polarization parameters and the red line intensity I were considered. The DoLP decreases when I increases, confirming a trend observed during the observations in Longyearbyen. However, for small values of I, DoLP varies within a large range of values, while for large values of I, DoLP is always small. The AoLP also varies with the red line intensity, slightly rotating around the magnetic field line.

  11. Satellite and Ground-Based Observations of Auroral Energy Deposition and the Effects on Thermospheric Composition During Large Geomagnetic Storms: 1. Great Geomagnetic Storm of 20 November 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hecht, J. H; Mulligan, T; Strickland, D. J; Kochenash, A. J; Murayama, Y; Tanaka, Y.-M; Evans, D. S; Conde, M. G; Donovan, E. F; Rich, F. J; Morrison, D

    2008-01-01

    .... Composition changes associated with the input of auroral particle and Joule energy showed larger depletions in atomic oxygen on 20 Nov than on the other nights and greater changes than are seen...

  12. The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter – Part 1: Dawn–dusk brightness asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonfond

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally appears as a quasi-closed curtain centered around the magnetic pole. This auroral feature, which accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range, is related to corotation enforcement currents in the middle magnetosphere. Early models for these currents assumed axisymmetry, but significant local time variability is obvious on any image of the Jovian aurorae. Here we use far-UV images from the Hubble Space Telescope to further characterize these variations on a statistical basis. We show that the dusk side sector is ~ 3 times brighter than the dawn side in the southern hemisphere and ~ 1.1 brighter in the northern hemisphere, where the magnetic anomaly complicates the interpretation of the measurements. We suggest that such an asymmetry between the dawn and the dusk sectors could be the result of a partial ring current in the nightside magnetosphere.

  13. Identifying the 630 nm auroral arc emission height: A comparison of the triangulation, FAC profile, and electron density methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Gillies, D.; Knudsen, D.; Donovan, E.; Jackel, B.; Gillies, R.; Spanswick, E.

    2017-08-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of 630 nm (red-line) emission discrete auroral arcs using the newly deployed Redline Emission Geospace Observatory. In this study we discuss the need for observations of 630 nm aurora and issues with the large-altitude range of the red-line aurora. We compare field-aligned currents (FACs) measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites with the location of 10 red-line (630 nm) auroral arcs observed by all-sky imagers (ASIs) and find that a characteristic emission height of 200 km applied to the ASI maps gives optimal agreement between the two observations. We also compare the new FAC method against the traditional triangulation method using pairs of all-sky imagers (ASIs), and against electron density profiles obtained from the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar-Canadian radar, both of which are consistent with a characteristic emission height of 200 km.

  14. Jupiter's auroral-related stratospheric heating and chemistry II: Analysis of IRTF-TEXES spectra measured in December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Orton, G. S.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fletcher, L. N.; Moses, J. I.; Hue, V.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present a retrieval analysis of TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (Lacy et al., 2002)) spectra of Jupiter's high latitudes obtained on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility on December 10 and 11th 2014. The vertical temperature profile and vertical profiles of C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 were retrieved at both high-northern and high-southern latitudes and results were compared in 'quiescent' regions and regions known to be affected by Jupiter's aurora in order to highlight how auroral processes modify the thermal structure and hydrocarbon chemistry of the stratosphere. In qualitative agreement with Sinclair et al. (2017a), we find temperatures in auroral regions to be elevated with respect to quiescent regions at two discrete pressures levels at approximately 1 mbar and 0.01 mbar. For example, in comparing retrieved temperatures at 70°N, 60°W (a representative quiescent region) and 70°N, 180°W (centred on the northern auroral oval), temperatures increase by 19.0 ± 4.2 K at 0.98 mbar, 20.8 ± 3.9 K at 0.01 mbar but only by 8.3 ± 4.9 K at the intermediate level of 0.1 mbar. We conclude that elevated temperatures at 0.01 mbar result from heating by joule resistance of the atmosphere and the energy imparted by electron and ion precipitation. However, temperatures at 1 mbar are considered to result either from heating by shortwave radiation of aurorally-produced haze particulates or precipitation of higher energy population of charged particles. Our former conclusion would be consistent with results of auroral-chemistry models, that predict the highest number densities of aurorally-produced haze particles at this pressure level (Wong et al., 2000, 2003). C2H2 and C2H4 exhibit enrichments but C2H6 remains constant within uncertainty when comparing retrieved concentrations in the northern auroral region with quiescent longitudes in the same latitude band. At 1 mbar, C2H2 increases from 278.4 ± 40.3 ppbv at 70°N, 60°W to 564.4 ± 72.0 ppbv at 70°N, 180

  15. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitations, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by POLAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFls) in and near the auroral oval on southern perigee (approximately 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass-angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the dusk side after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawn side during the recovery phase. The UFls showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approximately 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above approximately 200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument (EFI) were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs. the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  16. Axi-symmetric models of auroral current systems in Jupiter's magnetosphere with predictions for the Juno mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop two related models of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the jovian system by combining previous models defined at ionospheric heights with magnetospheric magnetic models that allow system parameters to be extended appropriately into the magnetosphere. The key feature of the combined models is thus that they allow direct connection to be made between observations in the magnetosphere, particularly of the azimuthal field produced by the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and the plasma angular velocity, and the auroral response in the ionosphere. The two models are intended to reflect typical steady-state sub-corotation conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, and transient super-corotation produced by sudden major solar wind-induced compressions, respectively. The key simplification of the models is that of axi-symmetry of the field, flow, and currents about the magnetic axis, limiting their validity to radial distances within ~30 RJ of the planet, though the magnetic axis is appropriately tilted relative to the planetary spin axis and rotates with the planet. The first exploration of the jovian polar magnetosphere is planned to be undertaken in 2016–2017 during the NASA New Frontiers Juno mission, with observations of the polar field, plasma, and UV emissions as a major goal. Evaluation of the models along Juno planning orbits thus produces predictive results that may aid in science mission planning. It is shown in particular that the low-altitude near-periapsis polar passes will generally occur underneath the corresponding auroral acceleration regions, thus allowing brief examination of the auroral primaries over intervals of ~1–3 min for the main oval and ~10 s for narrower polar arc structures, while the "lagging" field deflections produced by the auroral current systems on these passes will be ~0.1°, associated with azimuthal fields above the ionosphere of a few hundred nT.

  17. The spatial structure and temporal variability of Ganymede’s auroral ovals from Hubble Space Telescope observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Fabrizio; Saur, Joachim; Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt D.; McGrath, Melissa A.; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrel F.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze spectrally and spatially resolved images of Ganymede’s FUV-auroral ovals obtained during the past two decades by Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). We find both, spatial inhomogeneities of the brightness-distribution on the observed disk as well as temporal variation as a function of Ganymede’s position relative to the Jovian current sheet. The brightness of the ovals is not equally distributed along the ovals, i.e., the Jupiter-facing side is always brighter than the anti-Jupiter side at least by ~60%. When Ganymede moves from high elevated magnetic latitudes towards the center region of the Jovian current sheet, the brightness of the aurora on the leading side increases by over 30% from ~80 Rayleigh up to ~108 Rayleigh. Simultaneously, inside the current sheet center the auroral ovals are displaced by an average of ~6° of planetographic latitude, i.e., the ovals shift furthermore down towards the planetographic equator on the leading side, and up towards the poles on the trailing side. Both effects, the increase of brightness and the moving of the ovals, are correlated to increased plasma interaction inside the current sheet. Ganymede’s electron-impact-excited auroral emissions are thought to be driven by electron acceleration by strong field-aligned currents at the boundary area between open and closed magnetic field lines of Ganymede’s mini-magnetosphere. The change of the auroral morphology is a direct response to the changing plasma environment, i.e., changing ram and thermal pressures. Thus, the investigation of the aurora proves to be a suitable diagnostic tool of the various processes that contribute to Ganymede’s complex plasma and magnetic field environment.

  18. Axi-symmetric models of auroral current systems in Jupiter's magnetosphere with predictions for the Juno mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop two related models of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the jovian system by combining previous models defined at ionospheric heights with magnetospheric magnetic models that allow system parameters to be extended appropriately into the magnetosphere. The key feature of the combined models is thus that they allow direct connection to be made between observations in the magnetosphere, particularly of the azimuthal field produced by the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and the plasma angular velocity, and the auroral response in the ionosphere. The two models are intended to reflect typical steady-state sub-corotation conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, and transient super-corotation produced by sudden major solar wind-induced compressions, respectively. The key simplification of the models is that of axi-symmetry of the field, flow, and currents about the magnetic axis, limiting their validity to radial distances within ~30 RJ of the planet, though the magnetic axis is appropriately tilted relative to the planetary spin axis and rotates with the planet. The first exploration of the jovian polar magnetosphere is planned to be undertaken in 2016–2017 during the NASA New Frontiers Juno mission, with observations of the polar field, plasma, and UV emissions as a major goal. Evaluation of the models along Juno planning orbits thus produces predictive results that may aid in science mission planning. It is shown in particular that the low-altitude near-periapsis polar passes will generally occur underneath the corresponding auroral acceleration regions, thus allowing brief examination of the auroral primaries over intervals of ~1–3 min for the main oval and ~10 s for narrower polar arc structures, while the "lagging" field deflections produced by the auroral current systems on these passes will be ~0.1°, associated with azimuthal fields above the ionosphere of a few hundred nT.

  19. Auroras Now! - Auroral nowcasting service for Hotels in Finnish Lapland and its performance during winter 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, K.; Mälkki, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nevanlinna, H.; Ketola, A.; Tulkki, V.; Raita, T.; Blanco, A.

    2004-12-01

    European Space Agency is currently supporting 17 Service Development Activities (SDA) within its Space Weather Pilot Project. Auroras Now!, one of the SDAs, has been operated during November 2003 - March 2004 as its pilot season. The service includes a public part freely accessible in Internet (http://aurora.fmi.fi) and a private part visible only to the customers of two hotels in the Finnish Lapland through the hotels' internal TV-systems. The nowcasting system is based on the magnetic recordings of two geophysical observatories, Sodankylä (SOD, MLAT ~64 N) and Nurmijärvi (NUR, MLAT ~57 N). The probability of auroral occurrence is continuously characterised with an empirically determined three-level scale. The index is updated once per hour and based on the magnetic field variations recorded at the observatories. During dark hours the near-real time auroral images acquired at SOD are displayed. The hotel service also includes cloudiness predictions for the coming night. During the pilot season the reliability of the three-level magnetic alarm system was weekly evaluated by comparing its prediction with auroral observations by the nearby all-sky camera. Successful hits and failures were scored according to predetermined rules. The highest credit points when it managed to spot auroras in a timely manner and predict their brightness correctly. Maximum penalty points were given when the alarm missed clear bright auroras lasting for more than one hour. In this presentation we analyse the results of the evaluation, present some ideas to further sharpen the procedure, and discuss more generally the correlation between local auroral and magnetic activity.

  20. The presence of large sunspots near the central solar meridian at the times of modern Japanese auroral observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The validity of a technique developed by the authors to identify historical occurrences of intense geomagnetic storms, which is based on finding approximately coincident observations of sunspots and aurorae recorded in East Asian histories, is corroborated using more modern sunspot and auroral observations. Scientific observations of aurorae in Japan during the interval 1957–2004 are used to identify geomagnetic storms that are sufficiently intense to produce auroral displays at low geomagnetic latitudes. By examining white-light images of the Sun obtained by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the Big Bear Solar Observatory, the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, it is found that a sunspot large enough to be seen with the unaided eye by an "experienced" observer was located reasonably close to the central solar meridian immediately before all but one of the 30 distinct Japanese auroral events, which represents a 97% success rate. Even an "average" observer would probably have been able to see a sunspot with the unaided eye before 24 of these 30 events, which represents an 80% success rate. This corroboration of the validity of the technique used to identify historical occurences of intense geomagnetic storms is important because early unaided-eye observations of sunspots and aurorae provide the only possible means of identifying individual historical geomagnetic storms during the greater part of the past two millennia.

  1. Current-voltage and kinetic energy flux relations for relativistic field-aligned acceleration of auroral electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent spectroscopic observations of Jupiter's "main oval" auroras indicate that the primary auroral electron beam is routinely accelerated to energies of ~100 keV, and sometimes to several hundred keV, thus approaching the relativistic regime. This suggests the need to re-examine the classic non-relativistic theory of auroral electron acceleration by field-aligned electric fields first derived by Knight (1973, and to extend it to cover relativistic situations. In this paper we examine this problem for the case in which the source population is an isotropic Maxwellian, as also assumed by Knight, and derive exact analytic expressions for the field-aligned current density (number flux and kinetic energy flux of the accelerated population, for arbitrary initial electron temperature, acceleration potential, and field strength beneath the acceleration region. We examine the limiting behaviours of these expressions, their regimes of validity, and their implications for auroral acceleration in planetary magnetospheres (and like astrophysical systems. In particular, we show that for relativistic accelerating potentials, the current density increases as the square of the minimum potential, rather than linearly as in the non-relativistic regime, while the kinetic energy flux then increases as the cube of the potential, rather than as the square.

  2. Magnetopause Erosion During the 17 March 2015 Magnetic Storm: Combined Field-Aligned Currents, Auroral Oval, and Magnetopause Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Luehr, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Singer, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, T.; Bromund, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present multimission observations of field-aligned currents, auroral oval, and magnetopause crossings during the 17 March 2015 magnetic storm. Dayside reconnection is expected to transport magnetic flux, strengthen field-aligned currents, lead to polar cap expansion and magnetopause erosion. Our multimission observations assemble evidence for all these manifestations. After a prolonged period of strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field, Swarm and AMPERE observe significant intensification of field-aligned currents .The dayside auroral oval, as seen by DMSP, appears as a thin arc associated with ongoing dayside reconnection. Both the field-aligned currents and the auroral arc move equatorward reaching as low as approx. 60 deg. magnetic latitude. Strong magnetopause erosion is evident in the in situ measurements of the magnetopause crossings by GOES 13/15 and MMS. The coordinated Swarm, AMPERE, DMSP, MMS and GOES observations, with both global and in situ coverage of the key regions, provide a clear demonstration of the effects of dayside reconnection on the entire magnetosphere.

  3. Conjugate observation of auroral finger-like structures by ground-based all-sky cameras and THEMIS satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Katsuki; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Frühauff, Dennis

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we analyze the first conjugate observation of auroral finger-like structures using ground-based all-sky cameras and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites and investigated associated physical processes that are a cause of auroral fragmentation into patches. Two events are reported: one is a conjugate event, and the other is a nearly conjugate event. The conjugate event was observed at Narsarsuaq (magnetic latitude: 65.3°N), Greenland, at 0720-0820 UT (0506-0606 LT) on 17 February 2012. Analysis of the event revealed the following observational facts: (1) variation of parallel electron energy fluxes observed by THEMIS-E shows a correspondence to the auroral intensity variation, (2) plasma pressure and magnetic pressure fluctuate in antiphase with time scales of 5-20 min, and (3) perpendicular ion velocity is very small (less than 50 km/s). In the latter event, observed at Gakona, Alaska, on 2 February 2008, the THEMIS-D satellite passed across higher latitudes of finger-like structures. The data from THEMIS-D also showed the antiphase fluctuation between plasma pressure and magnetic pressure and the small perpendicular ion velocity. From these observations, we suggest that the finger-like structures are caused by a pressure-driven instability in the balance of plasma and magnetic pressures in the magnetosphere.

  4. Sounding-Rocket Studies of Langmuir-Wave Microphysics in the Auroral Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Micah P.

    Since their discovery in laboratory plasmas in the 1920s, Langmuir waves have been observed to be ubiquitous in plasma environments, particularly in space plasmas. From the greater solar wind to planetary foreshocks and the auroral ionosphere, Langmuir waves are a key factor mediating electron temperature, and controlling electron beam propagation and beam-plasma energy transfer. Because they are so important, Langmuir waves in the space environment have been intensively investigated; however, there remain two challenging types of experiments that are relatively lacking: three-dimensional measurements of Langmuir-wave fields, and measurements of Langmuir wave-electron correlations. This thesis works on filling these two gaps, plus development of new Langmuir-wave instrumentation. The CHARM-II wave-particle Correlator instrument was designed to study the energy transfer between electron beams and plasmas via the sorting of incoming particles by concurrent Langmuir-wave phase, allowing for direct observation of electron bunching. Data from the CHARM-II sounding rocket comprises the first such observations with statistical levels of events, revealing an association between the polarity of the resistive component of the electron phase-bunching and changes in the electron flux at the associated energy, such that a negative resistive component goes with an increase in electron flux, and vice versa, effectively showing energy flow from the beam to the waves, and subsequent enhancements of wave damping. Surprisingly, the results also show comparable amounts of resistive and reactive activity. A test-particle simulation was developed to confirm the details of the theoretical explanation for the observed effect. A three-dimensional Langmuir-wave receiver flown on the TRICE sounding rocket mission reveals the beat signature of the amplitude-modulated 'bursty' form of Langmuir waves which has been observed in many environments. An analysis of the three-dimensional data shows

  5. Optical signatures of auroral arcs produced by field line resonances: comparison with satellite observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Samson

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We show two examples from the CANOPUS array of the optical signatures of auroral arcs produced by field line resonances on the night of 31 January 1997. The first example occurs during local evening at about 18:00 MLT (Magnetic Local Time, where CANOPUS meridian scanning photometer data show all the classic features of field line resonances. There are two, near-monochromatic resonances (at approximately 2.0 and 2.5 mHz and both show latitudinal peaks in amplitude with an approximately 180 degree latitudinal phase shift across the maximum. The second field line resonance event occurs closer to local midnight, between approximately 22:00 and 22:40 MLT. Magnetometer and optical data show that the field line resonance has a very low frequency, near 1.3 mHz. All-sky imager data from CANOPUS show that in this event the field line resonances produce auroral arcs with westward propagation, with arc widths of about 10 km. Electron energies are on the order of 1 keV. This event was also seen in data from the FAST satellite (Lotko et al., 1998, and we compare our observations with those of Lotko et al. (1998. A remarkable feature of this field line resonance is that the latitudinal phase shift was substantially greater than 180 degrees. In our discussion, we present a model of field line resonances which accounts for the dominant physical effects and which is in good agreement with the observations. We emphasize three points. First, the low frequency of the field line resonance in the second event is likely due to the stretched topology of the magnetotail field lines, with the field line resonance on field lines threading the earthward edge of the plasma sheet. Second, the latitudinal phase structure may indicate dispersive effects due to electron trapping or finite ion gyroradius. Third, we show that a nonlocal conductivity model can easily explain the parallel electric fields and the precipitating electron energies seen in the field line resonance

  6. Optical signatures of auroral arcs produced by field line resonances: comparison with satellite observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Samson

    Full Text Available We show two examples from the CANOPUS array of the optical signatures of auroral arcs produced by field line resonances on the night of 31 January 1997. The first example occurs during local evening at about 18:00 MLT (Magnetic Local Time, where CANOPUS meridian scanning photometer data show all the classic features of field line resonances. There are two, near-monochromatic resonances (at approximately 2.0 and 2.5 mHz and both show latitudinal peaks in amplitude with an approximately 180 degree latitudinal phase shift across the maximum. The second field line resonance event occurs closer to local midnight, between approximately 22:00 and 22:40 MLT. Magnetometer and optical data show that the field line resonance has a very low frequency, near 1.3 mHz. All-sky imager data from CANOPUS show that in this event the field line resonances produce auroral arcs with westward propagation, with arc widths of about 10 km. Electron energies are on the order of 1 keV. This event was also seen in data from the FAST satellite (Lotko et al., 1998, and we compare our observations with those of Lotko et al. (1998. A remarkable feature of this field line resonance is that the latitudinal phase shift was substantially greater than 180 degrees. In our discussion, we present a model of field line resonances which accounts for the dominant physical effects and which is in good agreement with the observations. We emphasize three points. First, the low frequency of the field line resonance in the second event is likely due to the stretched topology of the magnetotail field lines, with the field line resonance on field lines threading the earthward edge of the plasma sheet. Second, the latitudinal phase structure may indicate dispersive effects due to electron trapping or finite ion gyroradius. Third, we show that a nonlocal conductivity model can easily explain the parallel electric fields and the precipitating electron energies seen in the field line resonance

  7. Resonance scattering by auroral N2+: steady state theory and observations from Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jokiaho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auroral energy input at high latitudes often depend on observations of emissions from the first negative band of ionised nitrogen. However, these emissions are affected by solar resonance scattering, which makes photometric and spectrographic measurements difficult to interpret. This work is a statistical study from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, during the solar minimum between January and March 2007, providing a good coverage in shadow height position and precipitation conditions. The High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES measured three bands of N2+ 1N (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3, and one N2 2P band (0,3 in the magnetic zenith. The brightness ratios of the N2+ bands are compared with a theoretical treatment with excellent results. Balance equations for all important vibrational levels of the three lowest electronic states of the N2+ molecule are solved for steady-state, and the results combined with ion chemistry modelling. Brightnesses of the (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3 bands of N2+ 1N are calculated for a range of auroral electron energies, and different values of shadow heights. It is shown that in sunlit aurora, the brightness of the (0,1 band is enhanced, with the scattered contribution increasing with decreasing energy of precipitation (10-fold enhancements for energies of 100 eV. The higher vibrational bands are enhanced even more significantly. In sunlit aurora the observed 1N (1,2/(0,1 and (2,3/(0,1 ratios increase as a function of decreasing precipitation energy, as predicted by theory. In non-sunlit aurora the N2+ species have a constant proportionality to neutral N2. The ratio of 2P(0,3/1N(0,1 in the morning hours shows a pronounced decrease, indicating enhancement of N2+ 1N emission. Finally we study the relationship of all emissions and their ratios to rotational temperatures. A clear effect is observed on rotational development of the bands. It is possible that greatly enhanced rotational temperatures may be a

  8. Controlling Charging and Arcing on a Solar Powered Auroral Orbiting Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Rhee, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement satellite (GPM) will be launched into a high inclination (65 degree) orbit to monitor rainfall on a global scale. Satellites in high inclination orbits have been shown to charge to high negative potentials, with the possibility of arcing on the solar arrays, when three conditions are met: a drop in plasma density below approximately 10,000 cm(exp -3), an injection of energetic electrons of energy more that 7-10 keV, and passage through darkness. Since all of these conditions are expected to obtain for some of the GPM orbits, charging calculations were done using first the Space Environment and Effects (SEE) Program Interactive Spacecraft Charging Handbook, and secondly the NASA Air-force Spacecraft Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP-2k). The object of the calculations was to determine if charging was likely for the GPM configuration and materials, and specifically to see if choosing a particular type of thermal white paint would help minimize charging. A detailed NASCAP-2k geometrical model of the GPM spacecraft was built, with such a large number of nodes that it challenged the capability of NASCAP-2k to do the calculations. The results of the calculations were that for worst-case auroral charging conditions, charging to levels on the order of -120 to -230 volts could occur on GPM during night-time, with differential voltages on the solar arrays that might lead to solar array arcing. In sunlit conditions, charging did not exceed -20 V under any conditions. The night-time results were sensitive to the spacecraft surface materials chosen. For non-conducting white paints, the charging was severe, and could continue unabated throughout the passage of GPM through the auroral zone. Somewhat conductive (dissipative) white paints minimized the night-time charging to levels of -120 V or less, and thus were recommended for GPM thermal control. It is shown that the choice of thermal control paints is important to prevent arcing on high

  9. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    Full Text Available

    Abstract. Simultaneous DMSP F7 and Viking satellite measurements of the dawnside high-latitude auroral energy electron and ion precipitation show that the region of the low and middle altitude auroral precipitation consists of three characteristic plasma regimes. The recommendation of the IAGA Working Group IIF/III4 at the IAGA Assembly in Boulder, July 1995 to decouple the nomenclature of ionospheric populations from magnetospheric population is used for their notation. The most equatorial regime is the Diffuse Auroral Zone (DAZ of diffuse spatially unstructured precipitating electrons. It is generated by the plasma injection to the inner magnetosphere in the nightside and the subsequent drift plasma to the dawnside around the Earth. Precipitating particles have a hard spectrum with typical energies of electrons and ions of more than 3 keV. In the DAZ, the ion pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic, with the peak near 90°. The next part is the Auroral Oval (AO, a structured electron regime which closely resembles the poleward portion of the night-side auroral oval. The typical electron energy is several keV, and the ion energy is up to 10 keV. Ion distributions are pre-dominantly isotropic. In some cases, this plasma regime may be absent in the pre-noon sector. Poleward of the Auroral Oval, there is the Soft Small Scale Luminosity (SSSL regime. It is caused by structured electron and ion precipitation with typical electron energy of about 0.3 keV and ion energy of about 1 keV. The connection of these low-altitude regimes with plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere is discussed. For mapping of the plasma regimes to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, the empirical model by Tsyganenko (1995 and the conceptual model by Alexeev et al. (1996 are used. The DAZ is mapped along the magnetic field lines to the Remnant Layer (RL, which is located in the outer radiation belt region; the zone of structured

  10. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Simultaneous DMSP F7 and Viking satellite measurements of the dawnside high-latitude auroral energy electron and ion precipitation show that the region of the low and middle altitude auroral precipitation consists of three characteristic plasma regimes. The recommendation of the IAGA Working Group IIF/III4 at the IAGA Assembly in Boulder, July 1995 to decouple the nomenclature of ionospheric populations from magnetospheric population is used for their notation. The most equatorial regime is the Diffuse Auroral Zone (DAZ of diffuse spatially unstructured precipitating electrons. It is generated by the plasma injection to the inner magnetosphere in the nightside and the subsequent drift plasma to the dawnside around the Earth. Precipitating particles have a hard spectrum with typical energies of electrons and ions of more than 3 keV. In the DAZ, the ion pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic, with the peak near 90°. The next part is the Auroral Oval (AO, a structured electron regime which closely resembles the poleward portion of the night-side auroral oval. The typical electron energy is several keV, and the ion energy is up to 10 keV. Ion distributions are pre-dominantly isotropic. In some cases, this plasma regime may be absent in the pre-noon sector. Poleward of the Auroral Oval, there is the Soft Small Scale Luminosity (SSSL regime. It is caused by structured electron and ion precipitation with typical electron energy of about 0.3 keV and ion energy of about 1 keV. The connection of these low-altitude regimes with plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere is discussed. For mapping of the plasma regimes to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, the empirical model by Tsyganenko (1995 and the conceptual model by Alexeev et al. (1996 are used. The DAZ is mapped along the magnetic field lines to the Remnant Layer (RL, which is located in the outer radiation belt region; the zone of structured electrons and isotropic ion

  11. Sheared magnetospheric plasma flows and discrete auroral arcs: a quasi-static coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider sheared flows in magnetospheric boundary layers of tangential discontinuity type, forming a structure that is embedded in a large-scale convergent perpendicular electric field. We construct a kinetic model that couples the magnetospheric structure with the topside ionosphere. The contribution of magnetospheric electrons and ionospheric electrons and ions is taken into account into the current-voltage relationship derived for an electric potential monotonically decreasing with the altitude. The solution of the current continuity equation gives the distribution of the ionospheric potential consistent with the given magnetospheric electric potential. The model shows that a sheared magnetospheric flow generates current sheets corresponding to upward field-aligned currents, field-aligned potential drops and narrow bands of precipitating energy, as in discrete auroral arcs. Higher velocity magnetospheric sheared flows have the tendency to produce brighter and slightly broader arcs. An increase in arc luminosity is also associated with enhancements of magnetospheric plasma density, in which case the structures are narrower. Finally, the model predicts that an increase of the electron temperature of the magnetospheric flowing plasma corresponds to slightly wider arcs but does not modify their luminosity.

  12. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyasov, Askar A., E-mail: asjosik@mail.ru [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Chernyshov, Alexander A., E-mail: achernyshov@iki.rssi.ru; Mogilevsky, Mikhail M., E-mail: mogilevsky@romance.iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Golovchanskaya, Irina V., E-mail: golovchanskaya@pgia.ru; Kozelov, Boris V., E-mail: boris.kozelov@gmail.com [Polar Geophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Apatity, Murmansk region 184209 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  13. Non-magnetic aspect sensitive auroral echoes from the lower E region observed at 50 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rüster

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Backscatter from E-region irregularities was observed at aspect angles close to 90° (almost parallel to the direction of the magnetic field using the ALOMAR SOUSY radar at Andoya/Norway. Strong electric fields and increased E-region electron temperatures simultaneously measured with the incoherent scatter facility EISCAT proved that the Farley-Buneman plasma instability was excited. In addition, strong particle precipitation was present as inferred from EISCAT electron densities indicating that the gradient drift instability may have been active, too. Backscatter at such large aspect angles was not expected and has not been observed before. The characteristics of the observed echoes, however, are in many aspects completely different from usual auroral radar results: the Doppler velocities are only of the order of 10 m/s, the half-width of the spectra is around 5 m/s, the echoes originate at altitudes well below 100 km, and they seem to be not aspect-sensitive with respect to the magnetic field direction. We, therefore, conclude that the corresponding irregularities are not caused by the mentioned instabilities and that other mechanism have to be invoked.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma waves and instabilities; ionosphere irregularities; particle precipitaion · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  14. Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream Observations During Storm and Non-Storm Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, S. G.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    A consequence of pressure gradients in the inner magnetosphere and low ionospheric conductivity, sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) manifest in the ionosphere as a westward plasma drift (poleward directed electric field) equatorward of the electron precipitation boundary. They can extend over more than 12 hours in MLT with centering on the nightside and maximum velocity in the dusk sector, and occur under all but the quietest geomagnetic conditions. The basic physical mechanism for SAPS appears toinvolve an interplay of field-aligned current, electric field, and conductivity, however, understanding the occurrence and characteristics of SAPS in specific events and the development of a predictive capability require an elaboration of the dynamical aspects of the phenomenon under both storm and non-storm conditions. Ground- and space-based observations, as well as theoretical and modeling capabilities, have improved substantially in recent years and will help answer some of the outstanding questions. Drawing from the recent CEDAR-GEM SAPS Focus Study this talk is an overview of our current state of understanding of the SAPS phenomenon, primarily from an observational perspective, with reference to potential issues and possible studies to resolve them.

  15. Net ionospheric currents closing field-aligned currents in the auroral region: CHAMP results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    By utilizing the high-resolution and precise vector magnetic field measurements from CHAMP during 2001-2005, the characteristics of the net auroral currents calculated by Ampère's integral law are comprehensively investigated. It is found that the net currents deduced from noon-midnight (dawn-dusk) orbits are directed duskward (antisunward). The intensities of the net currents increase linearly when the merging electric field (Em) is growing, exhibiting maximum values of about 2 (1) MA for the net duskward (antisunward) currents when Em exceeds 4 mV/m. For the first time the seasonal variations of the different net currents are shown. The net currents deduced from full orbits show only little seasonal dependence due to a compensation of the effects between the hemispheres. Conversely, the net currents deduced separately for the two hemispheres exhibit prominent seasonal dependences. For the net duskward currents the amplitudes and slopes of Em dependence are both larger by a factor of about 2 in summer than in winter. The related cross-polar cap Pedersen currents are higher in the sunlit hemisphere due to enhanced conductivity. The summer-time duskward currents are larger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere by a factor of 1.5. Conversely, the net antisunward currents show an opposite seasonal dependence. The ratio of summer to winter intensity amounts to about 0.7. In this case the currents are stronger in the Southern Hemisphere.

  16. Negative ions in the auroral mesosphere during a PCA event around sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    Full Text Available This is a study of the negative ion chemistry in the mesosphere above Tromsø using a number of EISCAT observations of high energy proton precipitation events during the last solar maximum, and in particular around sunset on 23 October, 1989. In these conditions it is possible to look at the relative importance of the various photodetachment and photodissociation processes controlling the concentration of negative ions. The data analysed are from several UHF GEN11 determinations of the ion-plasma ACF together with the pseudo zero-lag estimate of the `raw' electron density, at heights between 55 km and 85 km, at less than 1 km resolution. The power profiles from the UHF are combined with the 55-ion Sodankylä model to obtain consistent estimates of the electron density, the negative ion concentrations, and the average ion mass with height. The neutral concentrations and ion temperature are given by the MSIS90 model. These parameters are then used to compare the calculated widths of the ion-line with the GEN11 determinations. The ion-line spectrum gives information on the effects of negative ions below 70 km where they are dominant; the spectral width is almost a direct measure of the relative abundance of negative ions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ion chemistry and composition; particle precipitation.

  17. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation by a finite-size source in a dipole magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskaya, T. M., E-mail: tburinsk@iki.rssi.ru; Shevelev, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Generation, amplification, and propagation of auroral kilometric radiation in a narrow three-dimensional plasma cavity in which a weakly relativistic electron beam propagates is studied in the geometrical optics approximation. It is shown that the waves that start with a group velocity directed earthward and have optimal relation between the wave vector components determining the linear growth rate and the wave residence time inside the amplification region undergo the largest amplification. Taking into account the longitudinal velocity of fast electrons results in the shift of the instability domain toward wave vectors directed to the Earth and leads to a change in the dispersion relation, due to which favorable conditions are created for the generation of waves with frequencies above the cutoff frequency for the cold background plasma at the wave generation altitude. The amplification factor for these waves is lower than for waves that have the same wave vectors but are excited by the electron beams with lower velocities along the magnetic field. For waves excited at frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the background plasma at the generation altitude, the amplification factor increases with increasing longitudinal electron velocity, because these waves reside for a longer time in the amplification region.

  18. A localized swarm of low-resource CubeSat-class spacecraft for auroral ionospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R.; Lynch, K. A.; Gayetsky, L.; Guinther, J.; Slagle, A.; Currey, S.

    2012-12-01

    In interesting and dynamic auroral ionospheric plasmas, single-point in situ measurements are insufficient. Changes in measurements recorded from a single probe can be ascribed to either changes in position or to changes over time, and gradient scales can only be inferred. A localized array of sensors deployed as a low-resource swarm from a main deployer, can address these issues. We consider two aspects of designing such a swarm: (a) maintaining the localization in a low-cost manner, and (b) creating an extremely low-resource spacecraft by taking advantage of commercially available technologies. For a few-week low-altitude mission, STK (SatelliteToolKit) studies show that with proper deployment, an array of CubeSat-class spacecraft near 350 km altitude can regroup once per orbit to within a few 10s of km. Kepler's laws and Hill's equations allow us to put constraints on the capability of the deployer needed, in order to deploy the array with a minimal component of the ejection velocity along the orbital track. In order to keep the cost of each spacecraft low, we are exploring commercially available technologies such as Arduino controllers and video-game sensors. The Arduino on each payload will take in information from the sensors on the payload, and will send the information to a DNT-900MHz local area communications system. We show an example experiment measuring river flows on the Connecticut river, and discuss the design of our payload swarm.

  19. Upper atmospheric effects of the hf active auroral research program ionospheric research instrument (HAARP IRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, V.; Armstrong, R.

    1993-05-01

    The earth's ozone layer occurs in the stratosphere, primarily between 10 and 30 miles altitude. The amount of ozone, O3, present is the result of a balance between production and destruction processes. Experiments have shown that natural processes such as auroras create molecules that destroy O. One family of such molecules is called odd nitrogen of which nitric oxide (NO) is an example. Because the HAARP (HF Active Auroral Research Program) facility is designed to mimic and investigate certain natural processes, a study of possible effects of HAARP on the ozone layer was conducted. The study used a detailed model of the thermal and chemical effects of the high power HF beam, which interacts with free electrons in the upper atmosphere above 50 miles altitude. It was found only a small fraction of the beam energy goes into the production of odd nitrogen molecules, whereas odd nitrogen is efficiently produced by auroras. Since the total energy emitted by HAARP in the year is some 200,000 times less than the energy deposited in the upper atmosphere by auroras, the study demonstrates that HAARP HF beam experiments will cause no measurable depletion of the earth's ozone layer.... Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Odd nitrogen, Nitric oxide, HAARP Emitter characteristics.

  20. Sub-auroral flow shear observed by King Salmon HF radar and RapidMAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Ohtaka, T.; Kunitake, M.; Watari, S.; Nagatsuma, T.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    We examine in detail the evolution of ionospheric flow shears in the sub-auroral region associated with alternate northward/southward turnings of the IMF. The flow shear structures are often observed in the dusk sector by the SuperDARN King Salmon (KSR) HF radar. Interestingly, some of those show the eastward (westward) flow on the lower (higher) latitude side, respectively, opposite to the typical polarity of the dusk convection cell. In those flow shear events, the IMF has a weak but persistent southward component (~ -1 to -3 nT) before onset of flow shears and following decreases of the southward IMF or even northward turning appear to cause the flow shears. The ground magnetograms provided by the Russian Auroral and Polar Ionospheric Disturbance Magnetometers (RapidMAG) show gradual increases (abrupt declines) of the H-component in association with the increases (decreases) of the merging electric field, respectively, derived from the simultaneous solar wind-IMF observations. The fairly coherent increases (decreases) of the H-component over the wide range of local time (afternoon to evening) indicate development (decay) of the large-scale DP2 current system. A detailed analysis on the 2-D convection structure near the lower latitude edge of the dusk convection cell shows that the ionospheric plasma generally flows westward there and has a larger speed with increasing latitude particularly during increases of the merging electric field. However, once the southward IMF decreases or even shifts to northward and thereby the merging electric field goes down, the region of westward flow moves toward higher latitudes and instead an eastward flow emerges there, forming a flow shear of the counterclockwise sense. This indicates that a downward field-aligned current (FAC), which is the Region-2 (R2) sense on the dusk side, flows into the flow shear region. Subsequently the convection returns to a westward flow again upon increases of the merging electric field due to the

  1. Auroral Substorms: Search for Processes Causing the Expansion Phase in Terms of the Electric Current Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2017-10-01

    Auroral substorms are mostly manifestations of dissipative processes of electromagnetic energy. Thus, we consider a sequence of processes consisting of the power supply (dynamo), transmission (currents/circuits) and dissipations (auroral substorms-the end product), namely the electric current line approach. This work confirms quantitatively that after accumulating magnetic energy during the growth phase, the magnetosphere unloads the stored magnetic energy impulsively in order to stabilize itself. This work is based on our result that substorms are caused by two current systems, the directly driven (DD) current system and the unloading system (UL). The most crucial finding in this work is the identification of the UL (unloading) current system which is responsible for the expansion phase. A very tentative sequence of the processes leading to the expansion phase (the generation of the UL current system) is suggested for future discussions. (1) The solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo enhances significantly the plasma sheet current when its power is increased above 10^{18} erg/s (10^{11} w). (2) The magnetosphere accumulates magnetic energy during the growth phase, because the ionosphere cannot dissipate the increasing power because of a low conductivity. As a result, the magnetosphere is inflated, accumulating magnetic energy. (3) When the power reaches 3-5× 10^{18} erg/s (3-5× 10^{11} w) for about one hour and the stored magnetic energy reaches 3-5×10^{22} ergs (10^{15} J), the magnetosphere begins to develop perturbations caused by current instabilities (the current density {≈}3× 10^{-12} A/cm2 and the total current {≈}106 A at 6 Re). As a result, the plasma sheet current is reduced. (4) The magnetosphere is thus deflated. The current reduction causes partial B/partial t > 0 in the main body of the magnetosphere, producing an earthward electric field. As it is transmitted to the ionosphere, it becomes equatorward-directed electric field which drives both

  2. Quantifying Hemispheric Asymmetry of Auroral Currents by Polar Region Interhemispheric Magnetic Observatories (PRIMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Connors, M. G.; Wilson, T. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Anderson, B. J.; Kadokura, A.

    2016-12-01

    Previous observations have demonstrated that substorm auroras and the associated electric currents can exhibit substantial north-south asymmetry. Possible mechanisms that cause this asymmetry include the penetration of IMF By into the magnetotail, the difference in ionospheric conductivity due to the dipole tilt angle, and the difference in solar wind dynamo efficiency due to IMF Bx combined with the tilt angle. The relative importance of these factors, however, has not been determined, due to paucity of observations in the southern hemisphere. To resolve this difficulty, we propose to establish three new stations in West Antarctica for measuring geomagnetic perturbations. The three magnetometer stations are located at Lepley Lunatak, Union Glacier, and Whitmore Mountains, between -2° W and 7° W magnetic longitude at L-values 4, 6, and 8. These locations are magnetically conjugate to the recently established AUTUMNX magnetometers along the eastern shore of the Hudson Bay, enabling unique conjugate observations by two magnetometer chains at auroral latitudes and subauroral latitudes when close to midnight. These conjugate magnetic field observations, with concurrent satellite measurements by the AMPERE constellation and the Heliophysics System Observatory, can differentiate between magnetospheric and ionospheric contributions in the hemispheric asymmetry. The comparison with the conjugate observations at the Syowa and Iceland stations can shed light on the longitudinal extent of the hemispheric asymmetry. The PRIMO fluxgate magnetometer system includes a dedicated power and data communications platform developed by UNAVCO and successfully operated at ANET stations in the same region. The three PRIMO systems are co-located with existing ANET stations, facilitating logistic efficiencies such as transportation, cross-trained personnel, and common components. Our plan follows recommendations by the latest Heliophysics Decadal Study for ground-based observations

  3. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The 2D morphology of coherent HF radar and optical cusp aurora has been studied for conditions of predominantly southward IMF conditions, which favours low-latitude boundary layer reconnection. Despite the variability in shape of radar cusp Doppler spectra, the spectral width criterion of > 220 m s–1 proves to be a robust cusp discriminator. For extended periods of well-developed radar backscatter echoes, the equatorward boundary of the > 220 m s–1 spectral width enhancement lines up remarkably well with the equatorward boundary of the optical cusp aurora. The spectral width boundary is however poorly determined during development and fading of radar cusp backscatter. Closer inspection of radar Doppler profile characteristics suggests that a combination of spectral width and shape may advance boundary layer identification by HF radar. For the two December days studied the onset of radar cusp backscatter occurred within pre-existing 630.0 nm cusp auroral activity and appear to be initiated by sunrise, i.e. favourable radio wave propagation conditions had to develop. Better methods are put forward for analysing optical data, and for physical interpretation of HF radar data, and for combining these data, as applied to detection, tracking, and better understanding of dayside aurora. The broader motivation of this work is to develop wider use by the scientific community, of results of these techniques, to accelerate understanding of dynamic high-latitude boundary-processes. The contributions in this work are: (1 improved techniques of analysis of observational data, yielding meaningfully enhanced accuracy for deduced cusp locations; (2 a correspondingly more pronounced validation of correlation of boundary locations derived from the observational data set; and (3 a firmer physical rationale as to why the good correlation observed should theoretically be expected.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric

  4. Auroral plasma transport processes in the presence of kV potential structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Mitchell, H. G.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated plasma transport processes in the presence of a quasi-two-dimensional current filament, that generated kV potential structure in the auroral region. The simulation consists of a set of one-dimensional flux tube simulations with different imposed time-dependent, field-aligned currents. The model uses the 16 moment system of equations and simultaneously solves coupled continuity and momentum equations and equations describing the transport along the magnetic field lines of parallel and perpendicular thermal energy and heat flows for each species. The lower end of the simulation is at an altitude of 800 km, in the collisional topside ionosphere, while the upper end is at 10 R(sub E) in the magnetosphere. The plasma consists of hot electrons and protons of magnetospheric origin and low-energy electrons, protons, and oxygen ions of ionospheric origin. The dynamical interaction of the individual current filaments with ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma generates a potential structure in the horizontal direction and kilovolt field-aligned potential drops along the field lines. The side-by-side display exhibits the evolution of the implied potential structure in the horizontial direction. In the presence of this potential structure and parallel electric field ionospheric plasma density is depleted and velocity is reduced, while density enhancement and increased velocity is observed in magnetospheric plasma. The ionospheric and magnetospheric electron temperatures increase below 2 R(sub E) due to magnetic mirror force on converging geomagnetic field lines. The primary cross-field motion produced by the horizontal E field (E x B drift) is perpendicular to both of the significant spatial directions and is thus ignorable in this geometry. The effects of other cross-field drift processes are discussed. The simulation thus provides insight into the dynamical evolution of two-dimensional potential structures driven by an imposed finite width, field

  5. Conjugate observations of ENA signals in the high-altitude cusp and proton auroral spot in the low-altitude cusp with IMAGE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Taguchi, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2008-07-01

    On 28 April 2001, significant enhancements of neutral atom signals were detected in the direction of a high-altitude cusp by the Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager onboard the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Simultaneously, proton auroral emission was observed in the low-altitude cusp by the Far-Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) on the IMAGE spacecraft. The temporal variations of their intensities showed a good correlation, suggesting they had a common source. During a brief period, the proton auroral spot moved antisunward and dawnward in conjunction with the motion of the ionospheric footprint of the LENA cusp signal. The Tsyganenko-96 model shows that the possible source location of the LENA cusp signals maps to the FUV spot. Considering the solar wind variations, we have attributed this ``moving proton auroral spot'' to a moving flux tube that was created by transient reconnection on the dayside magnetopause and contained relatively high proton densities.

  6. An interhemispheric comparison of GPS phase scintillation with auroral emission observed at the South Pole and from the DMSP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prikryl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS phase scintillation caused by high-latitude ionospheric irregularities during an intense high-speed stream (HSS of the solar wind from April 29 to May 5, 2011, was observed using arrays of GPS ionospheric scintillation and total electron content monitors in the Arctic and Antarctica. The one-minute phase-scintillation index derived from the data sampled at 50 Hz was complemented by a proxy index (delta phase rate obtained from 1-Hz GPS data. The scintillation occurrence coincided with the aurora borealis and aurora australis observed by an all-sky imager at the South Pole, and by special sensor ultraviolet scanning imagers on board satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program. The South Pole (SP station is approximately conjugate with two Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network stations on Baffin Island, Canada, which provided the opportunity to study magnetic conjugacy of scintillation with support of riometers and magnetometers. The GPS ionospheric pierce points were mapped at their actual or conjugate locations, along with the auroral emission over the South Pole, assuming an altitude of 120 km. As the aurora brightened and/or drifted across the field of view of the all-sky imager, sequences of scintillation events were observed that indicated conjugate auroras as a locator of simultaneous or delayed bipolar scintillation events. In spite of the greater scintillation intensity in the auroral oval, where phase scintillation sometimes exceeded 1 radian during the auroral break-up and substorms, the percentage occurrence of moderate scintillation was highest in the cusp. Interhemispheric comparisons of bipolar scintillation maps show that the scintillation occurrence is significantly higher in the southern cusp and polar cap.

  7. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitation, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by Polar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFIs) in and near the aurora] oval on southern perigee (approx. 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the duskside after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawnside during the recovery phase. The UFIs showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approx. 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above -200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs, the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  8. Ionospheric feedback effects on the quasi-stationary coupling between LLBL and postnoon/evening discrete auroral arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (ΣP. Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of ΣP with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (εem. One key-component of the model is the kinetic description of the interface between the duskward LLBL and the plasma sheet that gives the profile of Φm, the magnetospheric electrostatic potential. The velocity shear in the dusk LLBL plays the role of a generator for the auroral circuit closing through Pedersen currents in the auroral ionosphere. The field-aligned current density, j||, and the energy flux of precipitating electrons are given by analytic functions of the field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦ, derived from standard kinetic models of the adiabatic motion of particles. The ionospheric electrostatic potential, Φi (and implicitely ΔΦ is determined from the current continuity equation in the ionosphere. We obtain values of ΔΦ of the order of kilovolt and of j|| of the order of tens of μA/m2 in thin regions of the order of several kilometers at 200 km altitude. The spatial scale is significantly smaller and the peak values of ΔΦ, j|| and εem are higher than in the case of a uniform ΣP. Effects on the postnoon/evening auroral arc electrodynamics due to variations of dusk LLBL and solar wind dynamic and kinetic pressure are discussed. In thin regions (of the order of kilometer embedding the maximum of ΔΦ we evidence a non-linear regime of the current-voltage relationship. The model predicts also that visible arcs form when the velocity shear in LLBL is above a threshold value depending on the generator and ionospheric plasma properties. Brighter arcs are obtained for increased velocity shear in the LLBL; their spatial scale remains virtually unmodified. The field

  9. Ionospheric feedback effects on the quasi-stationary coupling between LLBL and postnoon/evening discrete auroral arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (ΣP. Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of ΣP with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (εem. One key-component of the model is the kinetic description of the interface between the duskward LLBL and the plasma sheet that gives the profile of Φm, the magnetospheric electrostatic potential. The velocity shear in the dusk LLBL plays the role of a generator for the auroral circuit closing through Pedersen currents in the auroral ionosphere. The field-aligned current density, j||, and the energy flux of precipitating electrons are given by analytic functions of the field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦ, derived from standard kinetic models of the adiabatic motion of particles. The ionospheric electrostatic potential, Φi (and implicitely ΔΦ is determined from the current continuity equation in the ionosphere. We obtain values of ΔΦ of the order of kilovolt and of j|| of the order of tens of μA/m2 in thin regions of the order of several kilometers at 200 km altitude. The spatial scale is significantly smaller and the peak values of ΔΦ, j|| and εem are higher than in the case of a uniform ΣP. Effects on the postnoon/evening auroral arc electrodynamics due to variations of dusk LLBL and solar wind dynamic and kinetic pressure are discussed. In thin regions (of the order of kilometer embedding the maximum of ΔΦ we evidence a non-linear regime of the current-voltage relationship. The model predicts also that visible arcs form when the velocity shear in LLBL is above a threshold value depending on the generator and

  10. Crowd-sourcing, Communicating, and Improving Auroral Science at the Speed of Social Media through Aurorasaurus.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K.; MacDonald, E.; Case, N.; Hall, M.; Clayton, J.; Heavner, M.; Tapia, A.; Lalone, N.; McCloat, S.

    2015-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a geomagnetic storm—the largest of the solar cycle to date— hit Earth and gave many sky watchers around the world a beautiful auroral display. People made thousands of aurora-related tweets and direct reports to Aurorasaurus.org, an interdisciplinary citizen science project that tracks auroras worldwide in real-time through social media and the project's apps and website. Through Aurorasaurus, researchers are converting these crowdsourced observations into valuable data points to help improve models of where aurora can be seen. In this presentation, we will highlight how the team communicates with the public during these global, sporadic events to help drive and retain participation for Aurorasaurus. We will highlight some of the co-produced scientific results and increased media interest following this event. Aurorasaurus uses mobile apps, blogging, and a volunteer scientist network to reach out to aurora enthusiasts to engage in the project. Real-time tweets are voted on by other users to verify their accuracy and are pinned on a map located on aurorasaurus.org to help show the instantaneous, global auroral visibility. Since the project launched in October 2014, hundreds of users have documented the two largest geomagnetic storms of this solar cycle. In some cases, like for the St. Patrick's Day storm, users even reported seeing aurora in areas different than aurora models suggested. Online analytics indicate these events drive users to our page and many also share images with various interest groups on social media. While citizen scientists provide observations, Aurorasaurus gives back by providing tools to help the public see and understand the aurora. When people verify auroral sightings in a specific area, the project sends out alerts to nearby users of possible auroral visibility. Aurorasaurus team members around the world also help the public understand the intricacies of space weather and aurora science through blog articles

  11. Expansion of the main auroral oval at Jupiter : evidence for Io’s control over the Jovian magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfond, Bertrand; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Tom, Stallard; John, Clarke; Mizuki, Yoneda; Radioti, Aikaterini; Gustin, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In spring 2007, New Horizons' Jupiter fly-by provided a unique opportunity for the largest observation campaign dedicated to the Jovian aurora ever carried out by the Hubble Space Telescope. UV images of the aurora have been acquired on a quasi-daily basis from mid-February to mid-June 2007. Polar projection of the auroral emissions clearly show a continuous long-term expansion of main oval additionally to day by day variations. The main oval moved so much that the Ganymede footprint, which i...

  12. Combined optical, EISCAT and magnetic observations of the omega bands/Ps6 pulsations and an auroral torch in the late morning hours: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Safargaleev

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results of multi-instrument observations of auroral torch and Ps6 magnetic pulsations, which are assumed to be the magnetic signature of the spatially periodic optical auroras known as omega bands. Data from TV and ASC cameras in Barentsburg and Ny Ålesund, EISCAT radars in Longyearbyen and Tromsø, as well as IMAGE network were used in this study. The auroral phenomenon which was considered differed from that previously discussed, as it occurred both in an unusual place (high latitudes and at an unusual time (late morning hours. We show that this might occur due to specific conditions in the interplanetary medium, causing the appropriate deformation of the magnetosphere. In such a case, the IMF turned out to be an additional factor in driving the regime of Ps6/omega bands, namely, only by acting together could a substorm onset in the night sector and Bz variations result in their generation. Since the presumable source of Ps6/omega bands does not co-locate with convection reversal boundaries, we suggest the interpretation of the phenomena in the frame of the interchange instability instead of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that is widely discussed in the literature in connection with omega auroras. Some numerical characteristics of the auroral torch were obtained. We also emphasize to the dark hole in the background luminosity and the short-lived azimuthally-restricted auroral arc, since their appearance could initiate the auroral torch development.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Plasma convection; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction

  13. Jupiter 2μm Auroral Imaging with CFHT/FTS/BEAR: Thermospheric Ion and Neutral Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Retherford, K. D.; Majeed, T.; Waite, J. H.; Bougher, S. W.; Maillard, J.; Lellouch, E.

    2006-12-01

    Spectro-imaging infrared observations with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) FTS/BEAR instrument were obtained in Oct.~1999 and Oct.~2000, and were first reported by Raynaud et al., Icarus (2004). Images of the H2 S_1(1) quadrupole emission line and several H_3+ emission lines reveal a different morphology for the neutrals and ions. The H_3+ ion temperatures and column densities were determined. A northern "hot spot" similar to polar features observed at UV and X-ray wavelengths was identified in H_3+ images, but is absent in H2 images for reasons yet to be explained. We continued the analysis of these data to investigate Doppler shifts indicative of the thermospheric ion and neutral winds. Maps of winds in the auroral zones are created after correction for rotational velocity in the image cubes by cross-comparison of the emission line centroids. We report a preliminary analysis of the observations and auroral thermosphere wind maps. Few observations of the upper atmospheric wind velocities are available, yet these winds are crucial information to constrain JTGCM models and improve our understanding of dynamical heating and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  14. Spatial Distribution and Properties of 0.1-100 keV Electrons in Jupiter's Polar Auroral Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, R. W.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Clark, G.; Gladstone, G. R.; Hue, V.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McComas, D. J.; Paranicas, C.; Reno, M.; Saur, J.; Szalay, J. R.; Thomsen, M. F.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present observations of 0.1-100 keV electrons from Juno's Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment Electron instrument over Jupiter's polar auroral region for periods around four Juno perijoves (PJ1, PJ3, PJ4, and PJ5). The observations reveal regions containing magnetic field aligned beams of bidirectional electrons having broad energy distributions interspersed between beams of upward electrons with narrow, peaked energy distributions, regions void of these electrons, and regions dominated by penetrating radiation. The electrons show evidence of acceleration via parallel electric fields (inverted-V structures) and via stochastic processes (bidirectional distributions). The inverted-V structures shown here were observed from 1.4 to 2.9 RJ and had spatial scales of hundreds to thousands of kilometers along Juno's trajectory. The upward electron energy flux was typically greater than the downward flux, the latter ranging between 0.01 and 5 mW m-2 for two cases shown here which we estimate could produce 0.1-50 kR of ultraviolet emission.

  15. The location of the open-closed magnetic field line boundary in the dawn sector auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available As a measure of the degree of coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere systems, the rate at which the size of the polar cap (the region corresponding to ionospheric termini of open magnetic flux tubes varies is of prime importance. However, a reliable technique by which the extent of the polar cap might be routinely monitored has yet to be developed. Current techniques provide particularly ambiguous indications of the polar cap boundary in the dawn sector. We present a case study of space- and ground-based observations of the dawn-sector auroral zone and attempt to determine the location of the polar cap boundary using multi-wavelength observations of the ultraviolet aurora (made by the IMAGE FUV imager, precipitating particle measurements (recorded by the FAST, DMSP, and Cluster 1 and 3 satellites, and SuperDARN HF radar observations of the ionospheric Doppler spectral width boundary. We conclude that in the dawn sector, during the interval presented, neither the poleward edge of the wideband auroral UV emission (140-180nm nor the Doppler spectral width boundary were trustworthy indicators of the polar cap boundary location, while narrow band UV emissions in the range 130-140nm appear to be much more reliable.

  16. The combined effects of electrojet strength and the geomagnetic activity (Kp-index on the post sunset height rise of the F-layer and its role in the generation of ESF during high and low solar activity periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridharan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations have been carried out to identify the factors that are responsible for the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread-F (ESF. But the precise forecasting of ESF on a day-to-day basis is still far from reality. The nonlinear development and the sustenance of ESF/plasma bubbles is decided by the background ionospheric conditions, such as the base height of the F-layer (h'F, the electron density gradient (dN/dz, maximum ionization density (Nmax, geomagnetic activity and the neutral dynamics. There is increasing evidence in the literature during the recent past that shows a well developed Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA during the afternoon hours contributes significantly to the initiation of ESF during the post-sunset hours. Also, there exists a good correlation between the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA and the Integrated Equatorial ElectroJet (IEEJ strength, as the driving force for both is the same, namely, the zonal electric field at the equator. In this paper, we present a linear relationship that exists between the daytime integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ strength and the maximum elevated height of the F-layer during post-sunset hours (denoted as peak h'F. An inverse relationship that exists between the 6-h average Kp-index prior to the local sunset and the peak h'F of the F-layer is also presented. A systematic study on the combined effects of the IEEJ and the average Kp-index on the post-sunset, peak height of the F-layer (peak h'F, which controls the development of ESF/plasma bubbles, is carried out using the ionosonde data from an equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.47° N, 76.91° E, dip.lat. 0.5° N, an off-equatorial station, SHAR (13.6° N, 79.8° E, dip.lat. 10.8° N and VHF scintillations (244 MHz observed over a nearby low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, dip.lat. 20° N. From this study, it has been found that the threshold base height of the F-layer at the equator

  17. Plasma flows, Birkeland currents and auroral forms in relation to the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanation of the polar cap magnetic deflections, referred to as the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect, is in terms of currents associated with ionospheric flow resulting from the release of magnetic tension on newly open magnetic field lines. In this study, we aim at an updated description of the sources of the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect based on recent observations of configurations of plasma flow channels, Birkeland current systems and aurorae in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Central to our description is the distinction between two different flow channels (FC 1 and FC 2 corresponding to two consecutive stages in the evolution of open field lines in Dungey cell convection, with FC 1 on newly open, and FC 2 on old open, field lines. Flow channel FC 1 is the result of ionospheric Pedersen current closure of Birkeland currents flowing along newly open field lines. During intervals of nonzero interplanetary magnetic field By component FC 1 is observed on either side of noon and it is accompanied by poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs/prenoon and PMAFs/postnoon. In such cases the next convection stage, in the form of flow channel FC 2 on the periphery of the polar cap, is particularly important for establishing an IMF By-related convection asymmetry along the dawn-dusk meridian, which is a central element causing the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect. FC 2 flows are excited by the ionospheric Pedersen current closure of the northernmost pair of Birkeland currents in the four-sheet current system, which is coupled to the tail magnetopause and flank low-latitude boundary layer. This study is based on a review of recent statistical and event studies of central parameters relating to the magnetosphere-ionosphere current systems mentioned above. Temporal-spatial structure in the current systems is obtained by ground-satellite conjunction studies. On this point we emphasize the important information derived from the continuous ground monitoring

  18. Visualizing Space Weather: The Planeterrella Auroral Simulator as a Heliophysics Public Outreach Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masongsong, E. V.; Lilensten, J.; Booth, M. J.; Suri, G.; Heflinger, T. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA THEMIS and ARTEMIS satellite missions study "space weather," which describes the solar wind influence on Earth's protective magnetic shield, the magnetosphere. Space weather is important to study and predict because it can damage critical GPS and communications satellites, harm space travelers, and even disable our global electrical grid. The Planeterrella is an innovative heliophysics outreach demonstration, expanding public awareness of space weather by visualizing the sun-Earth connection up close and in-person. Using a glass vacuum chamber, two magnetized spheres and a 1kV power supply, the device can simulate plasma configurations of the solar corona, solar wind, Van Allen radiation belts, and auroral ovals, all of which are observable only by satellites. This "aurora in a bottle" is a modernized version of the original Terrella built by Kristian Birkeland in the 1890s to show that the aurora are electrical in nature. Adapted from plans by Lilensten et al. at CNRS-IPAG, the UCLA Planeterrella was completed in Nov. 2013, the second device of its kind in the U.S., and the centerpiece of the THEMIS/ARTEMIS mobile public outreach exhibit. In combination with captivating posters, 3D magnetic field models, dazzling aurora videos and magnetosphere animations, the Planeterrella has already introduced over 1200 people to the electrical link between our sun and the planets. Most visitors had seen solar flare images in the news, however the Planeterrella experience enhanced their appreciation of the dynamic solar wind and its effects on Earth's invisible magnetic field. Most importantly, visitors young and old realized that magnets are not just cool toys or only for powering hybrid car motors and MRIs, they are a fundamental aspect of ongoing life on Earth and are key to the formation and evolution of planets, moons, and stars, extending far beyond our galaxy to other planetary systems throughout the universe. Novel visualizations such as the Planeterrella can

  19. Ground and satellite observations of multiple sun-aligned auroral arcs on the duskside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Maggiolo, R.; Zhang, Y.; Fear, R. C.; Fontaine, D.; Cumnock, J. A.; Kullen, A.; Milan, S. E.; Kozlovsky, A.; Echim, M.; Shiokawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sun-aligned auroral arcs (SAAs) are one of the outstanding phenomena in the high-latitude region during periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Smaller scale SAAs tend to occur either in the duskside or dawnside of the polar cap and are known to drift in the dawn-dusk direction depending on the sign of the IMF By. Studies of SAAs are of particular importance because they represent dynamical characteristics of their source plasma in the magnetosphere, for example in the interaction region between the solar wind and magnetosphere or in the boundary between the plasma sheet and tail lobe. To date, however, very little has been known about the spatial structure and/or temporal evolution of the magnetospheric counterpart of SAAs. In order to gain more comprehensive understanding of the field-aligned plasma transport in the vicinity of SAAs, we have investigated an event of SAAs on November 10, 2005, during which multiple SAAs were detected by a ground-based all-sky camera at Resolute Bay, Canada. During this interval, several SAAs were detached from the duskside oval and moved poleward. The large-scale structure of these arcs was visualized by space-based imagers of TIMED/GUVI and DMSP/SSUSI. In addition to these optical observations, we employ the Cluster satellites to reveal the high-altitude particle signature corresponding to the small-scale SAAs. The ionospheric footprints of the 4 Cluster satellites encountered the SAAs sequentially and observed well correlated enhancements of electron fluxes at weak energies (< 1 keV). The Cluster satellites also detected signatures of upflowing beams of ions and electrons in the vicinity of the SAAs. This implies that these ions and electrons were accelerated upward by a quasi-stationary electric field existing in the vicinity of the SAAs and constitute a current system in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system. Ionospheric convection measurement from one of the SuperDARN radars shows an indication that

  20. Tests of Sunspot Number Sequences: 2. Using Geomagnetic and Auroral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J.; Barnard, L.; Scott, C. J.; Usoskin, I. G.; Nevanlinna, H.

    2016-11-01

    We compare four sunspot-number data sequences against geomagnetic and terrestrial auroral observations. The comparisons are made for the original Solar Influences Data Center (SIDC) composite of Wolf/Zürich/International sunspot number [R_{{ISNv}1}], the group sunspot number [RG] by Hoyt and Schatten ( Solar Phys. 181, 491, 1998), the new "backbone" group sunspot number [R_{BB}] by Svalgaard and Schatten ( Solar Phys., DOI: 10.1007/s11207-015-0815-8, 2016), and the "corrected" sunspot number [RC] by Lockwood, Owens, and Barnard ( J. Geophys. Res. 119, 5172, 2014a). Each sunspot number is fitted with terrestrial observations, or parameters derived from terrestrial observations to be linearly proportional to sunspot number, over a 30-year calibration interval of 1982 - 2012. The fits are then used to compute test sequences, which extend further back in time and which are compared to R_{{ISNv}1}, RG, R_{{BB}}, and RC. To study the long-term trends, comparisons are made using averages over whole solar cycles (minimum-to-minimum). The test variations are generated in four ways: i) using the IDV(1d) and IDV geomagnetic indices (for 1845 - 2013) fitted over the calibration interval using the various sunspot numbers and the phase of the solar cycle; ii) from the open solar flux (OSF) generated for 1845 - 2013 from four pairings of geomagnetic indices by Lockwood et al. ( Ann. Geophys. 32, 383, 2014a) and analysed using the OSF continuity model of Solanki, Schüssler, and Fligge ( Nature, 408, 445, 2000), which employs a constant fractional OSF loss rate; iii) the same OSF data analysed using the OSF continuity model of Owens and Lockwood ( J. Geophys. Res. 117, A04102, 2012), in which the fractional loss rate varies with the tilt of the heliospheric current sheet and hence with the phase of the solar cycle; iv) the occurrence frequency of low-latitude aurora for 1780 - 1980 from the survey of Legrand and Simon ( Ann. Geophys. 5, 161, 1987). For all cases, R_{BB} exceeds

  1. Origin of type-2 thermal-ion upflows in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of thermal ion outflows exceeding 1km/s in the high-latitude F-region has been a subject of considerable debate. For cases with strong convection electric fields, the "evaporation" of the ions due to frictional heating below 400-500km has been shown to provide some satisfactory answers. By contrast, in the more frequent subclass of outflow events observed over auroral arcs, called type-2, there is no observational evidence for ion frictional heating. Instead, an electron temperature increase of up to 6000° K is observed over the outflow region. In this case, field-aligned electric fields have long been suspected to be involved, but this explanation did not seem to agree with expectations from the ion momentum balance. In the present work we provide a consistent scenario for the type-2 ion upflows based on our case study of an event that occurred on 20 February 1990. We introduce, for the first time, the electron energy balance in the analysis. We couple this equation with the ion momentum balance to study the salient features of the observations and conclude that type-2 ion outflows and the accompanying electron heating events are indeed consistent with the existence of a field-aligned electric field. However, for our explanation to work, we have to require that an allowance be made for electron scattering by high frequency turbulence. This turbulence could be generated at first by the very fast response of the electrons themselves to a newly imposed electric field that would be partly aligned with the geomagnetic field. The high frequencies of the waves would make it impossible for the ions to react to the waves. We have found the electron collision frequency associated with scattering from the waves to be rather modest, i.e. comparable to the ambient electron-ion collision frequency. The field-aligned electric field inferred from the observations is likewise of the same order of magnitude as the normal ambipolar field, at least for

  2. Observational signatures of low-altitude low-energy ion motions up and down auroral field lines: a survey of sounding rocket measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Fernandes, P. A.; Gayetsky, L.; Mella, M. R.; Hampton, D. L.; Lessard, M.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    A number of auroral sounding rocket missions have sampled low-energy ion distribution functions near and in the ionospheric footpoint of auroral field lines, both on the dayside and the nightside, at altitudes ranging from a few hundred km to over 1000 km. The results, taken singly, can be confusing, given the variety of features. An overview of these observations, in the context of numerical modelling of the ionosphere, begins to reveal overall patterns of highly structured and temporally varying behaviors. In this talk we review observations from SCIFER (dayside, up to 1400 km), SCIFER2 (also dayside), SERSIO (dayside, lower altitude); and SIERRA, Cascades2, and MICA (all nightside, 300-500 km altitude.) A common feature in these auroral observations is that the ion distributions are seen to be moving either up (SIERRA low energies, MICA) or down (SCIFER, Cascades2, SIERRA medium eneriges) the field line with no obvious observational pattern. The downward moving distributions, particularly in the case of Cascades2, can be highly structured and varying in time, even showing dispersion signatures. Recent modelling efforts (Zettergren et al., this session) show structured patterns of upflow and downflow on auroral field lines consistent with these observations. Proper interpretation of sounding rocket case study ion flow observations must include the context given by 2-dimensional imagery and 2-dimensional (altitude and latitude) ionospheric modelling, as the net ion upflow from these low-altitude processes is a result of averaging over this variability.

  3. Auroral current systems in Saturn's magnetosphere: comparison of theoretical models with Cassini and HST observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The first simultaneous observations of fields and plasmas in Saturn's high-latitude magnetosphere and UV images of the conjugate auroral oval were obtained by the Cassini spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST in January 2007. These data have shown that the southern auroral oval near noon maps to the dayside cusp boundary between open and closed field lines, associated with a major layer of upward-directed field-aligned current (Bunce et al., 2008. The results thus support earlier theoretical discussion and quantitative modelling of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004, that suggests the oval is produced by electron acceleration in the field-aligned current layer required by rotational flow shear between strongly sub-corotating flow on open field lines and near-corotating flow on closed field lines. Here we quantitatively compare these modelling results (the "CBO" model with the Cassini-HST data set. The comparison shows good qualitative agreement between model and data, the principal difference being that the model currents are too small by factors of about five, as determined from the magnetic perturbations observed by Cassini. This is suggested to be principally indicative of a more highly conducting summer southern ionosphere than was assumed in the CBO model. A revised model is therefore proposed in which the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen conductivity is increased by a factor of four from 1 to 4 mho, together with more minor adjustments to the co-latitude of the boundary, the flow shear across it, the width of the current layer, and the properties of the source electrons. It is shown that the revised model agrees well with the combined Cassini-HST data, requiring downward acceleration of outer magnetosphere electrons through a ~10 kV potential in the current layer at the open-closed field line boundary to produce an auroral oval of ~1° width with UV emission intensities of a few tens of kR.

  4. Temporal evolution of two auroral arcs as measured by the Cluster satellite and coordinated ground-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The four Cluster s/c passed over Northern Scandinavia on 6 February 2001 from south-east to north-west at a radial distance of about 4.4 RE in the post-midnight sector. When mapped along geomagnetic field lines, the separation of the spacecraft in the ionosphere was confined to within 110km in latitude and 50km in longitude. This constellation allowed us to study the temporal evolution of plasma with a time scale of a few minutes. Ground-based instrumentation used involved two all-sky cameras, magnetometers and the EISCAT radar. The main findings were as follows.

    Two auroral arcs were located close to the equatorward and poleward edge of a large-scale density cavity, respectively. These arcs showed a different kind of a temporal evolution. (1 As a response to a pseudo-breakup onset, both the up- and downward field-aligned current (FAC sheets associated with the equatorward arc widened and the total amount of FAC doubled in a time scale of 1–2min. (2 In the poleward arc, a density cavity formed in the ionosphere in the return (downward current region. As a result of ionospheric feedback, a strongly enhanced ionospheric southward electric field developed in the region of decreased Pedersen conductance. Furthermore, the acceleration potential of ionospheric electrons, carrying the return current, increased from 200 to 1000eV in 70s, and the return current region widened in order to supply a constant amount of return current to the arc current circuit.

    Evidence of local acceleration of the electron population by dispersive Alfvén waves was obtained in the upward FAC region of the poleward arc. However, the downward accelerated suprathermal electrons must be further energised below Cluster in order to be able to produce the observed visible aurora.

    Both of the auroral arcs were associated with broad-band ULF/ELF (BBELF waves

  5. Temporal evolution of two auroral arcs as measured by the Cluster satellite and coordinated ground-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The four Cluster s/c passed over Northern Scandinavia on 6 February 2001 from south-east to north-west at a radial distance of about 4.4 RE in the post-midnight sector. When mapped along geomagnetic field lines, the separation of the spacecraft in the ionosphere was confined to within 110km in latitude and 50km in longitude. This constellation allowed us to study the temporal evolution of plasma with a time scale of a few minutes. Ground-based instrumentation used involved two all-sky cameras, magnetometers and the EISCAT radar. The main findings were as follows. Two auroral arcs were located close to the equatorward and poleward edge of a large-scale density cavity, respectively. These arcs showed a different kind of a temporal evolution. (1 As a response to a pseudo-breakup onset, both the up- and downward field-aligned current (FAC sheets associated with the equatorward arc widened and the total amount of FAC doubled in a time scale of 1–2min. (2 In the poleward arc, a density cavity formed in the ionosphere in the return (downward current region. As a result of ionospheric feedback, a strongly enhanced ionospheric southward electric field developed in the region of decreased Pedersen conductance. Furthermore, the acceleration potential of ionospheric electrons, carrying the return current, increased from 200 to 1000eV in 70s, and the return current region widened in order to supply a constant amount of return current to the arc current circuit. Evidence of local acceleration of the electron population by dispersive Alfvén waves was obtained in the upward FAC region of the poleward arc. However, the downward accelerated suprathermal electrons must be further energised below Cluster in order to be able to produce the observed visible aurora. Both of the auroral arcs were associated with broad-band ULF/ELF (BBELF waves, but they were highly localised in space and time. The most intense BBELF waves were confined typically to the return

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Jupiter's Polar Vortices and Regions of Auroral Influence Revealed Through High-Resolution Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Josh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Momary, Thomas W.; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2016-10-01

    We report characterization of the physical and chemical properties of Jupiter's polar regions derived from mid-infrared imaging of Jupiter covering all longitudes at unprecedented spatial resolution using the COMICS instrument at the Subaru Telescope on the nights of January 24 and 25, 2016 (UT). Because of Jupiter's slight axial tilt of 3°, the low angular resolution and incomplete longitudinal coverage of previous mid-infrared observations, the physical and chemical properties of Jupiter's polar regions have been poorly characterized. In advance of the Juno mission's exploration of the polar regions, this study focuses on mapping the 3-dimensional structure of Jupiter's polar regions, specifically to characterize the polar vortices and compact regions of auroral influence. Using mid-infrared images taken in the 7.8 - 24.2 µm range, we determined the 3-dimensional temperature field, mapped the para-H2 fraction and aerosol opacity at 700 mbar and lower pressures, and constrained the distribution of gaseous NH3 in Jupiter's northern and southern polar regions. Retrievals of these atmospheric parameters was performed using NEMESIS, a radiative transfer forward model and retrieval code. Preliminary results indicate that there are vortices at both poles, each with very distinct low-latitude boundaries approximately 60° (planetocentric) from the equator, which can be defined by sharp thermal gradients extending at least from the upper troposphere (500 mbar) and into the stratosphere (0.1 mbar). These polar regions are characterized by lower temperatures, lower aerosol number densities, and lower NH3 volume mixing ratios, compared with the regions immediately outside the vortex boundaries. These images also provided the highest resolution of prominent auroral-related stratospheric heating to date, revealing a teardrop-shaped morphology in the north and a sharp-edged oval shape in the south. Both appear to be contained inside the locus of H3+ auroral emission detected

  7. Seasonal variations in the incidence of auroral radio absorption events at very high latitude, and the influence of the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis has been made of the incidence of auroral radio absorption events at South Pole, and of its dependence on basic geophysical parameters such as season, time of day, and magnetic activity level. It is found that at low and moderate levels of activity the incidence of events in the winter season is at least twice that in the summer. However, at high activity no events at all occurred during the local summer night, which appears to be explicable as the effect of the magnetotail and the consequent distortion of the magnetosphere when the southern polar region is tilted strongly towards the Sun. Previous results from even higher latitudes show the effect in an even more exaggerated form, in that both the day and night periods of absorption activity exhibit strong seasonal variations.

  8. Enhanced E-layer ionization in the auroral zones observed by radio occultation measurements onboard CHAMP and Formosat-3/COSMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mayer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle precipitation of magnetospheric origin causes additional ionization in the auroral zone at E-layer heights. During night-time, in particular at winter-night, the E-layer ionization may dominate over the F2-layer ionization level. To study the geophysical conditions and characteristics of the related ionospheric processes in more detail, we use GPS radio occultation electron density profile retrievals from CHAMP and Formosat-3/COSMIC to extract those vertical profiles which show the absolute maximum of ionization in the E-layer height range of 90–150 km. In order to select these profiles, we have developed an algorithm which can recognize the shape of a given profile by fitting an empirical Ansatz to it. Using data from CHAMP collected since 2002 and Formosat-3/COSMIC data starting from 2006, we are able to study both, the local-time dependence and the solar-cylce variability of the observed processes.

  9. On the lifetime and extent of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC observed during a magnetospheric substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A -190-nT negative bay in the geomagnetic X component measured at Macquarie Island ( -65° L showed that an ionospheric substorm occurred during 09:58 to 11:10 UT on 27 February 2000. Signatures of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC were observed nearly simultaneously in the backscatter power, LOS Doppler velocity, and Doppler spectral width measured using the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar. Many of the characteristics of the AWFC were similar to those occurring during a polarisation jet (PJ, or subauroral ion drift (SAID event, and suggest that it may have been a pre-cursor to a fully developed, intense westward flow channel satisfying all of the criteria defining a PJ/SAID. A beam-swinging analysis showed that the westward drifts (poleward electric field associated with the flow channel were very structured in time and space, but the smoothed velocities grew to ~ 800 ms-1 (47 mVm-1 during the 22-min substorm onset interval 09:56 to 10:18 UT. Maximum west-ward drifts of >1.3 km s-1 (>77 mVm-1 occurred during a ~ 5-min velocity spike, peaking at 10:40 UT during the expansion phase. The drifts decayed rapidly to ~ 300 ms-1 (18 mVm-1 during the 6-min recovery phase interval, 11:04 to 11:10 UT. Overall, the AWFC had a lifetime of 74 min, and was located near -65° L in the evening sector west of the Harang discontinuity. The large westward drifts were confined to a geographic zonal channel of longitudinal ex-tent >20° (>1.3 h magnetic local time, and latitudinal width ~2° L. Using a half-width of ~ 100 km in latitude, the peak electric potential was >7.7 kV. However, a transient velocity of >3.1 km s-1 with potential >18.4 kV was observed further poleward at the end of the recovery phase. Auroral oval boundaries determined using DMSP measurements suggest the main flow channel overlapped the equatorward boundary of the diffuse auroral oval. During the ~ 2-h interval following

  10. On the uniqueness of linear moving-average filters for the solar wind-auroral geomagnetic activity coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Klimas, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The relation between the solar wind input to the magetosphere, VB(sub South), and the auroral geomagnetic index AL is modeled with two linear moving-average filtering methods: linear prediction filters and a driven harmonic oscillator in the form of an electric circuit. Although the response of the three-parameter oscillator is simpler than the filter's, the methods yield similar linear timescales and values of the prediction-observation correlation and the prediction Chi(exp 2). Further the filter responses obtained by the two methods are similar in their long-term features. In these aspects the circuit model is equivalent to linear prediction filtering. This poses the question of uniqueness and proper interpretation of detailed features of the filters such as response peaks. Finally, the variation of timescales and filter responses with the AL activity level is discussed.

  11. On the lifetime and extent of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC observed during a magnetospheric substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available A -190-nT negative bay in the geomagnetic X component measured at Macquarie Island ( -65° L showed that an ionospheric substorm occurred during 09:58 to 11:10 UT on 27 February 2000. Signatures of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC were observed nearly simultaneously in the backscatter power, LOS Doppler velocity, and Doppler spectral width measured using the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar. Many of the characteristics of the AWFC were similar to those occurring during a polarisation jet (PJ, or subauroral ion drift (SAID event, and suggest that it may have been a pre-cursor to a fully developed, intense westward flow channel satisfying all of the criteria defining a PJ/SAID. A beam-swinging analysis showed that the westward drifts (poleward electric field associated with the flow channel were very structured in time and space, but the smoothed velocities grew to ~ 800 ms-1 (47 mVm-1 during the 22-min substorm onset interval 09:56 to 10:18 UT. Maximum west-ward drifts of >1.3 km s-1 (>77 mVm-1 occurred during a ~ 5-min velocity spike, peaking at 10:40 UT during the expansion phase. The drifts decayed rapidly to ~ 300 ms-1 (18 mVm-1 during the 6-min recovery phase interval, 11:04 to 11:10 UT. Overall, the AWFC had a lifetime of 74 min, and was located near -65° L in the evening sector west of the Harang discontinuity. The large westward drifts were confined to a geographic zonal channel of longitudinal ex-tent >20° (>1.3 h magnetic local time, and latitudinal width ~2° L. Using a half-width of ~ 100 km in latitude, the peak electric potential was >7.7 kV. However, a transient velocity of >3.1 km s-1 with potential >18.4 kV was observed further poleward at the end of the recovery phase. Auroral oval boundaries determined

  12. Modeling of Occurrence and Dynamics of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) During Storm and Non-Storm Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S. Y.; Huba, J.; Coster, A. J.; Wolf, R.; Erickson, P. J.; Reiff, P. H.; Hairston, M. R.; Shepherd, S. G.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Califf, S.

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence and evolution of Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream, or SAPS, structures, defined here as latitudinally narrow channels of enhanced westward convection flows in the evening ionosphere equatorward of the auroral electron precipitation boundary, is the subject of the ongoing CEDAR-GEM focus study. In this paper, we present simulation results of several event intervals selected for the focus study, obtained with the SAMI3-RCM ionosphere-magnetosphere coupled model. We simulate intervals that include quiet-times, storm main phases, and storm recovery phases, as well as non-storm intervals with variations in the high-latitude convection. We compare simulation results with multi-instrument observations. In the ionosphere, these include mid-latitude SuperDARN Doppler flow velocities, DMSP topside ionospheric ExB drifts, Millstone Hill incoherent scatter flow velocities and F-region densities, and ground-based GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) maps. Magnetospheric data used for model comparison are electric field and cold plasma densities from Van Allen Probes and plasma and fields measurements by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) probes. Through comparing modeling results and data, we address the following questions: (1) Can observed occurrence of SAPS be predicted by the model based on time history of magnetospheric activity? (2) To what extent does non-linear ionospheric feedback affect dynamics of SAPS? (3) How does the preconditioning of the background ionosphere (specifically, night-time main ionospheric trough) affect SAPS dynamics? (4) How does presence of SAPS structures in the global ionospheric convection pattern affect storm-time plasma re-distribution (e.g., storm-enhanced densities (or SEDs), plasmaspheric plumes, traveling ionospheric disturbances (or TIDs))?

  13. Temperature and abundances in the Jovian auroral stratosphere. 1: Ethane as a probe of the millibar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Espenak, Fred

    1993-01-01

    We report infrared heterodyne spectroscopy (lambda/delta lambda is approximately 10(exp 6)) of C2H6 emission at 11.9 microns from the northern Jovian auroral region, in observations conducted over December 2-7, 1989. Accurately measured line shapes provide information on C2H6 abundance as well as temperature and permit retrieval of the source pressure region. Enhanced emission was observed in the longitude range approximately 150-180 deg at approximately 60 deg north latitude, approximately corresponding to the CH4 7.8 micron hot spot and the region of brightest UV aurora. Significant brightness variations were observed in the hot spot emissions on a time scale of approximately 20 hours. Analysis of the brightest hot spot spectra indicates C2H6 mole fractions of approximately (6.3-6.8) x 10(exp -6) at temperatures of approximately 182-184 K at 1 mbar, compared to mole fractions of (3.8 +/- 1.4) x 10(exp -6) averaged over spectra outside the hot spot at a temperature of approximately 172 K at the same pressure. Fixing the mole fraction to the lower limit retrieved in the quiescent (non-hot spot) region allows the temperature at 1 mbar to be as high as approximately 200 K within the hot spot. These results provide upper limits to the temperature increase near the source of the C2H6 thermal infrared emission. Combined with results from similar measurements of ethylene emission probing the approximately 10-microbar region (Kostiuk et al., this issue), altitude information on the thermal structure of the Jovian auroral stratosphere can be obtained for the first time.

  14. The auroral radio emissions from planetary magnetospheres - What do we know, what don't we know, what do we learn from them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe

    1992-08-01

    This overview examines the current observational data regarding the planetary radio emissions of the earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and examines the fundamental characteristics of the planets. Auroral radio emissions are studied in terms of their relation to important magnetospheric regions with attention given to their observational limitations. The primary observationally deduced characteristics of planetary radio emissions are listed including rotation period, radio components, spectrum, source location and modulations, polarization and emission mode, and brightness temperature. A common generation mechanism is assumed to operate efficiently in the five planetary environments because important similarities are noted in the characteristics of the auroral emissions. A basic understanding of this mechanism is described which permits the derivation of a refined magnetic field model and magnetic field characterizations of Saturn.

  15. Plasma structure within poleward-moving cusp/cleft auroral transients: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and an explanation in terms of large local time extent of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We report high-resolution observations of the southward-IMF cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR, and compare them with observations of dayside auroral luminosity, as seen at a wavelength of 630 nm by a meridian scanning photometer at Ny Ålesund, and of plasma flows, as seen by the CUTLASS (co-operative UK twin location auroral sounding system Finland HF radar. The optical data reveal a series of poleward-moving transient red-line (630 nm enhancements, events that have been associated with bursts in the rate of magnetopause reconnection generating new open flux. The combined observations at this time have strong similarities to predictions of the effects of soft electron precipitation modulated by pulsed reconnection, as made by Davis and Lockwood (1996; however, the effects of rapid zonal flow in the ionosphere, caused by the magnetic curvature force on the newly opened field lines, are found to be a significant additional factor. In particular, it is shown how enhanced plasma loss rates induced by the rapid convection can explain two outstanding anomalies of the 630 nm transients, namely how minima in luminosity form between the poleward-moving events and how events can re-brighten as they move poleward. The observations show how cusp/cleft aurora and transient poleward-moving auroral forms appear in the ESR data and the conditions which cause enhanced 630 nm emission in the transients: they are an important first step in enabling the ESR to identify these features away from the winter solstice when supporting auroral observations are not available.Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause; cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  16. Plasma structure within poleward-moving cusp/cleft auroral transients: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and an explanation in terms of large local time extent of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available We report high-resolution observations of the southward-IMF cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR, and compare them with observations of dayside auroral luminosity, as seen at a wavelength of 630 nm by a meridian scanning photometer at Ny Ålesund, and of plasma flows, as seen by the CUTLASS (co-operative UK twin location auroral sounding system Finland HF radar. The optical data reveal a series of poleward-moving transient red-line (630 nm enhancements, events that have been associated with bursts in the rate of magnetopause reconnection generating new open flux. The combined observations at this time have strong similarities to predictions of the effects of soft electron precipitation modulated by pulsed reconnection, as made by Davis and Lockwood (1996; however, the effects of rapid zonal flow in the ionosphere, caused by the magnetic curvature force on the newly opened field lines, are found to be a significant additional factor. In particular, it is shown how enhanced plasma loss rates induced by the rapid convection can explain two outstanding anomalies of the 630 nm transients, namely how minima in luminosity form between the poleward-moving events and how events can re-brighten as they move poleward. The observations show how cusp/cleft aurora and transient poleward-moving auroral forms appear in the ESR data and the conditions which cause enhanced 630 nm emission in the transients: they are an important first step in enabling the ESR to identify these features away from the winter solstice when supporting auroral observations are not available.

    Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause; cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  17. The influence of solar wind on extratropical cyclones – Part 2: A link mediated by auroral atmospheric gravity waves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of mesoscale cloud bands in extratropical cyclones are observed a few hours after atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs are launched from the auroral ionosphere. It is suggested that the solar-wind-generated auroral AGWs contribute to processes that release instabilities and initiate slantwise convection thus leading to cloud bands and growth of extratropical cyclones. Also, if the AGWs are ducted to low latitudes, they could influence the development of tropical cyclones. The gravity-wave-induced vertical lift may modulate the slantwise convection by releasing the moist symmetric instability at near-threshold conditions in the warm frontal zone of extratropical cyclones. Latent heat release associated with the mesoscale slantwise convection has been linked to explosive cyclogenesis and severe weather. The circumstantial and statistical evidence of the solar wind influence on extratropical cyclones is further supported by a statistical analysis of high-level clouds (<440 mb extracted from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP D1 dataset. A statistically significant response of the high-level cloud area index (HCAI to fast solar wind from coronal holes is found in mid-to-high latitudes during autumn-winter and in low latitudes during spring-summer. In the extratropics, this response of the HCAI to solar wind forcing is consistent with the effect on tropospheric vorticity found by Wilcox et al. (1974 and verified by Prikryl et al. (2009. In the tropics, the observed HCAI response, namely a decrease in HCAI at the arrival of solar wind stream followed by an increase a few days later, is similar to that in the northern and southern mid-to-high latitudes. The amplitude of the response nearly doubles for stream interfaces associated with the interplanetary magnetic field BZ component shifting southward. When the IMF BZ after the stream interface shifts northward, the autumn-winter effect weakens or shifts to lower (mid latitudes

  18. Detailed dayside auroral morphology as a function of local time for southeast IMF orientation: implications for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In two case studies we elaborate on spatial and temporal structures of the dayside aurora within 08:00-16:00 magnetic local time (MLT and discuss the relationship of this structure to solar wind-magnetosphere interconnection topology and the different stages of evolution of open field lines in the Dungey convection cycle. The detailed 2-D auroral morphology is obtained from continuous ground observations at Ny Ålesund (76° magnetic latitude (MLAT, Svalbard during two days when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is directed southeast (By>0; Bz<0. The auroral activity consists of the successive activations of the following forms: (i latitudinally separated, sunward moving, arcs/bands of dayside boundary plasma sheet (BPS origin, in the prenoon (08:00-11:00 MLT and postnoon (12:00-16:00 MLT sectors, within 70-75° MLAT, (ii poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs emanating from the pre- and postnoon brightening events, and (iii a specific activity appearing in the 07:00-10:00 MLT/75-80° MLAT during the prevailing IMF By>0 conditions. The pre- and postnoon activations are separated by a region of strongly attenuated auroral activity/intensity within the 11:00-12:00 MLT sector, often referred to as the midday gap aurora. The latter aurora is attributed to the presence of component reconnection at the subsolar magnetopause where the stagnant magnetosheath flow lead to field-aligned currents (FACs which are of only moderate intensity. The much more active and intense aurorae in the prenoon (07:00-11:00 MLT and postnoon (12:00-16:00 MLT sectors originate in magnetopause reconnection events that are initiated well away from the subsolar point. The high-latitude auroral activity in the prenoon sector (feature iii is found to be accompanied by a convection channel at the polar cap boundary. The associated ground magnetic deflection (DPY is a Svalgaard-Mansurov effect. The convection channel is

  19. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, ...

  20. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation by a finite-size source in a dipole magnetic field. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskaya, T. M.; Shevelev, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Propagation and amplification of extraordinary electromagnetic waves in a dipole magnetic field in a narrow 3D plasma cavity in which a weakly relativistic electron beam propagates along the magnetic field in the direction of the gradient of the magnetic field strength is investigated. The domain of wave vectors at the starting point for which the wave amplification factors at the output of the density cavity reach their maximum values is found, and the amplification factor as a function of the wave frequency is determined. It is shown that the longitudinal velocity of fast electrons, which enables generation of waves in a broader frequency range, plays an important role in the formation of the spectrum of the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). In this case, waves with the largest amplification factors at the output of the cavity have frequencies exceeding the cutoff frequency of the background plasma at the wave generation altitude. The global inhomogeneity of the magnetic field and plasma density, which governs the residence time of the waves in the amplification region, plays a key role in the formation of the AKR spectrum. It is shown that this time is the main factor determining the energy of the waves emerging from the source.

  1. Eastward-expanding auroral surges observed in the post-midnight sector during a multiple-onset substorm

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Kadokura, Akira; Partamies, Noora; Whiter, Daniel; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Brändström, Urban; Sergienko, Tima; Gustavsson, Björn; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Miyaoka, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present three eastward-expanding auroral surge (EEAS) events that were observed intermittently at intervals of about 15 min in the post-midnight sector (01:55-02:40 MLT) by all-sky imagers and magnetometers in northern Europe. It was deduced that each surge occurred just after each onset of a multiple-onset substorm, which was small-scale and did not clearly expand westward, because they were observed almost simultaneously with Pi 2 pulsations at the magnetic equator and magnetic bay variations at middle-to-high latitudes associated with the DP-1 current system. The EEASs showed similar properties to omega bands or torches reported in previous studies, such as recurrence intervals of about 15 min, concurrence with magnetic pulsations with amplitudes of several tens of nanotesla, horizontal scales of 300-400 km, and occurrence of a pulsating aurora in a diffuse aurora after the passage of the EEASs. Furthermore, the EEASs showed similar temporal evolution to the omega bands, during which eastward-propagatin...

  2. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations.

    A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches.

    A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  3. Introduction to the special issue on history development of solar terrestrial sciences including auroral sub-storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, N.; Parks, G.; Svalgaard, L.; Kamide, Y.; Lui, T.

    2016-12-01

    Solar terrestrial (ST) sciences started centuries ago and branched into different disciplines. Starting with naked eye to highly sophisticated novel experimental techniques, observations have revealed the secrets of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, plasmasphere, and ionosphere-atmosphere components of the ST system. Theories and theoretical models have been developed for the different components independently and together. World-wide efforts under different umbrella are being persuaded to understand the challenges of the ST system. The onset problem and role of O+ ions in sub-storm physics are two issues that are hotly debated. The onset problem is whether sub-storm is triggered by magnetic reconnection in the tail region at 15-20 Re or by a current disruption at ~12 Re. The issue on O+ role is whether O+ ions affect the dynamics of sub-storms under magnetic storm and non-storm conditions differently. This special issue of Geoscience Letters contains a collection of 15 papers on the history and development of solar terrestrial sciences including auroral sub-storms. Over half of the papers are based on the presentations in a session on the same topic organized at the AOGS (Asia Oceania geosciences Society) General Assembly held in Singapore during 02-07 August 2015. The rest of the papers from outside the assembly also falls within the theme of the special issue. The papers are organized in the order of history and development of ST coupling, sub-storms, and outer heliosphere.

  4. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations. A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches. A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  5. Statistics of Joule heating in the auroral zone and polar cap using Astrid-2 satellite Poynting flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We make a statistical study of ionospheric Joule heating with the Poynting flux method using six months of Astrid-2/EMMA electric and magnetic field data during 1999 (solar maximum year. For the background magnetic field we use the IGRF model. Our results are in agreement with earlier statistical satellite studies using both the ΣPE2 method and the Poynting flux method. We present a rather comprehensive set of fitted Joule heating formulas expressing the Joule heating in given magnetic local time (MLT and invariant latitude (ILAT range under given solar illumination conditions as a function of the Kp index, the AE index, the Akasofu epsilon parameter and the solar wind kinetic energy flux. The study thus provides improved and more detailed estimates of the statistical Joule heating. Such estimates are necessary building blocks for future quantitative studies of the power budget in the magnetosphere and in the nightside auroral region. Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  6. Coincident bursts of auroral kilometric radiation and VLF emissions associted with a type 3 solar radio noise event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Singh, S.; Wu, C. S.; Labelle, J.; Treumann, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) bu solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected onthe AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometric considerations relating to wave propagation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the typew III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, is different, more immediate,triggering process than that implied by Calvert (1981) is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequences comparable to those of the AKR by paraetric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the WU and Lee (1979) cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR.

  7. Magnetospheric magnetic field modelling for the 2011 and 2012 HST Saturn aurora campaigns – implications for auroral source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A unique set of images of Saturn's northern polar UV aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2011 and 2012 at times when the Cassini spacecraft was located in the solar wind just upstream of Saturn's bow shock. This rare situation provides an opportunity to use the Kronian paraboloid magnetic field model to examine source locations of the bright auroral features by mapping them along field lines into the magnetosphere, taking account of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF measured near simultaneously by Cassini. It is found that the persistent dawn arc maps to closed field lines in the dawn to noon sector, with an equatorward edge generally located in the inner part of the ring current, typically at ~ 7 Saturn radii (RS near dawn, and a poleward edge that maps variously between the centre of the ring current and beyond its outer edge at ~ 15 RS, depending on the latitudinal width of the arc. This location, together with a lack of response in properties to the concurrent IMF, suggests a principal connection with ring-current and nightside processes. The higher-latitude patchy auroras observed intermittently near to noon and at later local times extending towards dusk are instead found to straddle the model open–closed field boundary, thus mapping along field lines to the dayside outer magnetosphere and magnetopause. These emissions, which occur preferentially for northward IMF directions, are thus likely associated with reconnection and open-flux production at the magnetopause. One image for southward IMF also exhibits a prominent patch of very high latitude emissions extending poleward of patchy dawn arc emissions in the pre-noon sector. This is found to lie centrally within the region of open model field lines, suggesting an origin in the current system associated with lobe reconnection, similar to that observed in the terrestrial magnetosphere for northward IMF.

  8. Characteristics of field-aligned density depletion irregularities in the auroral ionosphere that duct Z- and X-mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H. G.

    2006-09-01

    The small-scale and two-point nature of the Observations of Electric-field Distributions in the Ionospheric Plasma—A Unique Strategy C (OEDIPUS-C, OC) dual-payload propagation experiment in the auroral ionosphere in 1995 has permitted improved measurements of the parameters of magnetic field-aligned density irregularities. Comparatively strong and dispersed pulses were observed at frequencies f just above the electron plasma frequency fp when the electron gyrofrequency fc was less than fp. The waves are interpreted as quasielectrostatic Z-mode propagation with dispersion surfaces close to those of the Langmuir solutions in wave vector space, albeit at somewhat lower refractive indices of about 50. If mission length surveys of the Z-wave intensities are aligned with histories of fp at the payload and of the strength of X- and fast Z-mode ionospheric reflection echoes, a strong positive correlation is found at momentary relative depletions of the ambient density. These observations are taken as evidence of ducting in the field-aligned depletions. The spectra of these strong Z-mode transmissions are similar to those of slow Z ducted spectra observed at similar f, fp, and fc values in the OEDIPUS-A experiment in 1989. The magnitudes of the density depletions are found to lie in the range 7-21% and to have cross-field dimensions of a few kilometers. The present duct dimensions are of the same order as the previous findings from ionospheric X-mode electromagnetic echoes on OC, but the depletions are up to 10 times deeper. Measurements of ducting irregularities can lead to insights into their formation. This will be important for our understanding of the interfaces of the ionospheric or magnetospheric topologies where irregularity formation is an important link in the large-scale flow of energy.

  9. A Synthesis of Star Calibration Techniques for Ground-Based Narrowband Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device Imagers Used in Auroral Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Guy II; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Don; Jahn, Jorg-Micha

    2016-01-01

    A technique is presented for the periodic and systematic calibration of ground-based optical imagers. It is important to have a common system of units (Rayleighs or photon flux) for cross comparison as well as self-comparison over time. With the advancement in technology, the sensitivity of these imagers has improved so that stars can be used for more precise calibration. Background subtraction, flat fielding, star mapping, and other common techniques are combined in deriving a calibration technique appropriate for a variety of ground-based imager installations. Spectral (4278, 5577, and 8446 A ) ground-based imager data with multiple fields of view (19, 47, and 180 deg) are processed and calibrated using the techniques developed. The calibration techniques applied result in intensity measurements in agreement between different imagers using identical spectral filtering, and the intensity at each wavelength observed is within the expected range of auroral measurements. The application of these star calibration techniques, which convert raw imager counts into units of photon flux, makes it possible to do quantitative photometry. The computed photon fluxes, in units of Rayleighs, can be used for the absolute photometry between instruments or as input parameters for auroral electron transport models.

  10. VISIONS: Remote Observations of a Spatially-Structured Filamentary Source of Energetic Neutral Atoms near the Polar Cap Boundary During an Auroral Substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, D.; Clemmons, J.; Keller, J. W.; Klenzing, J.; Kujawski, J.; McLain, J.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Zettergren, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report initial results from the VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm (VISIONS) rocket that flew through and near several regions of enhanced auroral activity and also sensed regions of ion outflow both remotely and directly. The observed neutral atom fluxes were largest at the lower energies and generally higher in the auroral zone than in the polar cap. In this paper, we focus on data from the latter half of the VISIONS trajectory when the rocket traversed the polar cap region. During this period, many of the energetic neutral atom spectra show a peak at 100 electronvolts. Spectra with peaks around 100 electronvolts are also observed in the Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) data consistent with these ions comprising the source population for the energetic neutral atoms. The EIA observations of this low energy population extend only over a few tens of kilometers. Furthermore, the directionality of the arriving energetic neutral atoms is consistent with either this spatially localized source of energetic ions extending from as low as about 300 kilometers up to above 600 kilometers or a larger source of energetic ions to the southwest.

  11. Ground-based observations of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheric responses to dayside transient reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    Full Text Available Observations from the EISCAT VHF incoherent scatter radar system in northern Norway, during a run of the common programme CP-4, reveal a series of poleward-propagating F-region electron density enhancements in the pre-noon sector on 23 November 1999. These plasma density features, which are observed under conditions of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field, exhibit a recurrence rate of under 10 min and appear to emanate from the vicinity of the open/closed field-line boundary from where they travel into the polar cap; this is suggestive of their being an ionospheric response to transient reconnection at the day-side magnetopause (flux transfer events. Simultaneous with the density structures detected by the VHF radar, poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs are observed by the Finland HF coherent scatter radar. It is thought that PM-RAFs, which are commonly observed near local noon by HF radars, are also related to flux transfer events, although the specific mechanism for the generation of the field-aligned irregularities within such features is not well understood. The HF observations suggest, that for much of their existence, the PMRAFs trace fossil signatures of transient reconnection rather than revealing the footprint of active reconnection itself; this is evidenced not least by the fact that the PMRAFs become narrower in spectral width as they evolve away from the region of more classical, broad cusp scatter in which they originate. Interpretation of the HF observations with reference to the plasma parameters diagnosed by the incoherent scatter radar suggests that as the PMRAFs migrate away from the reconnection site and across the polar cap, entrained in the ambient antisunward flow, the irregularities therein are generated by the presence of gradients in the electron density, with these gradients having been formed through structuring of the ionosphere in the cusp region in response to transient reconnection

  12. Development of a Two-Dimensional Hybrid-Kinetic Code for Simulations of Low-Altitude Auroral Flux-Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, D.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents initial results based on kinetic extensions of a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) multi-fluid (three ion species and fluid electrons) MHD model that is designed to study propagation of shear Alfven waves in low-altitude auroral flux tubes. It is intended to use the model for scientific support of the “enhanced polar outflow probe” e-POP/CASSIOPE spacecraft mission (launch scheduled in 2010). Effects of gravity, thermal pressure, and geomagnetic field curvature are included, while the parallel electric field along geomagnetic field lines is calculated under the assumption of plasma quasineutrality. The model has been used successfully to study excitation of eigenmodes of the ionospheric Alfven resonator (IAR) by an Alfven wave packet injected from the magnetospheric end of the simulated plasma region. The formation of density cavities due to the ponderomotive force of standing oscillations in the IAR [Sydorenko, Rankin, and Kabin, 2008], and excitation of double layers and ion-acoustic wave packets, has been demonstrated. The kinetic extension of the multi-fluid code involves replacing the fluid electron model with a kinetic module that solves the simplified drift-kinetic Vlasov equation for the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF). To avoid undue complexity, it is assumed that (i) the electrons move only along geomagnetic field lines and (ii) the electron magnetic moment is conserved. As a result, the evolution of the EVDF is reduced to the problem of advection in 2D phase space “distance along the field line - velocity along the field line”. This problem is solved using a semi-Lagrangian algorithm [Staniforth and Cote, 1991]. The kinetic simulation starts from the initial equilibrium state similar to [Ergun et al., 2000]. The equilibrium assumes that the plasma consists of two electron populations: cold electrons with isotropic EVDF originating from the ionosphere, and hot anisotropic electrons with a loss-cone EVDF coming from

  13. Model interpretation of the ionospheric F-region electron density structures observed by ground-based satellite tomography at sub-auroral and auroral latitudes in Russia in January–May 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Namgaladze

    2003-04-01

    2-layer maximum agree with corresponding tomography images for all seasons for the first half of 1999, covering almost the total range of the solar activity, so that no correction of the solar EUV flux (used as an input parameter in the UAM is required; (e a necessary correction of simulated precipitating soft electron flux intensities has to be made, in order to improve the consistency between measured night-time values of the electron density and those estimated by the theoretical model; (f the simulated electron density behaviour caused by spatial, diurnal, seasonal variations, as well as due to a solar activity is consistent with the experimental tomographic images. This indicates a good reliability of both experimental and simulated data (at least in the central part of the examined latitudinal interval.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; modeling and forecasting

  14. Statistics of a parallel Poynting vector in the auroral zone as a function of altitude using Polar EFI and MFE data and Astrid-2 EMMA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the wave-related (AC and static (DC parallel Poynting vector (Poynting energy flux as a function of altitude in auroral field lines using Polar EFI and MFE data. The study is statistical and contains 5 years of data in the altitude range 5000–30000 km. We verify the low altitude part of the results by comparison with earlier Astrid-2 EMMA Poynting vector statistics at 1000 km altitude. The EMMA data are also used to statistically compensate the Polar results for the missing zonal electric field component. We compare the Poynting vector with previous statistical DMSP satellite data concerning the electron precipitation power. We find that the AC Poynting vector (Alfvén-wave related Poynting vector is statistically not sufficient to power auroral electron precipitation, although it may, for Kp>2, power 25–50% of it. The statistical AC Poynting vector also has a stepwise transition at R=4 RE, so that its amplitude increases with increasing altitude. We suggest that this corresponds to Alfvén waves being in Landau resonance with electrons, so that wave-induced electron acceleration takes place at this altitude range, which was earlier named the Alfvén Resonosphere (ARS. The DC Poynting vector is ~3 times larger than electron precipitation and corresponds mainly to ionospheric Joule heating. In the morning sector (02:00–06:00 MLT we find that the DC Poynting vector has a nontrivial altitude profile such that it decreases by a factor of ~2 when moving upward from 3 to 4 RE radial distance. In other nightside MLT sectors the altitude profile is more uniform. The morning sector nontrivial altitude profile may be due to divergence of the perpendicular Poynting vector field at R=3–4 RE.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interactions

  15. The ion experiment onboard the Interball-Aurora satellite; initial results on velocity-dispersed structures in the cleft and inside the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sauvaud

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The Toulouse ION experiment flown on the Russian Interball-Aurora mission performs simultaneous ion and electron measurements. Two mass spectrometers looking in opposing directions perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which points toward the sun, measure ions in the mass and energy ranges 1–32 amu and ~0–14 000 eV. Two electron spectrometers also looking in opposing directions perform measurements in the energy range ~10 eV–20 000 eV. The Interball-Aurora spacecraft was launched on 29 August 1996 into a 62.8° inclination orbit with an apogee of ~3 RE. The satellite orbital period is 6 h, so that every four orbits the satellite sweeps about the same region of the auroral zone; the orbit plane drifts around the pole in ~9 months. We present a description of the ION experiment and discuss initial measurements performed in the cusp near noon, in the polar cleft at dusk, and inside the proton aurora at dawn. Ion-dispersed energy structures resulting from time-of-flight effects are observed both in the polar cleft at ~16 hours MLT and in the dawnside proton aurora close to 06 hours MLT. Magnetosheath plasma injections in the polar cleft, which appear as overlapping energy bands in particle energy-time spectrograms, are traced backwards in time using a particle trajectory model using 3D electric and magnetic field models. We found that the cleft ion source is located at distances of the order of 18 RE from the earth at about 19 MLT, i.e., on the flank of the magnetopause. These observations are in agreement with flux transfer events (FTE occurring not only on the front part of the magnetopause but also in a region extending at least to dusk. We also show that, during quiet magnetic conditions, time-of-flight ion dispersions can also be measured inside the dawn proton aurora. A method similar to that used for the cleft is applied to these auroral energy dispersion signatures. Unexpectedly, the ion source is found to be at distances of the

  16. The ion experiment onboard the Interball-Aurora satellite; initial results on velocity-dispersed structures in the cleft and inside the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse ION experiment flown on the Russian Interball-Aurora mission performs simultaneous ion and electron measurements. Two mass spectrometers looking in opposing directions perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which points toward the sun, measure ions in the mass and energy ranges 1–32 amu and ~0–14 000 eV. Two electron spectrometers also looking in opposing directions perform measurements in the energy range ~10 eV–20 000 eV. The Interball-Aurora spacecraft was launched on 29 August 1996 into a 62.8° inclination orbit with an apogee of ~3 RE. The satellite orbital period is 6 h, so that every four orbits the satellite sweeps about the same region of the auroral zone; the orbit plane drifts around the pole in ~9 months. We present a description of the ION experiment and discuss initial measurements performed in the cusp near noon, in the polar cleft at dusk, and inside the proton aurora at dawn. Ion-dispersed energy structures resulting from time-of-flight effects are observed both in the polar cleft at ~16 hours MLT and in the dawnside proton aurora close to 06 hours MLT. Magnetosheath plasma injections in the polar cleft, which appear as overlapping energy bands in particle energy-time spectrograms, are traced backwards in time using a particle trajectory model using 3D electric and magnetic field models. We found that the cleft ion source is located at distances of the order of 18 RE from the earth at about 19 MLT, i.e., on the flank of the magnetopause. These observations are in agreement with flux transfer events (FTE occurring not only on the front part of the magnetopause but also in a region extending at least to dusk. We also show that, during quiet magnetic conditions, time-of-flight ion dispersions can also be measured inside the dawn proton aurora. A method similar to that used for the cleft is applied to these auroral energy dispersion signatures. Unexpectedly, the ion source is found to be

  17. Modulation of Jupiter's plasma flow, polar currents, and auroral precipitation by solar wind-induced compressions and expansions of the magnetosphere: a simple theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a simple model of the plasma flow, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents, and auroral precipitation in Jupiter's magnetosphere, and examine how they respond to compressions and expansions of the system induced by changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. The main simplifying assumption is axi-symmetry, the system being modelled principally to reflect dayside conditions. The model thus describes three magnetospheric regions, namely the middle and outer magnetosphere on closed magnetic field lines bounded by the magnetopause, together with a region of open field lines mapping to the tail. The calculations assume that the system is initially in a state of steady diffusive outflow of iogenic plasma with a particular equatorial magnetopause radius, and that the magnetopause then moves rapidly in or out due to a change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. If the change is sufficiently rapid (~2–3 h or less the plasma angular momentum is conserved during the excursion, allowing the modified plasma angular velocity to be calculated from the radial displacement of the field lines, together with the modified magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and auroral precipitation. The properties of these transient states are compared with those of the steady states to which they revert over intervals of ~1–2 days. Results are shown for rapid compressions of the system from an initially expanded state typical of a solar wind rarefaction region, illustrating the reduction in total precipitating electron power that occurs for modest compressions, followed by partial recovery in the emergent steady state. For major compressions, however, typical of the onset of a solar wind compression region, a brightened transient state occurs in which super-rotation is induced on closed field lines, resulting in a reversal in sense of the usual magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system. Current system reversal results in accelerated auroral electron

  18. Modulation of Jupiter's plasma flow, polar currents, and auroral precipitation by solar wind-induced compressions and expansions of the magnetosphere: a simple theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a simple model of the plasma flow, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents, and auroral precipitation in Jupiter's magnetosphere, and examine how they respond to compressions and expansions of the system induced by changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. The main simplifying assumption is axi-symmetry, the system being modelled principally to reflect dayside conditions. The model thus describes three magnetospheric regions, namely the middle and outer magnetosphere on closed magnetic field lines bounded by the magnetopause, together with a region of open field lines mapping to the tail. The calculations assume that the system is initially in a state of steady diffusive outflow of iogenic plasma with a particular equatorial magnetopause radius, and that the magnetopause then moves rapidly in or out due to a change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. If the change is sufficiently rapid (~2–3 h or less the plasma angular momentum is conserved during the excursion, allowing the modified plasma angular velocity to be calculated from the radial displacement of the field lines, together with the modified magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and auroral precipitation. The properties of these transient states are compared with those of the steady states to which they revert over intervals of ~1–2 days. Results are shown for rapid compressions of the system from an initially expanded state typical of a solar wind rarefaction region, illustrating the reduction in total precipitating electron power that occurs for modest compressions, followed by partial recovery in the emergent steady state. For major compressions, however, typical of the onset of a solar wind compression region, a brightened transient state occurs in which super-rotation is induced on closed field lines, resulting in a reversal in sense of the usual magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system. Current system reversal results in accelerated auroral

  19. Auroral Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-31

    morning sector than in the evening sector in Appendix 2. The following points should further be noted ti interpreting The two dotted lines in I-igure 8...tiliZ0,i5 Muouiueit cqw 1SUd 0 to tilt p1tm of 0 4 ill\\ ilnd15 0 1 "-ill\\ ill dmis nwfus\\ icnk tietits are \\stion 11ha dotted tile, (,(c \\ ppnds l -45...11977) studied tin detail the decpen- measturemnents (aircraft) and transient, snapishot (spacecraft I deuce of the equatort.tl bouindary of the CI’S Onl

  20. Extensions of the CDPP/Propagation tool to the case of comets, giant planet auroral emissions, and catalogues of solar wind disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, N.; Génot, V.; Rouillard, A.; Bouchemit, M.; Caussarieu, S.; Beigbeder, L.; Toniutti, J.-P.; Popescu, D.

    2017-09-01

    For this PSWS service we has extended the Propagation Tool available at CDPP (http://propagationtool.cdpp.eu) to the case of comets, giant planet auroral emissions, and catalogues of solar wind disturbances. The service provides new plug-ins including selection of comets as targets, visualization of their trajectories, projection onto solar maps, projection onto J-maps (maps of solar wind outflows obtained from the Heliospheric Imagers onboard STEREO spacecraft, in which multiple elongation profiles along a constant position angle are stacked in time, building an image in which radially propagating transients form curved tracks in the J-map; it will enable the user to use catalogue of solar wind disturbances in order to identify those that have impacted the planetary environments.

  1. Rotational temperature of N2+ (0,2 ions from spectrographic measurements used to infer the energy of precipitation in different auroral forms and compared with radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lummerzheim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution spectral data are used to estimate neutral temperatures at auroral heights. The data are from the High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES which forms part of the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF, located at Longyearbyen, Svalbard in Norway. The platform also contains photometers and a narrow angle auroral imager. Quantum molecular spectroscopy is used for modelling N2+ 1NG (0,2, which serves as a diagnostic tool for neutral temperature and emission height variations. The theoretical spectra are convolved with the instrument function and fitted to measured rotational transition lines as a function of temperature. Measurements were made in the magnetic zenith, and along a meridian slit centred on the magnetic zenith. In the results described, the high spectral resolution of the data (0.08 nm allows an error analysis to be performed more thoroughly than previous findings, with particular attention paid to the correct subtraction of background, and to precise wavelength calibration. Supporting measurements were made with the Svalbard Eiscat Radar (ESR. Estimates were made from both optical and radar observations of the average energy of precipitating electrons in different types of aurora. These provide confirmation that the spectral results are in agreement with the variations observed in radar profiles. In rayed aurora the neutral temperature was highest (800 K and the energy lowest (1 keV. In a bright curling arc, the temperature at the lower border was about 550 K, corresponding to energies of 2 keV. The radar and modelling results confirm that these average values are a lower limit for an estimation of the characteristic energy. In each event the energy distribution is clearly made up of more than one spectral shape. This work emphasises the need for high time resolution as well as high spectral resolution. The present work is the first to provide rotational temperatures using a method which pays particular

  2. Capabilities of software "Vector-M" for a diagnostics of the ionosphere state from auroral emissions images and plasma characteristics from the different orbits as a part of the system of control of space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyushev, V.; Banshchikova, M.; Chuvashov, I.; Kuzmin, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the paper are presented capabilities of software "Vector-M" for a diagnostics of the ionosphere state from auroral emissions images and plasma characteristics from the different orbits as a part of the system of control of space weather. The software "Vector-M" is developed by the celestial mechanics and astrometry department of Tomsk State University in collaboration with Space Research Institute (Moscow) and Central Aerological Observatory of Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The software "Vector-M" is intended for calculation of attendant geophysical and astronomical information for the centre of mass of the spacecraft and the space of observations in the experiment with auroral imager Aurovisor-VIS/MP in the orbit of the perspective Meteor-MP spacecraft.

  3. Characteristics of merging at the magnetopause inferred from dayside 557.7-nm all-sky images: IMF drivers of poleward moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We combine in situ measurements from Cluster with high-resolution 557.7 nm all-sky images from South Pole to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Variations of 557.7 nm emissions were observed at a 6 s cadence at South Pole on 29 April 2003 while significant changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. Electrons energized at merging sites are the probable sources for 557.7 nm cusp emissions. At the same time Cluster was crossing the pre-noon cusp in the Northern Hemisphere. The combined observations confirm results of a previous study that merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 10 s to 3 min (Maynard et al., 2004. The intensity of the emissions and the merging rate appear to vary with changes in the IMF clock angle, IMF BX and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Most poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs reflect responses to changes in interplanetary medium rather than to local processes. The changes in magnetopause position required by increases in dynamic pressure are mediated by merging and result in the generation of PMAFs. Small (15–20% variations in dynamic pressure of the solar wind are sufficient to launch PMAFs. Changes in IMF BX create magnetic flux compressions and rarefactions in the solar wind. Increases (decreases in IMF BX strengthens |B| near northern (southern hemisphere merging sites thereby enhancing merging rates and triggering PMAFs. When correlating responses in the two hemispheres, the presence of significant IMF BX also requires that different lag-times be applied to ACE measurements acquired ~0.1 AU upstream of Earth. Cluster observations set lag times for merging at Northern Hemisphere sites; post-noon optical emissions set times of Southern Hemisphere merging. All-sky images and magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that merging occurs in multiple

  4. An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC and its relationship to field-aligned current, ring current, and plasmapause location determined using multiple spacecraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC is a latitudinally narrow channel of unstable F-region plasma with intense westward drift in the dusk-to-midnight sector ionosphere. AWFCs tend to overlap the equatorward edge of the auroral oval, and their life cycle is often synchronised to that of substorms: they commence close to substorm expansion phase onset, intensify during the expansion phase, and then decay during the recovery phase. Here we define for the first time the relationship between an AWFC, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC, the ring current, and plasmapause location. The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a jet-like AWFC during ~08:35 to 13:28 UT on 7 April 2001. The initiation of the AWFC was preceded by a band of equatorward expanding ionospheric scatter (BEES which conveyed an intense poleward electric field through the inner plasma sheet. Unlike previous AWFCs, this event was not associated with a distinct substorm surge; rather it occurred during an interval of persistent, moderate magnetic activity characterised by AL~−200 nT. The four Cluster spacecraft had perigees within the dusk sector plasmasphere, and their trajectories were magnetically conjugate to the radar observations. The Waves of High frequency and Sounder for Probing Electron density by Relaxation (WHISPER instruments on board Cluster were used to identify the plasmapause location. The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE EUV experiment also provided global-scale observations of the plasmapause. The Cluster fluxgate magnetometers (FGM provided successive measurements specifying the relative location of the ring current and filamentary plasma sheet current. An analysis of Iridium spacecraft magnetometer measurements provided estimates of large-scale ionospheric FAC in relation to the AWFC evolution. Peak flows in the AWFC were located close to the peak of a Region 2

  5. Birkeland currents during substorms: Statistical evidence for intensification of Regions 1 and 2 currents after onset and a localized signature of auroral dimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, John C.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Forsyth, Colin; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Fear, Robert C.; Anderson, Brian J.

    2017-06-01

    We conduct a superposed epoch analysis of Birkeland current densities from AMPERE (Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment) using isolated substorm expansion phase onsets identified by an independently derived data set. In order to evaluate whether R1 and R2 currents contribute to the substorm current wedge, we rotate global maps of Birkeland currents into a common coordinate system centered on the magnetic local time of substorm onset. When the latitude of substorm is taken into account, it is clear that both R1 and R2 current systems play a role in substorm onset, contrary to previous studies which found that R2 current did not contribute. The latitude of substorm onset is colocated with the interface between R1 and R2 currents, allowing us to infer that R1 current closes just tailward and R2 current closes just earthward of the associated current disruption in the tail. AMPERE is the first data set to give near-instantaneous measurements of Birkeland current across the whole polar cap, and this study addresses apparent discrepancies in previous studies which have used AMPERE to examine the morphology of the substorm current wedge. Finally, we present evidence for an extremely localized reduction in current density immediately prior to substorm onset, and we interpret this as the first statistical signature of auroral dimming in Birkeland current.

  6. Ion temperature anisotropy effects on threshold conditions of a shear-modified current driven electrostatic ion-acoustic instability in the topside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. G. Perron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature anisotropies may be encountered in space plasmas when there is a preferred direction, for instance, a strong magnetic or electric field. In this paper, we study how ion temperature anisotropy can affect the threshold conditions of a shear-modified current driven electrostatic ion-acoustic (CDEIA instability. In particular, this communication focuses on instabilities in the context of topside auroral F-region situations and in the limit where finite Larmor radius corrections are small. We derived a new fluid-like expression for the critical drift which depends explicitly on ion anisotropy. More importantly, for ion to electron temperature ratios typical of F-region, solutions of the kinetic dispersion relation show that ion temperature anisotropy may significantly lower the drift threshold required for instability. In some cases, a perpendicular to parallel ion temperature ratio of 2 and may reduce the relative drift required for the onset of instability by a factor of approximately 30, assuming the ion-acoustic speed of the medium remains constant. Therefore, the ion temperature anisotropy should be considered in future studies of ion-acoustic waves and instabilities in the high-latitude ionospheric F-region.

  7. Excitation of transient lobe cell convection and auroral arc at the cusp poleward boundary during a transition of the interplanetary magnetic field from south to north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available We document the activation of transient polar arcs emanating from the cusp within a 15 min long intermediate phase during the transition from a standard two-cell convection pattern, representative of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, to a "reverse" two-cell pattern, representative of strongly northward IMF conditions. During the 2–3 min lifetime of the arc, its base in the cusp, appearing as a bright spot, moved eastward toward noon by ~ 300 km. As the arc moved, it left in its "wake" enhanced cusp precipitation. The polar arc is a tracer of the activation of a lobe convection cell with clockwise vorticity, intruding into the previously established large-scale distorted two-cell pattern, due to an episode of localized lobe reconnection. The lobe cell gives rise to strong flow shear (converging electric field and an associated sheet of outflowing field-aligned current, which is manifested by the polar arc. The enhanced cusp precipitation represents, in our view, the ionospheric footprint of the lobe reconnection process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection

  8. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: effect of magnetosphere-ionosphere decoupling by field-aligned auroral voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of field-aligned voltages on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system associated with the breakdown of rigid corotation of equatorial plasma in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere. Previous analyses have assumed perfect mapping of the electric field and flow along equipotential field lines between the equatorial plane and the ionosphere, whereas it has been shown that substantial field-aligned voltages must exist to drive the field-aligned currents associated with the main auroral oval. The effect of these field-aligned voltages is to decouple the flow of the equatorial and ionospheric plasma, such that their angular velocities are in general different from each other. In this paper we self-consistently include the field-aligned voltages in computing the plasma flows and currents in the system. A third order differential equation is derived for the ionospheric plasma angular velocity, and a power series solution obtained which reduces to previous solutions in the limit that the field-aligned voltage is small. Results are obtained to second order in the power series, and are compared to the original zeroth order results with no parallel voltage. We find that for system parameters appropriate to Jupiter the effect of the field-aligned voltages on the solutions is small, thus validating the results of previously-published analyses.

  9. Automated Extraction of Gravity Wave Signatures from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Database Using Spatio-Temporal Process Discovery Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. B.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Hossain, M.; Ribeiro, A.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge in space physics research is the automated extraction of recurrent features from multi-dimensional datasets which tend to be irregularly gridded in both space and time. In many cases, the complexity of the datasets impedes their use by scientists who are often times most interested in extracting a simple time-series of higher level data product that can be easily compared with other measurements. As such, the collective archive of space physics measurements is vastly under-utilized at the present time. Application of cutting-edge computer-aided data mining and knowledge discovery techniques has the potential to improve this situation by making space physics datasets much more accessible to the scientific user community and accelerating the rate of research and collaboration. As a first step in this direction, we are applying the principles of feature extraction, sub-clustering and motif mining to the analysis of HF backscatter measurements from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). The SuperDARN database is an ideal test-bed for development of space physics data mining algorithms because: (1) there is a richness of geophysical phenomena manifested in the data; (2) the data is multi-dimensional and exhibits a high degree of spatiotemporal sparseness; and (3) some of the radars have been operating continuously with infrequent outages for more than 25 years. In this presentation we discuss results obtained from the application of new data mining algorithms designed specifically to automate the extraction of gravity wave signatures from the SuperDARN database. In particular, we examine the occurrence statistics of gravity waves as a function of latitude, local time, and geomagnetic conditions.

  10. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  11. Dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere on both the IMF and solar wind dynamic pressure: comparison with the UV auroral oval observed by the HST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We model the open magnetic field region in Saturn's southern polar ionosphere during two compression regions observed by the Cassini spacecraft upstream of Saturn in January 2004, and compare these with the auroral ovals observed simultaneously in ultraviolet images obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope. The modelling employs the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field, whose parameters are varied according to the observed values of both the solar wind dynamic pressure and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF vector. It is shown that the open field area responds strongly to the IMF vector for both expanded and compressed magnetic models, corresponding to low and high dynamic pressure, respectively. It is also shown that the computed open field region agrees with the poleward boundary of the auroras as well as or better than those derived previously from a model in which only the variation of the IMF vector was taken into account. The results again support the hypothesis that the auroral oval at Saturn is associated with the open-closed field line boundary and hence with the solar wind interaction.

  12. Dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere on both the IMF and solar wind dynamic pressure: comparison with the UV auroral oval observed by the HST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We model the open magnetic field region in Saturn's southern polar ionosphere during two compression regions observed by the Cassini spacecraft upstream of Saturn in January 2004, and compare these with the auroral ovals observed simultaneously in ultraviolet images obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope. The modelling employs the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field, whose parameters are varied according to the observed values of both the solar wind dynamic pressure and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF vector. It is shown that the open field area responds strongly to the IMF vector for both expanded and compressed magnetic models, corresponding to low and high dynamic pressure, respectively. It is also shown that the computed open field region agrees with the poleward boundary of the auroras as well as or better than those derived previously from a model in which only the variation of the IMF vector was taken into account. The results again support the hypothesis that the auroral oval at Saturn is associated with the open-closed field line boundary and hence with the solar wind interaction.

  13. Juno/JEDI observations of 0.01 to >10 MeV energetic ions in the Jovian auroral regions: Anticipating a source for polar X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, D. K.; Mauk, B. H.; Paranicas, C. P.; Clark, G.; Kollmann, P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    After a successful orbit insertion, the Juno spacecraft completed its first 53.5 day orbit and entered a very low altitude perijove with the full scientific payload operational for the first time on 27 August 2016. The Jupiter Energetic particle Detector Instrument measured ions and electrons over the auroral regions and through closest approach, with ions measured from 0.01 to >10 MeV, depending on species. This report focuses on the composition of the energetic ions observed during the first perijove of the Juno mission. Of particular interest are the ions that precipitate from the magnetosphere onto the polar atmosphere and ions that are accelerated locally by Jupiter's powerful auroral processes. We report preliminary findings on the spatial variations, species, including energy and pitch angle distributions throughout the prime science region during the first orbit of the Juno mission. The prime motivation for this work was to examine the heavy ions that are thought to be responsible for the observed polar X-rays. Jupiter Energetic particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) did observe precipitating heavy ions with energies >10 MeV, but for this perijove the intensities were far below those needed to account for previously observed polar X-ray emissions. During this survey we also found an unusual signal of ions between oxygen and sulfur. We include here a report on what appears to be a transitory observation of magnesium, or possibly sodium, at MeV energies through closest approach.

  14. Investigating the polar electrojet using Swarm satellite magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Cecilie Drost; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    perturbations (which means observations after removal of contributions from the core, crust and the large-scale magnetosphere) in the Polar Regions (+/- 50 degrees from the poles) for individual satellite passes. The obtained estimates of ionospheric currents provide information on the position and strength...

  15. Equatorial electrojet in the Indian region during the geomagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 126, Issue 8 · Current Issue Volume 126 | Issue 8. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  16. Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Pressure Pulses Under Northward IMF Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Liou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancements of aurora and auroral electrojets in response to sudden compression of the magnetosphere by shocks/pressure pulses are well known and have been attributed by some to compression-enhanced magnetic field reconnection. To examine such a view, we analyze a fortuitous event that is comprised of a series of pressure pulses (< 20 min on November 8, 2000. These pressure pulses were preceded by a large, northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF that lasted more than 15 hours such that effects from reconnection can be minimized. Auroral images acquired by ultraviolet imager on board the Polar satellite clearly show intensifications of the aurora that occurred first near local noon and progressively extended from dayside to nightside. The area-integrated global auroral power reached ~30 gigawatts (GW. It is also found that the global auroral power is well correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure (correlation coefficient r ~0.90, rather than the change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. In-situ measurements of particle data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite indicate that the magnetospheric source for the pressure-enhanced auroras is most likely the central plasma sheet. Other ionospheric parameters such as the auroral electrojet (AE index, magnetic storm index (Sym-H, and the cross polarcap potential drop also show a one-to-one correspondence to the pressure pulses. In one instance the auroral electrojets AE index reached more than 200 nT, the cross polar-cap potential drop (ÎŚpc inferred from the SuperDARN radar network ionospheric plasma convection increased to ~60 kV. The observed increases in the auroral emissions, AE, and polar cap potential were not associated with substorms. Our result strongly suggests that solar wind pressure pulses are an important source of geomagnetic activity during northward IMF periods.

  17. Spiral structures and regularities in magnetic field variations and auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2012-02-01

    the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The N- and M-spirals drawn in polar coordinates form an oval, along which one observes most often auroras in the zenith together with a westward electrojet.

    The nature of spiral distributions in geomagnetic field variations was unabmibuously interpreted after the discovery of the spiral's existence in the auroras had been established and this caused a change from the paradigm of the auroral zone to the paradigm of the auroral oval. Zenith forms of auroras are found within the boundaries of the auroral oval. The oval is therefore the region of most frequent precipitations of corpuscular fluxes with auroral energy, where anomalous geophysical phenomena occur most often and with maximum intensity.

    S. Chapman and L. Harang identified the existence of a discontinuity at auroral zone latitudes (Φ ∼ 67° around midnight between the westward and eastward electrojets, that is now known as the Harang discontinuity. After the discovery of the auroral oval and the position of the westward electrojet along the oval, it turned out, that there is no discontinuity at a fixed latitude between the opposite electrojets, but rather a gap, the latitude of which varies smoothly between Φ ∼ 67° at midnight and Φ ∼ 73° at 20:00 MLT. In this respect the term ''Harang discontinuity'' represents no intrinsic phenomenon, because the westward electrojet does not experience any disruption in the midnight sector but continues without breaks from dawn to dusk hours.

  18. Anne-Aurore Inquimbert, Un officier français dans la guerre d’Espagne. Carrière et écrits d’Henri Morel (1919-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Fraile

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage d’Anne-Aurore Inquimbert est une biographie de la carrière militaire d’Henri Morel depuis la fin de la Première Guerre Mondiale jusqu’à sa mort en déportation en 1944. Il retrace la trajectoire d’un militaire atypique que l’auteur définit commereprésentatif d’une certaine élite française, romantique, érudite et bourgeoise pour laquelle la liberté intellectuelle est partie intégrante d’un système de valeurs. En optant pour une carrière militaire, Henri Morel s’est volontairement excl...

  19. Magnetic local time dependence of geomagnetic disturbances contributing to the AU and AL indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, S; Nose´, M; Iyemori, T

    2010-01-01

    The Auroral Electrojet (AE) indices, which are composed of four indices (AU, AL, AE, and AO), are calculated from the geomagnetic field data obtained at 12 geomagnetic observatories that are located in geomagnetic latitude (GMLAT) of 61.7°-70°. The indices have been widely used to study magnetic...... activity in the auroral zone. In the present study, we examine magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of geomagnetic field variations contributing to the AU and AL indices. We use 1-min geomagnetic field data obtained in 2003. It is found that both AU and AL indices have two ranges of MLT (AU: 15:00-22:00MLT...

  20. Study of Motion of the Auroral Oval During September 30 - October 4, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm. A Project of National Secondary School Competition in Scientific Research on Antarctica "Feria Antarctica Escolar 2014", organized by Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M. V.; Cabezas-Escares, J. F.; Letelier-Ulloa, T. C.; Ortega-Letelier, P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the position of the auroral oval during the development of the September 30 - October 4, 2012 geomagnetic storm in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres were studied using the data of the Dynamics Explorer Satellite Mission (DMSP). In particular, the location of b1e, b1i, b2e, and b2i boundaries defined by Newell at al. [1996], was obtained from the electron and ion precipitating fluxes, measured by the SSJ/4 particle detectors onboard the F16, F17, and F18 satellites.According to Newell at al. [1996], these boundaries represent the zero-energy convection boundary (b1e,b1i), and the precipitating energy flux maximum (b2e,b2i). It was found that during the main phase of the strom, on average, all boundaries move towards the equator, and return to its previous location during recovery phase. Deviations from the common trend could be related to the changes in the solar wind conditions. This study was done by the Secondary school students Javiera Cabezas-Escares and Tamara Letelier Ulloa from Lyceum N°1 Javiera Carrera in frame of the National Secondary School Competition in the Scientific Research on Antarctica "Feria Antarctica Escolar" organized by Chilean Antarctic Institute. It was supervised by their Physics teacher Pablo Ortega Letelier and by Marina Stepanova, researcher from Universidad de Santiago de Chile.

  1. Energy-dispersed ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer and associated phenomena: Ion heating, electron acceleration, Alfvén waves, broadband waves, perpendicular electric field spikes, and auroral emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keiling

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent Cluster studies reported properties of multiple energy-dispersed ion structures in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL that showed substructure with several well separated ion beamlets, covering energies from 3 keV up to 100 keV (Keiling et al., 2004a, b. Here we report observations from two PSBL crossings, which show a number of identified one-to-one correlations between this beamlet substructure and several plasma-field characteristics: (a bimodal ion conics (<1 keV, (b field-aligned electron flow (<1 keV, (c perpendicular electric field spikes (~20 mV/m, (d broadband electrostatic ELF wave packets (<12.5 Hz, and (e enhanced broadband electromagnetic waves (<4 kHz. The one-to-one correlations strongly suggest that these phenomena were energetically driven by the ion beamlets, also noting that the energy flux of the ion beamlets was 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than, for example, the energy flux of the ion outflow. In addition, several more loosely associated correspondences were observed within the extended region containing the beamlets: (f electrostatic waves (BEN (up to 4 kHz, (g traveling and standing ULF Alfvén waves, (h field-aligned currents (FAC, and (i auroral emissions on conjugate magnetic field lines. Possible generation scenarios for these phenomena are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that the free energy of magnetotail ion beamlets drove a variety of phenomena and that the spatial fine structure of the beamlets dictated the locations of where some of these phenomena occurred. This emphasizes the notion that PSBL ion beams are important for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. However, it is also shown that the dissipation of electromagnetic energy flux (at altitudes below Cluster of the simultaneously occurring Alfvén waves and FAC was larger (FAC being the largest than the dissipation of beam kinetic energy flux, and thus these two energy carriers contributed more to the energy transport on PSBL field lines

  2. Westward moving dynamic substorm features observed with the IMAGE magnetometer network and other ground-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the ground signatures of dynamic substorm features with particular emphasis on the event interpretation capabilities provided by the IMAGE magnetometer network. This array covers the high latitudes from the sub-auroral to the cusp/cleft region. An isolated substorm on 11 Oct. 1993 during the late evening hours exhibited many of well-known features such as the Harang discontinuity, westward travelling surge and poleward leap, but also discrete auroral forms, known as auroral streamers, appeared propagating westward along the centre of the electrojet. Besides the magnetic field measurements, there were auroral observations and plasma flow and conductivity measurements obtained by EISCAT. The data of all three sets of instruments are consistent with the notion of upward field-aligned currents associated with the moving auroral patches. A detailed analysis of the electrodynamic parameters in the ionosphere, however, reveals that they do not agree with the expectations resulting from commonly used simplifying approximations. For example, the westward moving auroral streamers which are associated with field-aligned current filaments, are not collocated with the centres of equivalent current vortices. Furthermore, there is a clear discrepancy between the measured plasma flow direction and the obtained equivalent current direction. All this suggests that steep conductivity gradients are associated with the transient auroral forms. Also self-induction effects in the ionosphere may play a role for the orientation of the plasma flows. This study stresses the importance of multi-instrument observation for a reliable interpretation of dynamic auroral processes.Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Electric fields and currents; Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions.

  3. Westward moving dynamic substorm features observed with the IMAGE magnetometer network and other ground-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    Full Text Available We present the ground signatures of dynamic substorm features with particular emphasis on the event interpretation capabilities provided by the IMAGE magnetometer network. This array covers the high latitudes from the sub-auroral to the cusp/cleft region. An isolated substorm on 11 Oct. 1993 during the late evening hours exhibited many of well-known features such as the Harang discontinuity, westward travelling surge and poleward leap, but also discrete auroral forms, known as auroral streamers, appeared propagating westward along the centre of the electrojet. Besides the magnetic field measurements, there were auroral observations and plasma flow and conductivity measurements obtained by EISCAT. The data of all three sets of instruments are consistent with the notion of upward field-aligned currents associated with the moving auroral patches. A detailed analysis of the electrodynamic parameters in the ionosphere, however, reveals that they do not agree with the expectations resulting from commonly used simplifying approximations. For example, the westward moving auroral streamers which are associated with field-aligned current filaments, are not collocated with the centres of equivalent current vortices. Furthermore, there is a clear discrepancy between the measured plasma flow direction and the obtained equivalent current direction. All this suggests that steep conductivity gradients are associated with the transient auroral forms. Also self-induction effects in the ionosphere may play a role for the orientation of the plasma flows. This study stresses the importance of multi-instrument observation for a reliable interpretation of dynamic auroral processes.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Electric fields and currents; Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions.

  4. Planetary and stellar auroral magnetospheric radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, David; Cairns, Robert A.; Bingham, Robert; Kellett, Barry J.; McConville, Sandra L.; Gillespie, Karen M.; Vorgul, Irena; Phelps, Alan D. R.; Cross, Adrian W.; Ronald, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    A variety of astrophysical radio emissions have been identified to date in association with non-uniform magnetic fields and accelerated particle streams [1]. Such sources are spectrally well defined and for the planetary cases [1,2] show a high degree of extraordinary (X-mode) polarisation within the source region. It is now widely accepted that these emissions are generated by an electron cyclotron-maser instability driven by a horseshoe shaped electron velocity distribution. Although the generation mechanism is well established, a satisfactory explanation does not yet exist for the observed field aligned beaming of the radiation out-with the source region [2]. In the current context, the results of PiC simulations will be presented investigating the spatial growth of the horseshoe-maser instability in an unbounded interaction geometry, with a view to studying the wave vector of emission, spectral properties and RF conversion efficiency. In particular, the potential for backward-wave coupling is investigated as a viable precursor to a model of upward refraction and field-aligned beaming of the radiation [3].[4pt] [1] A.P. Zarka, Advances in Space Research, 12, pp. 99 (1992).[0pt] [2] R.E. Ergun et al., Astrophys. J., 538, pp. 456 (2000)[0pt] [3] J.D. Menietti et al., J. Geophys. Res., 116, A12219 (2011).

  5. Auroral Kilometric Radiation: A Theoretical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    bands are the apparent energy source of AKR. When these bands are not present, no AKH is observed and only a diffuse aurora appears. The total estimated...review, see >laggs [19(81). We will iimit curs;elves to terrestrial AKE, although some theories i:iay be relevant to Jovian decainetric radiation. (See...Smith, 1076, for a recent review of Jovian decametric radiation theories.) Attention will be paid to the underlying physical mechanism 0f each theory

  6. Relationship between the growth of the ring current and the interplanetary quantity. [solar wind energy-magnetospheric coupling parameter correlation with substorm AE index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1979-01-01

    Akasofu (1979) has reported that the interplanetary parameter epsilon correlates reasonably well with the magnetospheric substorm index AE; in the first approximation, epsilon represents the solar wind coupled to the magnetosphere. The correlation between the interplanetary parameter, the auroral electrojet index and the ring current index is examined for three magnetic storms. It is shown that when the interplanetary parameter exceeds the amount that can be dissipated by the ionosphere in terms of the Joule heat production, the excess energy is absorbed by the ring current belt, producing an abnormal growth of the ring current index.

  7. Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lon Fern

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed

  8. A study of Sq(H) variations over equatorial electrojet regions | Okeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation with equinoctial maxima and solstial minima was also observed from the analysis. The presence of equinoctial maxima is likely to be due to enhanced equatorial electron density and the electric field at equinox. The day to day variability may be attributed to electric field, a dawn to dusk phenomenon.

  9. Effect of solar flare on the equatorial electrojet in eastern Brazil region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi

    2017-06-07

    Jun 7, 2017 ... Sci. (2017) 126:51 latitude and local time (Matsushita and Maeda. 1965). Parkinson (1971) used both the X and Y fields at about 50 observatories. Some terms depending on longitude as well as local time were included. The current pattern was found to be influenced by the asymmetry of the main field and ...

  10. Magnetotelluric investigation in West Greenland - considering the polar electrojet, ocean and fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Nynne Louise Berthou

    data originating from other sources than the plane wave by removing incoherent noise between stations and selecting time periods from an eigenvalue criteria. It is successful for periods below 55 s, but has to undergo further investigation at longer periods. The two processing techniques show similar......A magnetotelluric survey has been conducted in North West Greenland, with the purpose of investigating the subsurface. The results of two processing techniques are presented, a single station robust processing and a multiple station processing. The multiple station processing tries to eliminate...... results, however the multiple station technique improves the data quality around 1 s compared to the single station technique. Different challenges are connected with the survey location, where ocean and fjord systems have a large impact on the transferfunctions. A 3D model study of the impact of fjords...

  11. An Investigation of HF Propagation Over an Auroral Sub-Auroral Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Norway, to the RAE receiving station at Cobbett Hill. The method involved firstly flight trials which took place in April 1980. Using results from the...I1 flying laboratory operating out of Bodo in Northern Norway and the ME Radio Station at Cobbett Kill. The aircraft was equipped with the necessary...Radio Station at - Bodo and the RAE Radio Station at Cobbett Hill three frequencies were used based on .APPLAB predictions: one near the MUP, one

  12. Global manifestations of a substorm onset observed by a multi-satellite and ground station network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With a favorable constellation of spacecraft and ground stations, a study is made on the global manifestations of a substorm onset. The onset occurred simultaneously and conjugately in both hemispheres, confirmed by observations of the auroral breakup from IMAGE FUV-WIC and a sudden intensification of a westward electrojet from ground-based magnetometers. Concurrently with the onset, field-aligned and Hall currents in the auroral ionosphere are observed by CHAMP, which are consistent with the signature of a Harang discontinuity. Immediately after the onset a magnetic field dipolarization is clearly observed by Double Star TC-1, located near the central magnetotail and subsequently, by the Cluster quartet. The observations can be explained by a dawnward propagation of the substorm current wedge at a speed of about 300 km/s.

  13. Extended study of extreme geoelectric field event scenarios for geomagnetically induced current application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Wilder, F. D.; Crowley, G.

    2012-12-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) flowing in man-made ground technological systems are a direct manifestation of adverse space weather. Today there is great concern over possible GIC effects on power transmission networks that can result from extreme space weather events. The threat of severe societal consequences has accelerated recent interest in extreme geomagnetic storm impact on high-voltage power transmission systems. As a result, extreme geomagnetic event characterization is of fundamental importance for quantifying the technological impacts and societal consequences of extreme space weather. This paper reports on the global behavior of the horizontal geomagnetic field and the induced geoelectric field fluctuations during severe/extreme geomagnetic events. This includes: (1) an investigation of the latitude threshold boundary, (2) the local time dependency of the maximum geoelectric field, and (3) the influence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) on the occurrence of enhanced geoelectric fields over ground stations located near the dip equator. Using ground-based and satellite borne DMSP measurements, this paper confirms that the latitude threshold boundary is associated with the movements of the auroral oval and the associated auroral electrojet current system, which is the main driver of the largest perturbations of the ground geomagnetic field at high-latitudes. In addition, we show that the enhancement of the EEJ is associated with the penetration of high-latitude electric fields, and that the geoelectric fields around the EEJ belt can be an order of magnitude larger than stations outside the belt. This has important implications for power networks located around the electrojet belt, and confirms that earlier observations by Pulkkinen et al., (2012) were not isolated incidences, but rather cases that can occur during certain severe geomagnetic storm events.

  14. Extended study of extreme geoelectric field event scenarios for geomagnetically induced current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Wilder, Frederick D.; Crowley, Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) flowing in man-made ground technological systems are a direct manifestation of adverse space weather. Today, there is great concern over possible geomagnetically induced current effects on power transmission networks that can result from extreme space weather events. The threat of severe societal consequences has accelerated recent interest in extreme geomagnetic storm impacts on high-voltage power transmission systems. As a result, extreme geomagnetic event characterization is of fundamental importance for quantifying the technological impacts and societal consequences of extreme space weather. This article reports on the global behavior of the horizontal geomagnetic field and the induced geoelectric field fluctuations during severe/extreme geomagnetic events. This includes (1) an investigation of the latitude threshold boundary, (2) the local time dependency of the maximum induced geoelectric field, and (3) the influence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current on the occurrence of enhanced induced geoelectric fields over ground stations located near the dip equator. Using ground-based and satellite-borne Defense Meteorological Satellite Program measurements, this article confirms that the latitude threshold boundary is associated with the movements of the auroral oval and the corresponding auroral electrojet current system, which is the main driver of the largest perturbations of the ground geomagnetic field at high latitudes. In addition, we show that the enhancement of the EEJ is driven by the penetration of high-latitude electric fields and that the induced geoelectric fields at stations within the EEJ belt can be an order of magnitude larger than that at stations outside the belt. This has important implications for power networks located around the electrojet belt and confirms that earlier observations by Pulkkinen et al. (2012) were not isolated incidences but rather cases that can occur during certain severe

  15. Multi-point and multi-instrument observations analyzed for the study of ionospheric electron density perturbations during periods of intense geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belehaki, Anna; Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Elias, Panagiotis; Themelis, Konstantinos

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric electron density perturbations occurred during 7 to 10 March 2012, as a result of a series of magnetospheric disturbances, have been studied using data from geomagnetic observatories, ground based ionosondes and GNSS receivers and spacecraft observations from ACE and, DMSP missions. Analyzing the interplanetary causes in each phase of this disturbed period, in comparison with the total electron content (TEC) disturbances, we have concluded that the interplanetary solar wind controls largely the ionospheric response. An interplanetary shock detected at 0328 UT on 7 March caused the formation of prompt penetrating electric fields in the dayside that transported plasma from the near-equatorial region to higher in attitudes and latitudes forming a giant plasma fountain which is part of the so-called dayside ionospheric super-fountain. The super-fountain produces an increase in TEC which is the dominant effect at middle latitude, masking the effect of the negative storm. Simultaneously, inspecting the TEC maps, we found evidence for a turbulence in TEC propagating southward probably caused by large scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) linked to auroral electrojet intensification. On 8 March, a magnetospheric sudden impulse at 1130 UT accompanied with strong pulsations in all interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components and with northward Bz component during the growth phase of the storm. These conditions triggered a pronounced directly driven substorm phase during which we observe LSTID. However, the analysis of DMSP satellite observations, provided with strong evidence for Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) formation that erode travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID) signatures. The overall result of these mechanisms can be detected in maps of de-trended TEC, but it is difficult to identify separately each of the sources of the observed perturbations, i.e. auroral electrojet activity and LSTIDs, super-fountain and SAPS.

  16. Transitions between states of magnetotail–ionosphere coupling and the role of solar wind dynamic pressure: the 25 July 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a case study, we investigate transitions between fundamental magnetosphere–ionosphere (M-I coupling modes during storm-time conditions (SYM-H between −100 and −160 nT driven by an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We combine observations from the near tail, at geostationary altitude (GOES-10, and electrojet activities across the auroral oval at postnoon-to-dusk and midnight. After an interval of strong westward electrojet (WEJ activity, a 3 h long state of attenuated/quenched WEJ activity was initiated by abrupt drops in the solar wind density and dynamic pressure. The attenuated substorm activity consisted of brief phases of magnetic field perturbation and electron flux decrease at GOES-10 near midnight and moderately strong conjugate events of WEJ enhancements at the southern boundary of the oval, as well as a series of very strong eastward electrojet (EEJ events at dusk, during a phase of enhanced ring current evolution, i.e., enhanced SYM-H deflection within −120 to −150 nT. Each of these M-I coupling events was preceded by poleward boundary intensifications and auroral streamers at higher oval latitudes. We identify this mode of attenuated substorm activity as being due to a magnetotail state characterized by bursty reconnection and bursty bulk flows/dipolarization fronts (multiple current wedgelets with associated injection dynamo in the near tail, in their braking phase. The latter process is associated with activations of the Bostrøm type II (meridional current system. A transition to the next state of M-I coupling, when a full substorm expansion took place, was triggered by an abrupt increase of the ICME dynamic pressure from 1 to 5 nPa. The brief field deflection events at GOES-10 were then replaced by a 20 min long interval of extreme field stretching (Bz approaching 5 nT and Bx ≈ 100 nT followed by a major dipolarization (Δ Bz ≈ 100 nT. In the ionosphere the latter stage appeared as a "full-size" stepwise

  17. Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pitkänen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap and the auroral oval are examined in the evening sector during a substorm period on 25 November 2000 by using measurements of the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, the north-south chain of the MIRACLE magnetometer network, and the Polar UV Imager.

    The location of the polar cap boundary (PCB is estimated from electron temperature measurements by the mainland low-elevation EISCAT VHF radar and the 42 m antenna of the EISCAT Svalbard radar. A comparison to the poleward auroral emission (PAE boundary by the Polar UV Imager shows that in this event the PAE boundary is typically located 0.7° of magnetic latitude poleward of the PCB by EISCAT. The convection reversal boundary (CRB is determined from the 2-D plasma drift velocity extracted from the dual-beam VHF data. The CRB is located 0.5–1° equatorward of the PCB indicating the existence of viscous-driven antisunward convection on closed field lines.

    East-west equivalent electrojets are calculated from the MIRACLE magnetometer data by the 1-D upward continuation method. In the substorm growth phase, electrojets together with the polar cap boundary move gradually equatorwards. During the substorm expansion phase, the Harang discontinuity (HD region expands to the MLT sector of EISCAT. In the recovery phase the PCB follows the poleward edge of the westward electrojet.

    The local ionospheric reconnection electric field is calculated by using the measured plasma velocities in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. During the substorm growth phase, values between 0 and 10 mV/m are found. During the late expansion and recovery phase, the reconnection electric field has temporal variations with periods of 7–27 min and values from 0 to 40 mV/m. It is shown quantitatively, for the first time to our knowledge, that intensifications in the local reconnection electric field correlate with appearance of auroral poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs

  18. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G; Johnson, Jay R; Miller, Federick W; Matteson, Eric L; Crowson, Cynthia S; Gabriel, Sherine E

    2015-05-15

    To examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. The link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  19. 29__154 -158_ _Galadanci_ANALYSIS OF AURORAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 9(2): 154 - 158. Received: April, 2016. Accepted: August, 2016 ... 1Department of Physics, Bayero University, Kano. NIGERIA. 2Department of Mathematical Sciences, Bayero ... first described by a Japanese geophysicist named. Syun-IchiAkasofu in 1964 (Sarris and Li, 2005).

  20. High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Telepath is installed at COM3, IRQ5 and has both communications and FAX software installed with it. For Windows 3.1 users, CrossTalk for Windows...CrossTalk for Windows is a Windows 3.1 communications program and is setup to use the GATEWAYS TelePath Fax/Modem using COM3. This program is useful for...There is an AC power input, and just one cable that connects the instrument to a computer. This cable consists of two components - communications and

  1. Infrared Interferometry of Auroral Ionosphere-Thermosphere Energetics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —  The FWMI prototype development is underway at USU/SDL. To develop the FWMI, USU/SDL is leveraging the successful implementation of a rocket-borne Michelson...

  2. Handbook for UCSD SC9 SCATHA Auroral Particles Experiment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    with the se- lecte" voltage, so IPC"-2O impliles the selected current (ICF) is helnq emitte’. The ion eun Is nore conplicatem than the electron jun...tO C SW I 01 In lD ,, -S D 1 1 -as.I ll II .2 1 ISm- j C- s , 5 I I I I- 5Ig’ I I au a a IaICI- I a I w I I I~ I~ t I% I I su8inaaI II ukumnini ~ JI 5...8217L IONS HIGH BYTE 7?* 3 51 P IONS LOW BYTE ,/S J SI VPF JUNG HIGH BYTE ;/6 4 52 L’ IUNS LOW BYTE S! .v iUff HIGH BYTE A-55 February 6, 1979 77V 5 51

  3. A.E. Nordenski and the auroral oval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygrén, Tuomo; Silén, Johan

    In 1857, Adold Erik Nordenskiöld (1832-1901), a Finnish geographer and mineralogist, was forced to withdraw from his position at the University of Helsinki because of a conflict with the czarist officials in Finland. He then moved to Sweden, where he became one of the most celebrated explorers of his time. Most famous of his polar expeditions was the discovery of the Northeast Passage. Nordenskiöld made his voyage in the wooden steamship Vega in 1878-79.Vega started its voyage on June 22, 1878, and was directed in a course around Scandinavia and along the Siberian coast toward Bering Strait. Nordenskiöld's plan was to reach the Pacific Ocean during the summer months, but this was hindered by unfavorable ice conditions. At the end of September the sea was blocked by ice fields, and the Vega had to pass the winter on the northern coast of the Chukchi Peninsula (67°4‧49″N, 173°23‧2″W)—exasperatingly close to the open waters of Bering Strait. The ship could not set sail any sooner than the following July when the sea was free again. After visiting Japan, China, and Ceylon, the Vega passed through the Suez Canal and finally, on April 24, 1880, arrived at Stockholm.

  4. Nonlinear Evolution of Diffuse Auroral F Region Ionospheric Irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-02

    01CY ATTN NICO LIBRARY 0ICY ATTN CODE 461 OICY ATTN ETOP B. BALLARD OCY ATTN CODE 402 01CY ATTN CODE 420 COt44NDER OICY ATTN CODE 421 ROME AIR...ROTHMULLER DR. V. HILDEBRAND NASA MR. R. ROSE GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER GREENBELT, MARYLAND 20771 U. S. ARMY ABERDEEN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER DR. S

  5. The Kilometric Radio Emission Spectrum: Relationship to Auroral Acceleration Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-31

    direct in situ maeasure- ments of aurora at any of these planets in the near future, any advances which can be made in understanding the relationship of...monochromatic emissions sweeping through a large range of frequencies is a common fea- ture of solar radio bursts [Kundu, 1965] and Jovian decametric radio...above the aurora , J. Geophys. Res., 75, 7140, 1970. Chiu, Y. T., and M. Schlulz, Self-consistent particle and parallel electrostatic field

  6. Formation of v-shaped potentials. [auroral zone electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, H.; Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The V-shaped potential structures formed by the injection of a non-neutral electron current into a cold background plasma were simulated numerically. The injection disturbs the initial quasi-neutral plasma, leading to the excitation of strong turbulences which heat the plasma. This leads to expulsion of the plasma from the simulation region. Due to ambipolar electric fields the current injection is interrupted and the initial background plasma is extracted from the system. A particle composition with the characteristics of the two plasma reservoirs now represents the plasma in the simulation region. The interaction of the electron beam with this plasma excites turbulences of smaller amplitudes. A nearly constant time averaged potential drop with nonstationary distribution develops across the system. Single and multiple double layers may form for the duration of one ion plasma period.

  7. A multipoint study of a substorm occurring on 7 December, 1992, and its theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Fox

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available On 7 December 1992, a moderate substorm was observed by a variety of satellites and ground-based instruments. Ionospheric flows were monitored near dusk by the Goose Bay HF radar and near midnight by the EISCAT radar. The observed flows are compared here with magnetometer observations by the IMAGE array in Scandinavia and the two Greenland chains, the auroral distribution observed by Freja and the substorm cycle observations by the SABRE radar, the SAMNET magnetometer array and LANL geosynchronous satellites. Data from Galileo Earth-encounter II are used to estimate the IMF Bz component. The data presented show that the substorm onset electrojet at midnight was confined to closed field lines equatorward of the pre-existing convection reversal boundaries observed in the dusk and midnight regions. No evidence of substantial closure of open flux was detected following this substorm onset. Indeed the convection reversal boundary on the duskside continued to expand equatorward after onset due to the continued presence of strong southward IMF, such that growth and expansion phase features were simultaneously present. Clear indications of closure of open flux were not observed until a subsequent substorm intensification 25 min after the initial onset. After this time, the substorm auroral bulge in the nightside hours propagated well poleward of the pre-existing convection reversal boundary, and strong flow perturbations were observed by the Goose Bay radar, indicative of flows driven by reconnection in the tail.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  8. Statistical study of the substorm onset: its dependence on solar wind parameters and solar illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on 1829 well-defined substorm onsets in the Northern Hemisphere, observed during a 2-year period by the FUV Imager on board the IMAGE spacecraft, a statistical study is performed. From the combination of solar wind parameter observations by ACE and magnetic field observations by the low altitude satellite CHAMP, the location of auroral breakups in response to solar illumination and solar coupling parameters are studied. Furthermore, the correspondence of the onset location with prominent large-scale field-aligned currents and electrojets are investigated. Solar illumination and the related ionospheric conductivity have significant effects on the most probable substorm onset latitude and local time. In sunlight, substorm onsets tend to occur 1h earlier in local time and 1.5° more poleward than in darkness. The solar wind input, represented by the merging electric field, integrated over 1h prior to the substorm, correlates well with the latitude of the breakup. Most poleward latitudes of the onsets are found to range around 73° magnetic latitude during very quiet times. Field-aligned and Hall currents observed concurrently with the onset are consistent with the signature of a westward travelling surge evolving out of the Harang discontinuity. The observations suggest that the ionospheric conductivity has an influence on the location of the precipitating energetic electron which causes the auroral break-up signature. Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere – Magnetospheric Physics (Current systems; Magnetosphereionosphere interactions

  9. Global Geospace Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  10. Response of neutral mesospheric density to geomagnetic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Reid, Iain M.; Xue, Xianghui; Younger, Joel P.; Murphy, Damian J.; Chen, Tingdi; Dou, Xiankang

    2017-08-01

    We report an analysis of the neutral mesosphere density response to geomagnetic activity from January 2016 to February 2017 over Antarctica. Neutral mesospheric densities from 85 to 95 km are derived using data from the Davis meteor radar (68.5°S, 77.9°E) and the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite. Spectral and Morlet wavelet analyses indicate that a prominent oscillation with a periodicity of 13.5 days is observed in the mesospheric density during the declining phase of solar cycle 24 and is associated with variations in solar wind high-speed streams and recurrent geomagnetic activity. The periodic oscillation in density shows a strong anticorrelation with periodic changes in the auroral electrojet index. These results indicate that a significant decrease in neutral mesospheric density as the geomagnetic activity enhances.

  11. A description of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling based on nonlinear filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Klimas, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Roberts, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    A nonlinear filtering method is introduced for the study of the solar wind -- magnetosphere coupling and related to earlier linear techniques. The filters are derived from the magnetospheric state, a representation of the magnetospheric conditions in terms of a few global variables, here the auroral electrojet indices. The filters also couple to the input, a representation of the solar wind variables, here the rectified electric field. Filter-based iterative prediction of the indices has been obtained for up to 20 hours. The prediction is stable with respect to perturbations in the initial magnetospheric state; these decrease exponentially at the rate of 30/min. The performance of the method is examined for a wide range of parameters and is superior to that of other linear and nonlinear techniques. In the magnetospheric state representation the coupling is modeled as a small number of nonlinear equations under a time-dependent input.

  12. Longitudinal effects of ionospheric responses to substorms at middle and lower latitudes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ionospheric model is used to simulate total electron content (TEC disturbance events observed at middle and lower latitude sites near 75°W and 7°E longitudes. Within this longitudinal range, daytime TEC disturbances show patterns that are correlated with substrom activity seen in both auroral electrojet and ring current behavior. In modeling studies of the observed ionospheric effects, both electric field and neutral wind perturbations are examined as possible mechanisms. The morphological features of the required electric field perturbations near drawn and dusk are compared with those at other times to examine the local time characteristics of magnetospheric influence. Large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs, an alternative candidate for the disturbance source, are also characterized and compared with known thermospheric behavior.

  13. Multi-frequency observations of E-region HF radar aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Multi-frequency observations of E-region coherent backscatter from decametre waves reveal that auroral echoes tend to comprise two spectral components superimposed, one at low Doppler shifts, below 250 ms-1, and the other Doppler shifted to near the ion-acoustic speed or above, up to 800 ms-1. The low Doppler shift component occurs at all look directions; Doppler shifts near the ion acoustic speed occur when looking at low flow angles along the direction of the electron drift in the electrojet, and Doppler shifts in excess of the ion acoustic speed occur at intermediate flow angles. The latter population appears most commonly at radar frequencies near 10–12 MHz, with its occurrence decreasing dramatically at higher frequencies. The velocity of the high Doppler shift echoes increases with increasing radar frequency, or irregularity wave number k. The velocity of the low Doppler shift population appears to be suppressed significantly below the line-of-sight component of the electron drift. Initial estimates of the altitude from which scatter occurs suggest that the high Doppler shift echoes originate from higher in the E-region than the low Doppler shift echoes, certainly in the eastward electrojet. We discuss these observations with reference to the theories of de/stabilization of two-stream waves by electron density gradients and electrostatic ion cyclotron waves excited by field-parallel electron drifts.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  14. Multi-frequency observations of E-region HF radar aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-frequency observations of E-region coherent backscatter from decametre waves reveal that auroral echoes tend to comprise two spectral components superimposed, one at low Doppler shifts, below 250 ms-1, and the other Doppler shifted to near the ion-acoustic speed or above, up to 800 ms-1. The low Doppler shift component occurs at all look directions; Doppler shifts near the ion acoustic speed occur when looking at low flow angles along the direction of the electron drift in the electrojet, and Doppler shifts in excess of the ion acoustic speed occur at intermediate flow angles. The latter population appears most commonly at radar frequencies near 10–12 MHz, with its occurrence decreasing dramatically at higher frequencies. The velocity of the high Doppler shift echoes increases with increasing radar frequency, or irregularity wave number k. The velocity of the low Doppler shift population appears to be suppressed significantly below the line-of-sight component of the electron drift. Initial estimates of the altitude from which scatter occurs suggest that the high Doppler shift echoes originate from higher in the E-region than the low Doppler shift echoes, certainly in the eastward electrojet. We discuss these observations with reference to the theories of de/stabilization of two-stream waves by electron density gradients and electrostatic ion cyclotron waves excited by field-parallel electron drifts.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  15. Influences of various magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems on geomagnetically induced currents around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiers, J. S.; Kosch, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Lotz, S.

    2017-02-01

    Ground-based observations of geomagnetic field (B field) are usually a superposition of signatures from different source current systems in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Fluctuating B fields generate geoelectric fields (E fields), which drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological conducting media at the Earth's surface. We introduce a new Fourier integral B field model of east/west directed line current systems over a one-dimensional multilayered Earth in plane geometry. Derived layered-Earth profiles, given in the literature, are needed to calculate the surface impedance, and therefore reflection coefficient in the integral. The 2003 Halloween storm measurements were Fourier transformed for B field spectrum Levenberg-Marquardt least squares inversion over latitude. The inversion modeled strengths of the equatorial electrojets, auroral electrojets, and ring currents were compared to the forward problem computed strength. It is found the optimized and direct results match each other closely and supplement previous established studies about these source currents. Using this model, a data set of current system magnitudes may be used to develop empirical models linking solar wind activity to magnetospheric current systems. In addition, the ground E fields are also calculated directly, which serves as a proxy for computing GIC in conductor-based networks.

  16. SABRE observations of Pi2 pulsations: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of substorm-associated Pi2 pulsations observed by the SABRE coherent radar system during three separate case studies are presented. The SABRE field of view is well positioned to observe the differences between the auroral zone pulsation signature and that observed at mid-latitudes. During the first case study the SABRE field of view is initially in the eastward electrojet, equatorward and to the west of the substorm-enhanced electrojet current. As the interval progresses, the western, upward field-aligned current of the substorm current wedge moves westward across the longitudes of the radar field of view. The westward motion of the wedge is apparent in the spatial and temporal signatures of the associated Pi2 pulsation spectra and polarisation sense. During the second case study, the complex field-aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the pulsation generation region move equatorward into the SABRE field of view and then poleward out of it again after the third pulsation in the series. The spectral content of the four pulsations during the interval indicate different auroral zone and mid-latitude signatures. The final case study is from a period of low magnetic activity when SABRE observes a Pi2 pulsation signature from regions equatorward of the enhanced substorm currents. There is an apparent mode change between the signature observed by SABRE in the ionosphere and that on the ground by magnetometers at latitudes slightly equatorward of the radar field of view. The observations are discussed in terms of published theories of the generation mechanisms for this type of pulsation. Different signatures are observed by SABRE depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the SABRE field of view relative to the pulsation generation region. A twin source model for Pi2 pulsation generation provides the clearest explanation of the signatures observed.

  17. On the dynamics of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Europe on 20 November 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borries, Claudia; Jakowski, Norbert; Kauristie, Kirsti; Amm, Olaf; Mielich, Jens; Kouba, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances, often associated with geomagnetic storms, may cause threats to radio systems used for communication and navigation. One example is the super storm on 20 November 2003, when plenty of strong and unusual perturbations were reported. This paper reveals additional information on the dynamics in the high-latitude ionosphere over Europe during this storm. Here analyses of wavelike traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) over Europe are presented, based on estimates of the total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. These TIDs are ionospheric signatures of thermospheric surges initiated by space weather events. The source region of these TIDs is characterized by enhanced spatial gradients, TEC depression, strong uplift of the F2 layer, the vicinity of the eastward auroral electrojet, and strong aurora E layers. Joule heating is identified as the most probable driver for the TIDs observed over Europe during 20 November 2003. The sudden heating of the thermosphere leads to strong changes in the pressure and thermospheric wind circulation system, which in turn generates thermospheric wind surges observed as TID signatures in the TEC. Either the dissipation of the eastward auroral electrojet or particle precipitation are considered as the source mechanism for the Joule heating. In the course of the storm, the TEC observations show a southward shift of the source region of the TIDs. These meridional dislocation effects are obviously related to a strong compression of the plasmasphere. The presented results demonstrate the complex interaction processes in the thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system during this extreme storm.

  18. The electric field response to the growth phase and expansion phase onset of a small isolated substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Lewis

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We capitalise on the very large field of view of the Halley HF radar to provide a comprehensive description of the electric field response to the substorm growth phase and expansion phase onset of a relatively simple isolated substorm ( |AL| 12 h of magnetic quiescence, such that prior to the start of the growth phase, the apparent latitudinal motion of the radar backscatter returns is consistent with the variation in latitude of the quiet-time auroral oval with magnetic local time. The growth phase is characterised by an increasing, superimposed equatorward motion of the equatorward edge of the radar backscatter as the auroral oval expands. Within this backscatter region, there is a poleward gradient in the Doppler spectral width, which we believe to correspond to latitudinal structure in auroral emissions and magnetospheric precipitation. During the growth phase the ionospheric convection is dominated by a relatively smooth large-scale flow pattern consistent with the expanding DP2 (convection auroral electrojets. Immediately prior to substorm onset the ionospheric convection observed by the radar in the midnight sector has a predominantly equatorward flow component. At substorm onset a dramatic change occurs and a poleward flow component prevails. The timing and location are quite remarkable. The timing of the flow change is within one minute of the dispersionless injection observed at geostationary orbit and the Pi2 magnetic signature on the ground. The location shows that this sudden change in flow is due to the effect of the upward field aligned current of the substorm current wedge imposed directly within the Halley radar field of view.

  19. Evaluation of the geometry of ionospheric current systems related to rapid geomagnetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Apatenkov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To learn about the geometry and sources of the ionospheric current systems which generate strong geomagnetically induced currents, we categorize differential equivalent current systems (DEC for events with strong dB/dt by decomposing them into the contributions of electrojet-type and vortex-type elementary systems. By solving the inverse problem we obtain amplitudes and locations of these elementary current systems. One-minute differences of the geomagnetic field values at the IMAGE magnetometer network in 1996–2000 are analysed to study the spatial distributions of large dB/dt events. The relative contributions of the two components are evaluated. In particular, we found that the majority of the strongest dB/dt events (100–1000nT/min appear to be produced by the vortex-type current structures and most of them occur in the morning LT hours, probably caused by the Ps6 pulsation events associated with auroral omega structures. For strong dB/dt events the solar wind parameters are shifted toward strong (tens nT southward IMF, enhanced velocity and dynamic pressure, in order for the main phase of the magnetic storms to occur. Although these events appear mostly during magnetic storms when the auroral oval greatly expands, the area of large dB/dt stays in the middle part of the auroral zone; therefore, it is connected to the processes taking part in the middle of the magnetosphere rather than in its innermost region populated by the ring current.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (rapid time variations – Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric disturbances

  20. Evaluation of the geometry of ionospheric current systems related to rapid geomagnetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Apatenkov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To learn about the geometry and sources of the ionospheric current systems which generate strong geomagnetically induced currents, we categorize differential equivalent current systems (DEC for events with strong dB/dt by decomposing them into the contributions of electrojet-type and vortex-type elementary systems. By solving the inverse problem we obtain amplitudes and locations of these elementary current systems. One-minute differences of the geomagnetic field values at the IMAGE magnetometer network in 1996–2000 are analysed to study the spatial distributions of large dB/dt events. The relative contributions of the two components are evaluated. In particular, we found that the majority of the strongest dB/dt events (100–1000nT/min appear to be produced by the vortex-type current structures and most of them occur in the morning LT hours, probably caused by the Ps6 pulsation events associated with auroral omega structures. For strong dB/dt events the solar wind parameters are shifted toward strong (tens nT southward IMF, enhanced velocity and dynamic pressure, in order for the main phase of the magnetic storms to occur. Although these events appear mostly during magnetic storms when the auroral oval greatly expands, the area of large dB/dt stays in the middle part of the auroral zone; therefore, it is connected to the processes taking part in the middle of the magnetosphere rather than in its innermost region populated by the ring current. Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (rapid time variations – Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric disturbances

  1. Evidence of prompt penetration electric fields during HILDCAA events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Silva, Regia; Sobral, Jose Humberto Andrade; Koga, Daiki; Rodrigues Souza, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity, long-duration continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity (HILDCAA) events may occur during a long-lasting recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. They are a special kind of geomagnetic activity, different from magnetic storms or substorms. Ionized particles are pumped into the auroral region by the action of Alfvén waves, increasing the auroral current system. The Dst index, however, does not present a significant downward swing as it occurs during geomagnetic storms. During the HILDCAA occurrence, the AE index presents an intense and continuous activity. In this paper, the response of Brazilian equatorial ionosphere is studied during three HILDCAA events that occurred in the year of 2006 (the descending phase of solar cycle 23) using the digisonde data located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W; dip latitude 1.75° S). Geomagnetic indices and interplanetary parameters were used to calculate a cross-correlation coefficient between the Ey component of the interplanetary electric field and the F2 electron density peak height variations during two situations: the first of them for two sets daytime and nighttime ranges, and the second one for the time around the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) peak. The results showed that the pumping action of particle precipitation into the auroral zone has moderately modified the equatorial F2 peak height. However, F2 peak height seems to be more sensitive to HILDCAA effects during PRE time, showing the highest variations and sinusoidal oscillations in the cross-correlation indices.

  2. Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field and substorm activity: a case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and substorm activity are examined, for an interval observed by the Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment (PACE radar system between ~1600 and ~2100 MLT on 4 March 1992. Representations of the ionospheric convection pattern associated with different orientations and magnitudes of the IMF and nightside driven enhancements of the auroral electrojet are employed to illustrate a possible explanation for the contrast in convection flow response observed in radar data at nominally conjugate points. Ion drift measurements from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP confirm these ionospheric convection flows to be representative for the prevailing IMF orientation and magnitude. The location of the fields of view of the PACE radars with respect to these patterns suggest that the radar backscatter observed in each hemisphere is critically influenced by the position of the ionospheric convection reversal boundary (CRB within the radar field of view and the influence it has on the generation of the irregularities required as scattering targets by high-frequency coherent radar systems. The position of the CRB in each hemisphere is strongly controlled by the relative magnitudes of the IMF Bz and By components, and hence so is the interhemispheric contrast in the radar observations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Auroral phenomena · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Storms and substorms

  3. Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field and substorm activity: a case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and substorm activity are examined, for an interval observed by the Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment (PACE radar system between ~1600 and ~2100 MLT on 4 March 1992. Representations of the ionospheric convection pattern associated with different orientations and magnitudes of the IMF and nightside driven enhancements of the auroral electrojet are employed to illustrate a possible explanation for the contrast in convection flow response observed in radar data at nominally conjugate points. Ion drift measurements from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP confirm these ionospheric convection flows to be representative for the prevailing IMF orientation and magnitude. The location of the fields of view of the PACE radars with respect to these patterns suggest that the radar backscatter observed in each hemisphere is critically influenced by the position of the ionospheric convection reversal boundary (CRB within the radar field of view and the influence it has on the generation of the irregularities required as scattering targets by high-frequency coherent radar systems. The position of the CRB in each hemisphere is strongly controlled by the relative magnitudes of the IMF Bz and By components, and hence so is the interhemispheric contrast in the radar observations.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Auroral phenomena · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Storms and substorms

  4. Identification of geomagnetic current systems from a ground-based network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Menvielle, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Earth's total magnetic field is a superposition of magnetic fields from a variety of sources. At the Earth's surface, the most important source is the internal field produced by currents within the Earth's liquid core. At high latitudes of our planet, magnetopheric and ionospheric current systems are other important sources of magnetic field. A large part of research in geomagnetism is devoted to the identification of these internal and external sources. The separation of current systems from ground-based measurements is a source separation problem. In this study, our approach consists in inferring from a statistical analysis of the data set what are the different contributing source terms. Our analysis will be done by a statistical method known as the Singular Value Decomposition. The SVD is widely used in multivariate analysis for reduction of dimensionality, which offers a more concise description of the observed data and helps to extract significant information from the data. From geomagnetic data provided by the INTERMAGNET global network, the results of the SVD analysis can be interpreted in terms of current systems such as the magnetic field declination, the separation of the auroral electrojets into quiet and intermittent components, the seasonal effects, the ring current signature, the observation of the polar cusp and the cross-tail currents, the displacement of the auroral oval (and even the detection of geomagnetic jerks ?).

  5. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe. Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines. The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  6. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe.

    Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines.

    The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  7. Effective polar cap area and multi-station basis for Polar Cap (PC) indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices are useful indices for Space Weather forecasts and analyses. The PC indices have been used to monitor the interplanetary geoeffective electric field and solar wind pressure pulses, to analyze cross polar cap voltages, polar cap diameter, and general polar cap dynamics. Furthermore, the PC indices have been used to monitor auroral electrojet intensities, ionospheric Joule heating, and global auroral power, and to predict ring current intensities. For specific Space Weather warning forecasts the PC indices can be used to predict substorm development and the associated risk of power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The PC indices, PCN (North) and PCS (South), are derived from geomagnetic observations at Thule in Greenland and Vostok in Antarctica, respectively. In order to provide reliable forecast services based on PC indices, it would be advantageous to have available back-up suppliers of index values. The presentation provides an analysis of the effective area for useful PC index derivation and suggests observatories that could provide back-up data for PC index calculations should the primary sources fail due to instrument or communication problems.

  8. Ionospheric electron density perturbations during the 7-10 March 2012 geomagnetic storm period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belehaki, Anna; Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Koutroumbas, Kostas; Elias, Panagiotis

    2017-02-01

    From 7 to 10 March 2012 a series of magnetospheric disturbances caused perturbations in the ionospheric electron density. Analyzing the interplanetary causes in each phase of this disturbed period, in comparison with the total electron content (TEC) disturbances, we have concluded that the interplanetary solar wind controls largely the ionospheric response. An interplanetary shock detected at 0328UT on 7 March caused the formation of prompt penetrating electric fields in the dayside that transported plasma from the near-equatorial region to higher in attitudes and latitudes forming a giant plasma fountain which is part of the so-called dayside ionospheric super-fountain. The super-fountain produces an increase in TEC which is the dominant effect at middle latitude, masking the effect of the negative storm. Simultaneously, inspecting the TEC maps, we found evidence for a turbulence in TEC propagating southward probably caused by large scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) linked to auroral electrojet intensification. On 8 March, a magnetospheric sudden impulse at 1130UT accompanied with strong pulsations in all interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components and with northward Bz component during the growth phase of the storm. These conditions triggered a pronounced directly driven substorm phase during which we observe LSTID. However, the analysis of DMSP satellite observations, provided with strong evidence for Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) formation that erode travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID) signatures. The overall result of these mechanisms can be detected in maps of de-trended TEC, but it is difficult to identify separately each of the sources of the observed perturbations, i.e. auroral electrojet activity and LSTIDs, super-fountain and SAPS. In order to assess the capability of the ionospheric profiler called Topside Sounder Model - assisted Digisonde (TaD model) to detect such perturbations in the electron density, electron

  9. Search for magnetically quiet CHAMP polar passes and the characteristics of ionospheric currents during the dark season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic activity at auroral latitudes is strongly dependent on season. During the dark season, when the solar zenith angle in the polar region is larger than 100° at all local times, the ionospheric conductivity is much reduced, and generally low activity is encountered. These time intervals are of special interest for the main field modelling, because then the geomagnetic field readings, in particular the field magnitude, are only slightly affected by ionospheric currents. Based on CHAMP data, this study examines how these quiet periods are reflected in the different magnetic field components. The peak FAC density is used as a possible proxy for the deviation of the total field. As a second option, the transverse field component, which is aligned with the auroral oval, is investigated, because it presents a measure for the FAC total current. Correlation analyses with the scalar residuals are performed and both proxies are tested for their suitability of predicting the intensity of the auroral electrojet during the dark polar seasons. The indicators based on the local FAC strength or on the amplitude of the transverse component show a reasonable correlation with the electrojet intensity for these periods, but fail when limited to small amplitudes. The predictability improves considerably if the time sector is limited to dayside hours (08:00–16:00 MLT. As the activity at high latitudes is strongly controlled by the solar wind input, we also consider IMF quantities which may support very quiet conditions. Correlations of the magnetic field scalar residuals with the merging electric field are strongest if only passes in the dayside sector are considered. Best selection results for quiet passes are obtained by combining four conditions: dark season, small average merging electric field, Em<0.8 mV/m, absence of peak values of Em>1.2 mV/m during a time interval of 40 min centred at the polar crossing, and

  10. Search for magnetically quiet CHAMP polar passes and the characteristics of ionospheric currents during the dark season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic activity at auroral latitudes is strongly dependent on season. During the dark season, when the solar zenith angle in the polar region is larger than 100° at all local times, the ionospheric conductivity is much reduced, and generally low activity is encountered. These time intervals are of special interest for the main field modelling, because then the geomagnetic field readings, in particular the field magnitude, are only slightly affected by ionospheric currents. Based on CHAMP data, this study examines how these quiet periods are reflected in the different magnetic field components. The peak FAC density is used as a possible proxy for the deviation of the total field. As a second option, the transverse field component, which is aligned with the auroral oval, is investigated, because it presents a measure for the FAC total current. Correlation analyses with the scalar residuals are performed and both proxies are tested for their suitability of predicting the intensity of the auroral electrojet during the dark polar seasons. The indicators based on the local FAC strength or on the amplitude of the transverse component show a reasonable correlation with the electrojet intensity for these periods, but fail when limited to small amplitudes. The predictability improves considerably if the time sector is limited to dayside hours (08:00–16:00 MLT. As the activity at high latitudes is strongly controlled by the solar wind input, we also consider IMF quantities which may support very quiet conditions. Correlations of the magnetic field scalar residuals with the merging electric field are strongest if only passes in the dayside sector are considered. Best selection results for quiet passes are obtained by combining four conditions: dark season, small average merging electric field, EmEm>1.2 mV/m during a time interval of 40 min centred at the polar crossing, and limitation to the dayside sector (08:00–16:00 MLT. The set of quiet polar

  11. Brightening of onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset: THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Kan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new M-I coupling model of substorm during southward IMF based on the THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008. The first event (E-1 was classified as a pseudo-breakup: brightening of the onset arc preceded the first dipolarization onset by ∼71 ± 3 s, but the breakup arcs faded within ∼5 min without substantial poleward expansion and the dipolarization stopped and reversed to thinning. The second event (E-2 was identified as a substorm: brightening of the second onset arc preceded the second dipolarization onset by ∼80 ± 3 s, leading to a full-scale expanding auroral bulge during the substorm expansion phase for ∼20 min. The Alfvén travel time from the ionosphere to the dipolarization onset region is estimated at ∼69.3 s in E-1; at ∼80.3 s in E-2, which matched well with the observed time delay of the dipolarization onset after the brightening of the onset arc, respectively in E-1 and E-2. Brightening of the onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset suggest that the onset arc brightening is caused by the intense upward field-aligned currents originating from the divergence of the Cowling electrojet in the ionosphere. The Cowling electrojet current loop (CECL is formed to close the field-aligned currents at all times. The closure current in the Alfvén wavefront is anti-parallel to the cross-tail current. Dipolarization onset occurs when the Alfvén wavefront incident on the near-Earth plasma sheet to disrupt the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region. Slow MHD waves dominate the disruption of the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region.

  12. Method to locate the polar cap boundary in the nightside ionosphere and application to a substorm event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new method to be used for the polar cap boundary (PCB determination in the nightside ionosphere by using the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR field-aligned measurements by the 42-m antenna and southward directed low-elevation measurements by the ESR 32 m antenna or northward directed low-elevation measurements by the EISCAT VHF radar at Tromsø. The method is based on increased electron temperature (Te caused by precipitating particles on closed field lines. Since the Svalbard field-aligned measurement provides the reference polar cap Te height profile, the method can be utilised only when the PCB is located between Svalbard and the mainland. Comparison with the Polar UVI images shows that the radar-based method is generally in agreement with the PAE (poleward auroral emission boundary from Polar UVI. The new technique to map the polar cap boundary was applied to a substorm event on 6 November 2002. Simultaneous measurements by the MIRACLE magnetometers enabled us to put the PCB location in the framework of ionospheric electrojets. During the substorm growth phase, the polar cap expands and the region of the westward electrojet shifts gradually more apart from the PCB. The substorm onset takes place deep within the region of closed magnetic field region, separated by about 6–7° in latitude from the PCB in the ionosphere. We interpret the observations in the framework of the near-Earth neutral line (NENL model of substorms. After the substorm onset, the reconnection at the NENL reaches within 3 min the open-closed field line boundary and then the PCB moves poleward together with the poleward boundary of the substorm current wedge. The poleward expansion occurs in the form of individual bursts, which are separated by 2–10 min, indicating that the reconnection in the magnetotail neutral line is impulsive. The poleward expansions of the PCB are followed by latitude dispersed intensifications in the westward electrojet

  13. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the E-region echoes of a particular polarity is strongly dictated by the orientation of the convection plasma flow which itself has a significant asymmetry towards westward zonal flow.

  14. Sub-Auroral Ion Drifts as a Source of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At midlatitudes, such space weather events are caused mainly by subauroral electric field structures (SAID/SAPS) [1, 2]. SAID/SAPS -related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code was used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities in the equatorial region [3]. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driv