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Sample records for aurochs bos primigenius

  1. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  2. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  3. Ancient DNA extracted from Danish aurochs (Bos primigenius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Gravlund; Aaris-Sørensen, Kim; Hofreiter, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    We extracted DNA from 39 Danish aurochs specimens and successfully amplified and sequenced a 252 base pair long fragment of the multivariable region I of the mitochondrial control region from 11 specimens. The sequences from these specimens dated back to 9830-2865 14C yr BP and represent the firs...

  4. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Schibler; Julia Elsner; Angela Schlumbaum

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to...

  5. The enigmatic origin of bovine mtDNA haplogroup R: sporadic interbreeding or an independent event of Bos primigenius domestication in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonfiglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When domestic taurine cattle diffused from the Fertile Crescent, local wild aurochsen (Bos primigenius were still numerous. Moreover, aurochsen and introduced cattle often coexisted for millennia, thus providing potential conditions not only for spontaneous interbreeding, but also for pastoralists to create secondary domestication centers involving local aurochs populations. Recent mitochondrial genomes analyses revealed that not all modern taurine mtDNAs belong to the shallow macro-haplogroup T of Near Eastern origin, as demonstrated by the detection of three branches (P, Q and R radiating prior to the T node in the bovine phylogeny. These uncommon haplogroups represent excellent tools to evaluate if sporadic interbreeding or even additional events of cattle domestication occurred. METHODOLOGY: The survey of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control-region variation of 1,747 bovine samples (1,128 new and 619 from previous studies belonging to 37 European breeds allowed the identification of 16 novel non-T mtDNAs, which after complete genome sequencing were confirmed as members of haplogroups Q and R. These mtDNAs were then integrated in a phylogenetic tree encompassing all available P, Q and R complete mtDNA sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analyses of 28 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups P (N = 2, Q (N = 16 and R (N = 10 together with an extensive survey of all previously published mtDNA datasets revealed major similarities between haplogroups Q and T. Therefore, Q most likely represents an additional minor lineage domesticated in the Near East together with the founders of the T subhaplogroups. Whereas, haplogroup R is found, at least for the moment, only in Italy and nowhere else, either in modern or ancient samples, thus supporting an origin from European aurochsen. Haplogroup R could have been acquired through sporadic interbreeding of wild and domestic animals, but our data do not rule out the

  6. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  7. [The changes of expression and Fc-gamma-receptor's polypeptide composition of fetal small intestine enterocytes in Bos primigenius taurus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiuk, D M; Nedzvets'kyĭ, V S; Tsvilikhovs'kyĭ, M I; Nerush, P O

    2008-01-01

    The expression and polypeptide composition of Fc-gamma-receptors of enterocytes from Bos primigenius taurus L. intestine at 3-, 5-, 7-, 9- month of fetal development was investigated. The results of immunobloting show similar composition of Fc-gamma-receptors extracted from apical and basolateral membranes. The proteins that bind IgG after PAAG electrophoresis and transferring on nitrocellulose were observed as 120, 87, 72 and 43 kDa polypeptide line. The changes of each polypeptide contents were related to the changes of total content of Fc-gamma-receptor proteins. The rise in concentration of Fc-gamma-receptors on apical membrane was observed from 3-rd to 7-th month of fetal development. Maximal concentration of these proteins was detected on enterocytes at 7-th month of fetal development. Fc-gamma-receptors content on basolateral side was higher than on apical side. The presence of Fc-gamma-receptors on enterocyte's membrane indicates on active recycling of these receptors on plasma membrane and reflects early development of immune system in Bos primigenius taurus L. fetus. PMID:18416181

  8. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  9. History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from neolithic to early middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Schibler, J.; Schlumbaum, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (similar to 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic unt...

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of Pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny I Rogaev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships between the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius, and the Asian (Elephas maximus and African savanna (Loxodonta africana elephants remain unresolved. Here, we report the sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome (16,842 base pairs of a woolly mammoth extracted from permafrost-preserved remains from the Pleistocene epoch--the oldest mitochondrial genome sequence determined to date. We demonstrate that well-preserved mitochondrial genome fragments, as long as approximately 1,600-1700 base pairs, can be retrieved from pre-Holocene remains of an extinct species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Elephantinae clade suggests that M. primigenius and E. maximus are sister species that diverged soon after their common ancestor split from the L. africana lineage. Low nucleotide diversity found between independently determined mitochondrial genomic sequences of woolly mammoths separated geographically and in time suggests that north-eastern Siberia was occupied by a relatively homogeneous population of M. primigenius throughout the late Pleistocene.

  11. Comparison of Skin Characterizes Between Pure Breed and Crossbred Azeri Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Lotfi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For investigation of crossbreeding efficiency in some skin characterizes in pure and crossbred cattle with Azeri Zebu, 100 head Azeri Zebu and pure breeds were divided into 4 group in 4 treatments, randomly. After cross breeding between zebu and pure cattle breeds, the diameters of skin in different parts of body were significantly increased in hybrids (offspring. Zebu hybrids, because of their strength epidemic layer on slat and legs had deep skin in compare with parents. Skin area were measured at two different parts, that more than 60% of skin were include 5 mm diameter in hybrids. As conclusion; in this investigation it has been cleared that cross-breeding in Azeri zebu (with pure cattle breeds can cause deep diameter of skin that also it can produce high quality skin for leather and shoe Industry.

  12. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie, Daniela Elena; Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

  13. The Muirkirk Mammoth : A Late Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton from southern Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harington, C. R.; Mol, Dick; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The Muirkirk Mammoth, found in 1895 2.4 km northeast of the village of Muirkirk in southern Ontario, is the most complete woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton known from Canada. Approximate tusk measurements and extreme wear on the sixth molars indicate it is best referred to an old male.

  14. New ancient DNA sequences suggest high genetic diversity for the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Partial DNA sequences of cytochrome b gene (mtDNA) were successfully retrieved from Late Pleistocene fossil bone of Mammuthus primigenius collected from the Xiguitu County (Yakeshi), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and from Zhaodong, Harbin of Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Two ancient DNA fragments ( 109 bp and 124 bp) were authenticated by reproducible experiments in two different laboratories and by phylogenetic analysis with other Elephantidae taxa. Phylogenetic analysis using these sequences and published data in either separate or combined datasets indicate unstable relationship among the woolly mammoth and the two living elephants, Elephas and Loxodonta. In addition to the short sequences used to attempt the long independent evolution of Elephantidae terminal taxa, we suggest that a high intra-specific diversity existed in Mammuthus primigenius crossing both spatial and temporal ranges, resulting in a complex and divergent genetic background for DNA sequences so far recovered. The high genetic diversity in the extinct woolly mammoth can explain the apparent instability of Elephantidae taxa on the molecular phylogenetic trees and can reconcile the apparent paradox regarding the unresolved Elephantidae trichotomy.

  15. Vegetation and Mammuthus primigenius extinction history on St Paul Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Newsom, L.; Belmecheri, S.; Culleton, B.; Williams, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    St. Paul Island, AK, part of the Pribilofs, is an island remnant of the Bering Land Bridge, a possible coastal Picea refugium at the last glacial maximum, and a Holocene refugium for Mammuthus primigenius. A prior pollen record from Lake Hill indicates that St. Paul was predominantly herb tundra during the last glacial maximum followed by a shrub tundra in the early Holocene (Colinvaux, 1980). Subsequently, three radiocarbon dates on bones from Qagnax Cave indicate a last appearance of Mammuthus primigenius of 6.5 ka on St. Paul (Veltre et al. 2008). In March 2013, our team retrieved a 13.5 m composite core from Lake Hill to refine the extinction timing chronology, assess environmental change during the extinction interval, and test hypotheses about vegetation-megafauna feedback. This paper reports the results from modern botanical survey and analyses of fossil pollen, Sporormiella and other coprophilous spores, anchored by a new radiocarbon chronology consisting of seven AMS dates. Presently, bryophytes, Equisetum, Poaceae, Juncaceae, Salix and Viola commonly occur at the lake margin, accompanied increasingly by sedge meadow taxa with greater distance from the water's edge, especially Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lupinus, Rubus and Valeriana. Sporormiella is consistently present in low abundances (2%, ~700 grains/cm3) in the late glacial and early Holocene until a drop to zero at 6,050 yr BP, remaining absent during the middle and late Holocene when it reappears at 1904 AD. The timing of Sporormiella decline and reappearance match well to the youngest mammoth bone date and the historic reintroduction of reindeer (1911 AD) on St. Paul Island. After 11 ka, major pollen types include Apiaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix, with lower abundances of Betula, Alnus and Ericaceae, consistent with herb tundra with some shrubs. Degraded Picea pollen grains are found at 12,240 yr BP in very low concentrations (223 grains/cm3), indicating long

  16. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  17. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  18. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  19. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  20. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en becerros de cruzas Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Córdova; Gustavo Rodríguez; Mary Córdova; Cristian Córdova,; José Pérez

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatromeses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para locual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgianblue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Losresultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiv...

  1. GANANCIA DIARIA Y PESO AL DESTETE EN TERNEROS DE CRUCES Bos taurus CON Bos indicus EN TRÓPICO HÚMEDO

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Córdova, Mary; Córdova, Cristian; Pérez, José

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatro meses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para lo cual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgian blue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descri...

  2. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in Underground Mine Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Edmund Chime

    2011-01-01

    The schlieren technique describes an optical analysis method designed to enhance light distortions caused by air movement. The ability to visualize gas flows has significant implications for analyzing underground mine ventilation systems. Currently, the widely utilized traditional schlieren methods are impractical underground due to complex equipment and design requirements. Background oriented schlieren (BOS) provides a solution to this problem. BOS requires two primary components, a pro...

  3. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L. or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger pasture systems, with mineral or mineral protein supplementation. Animals were slaughtered with an average body weight of 450 kg (Bos indicus or 470 kg (Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbreed. There was no treatments effect on carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of cut without fat thickness. The cuts with fat thickness of steers fed millet presented the highest fat deposition. Bos indicus steers presented higher carcass yield (57.23% and fat thickness (4.88 mm compared with crossbreed (53.40% and 3.05 mm. There was no breed effect on chemical composition of meat. The mean levels of cholesterol concentration were 31.41 mg/100 and 37.55 mg/100g of meat with and without fat thickness.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de carcaça (peso de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça, espessura de gordura de cobertura, área de olho de lombo, marmoreio e coloração e composição química do músculo Longissimus dorsi (umidade, cinzas, proteína bruta, gordura e colesterol de cortes, com ou sem gordura de cobertura, de novilhos Bos indicus e mestiços Bos indicus x Bos taurus terminados em sistemas em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum L. ou grama estrela (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger, com suplementação mineral ou protéica e mineral. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 450 kg (Bos indicus ou 470 kg (mestiços. Não houve efeito de tratamento sobre as características de carcaça e composição da carne com ou sem gordura de cobertura. Os cortes com gordura de

  4. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P < 0.01) and lactation (P < 0.01). Percentage Bos taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P < 0.01) cows; during pregnancy, the ME requirements were 91 and 86% of those in lactation (131 +/- 3.5 vs. 145 +/- 3.4 Mcal x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) for the 0 and 50% B. taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P < 0.01) than 0% B. taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45

  5. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  6. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  7. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  8. Polymorphism and Mobilization of Rransposons in Bos taurus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    The bovine genome assembly was explored to detect putative retrotransposon sequences. In total 87,310 such sites were detected. Four breeds of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) were examined with respect to the presence, segregation or complete absence of the putative retrotransposon. A total of 10...

  9. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  10. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  11. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  12. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  13. Mortality profiles of the large herbivores from the Lingjing Xuchang Man Site,Henan Province and the early emergence of the modern human behaviors in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShuangQuan; LI ZhanYang; ZHANG Yue; GAO Xing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study of mortality profiles of the large herbivores from the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) bone assemblage of the Lingjing Xuchang Man Site,Henan Province.Based on the analysis of the crown heights of fossil teeth from this assemblage,we come to a conclusion that aurochs (Bos primigenius) and horse (Equus caballus) are the major prey species in this assemblage and the age structures of these animals can be best described as the "prime-dominated pattern".This study confirmed the well-established notions at many Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites across Eurasia and Africa that MSA/MP foragers were fully effective in hunting aggressive prey species,particularly aurochs and horse.This find indicates that the hunting behaviors and subsistence strategies were not significantly different between MP and UP (the Upper Palaeolithic) humans in East Asia and hence suggests the early emergence of the modern human behaviors in this area.

  14. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  15. Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins in some Bos genus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Guastella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cattle the analysis of the genetic polymorphism of milk proteins provides an effective tool both to characterize the genetic diversity and to improve the efficiency of selection for specific production traits. Four genes, αS1-casein (CSN1S1, β-casein (CSN2, κ-casein (CSN3 and β-lactoglobulin (BLG have showed a high level of genetic polymorphism and are candidate to play a role in selection programmes in order to improve milk production. In this work three Bos genus populations, one taurine breed autochthonous of South-East of Sicily (Modicana and two Bos indicus populations (Azaouak and Gudali reared in Niger and Cameroon, respectively,..........

  16. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Haroldo HR; Carvalheiro, Roberto; O’Brien, Ana M Pérez; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; do Carmo, Adriana S; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sölkner, Johann; McEwan, John C; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos VGB; Queiroz, Sandra A; Tad S. Sonstegard; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcas...

  17. Pengaruh Anggaran Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) Terhadap Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar Siswa SMP Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syafrida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to find out the correlation and the effectiveness of BOS (School Operation Assistance) fund with the improvement of SMP students' learning achievement in Medan. BOS program has started since July, 2005 which is aimed to ease people's burden in education cost by giving financial aid for supporting qualified nine-year learning compulsory. Although the government has distributed BOS fund to schools, there are still many poor children who drop out of school, and ...

  18. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  19. Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins in some Bos genus populations

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Guastella; G. D'Urso; G. Tirella; Budelli, E; S. Bordonaro; Marletta, D

    2011-01-01

    In cattle the analysis of the genetic polymorphism of milk proteins provides an effective tool both to characterize the genetic diversity and to improve the efficiency of selection for specific production traits. Four genes, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), κ-casein (CSN3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) have showed a high level of genetic polymorphism and are candidate to play a role in selection programmes in order to improve milk production. In this work three Bos genu...

  20. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  1. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  2. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  3. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  4. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Corris, Paul A; Ryan, Victoria A; Small, Therese; Lordan, James; Fisher, Andrew J.; Meachery, Gerard; Johnson, Gail; Ward, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. Methods We compared azithromycin (250 mg alternate days, 12 weeks) with placebo. Primary outcome was FEV1 change at 12 weeks. Results 48 patients were randomised; (25 azithromycin, 23 placebo). It was established, post randomisation that two did not have BOS. 46 patients were analysed as intention to treat (ITT) with 33 ‘Completers’. ITT analysis inc...

  5. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  6. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  7. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle. Serum concentrations of total Ig, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA in the calf and efficiency of absorption at 6 and 12 h were not affected by breed type, sex of calf, or any interaction. PMID:8617676

  8. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  9. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos taurus y Bos indicus, se han encontrado diferencias en la dinámica folicular que pueden afectar el comportamiento reproductivo y la aplicación de biotecnologías reproductivas. La dinámica folicular puede variar por efectos ambientales y estados fisiológicos de hembras Bos indicus que impiden establecer un patrón específico de dinámica folicular para cada raza y etapa fisiológica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la función reproductiva teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de la dinámica folicular entre estados fisiológicos y condiciones ambientales de hembras bovinas con énfasis en B. indicus.The bovine follicular development during a normal estrous cycle, is characterized by a growth in wave form with presence of two to five follicular cohorts by cycle, of which only one follicle ovulate. The follicular growth in wave form also occurs during the prepubertal and pubertal periods, first quarter of the gestation, and in the postpartum anestrous period. Although there is great similarity in the fundamental pattern of the development of follicular waves between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, differences of follicular dynamics has been detected, that can affect the reproductive behavior and the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Follicular dynamics can change by environmental effects and physiological states of Bos indicus females that impede to establish a specific pattern of follicular dynamics for each breed and physiological

  10. European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Drucker, Dorothée G; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species. PMID:25671634

  11. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  12. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be associated with tenderness in the GPE Cycle 7 population, also was highly associated with shear force in the GPE Cycle 8 animals (P < 0.001). Thus, Marker 316 may continue to be useful in a variety of populations with a high percentage of Bos taurus backgrounds. An optimal marker strategy for CAPN1 in many cases will be to use both Markers 316 and 4751. PMID:16100054

  13. The preliminary measurements from the Bolometer Oscillation System (BOS) on board PICARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. V.; Meftah, M.; Clette, F.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; van Ruymbeke, F.; Noel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The PICARD is a French CNES micro-satellite mission which was successfully launched on June 15, 2010 by the Russian DNEPR launcher. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the relations between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The duration of the mission is about two years with possibility to extend to three or more years. SOVAP/BOS (SOlar Variability for Picard - Bolometer Oscillation System) is one of the key instruments in the PICARD payload. The main goal of SOVAP/BOS consists in measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) with very high precision. SOVAP is a new improved version of the DIARAD absolute solar radiometer, which has been successfully installed and operated on several previous missions designed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. BOS is a pioneering experiment or to say, a complementary part of SOVAP. It consists of a solar bolometer that measures the incident electromagnetic radiation power by converting this radiation energy in a thermal signal. The radiation is measured using a differential thermometer placed in a thermal shunt. By design, this bolometer is able to measure radiation integrated over all wavelengths and provide a broad dynamic range, with high precision and combined with a fast measuring cadence of 10s, instead of typ. 2-3 minutes in earlier TSI (total solar irradiance) measurements. We will show the preliminary results of measurements made by BOS. For instance, the solar eclipse records during 11, July 2010.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  15. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  16. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  17. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  18. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3-15N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  19. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V

    2016-03-15

    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P < 0.05). Cows with a BCS greater than or equal to 5 had synchronized AI pregnancy rates of 50% compared to 39% for cows with BCS lesser than 5.0. In summary, the modified COS protocol yielded similar synchronized AI pregnancy rates compared to the SSC protocol, and it appears that the modified COS protocol has the potential to be an effective timed-AI protocol in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows. PMID:26631280

  20. Measurement of density in axisymmetric jets using a novel background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dominic James; Edgington-Mitchell, Daniel; Honnery, Damon

    2015-11-01

    A novel application of the adaptive Fourier-Hankel (AFH) Abel algorithm to reconstruct the radial density distribution of axisymmetric jets is presented. The fluid is imaged using the non-intrusive path-integrated background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. BOS images are cross-correlated to obtain background displacements that are proportional to the first derivative of the refractive index. The critical step is deconvolving the projected displacements. The AFH method is applied to simulated displacement data to validate the use of averaged turbulent fluctuations that approximate an axisymmetric field. The influence of experimental noise and variations in the flow on the accuracy of the method is discussed. The limitations of the system are demonstrated by applying it to low- and high-Reynolds ( Re) number jets. The high- Re jets are produced from a high-pressure fuel injector operating at nozzle pressure ratios of 2, 3, and 4.

  1. Recent Status of Banteng (Bos javanicus Conservation in East Java and Its Perspectives on Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the recent status of Banteng Bos javanicus conservation in East Java, identify the roots of conservation problems and propose the non-consumptive and sustainable uses of Banteng by implementing ecotourism. Recently, Banteng population distributes in Alas Purwo, Meru Betiri, and Baluran National Parks. The population in Alas Purwo and Meru Betiri were relatively stable yearly. Rapid population decrease found in Baluran National Park. The roots of threats may be categorized into two factors, socio-economic and ecological factors. Socio-economic problems lead to the increase of habitat disturbance, poaching, and illegal hunting. Ecological aspect was ranging from invasion of exotic plant species, competitors, predators, drought, forest fire and vegetation changes. Lack of habitat management also recognized as an important factor to drive Bos javanicus decline and extinction. Ecotourism in the national park may become one of the significant and effective stimuli to support Banteng conservation.

  2. Length and Straightness of the Tubes for the BOS Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured length and straightness of 50 tubes of 3.8~m length, after cleaning, wiring and testing from a batch that was used in the construction of the BOS prototype chamber. The specifi ed length (aluminum tube only, without endplug) was 3800~mm with a tolerance of $\\pm$1~mm. We found a mean value of (3805$\\pm$2)~mm with a standard deviation of (0.3$\\pm$0.1)~mm. The measureme nts of the straightness of the 50 BOS MDT tubes gave a mean of the maximum deviation of 150~$\\mu$m for 10 measured points along the tubes at 0$^{\\circ}$, 90$^{\\circ}$, 180$^{\\circ}$ and 270$^{\\circ }$ around the tube diameter and a mean value of all deviations of 20~$\\mu$m with a measuring accuracy of 10~$\\mu$m.

  3. Bosreservaat Bos Ter Rijst (Heikruis): basisrapport:situering, standplaats, historiek en onderzoek

    OpenAIRE

    Baeté, Hans; Christiaens, Bart; De Keersmaeker, Luc; Esprit, Marc; Van de Kerckhove, Peter; Vandekerkhove, Kris; Walleyn, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    This report is a reference report linked to the monitoring of forest reserve Bos Ter Rijst in Heikruis/Hautecroix near Edingen/Enghien in central Belgium (bilingual region across a linguistic, regional and provincial frontier). It covers various topics:administrative situation and protective status of the reserveits location, soil characteristics and habitatshistorical ecology of the seignory Ter Rijst/Risoir, Ter Rijst/Risoir Wood and the Strijdhout/Strihoux Forestthe reserve's management hi...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis): An Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Samy Sherif; Mohammed Attia; Hatem Bahgaat; Ahmed Kassab

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis) on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints) were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then ...

  5. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Khairiah; I. Zawawi; H. Wahid; Hajarian, H.; Fahrul, F.J.; M.D. Hafiz; Hafiz, M.M.; Z.F. Ann; M.I. Iswadi; O.A. Mazni

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen w...

  6. Genome-Wide Detection and Characterization of Endogenous Retroviruses in Bos taurus ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A...

  7. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Ö. Karatekin; J.-P. Noël; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2014-01-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radi...

  8. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument : the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present ar...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  10. Application of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We build an ultra-high-speed imaging system based on the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique in order to capture a laser-induced underwater shock wave. This BOS technique is able to provide two-dimensional density-gradient field of fluid and requires a simple setup. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high speed video camera, a laser stroboscope, and a patterned background. This system takes images every 0.2 $\\mu$s. Furthermore, since the density change of water disturbed by the shock is exceedingly small, the system has high spatial resolution $\\sim$ 10 $\\mu$m/pixel. Using this BOS system, we examine temporal position of a shock wave. The position agrees well with that measured by conventional shadowgraph, which indicates that the high-speed imaging system can successfully capture the instantaneous position of the underwater shock wave that propagates with the speed of about 1500 m/s. The local density gradient can be determined up to $O$(10$^3$ kg/m$^4$), which is confirmed by the gradient est...

  11. Highly Ordered Structure Formation in RAFT-Synthesized PtBOS-b-P4VP Diblock Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Martin; Hofman, Anton H; Loos, Katja; Brinke, Gerrit Ten

    2016-06-01

    Linear poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PtBOS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The self-assembly of four different PtBOS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers is studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy and a number of interesting observations are made. A tBOS62 -b-4VP28 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.21 shows a disordered morphology of P4VP spheres with liquid-like short-range order despite an estimated value of χN of the order of 50. Increasing the length of the 4VP block to tBOS62 -b-4VP199 results in a diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.66. It forms a remarkably well-ordered lamellar structure. Likewise, a tBOS146 -b-4VP120 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.33 forms an extremely well-ordered hexagonal structure of P4VP cylinders. Increasing the P4VP block of this block copolymer to tBOS146 -b-4VP190 with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.44 results in a bicontinuous gyroid morphology despite the estimated strong segregation of χN≅150. These results are discussed in terms of the architectural dissimilarity of the two monomers, characterized by the presence of the large side group of PtBOS, and the previously reported value of the interaction parameter, χ≅0.39, for this polymer pair. PMID:27079547

  12. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning performance, but the particular cross that produces the calves also should be considered in making breeding decisions. PMID:17235021

  13. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  14. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in Bos grunniens yaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Huiyun; Ma, Yanbin; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Du, Junzheng; Ma, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Background The carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. To investigate the carrier status of FMDV in animals that live in high altitude, Bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with FMDV O/Akesu/58. Results All of the yaks showed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-EL...

  16. Eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial prefixada em rebanhos Bos taurus e Bos indicus Efficacy of the Ovsynch treatment associated to fixed-time artificial insemination in Bos taurus and Bos indicus herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial em tempo prefixado em vacas Bos taurus e Bos indicus. Foram utilizados rebanhos das raças Holandesa, Caracu, Nelore e Mantiqueira. Também foi incluído um rebanho de vacas Gir, com problemas de fertilidade. Cada rebanho foi dividido em três grupos. O grupo 1 recebeu o tratamento Ovsynch e foi inseminado em tempo prefixado. O grupo 2 foi inseminado no cio induzido com cloprostenol. O grupo 3 foi inseminado no cio natural. As taxas de concepção e de prenhez foram determinadas por ultra-sonografia. Não existiu interação significativa das variáveis reprodutivas analisadas para rebanho, idade, período pós-parto, número de parição e presença do bezerro. A taxa de concepção não diferiu (P>0,05 entre os grupos, ao passo que a taxa de prenhez foi superior (PThe present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Ovsynch treatment associated with prefixed-time artificial insemination on Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows. Herds of Holstein, Caracu, Nelore and Mantiqueira breeds were used. A herd of Gir cows with poor reproductive performance was also included. Each breed was divided in tree groups. Group 1 received Ovsynch treatment and was inseminated at prefixed time. Group 2 was induced to estrus with cloprostenol and inseminated thereafter. Group 3 was inseminated at natural heat. Conception and pregnancy rates were determined by ultra-sound. No significant interactions were detected among breeds, age, parity, postpartum period and lactating cows with or without their calves. Conception rates did not differ (P>0.05 among groups while pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05 for group 1 and 2 comparing to group 3. In the Gir herd Ovsynch treatment did not enhance conception nor pregnancy rates. Independently of breed, conception rate is similar after Ovsynch, cloprostenol and control treatments, and pregnancy rate can be improved with

  17. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  18. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ujan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  19. Susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three Bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Gettinby, G; Reid, S W; Murray, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds (Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran and Galana Boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the Nguruman escarpment in south-western Kenya, for a period of 1 year. It was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were less susceptible than Galana Boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, development of less severe anaemia, fewer requirements for trypanocidal drug treatments, higher growth rates and fewer mortalities. In the area where tsetse challenge was considered low as a result of a tsetse fly control operation using odour-baited traps, only the Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were compared. No significant differences in the incidence of infection, degree of anaemia or growth rates were observed between the two breeds, but all were significantly different from their counterparts in the high tsetse challenge area. These results suggest that there is variation in resistance to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds that could be exploited as part of the integrated trypanosomosis control programmes in East Africa. PMID:9777722

  20. "Herontwerp de melkveesector" : duurzaamheid melkveehouderij gaat volgens ASG-onderzoeker Bram Bos verder dan nieuwe stal of duurzamere koe

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; Bos, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bram Bos haalde dit jaar de landelijke pers met uitspraken, dat de Nederlandse koe veel te vroeg naar het slachthuis wordt afgevoerd. Ondanks de stijging van de levensproductie bij afvoer dit jaar, blijft de ASG-onderzoeker kritisch over de levensduur van de koe. ‘Stimuleren van herfstafkalven is slecht voor de levensduur van de koe.’

  1. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in yaks (Bos grunniens) and their public health potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingbo; Cai, Jinzhong; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in a wide range of animals. To date, few data are available on E. bieneusi in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, we examined the occurrence and genotype identity of E. bieneusi in yaks in four counties in Qinghai Province of China. Of 327 fecal specimens examined by nested PCR analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, 23 (7.0%) were E. bieneusi-positive. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the presence of five distinct genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (BEB4, I and J) and two novel genotypes (CHN11 and CHN12) belonging to the large zoonotic group (Group 1). Data of the study suggest that these animals could be potential reservoirs for human E. bieneusi infection. PMID:25040451

  2. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts. PMID:26243573

  3. Analysis of the X-Ray Tomograph Data of the BOS MDT Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Kroha, H; Ostapchuk, A Ya

    1999-01-01

    The complete X-ray tomograph data of the BOS MDT prototype chamber for the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been analyzed. The geometrical parameters of the chamber determined from the average of all X-ray scans are in good agreement with the design values. The spread of the measured wire positions with respect to the fitted wire grid is 17.0 mu (19 mu) RMS in the z coordinate and 18.2 mu (19.3 mu) RMS in y on the readout (high voltage) side. The errors include the average measuring uncertainty of the X-ray tomograph estimated to be 4 mu RMS in z and 6 mu RMS in y from the reproducibility of repeated measurements in the same chamber position.

  4. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  5. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  6. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  7. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf. PMID:17235022

  8. Malignant catarrhal fever-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in young calves (Bos indicus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCR Luvizotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of susceptible ruminants, including domestic cattle (Bos taurus and American bison (Bison bison, with ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 may provoke the fatal vasculitis and lymphoproliferative syndrome, known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, reported worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinical case of MCF-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 infection in young calves (Bos indicus including central nervous symptoms that occurred in Três Lagoas city, Mato Grosso do Sul state, a border town near São Paulo state, Brazil. The diagnosis was based on typical histological lesions characterized by systemic lymphohistiocytic and fibrinoid vasculitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of detected OvHV-2 sequences. This finding indicates that MCF disease is spread among herds concentrated in border areas between Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo states.

  9. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  10. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  11. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    OpenAIRE

    Regodón, S.; Roncero, V

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  12. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  13. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  14. Transcriptome analysis and SNP identification in SCC of horn in (Bos indicus) Indian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Anand B; Dash, Debabrata; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-11-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genome wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of disease, production and performance traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. The main objective of present work was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput sequencing in squamous cell carcinoma of horn. RNA-seq analysis was conducted on 2 tissues viz. Horn Cancer (HC) and Horn Normal (HN) in Kankrej breed of cattle. A total of 909,362 reads with average read length of 405 bp for HC and 583,491 reads with average read length of 411 bp for HN were obtained. We found 9532 and 7065 SNPs as well as 1771 and 1172 Indels in HC and HN, respectively, from which, 7889 SNPs and 1736 Indels were uniquely present in HC, 5886 SNPs and 1146 Indels were uniquely present in HN and reported first time in Bos indicus, whereas the rest are already reported in Bos taurus dbSNP database. The gene-associated SNPs and Indels were high in upregulated genes of HC as compared to HN. Analysis of differentially expressed genes was identified, these genes are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, gene transcription, cell survival and metabolism through various metabolic pathways. The result of transcriptome expression profiling was validated using Real Time quantitative PCR in nine randomly selected genes. We identified numbers aberrant signaling pathways responsible for carcinogenesis in HC which are also commonly altered in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung in human being. We conclude that a large number of altered genes and dysfunction of multiple pathways are involved in the development of Horn Cancer. The present findings contribute to theoretical information for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis of HC as well as SNPs identified in this report provide a much needed resource for genetic

  15. Effects of beta agonists in the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the state of Puebla, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    currently in Mexico about 30 million cattle of which about 15000.000 million are in areas at high risk of infestation and about 5,000,000 million fascioliosis animals are with, if we estimate the economic losses per year gives us an approximate price of 4,500,000,000 pesos are lost annually, on the other hand, the lack of good pasture especially in times of drought in the state are helping farmers are feeding their animals with food additives in this case the betaagonist (clenbuterol and the like ), At present there are several municipal traces at the state level are discarding the livers of cattle producing very large economic losses. been conducted on prevailing level of municipal trail Atlixco (zone endemic to the disease) in the year 2001-02 with a prevalence of 32-33 % While that in 2007 set a precedence of 7% over the same track municipal; this parasitic disease that affects the liver parenchyma and pipelines, affects the metabolic activity of the liver, this organ is one of the most important thing, because it participates in many metabolic pathways, as in the production and secretion of bile, regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins among others. This parasitic disease affects the production of meat and milk in ruminant animals in this very particular case Bos taurus x Bos indicus, the affected animals, these activities are depleted in previous studies have found that animals are fed with food additives such as beta -adrenergic-agonist, whose effect is to produce lipolysis, lipogenesis, are glucoliticos, and glycogen, affecting body composition, favouring neoformation tissue by the redistribution of power, also increasing the release of fatty acids into the blood, facilitating the synthesis of protein and retains the nitrogen fed into skeletal muscle, these components used as food additives are prohibited by federal law nationals (SAGARPA NOM-015-ZOO-2002), as the consumption of meat produced visceral primarily of clinical cases as tachycardia

  16. Contribution of stable isotopes (C,N,S) in collagen of late Pleistocene large mammal trophic ecology and landscape use: a case study in Goyet and Scladina cave (30-40,000 years BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje

    2010-05-01

    Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species

  17. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of polled yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Guo, Xian; Bao, Pengjia; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Generally speaking, the hornless trait is also known as polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1 (Georges et al., 1993; Drögemüller et al., 2005)), and (Liu et al., 2014) reported a 147-kb segment that included three protein-coding genes was the most likely location of the POLL mutation in domestic yaks, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of polled yak was determined for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,324 bp long, with the base composition of 33.72% A, 27.25% T, 25.83% C, and 13.20% G. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene order of polled yak mitogenome is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. The complete mitogenome sequence information of polled yak will provide useful data for further studies on protection of genetic resources and phylogenetic relationships within Bos grunniens. PMID:25347693

  18. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought. PMID:20686017

  19. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. PMID:26481361

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

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    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  1. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  2. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  3. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  4. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  5. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

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    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  6. Rendimiento de la canal en búfalos de río (Bubalus bubalis y Bovinos mestizos (Bos indicus x Bos taurus en el Municipio Bayazo - Canal performance in river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and mixed racial bovines (Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the Bayamo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Reyes, B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de determinar algunas características de rendimientoen canales bufalinas (Bubalus bubalis de animales procedentes delCentro de Ceba El Progreso y compararlas con canales vacunas (Bosindicus x Bos taurus comercializadas, se desarrolló esta investigación en el matadero Jucaibama. Se trabajaron 60 animales enteros de cada especie con edades entre 24 y 32 meses, a los cuales se les determinaron los siguientes parámetros: peso de embarque (Kg.(PE, peso vivo reposo (PV (Kg. peso de la canal en kg. (PC,rendimiento en carne en kg. (RC, rendimiento en carne de primera enKg. (RC1 y rendimiento en carne de segunda en Kg. (RC2. Losresultados fueron para (PE 543,43 y 489,92 arrojando el análisisdiferencias altamente significativas, al igual que para las (PV y (PC que fueron de 527,12 y 474,15; 271,52 y 244,83 para búfalos yvacunos respectivamente. Las variables (RC, (RC1 y (RC2 nomostraron diferencias significativas, sus valores fueron 167,37 y171,93; 88,7 y 91,12; 76,66 y 78,74 para canales bubalinas yvacunas. Se concluye que los búfalos presentaron pesos mayores alsacrificio y de canal que los vacunos evaluados. El búfalo presentómayores rendimientos en carne, parámetros que indican que tiene laposibilidad de desarrollar mayor masa muscular que sus competidoresvacunos.SummaryThis research was carried out in the drudgery Jucaibama of determining some quality characteristics in the buffaloes meat(Bubalus bubalis of animal that belong to the feeding place ElProgreso. These characteristics are compare with the ones of the beefcattle (Bos indicus x taurus that are commercialized. 60 whole maleanimals of each species were taken as sample. They were about 24and 32 months old and they were determine the following parameters:Shipment weight (Kg., weight after twelve hours, meat weight, meatservility and servility of the best showed highly significant differences, just as the ones for (PV and (PC whose results were 527,12 and 474

  7. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  8. Equivalencia entre modelos fermiónicos y bosónicos bidimensionales: el método funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Naón, Carlos María

    1986-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es el de aplicar el método funcional al estudio sistemático de la equivalencia entre modelos fermiónicos y bosónicos en dos dimensiones del espacio-tiempo. En el Capítulo 2 se presentan los resultados ya conocidos sobre el procedimiento de bosonización mediante el método operacional. Se reseñan los resultados fundamentales de Lowenstein y Swieca sobre el modelo de Schwinger ( sin masa ); se estudia el problema de la rotura espontánea de la simetría quiral global, ...

  9. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Moré, Gastón; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Schares, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based on unverifiable evidence, it was suggested that the same parasite infects cattle. In addition, S. sinensis was recently declared as nomen nudum because its naming violated the rules of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Thus, the fourth species using cattle as an intermediate host does not have a valid name. Here, we propose a new name, Sarcocystis rommeli for the S. sinensis-like parasite from cattle in Argentina, and differentiate it ultrastructurally from S. hominis sarcocysts from experimentally infected cattle. Sarcocystis rommeli sarcocysts were microscopic with a 5-μm-thick wall with slender villar protrusions (Vp); the Vp were up to 5 μm long, up to 0.5 μm wide, and of uneven thickness, often bent at an angle. The ground substance layer (Gs) was up to 0.8 μm thick and smooth. Vesicular structures were seen at the base of the Vp. The bradyzoites were 10-12 μm long. Sarcocystis hominis sarcocysts had Vp that were often upright, up to 7.5 μm long, and up to 1.8 μm wide; the Gs was up to 2 μm thick and without vesicles. Its sarcocyst wall was up to 5.6 μm thick, the vp were bent at an angle, up to 5.8 μm long, the Gs was up to 2 μm thick, but without vesicles seen in S. rommeli. Beef containing sarcocysts of S. rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. PMID:26111603

  10. Mitochondrial control region genetic diversity and maternal ancestry of a Brangus-Ibage cattle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Ernani Henkes; Wilson Araújo Silva Jr; José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes; Tania de Azevedo Weimer

    2005-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence) was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus) as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus). Fifty-seven mutations were found in Brangus-Ibage comprising 18 haplotypes (haplotype diversity, h = 0.851 ± 0.041 and nucleotide diversity, ntd = 0.009 ± 0.006) and 66 in Nellore (h = 1.00 ± 0.27, ntd = 0.0...

  11. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  12. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  13. Verantwoordelijkheden bij risico- en crisisbeheersing van bos- en natuurbranden : taken en bevoegdheden bij risicoberheersing, bestrijding, nazorg en herstel en een overzicht van de hiaten in regelgeving en taakverdeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffe, van J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007/2008 is gekeken welke partijen een rol spelen bij de risico- en crisisbeheersing van (grote) bos- en natuurbranden, wat hun rol precies is en welke taken en bevoegdheden ze hebben. Ook is geïnventariseerd welke hiaten er zijn in de bestaande taakverdeling en regelgeving. Hiaten die de oorzaa

  14. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  15. Bos taurus genome sequence reveals the assortment of immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes in domestic cattle

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    Liljavirta Jenni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assortment of cattle immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes has been extracted from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome sequence as a part of an international effort to sequence and annotate the bovine genome. Results 63 variable lambda chain and 22 variable kappa chain genes were identified and phylogenetically assigned to 8 and 4 subgroups, respectively. The specified phylogenetic relationships are compatible with the established ruminant light chain variable gene families or subgroups. Because of gaps and uncertainties in the assembled genome sequence, the number of genes might change in the future versions of the genome sequence. In addition, three bovine surrogate light chain genes were identified. The corresponding cDNAs were cloned and the expression of the surrogate light chain genes was demonstrated from fetal material. Conclusion The bovine kappa gene locus is compact and simple which may reflect the preferential use of the lambda chain in cattle. The relative orientation of variable and joining genes in both loci are consistent with a deletion mechanism in VJ joining. The orientation of some variable genes cannot be determined from the data available. The number of functional variable genes is moderate when compared to man or mouse. Thus, post-recombinatorial mechanisms might contribute to the generation of the bovine pre-immune antibody repertoire. The heavy chains probably contribute more to recombinational immunoglobulin repertoire diversity than the light chains but the heavy chain locus could not be annotated from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome.

  16. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

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    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  17. Sequenciamento e análise dos genes das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de bovino (Bos taurus indicus Sequencing and analysis of subunits alpha and beta of the follicle stimulating hormone from bovine (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Sayori Murata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata uma clonagem e seqüenciamento das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de Bos taurus indicus. Também apresenta os resultados de comparação realizada das seqüências gênicas dessas cadeias com as seqüências das cadeias alfa e beta do FSH de suínos e da cadeia beta de bovinos Bos taurus taurus já presentes no GenBank. Na comparação das seqüências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos predita da cadeia αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com as cadeias αFSH de outras espécies como suínos e búfalo (Bubalis bubalis, observou-se que as seqüências são bastante similares. A comparação da seqüência da subunidade αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com a de suíno demonstrou diferenças em três resíduos de aminoácidos. Na comparação com ßFSH, registrou-se modificação na primeira base do codon que levou à alteração no resíduo do aminóacido 83, que, em Bos taurus indicus, é uma glicina, ao invés da serina presente em Bos taurus taurus. Confirmaram-se essa modificação e todas as outras identificadas na seqüência dos cDNA das cadeias αFSH e βFSH em outra clonagem. A modificação Ser para Gly na posição 83 foi a única que alterou a identidade do resíduo de aminoácido na comparação entre as subunidades beta do FSH de Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus. Contudo, ela não deve alterar significativamente as propriedades fisiológicas do FSH, uma vez que o resíduo de glicina encontrado nessa posição também é encontrado na cadeia βFSH suína. Trata-se, portanto, de uma modificação particular que distingue as cadeias βFSH de B. taurus taurus e B. taurus indicus.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovino, clonagem, FSH, hormônio.

    The aim this work was to promove the cloning and analysis sequencing

  18. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near ...

  19. An Overview of the Antecedents and Consequences of Abandoned Residential Housing Projects in Malaysia – A solution from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasyim Hj. Mumin; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2015-01-01

    The issue of abandoned residential housing projects in Malaysia is a matter that should be given more importance in the country. This study aims to identify what are the causes, examine how it affects affected home buyers, and to suggest the solutions from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective. To achieve the goals, this study focused on reviewing relevant literatures and observing the site of abandoned housing projects. From the review of the literatures, the main objective is to find out wh...

  20. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural selection has molded the evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically ad...

  1. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  2. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  3. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  4. Analysis of host genetic factors influencing African trypanosome species infection in a cohort of Tanzanian Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Turner, C Michael R; Kambarage, Dominic M; Ballingall, Keith T

    2011-06-30

    Trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many African countries. One hundred and seventy one Bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral Maasai (87) and more intensively managed Boran (84) animals in Tanzania were screened by PCR for the presence of African animal trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on FTA cards. All cattle screened for trypanosomes were also genotyped at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 locus to investigate possible associations between host MHC and trypanosome infection. Overall, 23.4% of the 171 cattle tested positive for at least one of the three trypanosome species. The prevalence of individual trypanosome species was 8.8% (T. congolense), 4.7% (T. vivax) and 15.8% (T. brucei). The high prevalence of T. brucei compared with T. congolense and T. vivax was unexpected as this species has previously been considered to be of lesser importance in terms of African bovine trypanosomosis. Significantly higher numbers of Maasai cattle were infected with T. brucei (23.0%, p=0.009) and T. congolense (13.8%, p=0.019) compared with Boran cattle (8.3% and 3.6%, respectively). Analysis of BoLA-DRB3 diversity in this cohort identified extensive allelic diversity. Thirty-three BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP defined alleles were identified. One allele (DRB3*15) was significantly associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, OR=2.71, p=0.034) of T. brucei infection and three alleles (DRB3*35, *16 and *23) were associated with increased risk of T. congolense infection. While further work is required to dissect the role of these alleles in susceptibility to T. brucei and T. congolense infections, this study demonstrates the utility of FTA archived blood samples in combined molecular analyses of both host and pathogen. PMID:21377802

  5. Age-related changes in the morphology and protein expression of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Kun; Yangyang, Pan; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu; Cui, Yan

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology and expression of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), S100 β, and caspase-3 of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens). ANIMALS 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES Yaks were allocated to 3 groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old, 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]) and euthanized. The thymus was harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia. Morphological characteristics were assessed by histologic examination and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of CD3, S100 β, and caspase-3 mRNA and protein was measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS As age increased, functional thymic tissue was replaced with adipose and connective tissues and the thymic capsule thickened. Expression of CD3 and S100 β mRNA and protein decreased with age, whereas expression of caspase-3 mRNA and protein increased with age. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD3-positive thymocytes were located within both the thymic cortex and medulla, S100 β-positive thymic dendritic cells were located in the corticomedullary junction and medulla, and caspase-3-positive thymocytes were diffusely scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that age-related thymic changes in yaks that live on highland plateaus were similar to those observed in humans and other mammals. Thus, yaks might serve as a model to study thymic immune system adaptations to high elevations. PMID:27227493

  6. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  7. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  8. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros; Welder Angelo Baldassini; Victor Augusto Domingos Dias; Josineudson Augusto II Vasconcelos da Silva; Rogério Abdalah Curi; Luiz Artur Loyola Chardulo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT) on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus). Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3) and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6). Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsat...

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide Production as a Limiting Factor in Xenobiotic Compound Oxidation by Nitrogen-Sufficient Cultures of Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55 Overproducing Peroxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.; Wasseveld, R. A.; Field, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overproduction of ligninolytic peroxidase by the N-deregulated white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 under nitrogen-sufficient conditions had no noteworthy effect on the oxidation of anthracene or the decolorization of the polymeric aromatic dye Poly R-478 in 6-day-old cultures. Only when the endogenous production of H(inf2)O(inf2) was increased by the addition of extra oxygen and glucose could a 2.5-fold increase in the anthracene oxidation rate and a 6-fold increase in the Poly ...

  10. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P Angus heifers had significantly faster respiration rates than Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different between Brahman and Senepol on the hottest summer date. On this date, rectal temperature did not differ between Brahman and Senepol, which supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship

  11. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Demeterco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  12. Visualization of Flow Separation Around an Atmospheric Entry Capsule at Low-Subsonic Mach Number Using Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen E.; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization of separated flow around a generic entry capsule that resembles the Apollo Command Module (CM) and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The model was tested at flow speeds up to Mach 0.4 at a single angle of attack of 28 degrees. For manned spacecraft using capsule-shaped vehicles, certain flight operations such as emergency abort maneuvers soon after launch and flight just prior to parachute deployment during the final stages of entry, the command module may fly at low Mach number. Under these flow conditions, the separated flow generated from the heat-shield surface on both windward and leeward sides of the capsule dominates the wake flow downstream of the capsule. In this paper, flow visualization of the separated flow was conducted using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method, which has the capability of visualizing significantly separated wake flows without the particle seeding required by other techniques. Experimental results herein show that BOS has detection capability of density changes on the order of 10(sup-5).

  13. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  14. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  15. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdirahman A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence

  16. Energy requirements and cow/calf efficiency of Nellore and Continental and British Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Lanna, D P D

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this work was to compare breed types with increasing percentage of Bos taurus on cow/calf energy requirements and preweaning efficiency. Forty mature, lactating, nonpregnant cows [10 Nellore (NL), 10 Canchim x Nellore (CN), 10 Angus x Nellore (AN), and 10 Simmental x Nellore (SN)] were randomized in blocks by calving date. Calves from cross-bred cows were sired by Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu), whereas calves from NL cows were sired by Nellore bulls. Cows were individually fed a pelleted diet with 50% hay (alfalfa and coastcross) and 50% concentrate from calving to weaning (20 to 180 d post-partum). Estimated diet ME content was 2.24 Mcal/kg of DM. Individual cow DMI was adjusted every 14 d to keep shrunk BW and BCS constant. Shrunk BW and BCS were 430 +/- 12 kg and 4.7 +/- 0.09 for NL, 449 +/- 10 kg and 4.8 +/- 0.09 for CN, 496 +/- 10 kg and 5.0 +/- 0.09 for AN, and 507 +/- 12 kg and 5.1 +/- 0.09 for SN. At 40 d calves were allowed ad libitum access to the same diet. Milk yield was recorded using a weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Increasing B. taurus percentage had a linear effect (P body composition was estimated at weaning using the 9-10-11th-rib section. Retained energy (Mcal) was greater (P < 0.05) in 1/4A (384 +/- 19.9) than in Nellore (298 +/- 21.6) and 3/4C calves (312 +/- 19.8), and was intermediate in 1/4S calves (333 +/- 21.6). Cow/calf energetic efficiency (kcal deposited/Mcal of MEI by the pair) was greater (P < 0.05) for AN (103 +/- 5.3) than NL (84.9 +/- 5.9), CN (83 +/- 5.3), and SN pairs (83.5 +/- 6.1). Difference (P < 0.05) between Continental and British crosses was shown in linear contrasts; SN pairs had greater MEI and lower retained energy than AN. Increasing the B. taurus percentage increased inputs as well as outputs. However, a relatively greater increase in outputs resulted in significantly greater preweaning efficiency. Purebred Nellore had lower ME requirements; however, in an environment without nutritional

  17. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (pBrahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  18. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  19. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  20. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  1. Immunocastration of Bos indicus x Brown Swiss bulls in feedlot with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine Bopriva provides improved performance and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Jackson, J A; Stegner, J; King, V; Rubio, L M S; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a GnRH vaccine on feedlot performance and meat quality in Bos indicus Zebu × Brown Swiss bulls. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 1,600 bulls allocated by BW into 4 groups of ≈ 400 animals. The GnRH vaccine (Bopriva) was injected on d 0 and 42, and anabolic implants given on d 0 (Component E-S) and d 84 (Synovex Choice). Group designations were: Con = placebo control; Imp = implants alone; Vac = GnRH vaccine alone; and Vac+Imp = GnRH vaccine together with implants. The second GnRH vaccination at d 42 resulted in elevated titers of IgG antibody and suppressed concentrations of testosterone in vaccinated groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) at d 56 (P Meat quality of bulls receiving the GnRH vaccine was improved irrespective of implant status, with a 1.6- to 2.6-fold increase in the proportion of bulls in groups Vac and Vac+Imp, respectively, grading as USDA Choice (P Meat tenderness was improved in the vaccine groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) compared with groups Con and Imp (P meat quality, with or without implants, and in particular, better USDA carcass grading and loin fat cover. PMID:22665672

  2. Muon-spin relaxation study of the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B  =  Fe, Y, ln)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. C.; Xiao, F.; Thomas, I. O.; Clark, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Cornish, G. A.; Blundell, S. J.; Hayes, W.; Paul, A. K.; Felser, C.; Jansen, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of zero-field muon-spin relaxation measurements made on the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B=\\text{Fe},\\text{Y},\\text{In} ). Spontaneous muon-spin precession indicative of quasistatic long range magnetic ordering is observed in Sr2FeOsO6 within the AF1 antiferromagnetic phase for temperatures below {{T}\\text{N}}=135+/- 2 K. Upon cooling below {{T}2}≈ 67 K the oscillations cease to be resolvable owing to the coexistence of the AF1 and AF2 phases, which leads to a broader range of internal magnetic fields. Using density functional calculations we identify a candidate muon stopping site within the unit cell, which dipole field simulations show to be consistent with the proposed magnetic structure. The possibility of incommensurate magnetic ordering is discussed for temperatures below {{T}\\text{N}}=53 K and 25 K for Sr2YOsO6 and Sr2InOsO6, respectively.

  3. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sodhi; M. Mukesh; B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. C. Sobti

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50°C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient $(F_{\\text{IS}} = 0.39)$. The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  4. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  5. Differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J.; Fritz, J.; Kienzle, E.; Medici, E P; Lang, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Streich, W J; Clauss, M

    2008-01-01

    Data from captive animals indicated that browsing (BR) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (GR). To answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (MPS) in a GR and a BR ruminant (aurox Bos primigenius taurus, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a GR and a BR hindgut fermenter (Przewalski's...

  6. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. PMID:27118515

  7. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  8. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East.Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17 and Domiaty (N = 14, from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed.Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s; (ii haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  9. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3 and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6. Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and physical (cold carcass weight, rib eye area, and marbling score characteristics of the meat were evaluated. Additionally, shear force and sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and juiciness were analyzed. Marbling score and intramuscular fat content were considered low for the two BFT classes. The mean values of the characteristics studied did not differ (P>0.05 between BFT classes, except for fatty acids, with the observation of higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the BFT-6 class. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sensory characteristics between BFT classes. The most consistent relationship was observed between the myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, measured as shear force, in animals with greater BFT (BFT-6 class compared to animals with lower BFT (BFT-3 class, suggesting possible tenderness problems in animals with a leaner carcass. The observation of a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in animals with greater BFT suggests an increase in the sensory perception of meat, especially flavor.

  10. 杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)朊蛋白基因的分子克隆及其序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequences Characteristics Analysis of the Prion Protein Gene from the Hybrids between Gayal (Bos frontalis)and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘情; 席冬梅; 陈学礼; 李继中; 杨舒黎; 邓卫东

    2012-01-01

    朊蛋白(prion protein,PRNP)基因编码朊蛋白,是引起疯牛病的主效基因.本研究利用PCR方法首次从杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)基因组中扩增了PRNP基因,GenBank登录号为HQ875337.PCR产物直接双向测序表明,该序列包含杂交牛PRNP基因795 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码264个氨基酸前体蛋白.生物信息学分析结果发现,该蛋白包含1个信号肽、3个α螺旋、2个β折叠、6个八肽重复序列、1个疏水区域、1个二硫键和1个糖基磷脂酰肌醇锚定位点.与已报道的其他牛PRNP基因进行序列比对分析,核苷酸和氨基酸的同源性均在97%以上.%The priori protein was encoded by the prion protein (PRNP) gene which was the major gene for affecting mad cow disease or BSE. In the present study, the PCR method was used to amplify the PRNP gene from the hybrids between Gay-al (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The sequence was deposited in the GenBank under accession number HQ875337. The PCR products were sequenced bi-directly. By sequence analysis,the length of open read frame (ORF) of the PRNP gene was 795 bp, which encodes a protein of 264 amino acids,including a signal region,a octapeptide repeat,three α-heli-ces.two β-sheets,a hydrophobic region,a disulfide bridge, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor site. The homology of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences with other cattle was more than 97%. All this will provide the molecular basal data for breakthrough of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among different animal species.

  11. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (Pcows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (Pmilk as compared with Sahiwal cows during lactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at

  12. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinsch Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The somatic cell score (SCS is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18. In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833 in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A. Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9 to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A with SCS. For this

  13. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  14. How to Implement Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS in B2B Sector Kaip įgyvendinti žydrųjų vandenynų strategiją (ŽVS sektoriuje „verslas – verslui“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejs Čirjevskis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to confirm the hypothesis that BOS is viable in the B2B sectors. The objects of research are two business entities: world’s lead­ing suppliers of construction chemicals and manufacturer of purification equip­ment. Authors posed first research question is BOS a suitable within construction chemicals and purification equipment manufacturers’ industries? Second research question was about how to evaluate acceptability of new strategic choice on BOS? Third research question was how to diagnosis organisational hurdles on BOS implementation? Research has confirmed the hypothesis and suggested application of innovation value chain to diagnosing company’s ability to implement value in­novation.

    Tyrimo tikslas patvirtina hipotezę, kad ŽVS yra gyvybinga B2B sektoriuose. Tyrimo objektai yra du verslo subjektai: pasaulyje pirmaujantys statybos chemikalų tiekėjai ir valymo įrenginių gamintojai. Autorių keliamas pirmasis mokslinių tyrimų klausimas – ar ŽVS yra tinkama statybos chemikalų ir valymo įrenginių gamintojų pramonei? Antrasis mokslinių tyrimų klausimas – apie tai, kaip įvertinti naujo strateginio pasirinkimo

  15. Population-level genotyping of coat colour polymorphism in woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Claire; Dalen, Love; Vartanyan, Sergey; Shapiro, Beth; Kosintsev, Pavel; Sher, Andrei; Gotherstrom, Anders; Barnes, Ian

    2011-08-01

    Patterns in the spatial or temporal distribution of genotypes may be indicative of natural selection. Previous work on the woolly mammoth melanocortin-1 receptor ( Mc1r) gene identified three polymorphic positions that suggest Pleistocene populations may have harboured both light- and dark-haired mammoths ( Rompler et al., 2006, 313: 62). Here, we extend this work and present the first population-level analysis of a functional gene in an extinct species. We genotyped the Mc1r gene in 47 woolly mammoth samples excavated from sites across the central portion of the woolly mammoths' former range to examine the extent of variation of this polymorphism through time and across space. Only one individual was found to be heterozygous, indicating that the frequency of the 'light' mutant allele was very low. We conclude that light-coloured woolly mammoths would have been very rare, and may even have been non-existent if the 'light' mutant allele was strongly selected against in its homozygotic form. With the increasing availability of large-scale sequencing technologies, population-level datasets capable of identifying local adaptation will become increasingly attainable.

  16. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de contrafilé (músculo L. dorsi provenientes de 26 bovinos, sendo 14 Polled Hereford (HH, sete 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N e cinco 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, machos castrados, abatidos aos dois anos de idade, foram coletadas 24 h após o abate e analisadas quanto à atividade de calpastatina e textura, tanto no 1o dia post mortem quanto após um período de maturação de 10 dias a 2o C. A atividade de calpastatina foi determinada pelo ensaio de inibição da m-calpaína e a textura através da força de cisalhamento (Warner-Bratzler. A carne de novilhos 5/8H3/8N apresentou, no 1o dia, maiores (p0,05 entre os grupos HH e 3/4H1/4N para as mesmas características. Após 10 dias, houve uma diferença na atividade de calpastatina, porém não significativa (p>0,05, entre o grupo 5/8H3/8N (1,57U/g e os demais (HH=1,23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1,35U/g, e diferença significativa entre os grupos HH e 5/8H3/8N para força de cisalhamento (3,67 e 5,00kg, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a atividade de calpastatina determinada 24 h post mortem pode ser útil para a previsão da textura da carne, maturada ou não, em programas de melhoramento genético, e que a participação crescente do genótipo Bos indicus nos rebanhos da Região Sul, a par das conhecidas vantagens zootécnicas, poderá resultar em carne de pior textura.Boneless rib steaks (L. dorsi muscle from 26 two years old steers, 14 Polled Hereford, seven 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N and five 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, were collected 24 hs after slaughter and analysed for calpastatin activity and texture at the 1st day post mortem and at the 10th day of aging at 2o C. Calpastatin activity was determined by m-calpain inhibition assay and texture by shear force (Warner-Bratzler. Beef from 5/8H3/8N steers showed higher (p0.05 were detected in the same traits between groups HH and 3/4H1/4N. After 10 days of aging, there was a difference in calpastatin activity, although non

  17. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus, INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893 DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Schenki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, Babesia bigemina, parasitemia, bioquímica sérica.

  18. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (PBrangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  19. Perfil de ácidos grasos en leche de vacas Chinampas (Bos taurus alimentadas con forraje fresco de matorral sarcocaulescente o heno de alfalfa Fatty acids profile in milk of Chinampo cows (Bos taurus fed fresh forage from sarcocaulescent shrubs or alfalfa hay

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    R Ortega-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la concentración de ácidos grasos (AG en la leche de vacas Chinampas, con énfasis en los ácidos grasos conjugados (CLA. Se colectó una muestra manual de leche (10 ml de 32 vacas entre los 60 y 120 días de lactación. Un grupo (FV; n = 25 se alimentó en pastoreo con forraje verde durante la estación de lluvias de septiembre a octubre de 2009 en una zona semiárida de matorral sarcocaulescente (Municipio La Paz, B.C.S.. Otro grupo (HA; n = 7 se mantuvo en corral y se alimentó con heno de alfalfa. El análisis cromatográfico revela que la concentración de AG saturados fue menor (P The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of fatty acids (FA in the milk of Chinampo cows (Bos taurus, with emphasis on conjugated fatty acids (CLA. A sample of 10 ml was collected from 32 cows that had been lactating at least 60 days, but not longer than 120 days. A group (FV, n = 25 was free-ranged grazed on green fresh pasture (sarcocaulescent shrub semiarid area, La Paz, B.C.S. during the wet season (September-October 2009. The second group (HA, n = 7 was penned and fed fodder of alfalfa hay. The FA analysis revealed that there were less saturated FA in the FV group (P < 0.05. This difference was basically explained by the lesser content of 14:0, 15:0, and 16:0. The concentration of total monounsaturated FA was higher in FV (P < 0.05, given by the higher concentration of 18:1 n-9 and 18:1 n-7 trans-11. The total concentration of polyunsaturated FA was similar for both groups, but there was a higher concentration of 18:2 n-6 and 18:2 n-7 cis-9 trans-11 in the FV group (P < 0.01. The proportion of omega-3 FA was similar for both groups, but the concentration of omega-6 FA was higher in FV (P < 0.01, resulting in an increased omega-6:omega-3 ratios in the FV group compared to HA. It is concluded that Chinampo cows left to free-range on fresh green pasture reduced the total saturated FA of

  20. Definition of the cattle killer cell Ig-like receptor gene family: Comparison with aurochs and human counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Nicholas D; Norman, Paul J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Ellis, Shirley A; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D E; Magee, David A; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G.; MacHugh, David E; Parham, Peter; Hammond, John A

    2014-01-01

    Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene fa...

  1. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle

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    Hayes Ben

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus. We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in beef (Angus and dairy (Holstein cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Results Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90% and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. Conclusion These results suggest that a large effective population size (Ne of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1–2 million years ago (MYA. More recently Ne decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent Ne in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection

  2. Efecto de la progesterona natural con o sin la adición de benzoato de estradiol sobre la presentación de celo, ovulación y gestación en animales tipo Bos indicus en el trópico mexicano Effect of natural progesterone with and without estradiol benzoate on the onset signs of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in Bos indicus cattle raised under mexican tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un dispositivo intravaginal que contiene 1.9 g de progesterona y una cápsula de 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE (CIDR-B®, seguido o no de la aplicación intramuscular de BE, a las 24 horas de retirado el dispositivo, y se observó el porcentaje de estro, ovulación y gestación. Se utilizaron 122 vacas (experimento 1 y 30 novillas (experimento 2 tipo Bos indicus, que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tres grupos:Grupo ST: 20 vacas y 10 novillas sin tratamiento; Grupo CIDR-BE: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días respectivamente; y Grupo CIDRB+ E: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días, además de una inyección a las 24 horas de 1 ó 2 mg de BE. La detección de estros se realizó mediante la observación visual, haciéndose durante 96 horas después de retirar el CIDR-B, y posteriormente entre los 17 a 24 días posteriores a cada período de servicios, hasta concluir los 90 días que duró el empadre. Las que presentaron estro entre los días 0 a 47 fueron servidas por IA y las que lo presentaron del 48 al 90 por monta natural. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para medir niveles de progesterona para corroborar ovulación. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal y ultrasonografía. Las variables categóricas se analizaron mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas mediante t de Student. Las condiciones reproductivas previas de las vacas se relacionaron con celos, ovulación y gestación con un modelo lineal logarítmico del Proc CATMOD, SAS. En ambos experimentos el grupo CIDR-B+E presentó un alto porcentaje de estro, 92.2 y 90.0% para vacas y novillas, siendo diferente (pThe effect of a intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone and one capsule of 10 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (CIDR-B was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Upon withdrawal, calculations regarding estrous rate, ovulation and pregnancy were considered. 122 Bos

  3. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  4. Mitochondrial control region genetic diversity and maternal ancestry of a Brangus-Ibage cattle populations

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    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus. Fifty-seven mutations were found in Brangus-Ibage comprising 18 haplotypes (haplotype diversity, h = 0.851 ± 0.041 and nucleotide diversity, ntd = 0.009 ± 0.006 and 66 in Nellore (h = 1.00 ± 0.27, ntd = 0.014 ± 0.012. These data indicated sequence identities of 99.6 and 92.1% between the B. p. taurus' reference sequence and Brangus-Ibage and Nellore, respectively. The comparison of our data with sequence data for 612 individuals recovered from GenBank showed a total of 205 haplotypes defined by 99 polymorphic sites. Most of the variability (53% was due to differentiation within breeds. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method showed clearly the well-known dichotomy between B. p. taurus and B. p. indicus. The Brangus-Ibage clustered with B. p. taurus lineages; however, the displacement of Nellore from B. p. indicus branch probably indicates a substantial B. p. taurus maternal ancestry in some Nellore samples (obtained from GenBank and reflects the primarily male-driven introduction of this breed in Brazil.

  5. Etniske minoriteters bosætning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Sølvi Karin

    Etniske minoriteter synes at samles i bestemte dele af boligbestanden og i bestemte boligområder. Hvorfor forholder det sig sådan? Forskningen viser, at forklaringerne er sammensatte. I denne rapport gøres rede for udvalgte danske og udenlandske undersøgelser vedrørende etniske minoriteters...

  6. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  7. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  8. 牦牛HSP27基因的克隆及其在雌性生殖器官中的表达%Cloning of Bos Grunniens HSP27 Gene and Its Expression in the Female Yak Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翃闳; 崔燕; 潘阳阳; 樊江峰; 胡威; 张译夫; 刘鹏刚; 李秦; 余四九

    2015-01-01

    determined that the atom number, molecular formula, calculated molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of the encoded protein were 2366, C747H1189N205O220S5, 16.722 kD, and 5.33 respectively. The HSP27 encoded protein of HSP27 was predicted to be a type of soluble and non-transmembrane protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the HSP27 gene nucleotide sequence of yak was similar to those ofBos taurus(99.8%),Bubalus bubalis(98.4%),Ovis aries(97.8%),Pantholops hodgsonii(97.6%),Orcinus orca(90.3%),Camelus ferus(89.7%),Sus scrofa(89.7%),Equus caballus (86.7%),Canis lupus(86.7%),Homo sapiens(85.5%) andGorilla gorilla(85.3%). The similarity of resulting amino acid sequence of HSP27 gene between yak andbos taurus, bubalus bubalis, ovis aries pantholops hodgsonii, orcinus orca, camelus ferus sus scrofa, equus caballus, canis lupus, homo sapiensand gorilla gorilla were 100%、100%、100%、100%、96.3%、100%、96.8%、100%、100%、96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree indicated that HSP27 gene of yak was close to bos taurus, bubalus bubalis, ovis aries and pantholops hodgsonii, but far from canis lupus, gorilla gorillaand homo sapiens. Moreover, the RT-qPCR indicated that HSP27 gene expressed universally in ovary, oviduct and uterus tissues during all reproductive periods, including follicular, luteal and pregnancy phases. The gene had its highest expression level in the follicle at follicle phase and its lowest expression in uterus in the luteal phase. In addition, the expression level of HSP27 gene in ovary was significantly higher than in the uterus during each of the different stages of the reproductive cycle. Its expression in ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus changed dramatically because of pregnancy.[Conclusion]It is concluded from the present study that HSP27 gene in the yak is highly conservative in mammalian evolution according to the comparative nucleotide sequence analysis.. Analyzing HSP27 gene expression in central reproductive

  9. The multifaceted origin of taurine cattle reflected by the mitochondrial genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Achilli

    Full Text Available A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3 of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3% that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved.

  10. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

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    Álan Maia Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of h

  11. Construction of Bovine (Bos taurus) Transgenic Cloned Embryos with Lysostaphin and Endolysin Genes by Electronic Transfection%电转染法制备奶牛转溶葡球菌酶(Lysostaphin)和内溶素(Endolysin)基因胚胎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 杜卫华; 郝海生; 刘岩; 秦彤; 赵学明; 王栋; 朱化彬; 王宗礼

    2013-01-01

    Lysostaphin is a single chain protease containing zinc which can kill staphylococcus aureus effectively. Endolysin which is the peculiar of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is a murein hydrolytic enzyme, it has a wide range of antibacterial effect. Lysostaphin and Endolysin have the high synergistic effect. In this study, the vectors pBCl-seq2 +seq3-EGFP-neo containing Endolysin and Lysostaphin genes and two other marker genes of enhenced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) andneomycin (neo) were transfected into bovine (Bos taurus) fetal fibroblast by electroporation and nucleofector of AMAXA. Stable transfected monoclonal cells which were identified to be the positive-cells in the way of PCR technique were obtained through fluorescence and G418 selection. Using transfected cells as the donor, transfected embryos were produced with somatic cell nuclear transfer, we used different conditions of AMAXA nuleofecor(A-023,V-013, V-023 and T-016) to transfect bovine fetal fibroblast, the results showed the suitable program was T-016. There were 5 times transfection efficient of AMAXA nuleofecor (20.11%) than it of electroporation. The blastocyst developed normally and the rate was of it 20.08%. In our study, we built up bovine fetal fibroblast cell line, sought out transfection parameter of high transfection efficiency, and acquired transgenic cell lines and transgenic blastocyst containing Lysostaphin and Endolysin genes, In conclusion, the results can provide technology supporting for producing anti-mastitis transgenic bovine and searching the new therapy way of mastitis.%溶葡球菌酶(Lysostaphin)是一种含锌的单链蛋白酶,能有效地杀灭金黄色葡萄球菌.内溶素(Endolysin)是双链DNA噬菌体所特有,是一类胞壁质水解酶,具有广泛的抗菌效果.内溶素与抗生素之间有高效的协同作用.本研究通过BTX电转染和AMAXA核转染的方法将含有溶葡球菌酶(Lysostaphin)和内溶素(Endolysin)两个目的基因(Seq2

  12. COWS AND GOATS AS SENTINELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LEAD (Pb BURDEN IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

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    Udiba Udiba Ugumanim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLLs is considered as a good indicator of current body burden of the toxic metal. Assessment of BLLs of white Fulani cattle(Bos primigenius indicusand red Sokoto goats (Capra aegagrus hircus grazed freely on open pastures in Zaria was carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry using Shimadzu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (model AA-6800, Japan after wet digestion to evaluate the potential effects of the metal on the animals, the toxicological implication of consuming this major source of animal protein by humans and most importantly as an indirect measure of the lead pollution status of Zaria ecological geochemical environment. The blood lead levels of Bos primigenius indicus ranged from a minimum of 0.62 mg/l to a maximum of 2.28 mg/l with a mean value of 1.36±0.48 mg/l. On the other hand, blood lead levels of Capra aegagrus hircus ranged between 0.26 mg/l and 1.56 mg/l with a mean value of 0.89±0.43mg/l. The BLLs of both cows and goats were found to exceed the allowable limit for the elements in blood of food animals indicating that cows and goats grazed freely on open pastures in Zaria metropolis are not safe for human consumption. Routine monitoring of the heavy metal in plant and animal products is therefore recommended to safeguard human health. Most importantly, the study indicates the presence of elevated levels of environmental lead in Zaria ecological geochemical environment.

  13. Pimply gut condition in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, J K; Pegu, S R; Raina, O K; Siju, S J; Sakhrie, A; Deka, Anil; Rajkhowa, C

    2016-06-01

    The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33 %) aging between 1 and 1.5 years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves. PMID:27413288

  14. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  15. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY (BOS SEBAGAI PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

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    Ikhwan Fuad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to describe the Blue Ocean Strategy as a new paradigm of Islamic education management. the author seeks to elaborate on how the adoption of the Blue Ocean strategy of the business world to the world of education and answered the principles of what is accepted and rejected away from the theory. Adoption of blue ocean strategy is done by applying the universal principles are : among others reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the big picture rather than numbers, reach beyond existing demand, perform a series of strategies with appropriate, efforts to overcome organizational constraints and integrate execution into strategy. The principles of Blue Ocean Strategy Indicators that can be absorbed is an indicator that focuses gave excellent service and were not absorbed is a strong indicator of economic motivation. Generally, Blue Ocean Strategy quite well applied as a management paradigm of Islamic education.

  16. De prijsvorming van hout uit het Nederlandse bos.

    OpenAIRE

    Slangen, L.G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the price formation of home- grown Dutch timber. First, Dutch forestry is typified. Then, the functions and structure of the roundwood trade are discussed. An econometric model is specified in order to analyse the factors that determine the 'passing on', the market mechanism and the price formation of Dutch timber and timber products. The model starts with the demand for final products. For the production columns sawn wood, plywood and paper and board, an...

  17. Filmcoating beschermt boomzaden tegen kiemplantenziekte : bos- en haagplantsoen

    OpenAIRE

    Derkx, M.P.M.; Brouwer, J

    2006-01-01

    Onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat filmcoating van zaden met gewasbeschermingsmiddelen vlak vóór uitzaai, de uitval kan beperken. In tabellen wordt het effect van filmcoatbehandeling bij boomzaden van Prunus avium aangegeven.

  18. De betekenis van bodem en klimaat voor het Nederlandse bos.

    OpenAIRE

    Burg, van den, S.W.K.

    1996-01-01

    This publication is largely based on growth-site studies carried out on important tree species in Dutch forests during the period 1950-1991. Two of the ways the data yielded by these studies can be used were investigated. The first aimed to identify important correlations between growth and site properties. The second used combinations of site properties in an attempt to predict site index; this is important for the proper choice of tree species, or if previously unforested land is to be affo...

  19. Study of the temperament of bos indicus calves on weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo da Silva Freitas; Paola Moretti Rueda; Tiago da Silva Valente; Luísa Cunha Carneiro; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  20. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

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    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  1. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

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    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle.

  2. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

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    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  3. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Azevedo Mota; Juliana Duarte Messana; Roberta Carrilho Canesin; Giovani Fiorentini; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW) were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four ...

  4. Evaluation of carcass characteristics of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds selected for postweaning weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Alleoni, G F; Nardon, R F; Resende, F D

    2008-08-01

    Data from 9 studies were compiled to evaluate the effects of 20 yr of selection for postweaning weight (PWW) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in experimental herds of control Nellore (NeC) and selected Nellore (NeS), Caracu (CaS), Guzerah (GuS), and Gir (GiS) breeds. These studies were conducted with animals from a genetic selection program at the Experimental Station of Sertãozinho, São Paulo State, Brazil. After the performance test (168 d postweaning), bulls (n = 490) from the calf crops born between 1992 and 2000 were finished and slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality. Treatments were different across studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random coefficients model in which herd was considered a fixed effect and treatments within year and year were considered as random effects. Either calculated maturity degree or initial BW was used interchangeably as the covariate, and least squares means were used in the multiple-comparison analysis. The CaS and NeS had heavier (P = 0.002) carcasses than the NeC and GiS; GuS were intermediate. The CaS had the longest carcass (P body, carcass, and quarter weights of NeS were similar to those of CaS, NeS had more edible meat in the leg region than did CaS bulls. Selection for PWW increased rib-eye area in Nellore bulls. Selected Caracu had the lowest (most favorable) shear force values compared with the NeS (P = 0.003), NeC (P = 0.005), GuS (P = 0.003), and GiS (P = 0.008). Selection for PWW increased body, carcass, and meat retail weights in the Nellore without altering dressing percentage and body fat percentage. PMID:18407987

  5. Allelic Frequency of Kappa-Casein and Beta-Lactoglobulin in Indian Crossbred (Bos taurus X Bos indicus) Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajesh K.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Singh, Krishna M.; Kalpesh J. Soni

    2007-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism test was performed on DNA samples extracted from blood samples of 256 Holstein Friesian crossbred and 112 from Jersey crossbred bulls/bull calves to detect allelic frequency of the bovine kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin gene responsible for milk production traits. A 350 bp fragment of kappa-casein and a 247 bp fragment of beta-lactoglobulin were amplified and digested with Hinf I and Hae III restriction enzymes, respec...

  6. Melatonin receptor(MT1 and MT2) expression in reproductive endocrine organs of yak(Bos grunniens) during breeding seasons%褪黑素受体在发情季节牦牛生殖内分泌器官中的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍生东; 阎萍

    2013-01-01

    为了研究褪黑素受体(MT)对季节性发情牦牛的调控作用,采用real-time PCR和免疫组织化学SP法,对发情季节牦牛松果体、下丘脑、垂体、卵巢中MT蛋白和MT mRNA的表达进行了研究.结果表明:发情季节牦牛松果体、下丘脑、垂体和子宫中均有MT mRNA和MT蛋白的表达;在松果体中,MT蛋白免疫阳性产物表达于松果体细胞、神经纤维和神经结节;在下丘脑中,MT蛋白免疫阳性产物表达于大细胞神经结节和小细胞神经结节;在垂体中,MT蛋白免疫阳性产物表达于α细胞和β细胞;在卵巢中,MT蛋白免疫阳性产物表达于卵泡、卵母细胞、颗粒细胞、间质细胞和黄体细胞.松果体中的MT mRNA在发情季节表达最强(P<0.01);卵巢中的MT mRNA表达最低,下丘脑和垂体中的MT mRNA表达量均高于卵巢,但其间无显著差异(P>0.05).证实褪黑素参与了牦牛季节性发情的调控过程.%To better understand the role of melatonin receptor(MT) in yak(Bos grunniens),the expression level of MT and MT mRNA in the pineal gland,hypothalamus,pituitary gland,and ovary of yak during breeding seasons was determined using immunohistochemical SP and real-time PCR,respectively.Yak MT was located in the pinealocyte,synaptic ribbon and the synaptic spherules of the pineal gland and that melatonin interact via nerve fibers.In the hypothalamus,MT was located in the magnocellular neurons and parvicellular neurons.MT was also localized in the acidophilic cells and basophilic cells in the pituitary gland.In the ovary,MT was present in the follicle,oocyte,granulocyte,corpus luteum,and Leydig' s cells.The MT mRNA expression level was higher in the pineal gland tissue than the hypothalamus,pituitary gland,and ovary(P<0.01).The results indicated that MT plays a role in the regulation of seasonal estrus in yaks.

  7. El ADN antiguo aplicado a contextos arqueopaleontológicos: el caso de la cueva de Arlanpe (Lemoa, Bizkaia

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    Iriarte, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de ADN antiguo están permitiendo conocer nuevos datos sobre la biología de especies actuales y extintas. Las técnicas de ADN antiguo pueden ser una herramienta adicional y complementaria dentro de los estudios multidisciplinares que son necesarios para abordar distintas problemáticas arqueopaleontológicas. En este artículo repasamos algunas de las aplicaciones en estos contextos: la determinación taxonómica y sexual, los estudios para conocer el proceso de domesticación, o la estructura filogeográfica durante ciclos glaciares subrayando la existencia o no de refugios glaciares. También proporcionamos información preliminar referente a la aplicación de estas técnicas en el yacimiento de Arlanpe (Lemoa, Bizkaia. En este yacimiento hemos obtenido ADN mitocondrial de muestras de oso pardo, gran bóvido y cabra montés. Una de las muestras de oso pardo de Arlanpe está dentro del clado 3c compuesto de osos pardos extintos de Alaska. Dos de las muestras de gran bóvido de Arlanpe han sido clasificadas como uro (Bos primigenius mediante métodos genéticos.

  8. Polymorphisms of two Y chromosome microsatellites in Chinese cattle

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    Xue Kai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two Y chromosome specific microsatellites UMN2404 and UMN0103 were genotyped and assessed for polymorphisms in a total of 423 unrelated males from 25 indigenous Chinese cattle breeds. Consistently, both microsatellites displayed specific indicine and taurine alleles in each bull examined. The indicine and taurine alleles were detected in 248 males (58.6%, and 175 males (41.4%, respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst different breeds examined. The indicine alleles dominated in the southern group (92.4%, while the taurine alleles dominated in the northern group (95.5%. Hainan Island was possibly the site for the origin of Chinese zebu, and Tibetan cattle were probably independently domesticated from another strain of Bos primigenius. The geographical distribution of these frequencies reveals a pattern of male indicine introgression and a hybrid zone of indicine and taurine cattle in China. The declining south-to-north and east-to-west gradient of male indicine introgression in China could be explained by historical data, geographical segregation and temperature and weather conditions.

  9. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

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    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  11. Comportamento de vacas da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus em estro Estrus behaviour in Gir cows (Bos taurus indicus

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    M.F. Ávila Pires

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de vacas da raça Gir em estro e a concentração plasmática de progesterona foram avaliadas durante um estro induzido e o natural subseqüente, em 35 animais da raça Gir, no inverno e no verão de dois anos consecutivos. Observou-se efeito de interação entre estação e ano do experimento sobre a duração do ciclo estral. O proestro foi maior no verão (51,82± 4,77h do que no inverno (33,43± 4,82h e no estro natural (64,41± 4,95h do que no induzido (20,85± 4,64h. Observou-se menor duração da atividade sexual total no estro induzido do que no natural (41,62± 4,81 vs 94,83± 4,56h no inverno, e 64,00± 4,14 vs 127,44± 4,04h no verão. A duração do estro foi similar no inverno (12,33± 0,74h e no verão (11,82± 0,74h, e maior nas vacas sincronizadas (13,24± 0,70 vs 10,91± 0,78h. O número de montas recebidas durante o estro foi similar no inverno (28,16± 2,61 e no verão (22,98± 2,58 e maior nos animais sincronizados (29,97± 2,48 vs 21,17± 2,17. Observou-se efeito de interação entre estação e tipo de luteólise sobre o número de montas recebidas por hora em estro. O inverno não se constituiu em fator limitante à manifestação do estro, cuja duração e intensidade foram suficientes para permitir sua detecção; contudo, a sincronização dos estros interferiu com a manifestação do comportamento sexual.The estrus behaviour and the plasma progesterone concentration were monitored during an induced and a natural subsequent estrus, in 35 Gir cows, during the winter and summer seasons of two consecutives years. The length of estrous cycle was influenced by the interaction between season and experimental year. The proestrus period was longer in the summer (51.82± 4.77h compared to the one in the winter (33.43± 4.82h season as far as in the natural (64.41± 4.95h vs in the induced estrus (20.85± 4.64h. The total sexual activity was shorter in the induced than in the natural estrus (41.62± 4.81 vs 94.83± 4.56h in the winter, and 64.00± 4.14 vs 127.44± 4.04h in the summer. The length of estrus was similar between winter (12.33± 0.74h and summer (11.82± 0.74h, and longer in the synchronized cows (13.24± 0.70 vs 10.91± 0.78h. The number of mounts accepted during the estrus was similar between winter (28.16± 2.61 and summer (22.98± 2.58, and greater in the synchronized animals (29.97± 2.48 vs 21.17± 2.17. It was observed effect of interaction between season of the year and luteolysis type on the total received mountings per hour in estrus. The winter was not a limiting factor to the estrus manifestation, once its length and intensity allowed heat detection, however, heat synchronization meddled the manifestation of sexual behaviour.

  12. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  13. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  14. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted that extravascular routes of administration prolonged flunixin concentrations in milk, which could result in violative milk residues in treated cattle. PMID:25082521

  15. Morfometría ovárica de hembras Cebú (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la morfometría ovárica está directamente relacionado con sus aplicaciones para analizar e interpretar los hallazgos, en los exámenes ginecológicos de las vacas. Para este trabajo se recolectaron 114 pares de ovarios en frigorífico, clasificados a partir del ancho, grueso, largo, volumen, diámetro del folículo, diámetro y área del cuerpo lúteo. Fue observada una diferencia significativa en el ancho (1,95cm y 1,83cm y el volumen (7,26 mL y 6,23 mL de los ovarios izquierdos y derechos, respectivamente. En cuanto al tamaño y el volumen de los folículos, el diámetro y el área de los cuerpos lúteos, no hubo diferencia relevante. En los lados hubo correlación positiva (p<0,01 entre el volumen del ovario izquierdo y el área del cuerpo lúteo. La presencia de folículos con diámetro igual o superior a 9mm, el cuerpo lúteo de tipo macizo y protruso presente en 43,39% de los 53 ovarios, predominó con relación al tipo cóncavo. De los 84 ovarios con cuerpos lúteos, el 26,20% eran de tipo extrapolado. Se concluye, que la presencia de cuerpo lúteo incluso, en vacas cebú, puede resultar en fallas diagnósticas durante el examen de palpación rectal para estimar la actividad ovárica.

  16. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  17. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Assessment of Serum Trace Elements in Diarrheic Yaks (Bos grunniens) in Hongyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoqing; Li, Rongrong; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wang, Xiao Qiang; Jiang, Wenteng; Luo, Houqiang; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Li, Jiakui; Meng, Xianrong

    2016-06-01

    Diarrhea is one of the main causes of animal deaths especially in neonatal calves. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood serum for cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in yak serum samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from 35 yaks consisting of 10 healthy and 25 diarrheic ones. Our observations indicated that the concentrations of Mn, Zn, and Fe in yak affected with diarrhea had statistically significant reduced levels as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The mean concentration of Cu in blood serum of diarrheic yaks was found significantly higher than the normal ones (P < 0.05). The Mn and Zn in the serum of diarrheic groups were observed significantly different (P < 0.05) with different ages. These findings can provide for some valuable information for the investigation on relationship between trace elements in the serum of normal and diarrheic yaks. PMID:26498329

  19. Responses of Single Chorda Tympani Taste Fibers of the Calf (Bos taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-01-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality...

  20. Assessment of the reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus cattle in the tropical areas of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor bovine reproductive efficiency in tropical climates could explain why areas with these conditions account for only 50 and 25% of the world's beef and milk production, respectively. The marked influence of season on reproduction in the tropics is reflected in reduced oestrus detection and calf survival, as well as later onset of ovarian activity during the winter months under range conditions. Lack of knowledge of some of the basic mechanisms that regulate reproductive physiology in farm animals in the tropics has restricted use of techniques such as artificial insemination, thereby limiting genetic progress. From our data we have detected differences in oestrous behaviour, hormonal levels during the oestrous cycle and fertility when comparing our results with the information already available for bovines in temperate areas. (author)

  1. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  2. Latent Semantic Indexing and Information Retrieval-A quest with BosSE

    OpenAIRE

    Geiß, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    This master thesis deals with the implementation of a search engine using Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) called BoSSE. Four different search types were implemented which allow a search for documents or terms similar to a given term, query or document. These search types are evaluated and the importance of term weighting, exclusion of non content words and the right selection of k for the reduction of dimension are discussed. Furthermore, an introduction to Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) and a...

  3. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  4. Diagrama de fases de átomos bosónicos sujetos a confinamiento no diagonal

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Reyes, Greis Julieth

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas de muchas partículas conformados por bosones, se han estudiado de forma extensa gracias a los aportes significativos que se han hecho a la física de bajas temperaturas; el condensado de Bose-Einstein y la observación de una transición de fase cuántica son ejemplos experimentales de adelantos en este tema que han abierto nuevos campos de investigación. La física de bosones confinados esta descrita por el modelo de Bose-Hubbard, donde el Hamiltoniano contiene el t...

  5. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  6. Analysis of Two Chinese Yak(Bos grunniens) Population Using Bovine Microsatellite Primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Minqiang; S.Weigend; A.Barre-Dirie; J.W.Carnwath; Lou Zhonglin; H.Niemann

    2005-01-01

    Two Chinese domestic yak populations representing the Plateau type and the Huanhu Alpine type were analysed with 12 bovine microsatellite primers. All primer pairs functioned in the yak genome and polymorphism was found at all loci. The allele size ranges and frequencies of the two yak populations were similar and there was considerable overlap with the allele size ranges observed in cattle. Data for European cattle breeds was obtained from the Cattle Diversity Database(CaDBase)to interpret the heterozygosity and genetic distance estimates in yak populations. Heterozygosity estimated for the two yak populations was comparable to that of European cattle while Nei's Genetic Distance DA between the two yak populations was less than distances between the most closely related German cattle breeds. Bovine microsatellite primers proved to be a valuable tool for characterization of yak populations.

  7. Effect of catalase on the liquid storage of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Peruma; JK Chamuah; C Rajkhowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of catalase (CAT) on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malonaldehyde (MDA) production and antioxidant profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Methods: Total numbers of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from eight mithun bulls and semen was split into four equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen without additives (control), group 2 to group 4: semen was diluted with 50 U/mL, 100 U/mL and 150 U/mL of catalase, respectively. These seminal, enzymatic, biochemical and antioxidant profiles were assessed at 5 ℃ for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of incubation. Results: Inclusion of catalase into diluent resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods as compared with control group. Additionally, CAT at 50 and 150 U/mL were inferior to CAT 100 U/mL treatments as regards to these characteristics and CAT at 100 U/mL has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen in in- vitro stored for up to 30 h.Conclusions:It was concluded that the possible protective effects of CAT on sperm parameters are it prevent efflux of cholesterol from cell membrane, MDA production and protect the function of antioxidants during preservation.

  8. Particle-in-a-bos model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple two-particle model of excitons in conjugated polymers is proposed as an alternative to usual highly computationally demanding quantum chemical methods. In the two-particle model, the exciton is described as an electron-hole pair interacting via Coulomb forces and confined to the polymer ...

  9. Dubbel bosättning : Bostadens betydelse vid flytt från Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Månsson, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish tax on income for persons who are unlimited liable to tax is based on his domicile and double taxation treaties between Sweden and other countries are based on his residence. In order to determine a person’s tax liability, the dwelling or home is of vital importance to determine where a person has his domicile and residence. For a person who has moved from Sweden, to be unlimited tax liable here, there must be an essential link. This link can be through previous residence in Swede...

  10. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  11. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

  12. Expression Variants of the Lipogenic AGPAT6 Gene Affect Diverse Milk Composition Phenotypes in Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohn, Mathew D; Kathryn Tiplady; Thomas Lopdell; Law, Tania A.; Andrew Scott; Chad Harland; Ric Sherlock; Kristen Henty; Vlad Obolonkin; Klaus Lehnert; Alistair Macgibbon; Spelman, Richard J; Stephen R. Davis; Snell, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting o...

  13. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  14. Analysis of Airport Performance using Surface Surveillance Data: A Case Study of BOS

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Reilly, Brendan; Khadilkar, Harshad Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Detailed surface surveillance datasets from sources such as the Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model-X (ASDE-X) have the potential to be used for analysis of airport operations, in addition to their primary purpose of enhancing safety. In this paper, we describe how airport performance characteristics such as departure queue dynamics and throughput can be analyzed using surface surveillance data. We also propose and evaluate several metrics to measure the daily operational performance o...

  15. Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species'. PMID:20212013

  16. Bos taurus papillomavirus activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: demonstrating a productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Pessoa, N S D; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus with mucous and epithelial tropism. Possible productive virus infection in other tissues, such as blood, has been hypothesized. In order to investigate this possibility, three samples of skin papillomas and blood were collected from bovines with BPV infection and five samples of peripheral blood and one sample of normal tissue were collected from a calf without BPV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The tissue samples were examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The skin papillomas showed the presence of DNA sequences of BPV-2, BPV-11, and a putative virus type. The blood samples showed DNA sequences of BPV-1, 2, and 4 simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry showed BPV L1 protein in both epithelium and stroma and BPV E2 protein in koilocytes. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPV DNA in PBMCs and immunofluorescence showed nuclear labeling of E2 and L1 BPV proteins in PBMCs. The transcription analysis revealed transcripts of BPV-1 L1, BPV-2 L2, and BPV-4 E7 in blood and papilloma samples of BPV-infected cattle. The comet assay revealed high levels of host cell DNA damage upon BPV infection. Electron microscopy analysis of PBMCs identified the presence of particles in the cytoplasm that are consistent with papillomavirus in size and shape. The productive infection of PBMCs with BPV has been previously discussed and this study provides evidence indicating that PBMCs are a target of BPV. PMID:26681018

  17. WHOLE GENOME ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SUSCEPTIBILITY ALLELES FOR PARASITIC INFECTION IN BOS TAURUS CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduced herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population c...

  18. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...

  19. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Ujan; Zan, L. S.; Wang, H B; Ujan, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142). Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population bree...

  20. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Judith Wiener

    Full Text Available Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  1. First molecular survey and identification of Anaplasma spp. in white yaks (Bos grunniens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Xie, Jingying; Luo, Jianxun; Wang, Shuqing; Wang, Shufang; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Anaplasmosis is caused by a group of obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus Anaplasma, which are transmitted by ticks and infect humans, domestic animals and wildlife. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasma spp. in semi-wild white yaks sampled in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, northwest China. Out of 332 samples tested, 35 (10·9%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. The positive rates were 6·2% (20/322) and 5·3% (17/322) for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white yaks, respectively. None of the sample was positive for Anaplasma marginale. Two (0·6%) samples were simultaneously positive to A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed two genotypes (ApG1 and ApG2) of A. phagocytophilum and two sequence types (ST1 and ST2) of A. bovis in white yaks. This study is the first to document the presence of Anaplasma in white yaks. Our findings extend the host range for Anaplasma species and provide more valuable information for the control and management of anaplasmosis in white yaks. PMID:27003378

  2. New Q lineage found in bovine (Bos taurus) of Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Oceja, Andres; Muro-Verde, Amara; Gamarra, David; Cardoso, Sergio; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-09-01

    The northern Iberian Peninsula is home to a variety of autochthonous cattle breeds, such as the Terreña and Pirenaica. With the objective of characterizing the matrilineal lineages of these breeds, a study of mitochondrial DNA was performed. The D-loop of 155 individuals was analyzed and most of the individuals were carriers of the T3 haplogroup, while haplogroups T and T1 were much less frequent. A Pirenaica individual belonging to the Q haplogroup was found. To verify the presence of the Q haplogroup individual, the entire mitochondrial DNA was sequenced and compared with two descendants. The individuals were assigned to the Q1 sub-haplogroup. These findings extend the geographic distribution of the Q haplogroup to the south west of the European continent. This new Q1 lineage has seven polymorphisms in the coding region, so this lineage is probably as old as the Q lineages described to date. PMID:26554433

  3. Loss of miRNAs during Processing and Storage of Cow's (Bos taurus)Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Katherine M; Kusuma, Rio Jati; Baier, Scott R.; Friemel, Taylor; Markham, Laura; Vanamala, Jairam; Zempleni, and Janos

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) play central roles in gene regulation. Previously, we reported that miRNAs from somatic cell content, and handling by consumers on the degradation of miRNAs in milk; we also quantified miRNAs in dairy products. Pasteurization and homogenization caused a 63% loss of miR-200c, whereas a 67% loss observed for miR-29b was statistically significant only in skim milk. Effects of cold storage and somatic cell content were quantitatively minor (

  4. Loss of miRNAs during processing and storage of cow's (Bos taurus) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Katherine M; Jati Kusuma, Rio; Baier, Scott R; Friemel, Taylor; Markham, Laura; Vanamala, Jairam; Zempleni, Janos

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) play central roles in gene regulation. Previously, we reported that miRNAs from pasteurized, store-bought bovine milk have biological activity in humans. Here, we assessed the effects of milk processing, storage, somatic cell content, and handling by consumers on the degradation of miRNAs in milk; we also quantified miRNAs in dairy products. Pasteurization and homogenization caused a 63% loss of miR-200c, whereas a 67% loss observed for miR-29b was statistically significant only in skim milk. Effects of cold storage and somatic cell content were quantitatively minor (caused a 40% loss of miR-29b but no loss of miR-200c. The milk fat content had no effect on miRNA stability during storage and microwave heating. The concentrations of miRNAs in dairy products were considerably lower than in store-bought milk. We conclude that processing of milk by dairies and handling by consumers causes a significant loss of miRNAs. PMID:25565082

  5. Evidence of Banteng (Bos javanicus Decline in Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyawan Pudyatmoko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical step for a successful conservation of endangered species is the correct diagnosis why the species of interest is decline. A failure of diagnosis what is wrong is at the heart of much unsuccessful conservation. The research assessed changes of population size of banteng between 2002 and 2006 and discussed the role of predation by dholes on the decline of banteng in Baluran National Park. Concentration counts in 13 waterholes in 2002 and in 11 waterholes in 2006 were conducted to monitor the population change. Observations of predation on banteng by dholes were done through series of observations from April to July 2002 and from March to July 2003 in the feeding ground of 350 ha in Bekol. Disproportional number of young banteng and change of sex ratio in population in 2002 indicated a possible decrease of the population. During four years, the number of animal diminished from 126 to only 15 banteng. An estimate of rate per capita of population growth (r was -0.53 yearG1. The data suggested that high predation rate by dholes was the responsible factor of population decline. However, an action to reduce dholes in BNP was an agony of choice, because both banteng and dhole were classified as endangered species. A reduction of pack size of dholes was the best remaining options to prevent banteng from extinction. If the pack size of dholes was small enough, they would switch to prey the smaller animals.

  6. El reto es encontrar el bosón de Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Couceiro, Belén

    2005-01-01

    The CERN has half a century of researches about how was the universe in the first moments of its creation. He is now plunged in the construction of the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world

  7. Preweaning performance and body composition of calves from straightbred Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Leme, P R; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to evaluate preweaning performance, body composition, and efficiency of calves representing straightbred Nellore (NL), F(1), and 3-breed-cross systems. Energy requirements, milk production, and efficiency of 39 cow-calf pairs were recorded from straightbred NL calves from NL cows (10), crossbred (Angus-sired) calves from NL cows (ANL: 9), and crossbred calves (CC; Canchim-sired: 5/8 Charolais, 3/8 Zebu) from ANL (10) and Simmental x NL (10) cows. Cows and their respective calves were individually fed from birth to weaning (17 to 190 d postpartum). At 38 d of age, corn silage (7.8% CP, 2.19 Mcal of ME/kg of DM) was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was recorded by weighing calves before and after suckling. The ratio between GE and ME of milk was considered 1:0.93. Calves were slaughtered at weaning and the 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-rib section was removed for body composition estimation. The ANL calves were lighter (P body energy - birth body energy) than the NL calves (388 +/- 23 for ANL, and 438 +/- 15 for CC vs. 312 +/- 22 Mcal for NL calves). Percentages of water (P = 0.74) and chemical fat (P = 0.51) were similar among groups (63.7 +/- 0.6 and 14.3 +/- 0.7% for ANL calves, 63.1 +/- 0.4 and 14.7 +/- 0.5% for CC calves, and 63.3 +/- 0.6 and 13.7 +/- 0.7% of empty BW for water and chemical fat, respectively, for NL calves). Energetic efficiency (kcal of retained energy/Mcal of ME intake) was similar (P = 0.52) among groups (358 +/- 22 for ANL calves, 355 +/- 14 for CC calves, and 327 +/- 22 for NL calves). The greater BW gains and the differences in empty body composition at weaning were not enough to compensate for the greater ME intake of crossbreds. In this study, the crossbreeding systems evaluated increased preweaning calf performance but did not affect gross or energetic calf efficiency. PMID:19122045

  8. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  9. Role of manganese and veratryl alcohol in the ligninolytic system of bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, T

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionLignin is a three dimensional hydrophobic plant polymer derived from the random coupling of phenylpropanoid precursors. The chemical and physical characteristics of lignin require a nonspecific, extracellular oxidative process for biodegradation. White rot basidiomycetes are the only group of organisms having an efficient extracellular ligninolytic system. These fungi produce peroxidases and laccases that are involved in the initial attack of lignin. The peroxidases work with H 2 ...

  10. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. PMID:24725537

  11. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  12. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the β-casein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the β-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat β-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region

  13. Parâmetros genéticos entre características de leite, de peso e a idade ao primeiro parto em gado mestiço leiteiro (Bos taurus x Bos indicus Genetic parameters between milk traits, weight traits and age at first calving in crossbreed dairy cattle (Bos taurus x Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Vercesi Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimadas as correlações genéticas entre características de produção de leite (produção de leite, gordura, proteína e duração da lactação em até 305 dias, na primeira lactação, características de peso (taxa de crescimento de novilhas entre 12-24 meses e peso médio de vacas e idade ao primeiro parto, em uma população de fêmeas Mestiço Leiteiro Brasileiro (MLB, por meio de metodologia REML, sob modelo animal. As estimativas de herdabilidade das características estudadas na ordem acima foram, respectivamente, 0,28± 0,08, 0,30±0,11, 0,28±0,09, 0,19±0,07, 0,18±0,06, 0,42±0,10 e 0,48±0,12. As correlações genéticas entre peso médio da vaca e a produção de leite, gordura e proteína foram, respectivamente, -0,22±0,22, -0,49±0,31 e -0,22±0,23 e da taxa de crescimento das novilhas com a produção de leite, gordura e proteína foram respectivamente, -0,59±0,35, -0,73±0,44 e -0,62±0,37. As correlações genéticas entre produção de leite, peso médio das vacas e taxa de crescimento das novilhas com idade ao primeiro parto foram respectivamente, 0,05±0,18, -0,05±0,18 e 0,02±0,20. A alta correlação genética (0,93±0,02 entre produção de leite e duração da lactação indicou que não se deve remover a variação na duração da lactação na seleção de gado leiteiro tropical.Genetic correlations between milk production (milk, fat, protein yield lactation length in 305-d lactation, live weight (average cow live weight, growth rate between 12-24 mo and age at first calving traits were estimated in a population of Mestiço Leiteiro Brasileiro (MLB females using REML methodology and animal model. The estimates of heritability were respectively, 0.28± 0.08, 0.30±0.11, 0.28±0.09, 0.19±0.07, 0.18±0.06, 0.42±0.10 and 0.48±0.12 for those traits. Genetic correlations between milk, fat and protein yield with cow average weight were, respectively, -0.22±0.22, -0.49±0.31, -0.22±0.23, and between milk, fat and protein yield with heifer live weight gain, -0.59±0.35, -0.73±0.44, -0.62±0.37 as well. Genetic correlations between milk yield, cow average weight and heifer live weight gain with age at first calving were, respectively, 0.05±0.18, -0.05±0.18, 0.02±0.20. The high genetic correlation between milk production and lactation length (0.93±0.02 indicated that variation of the lactation length should not be removed when selecting tropical dairy cattle.

  14. The first appearance of cattle in Denmark occurred 6000 years ago: an effect of cultural or climate and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2006-01-01

    feeding on grass right from the beginning 4000 cal. yr BC. In contrast, the youngest aurochs population primarily browsed and grazed from the dense forest floor resulting in rather negative 613C values measured on bone collagen. The oldest aurochs have similar isotope values to the earlier cattle, whereas...... the youngest aurochs have similar values to Late Atlantic red deer from the same locality. As eastern Denmark was largely covered by forest, speculations on the origin of the grazing areas are many. The grass may have grown in openings in the forest, at the forest fringe, or more likely on the newly...

  15. Endoparazitózy skotu v různých podmínkách chovu

    OpenAIRE

    HROMADOVÁ, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Samples of excrements for parasitic investigation was taken away in 16 breeding, when it was about 3 breeding - when animals were been regularly milking, 11 breeding of fatcattle, one breeding of wisents and one breeding of aurochs. It was been observing the influence of technology of breeding, when it was about ecology breeding. Utility type of fatcattle was been permanently grazing, milk animal was 6 months grazing and 6 months stabled. Hobby breeding of wisents and aurochs was been breeded...

  16. Adipose tissue macrophages in non-rodent mammals: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Bacsadi, Árpád; Balogh, Lajos; Schmidt, Susanne; Thuróczy, Julianna; Röszer, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue in rodents and primates contains mesenchymal stem cells and immune cells. SVF cells have complex metabolic, immune and endocrine functions with biomedical impact. However, in other mammals, the amount of data on SVF stem cells is negligible and whether the SVF hosts immune cells is unknown. In this study, we show that the SVF is rich in immune cells, with a dominance of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in cattle (Bos primigenius taurus), domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), domestic cat (Felis catus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). ATMs of these species are granulated lysosome-rich cells with lamellipodial protrusions and express the lysosome markers acid phosphatase 5 (ACP-5) and Mac-3/Lamp-2. Using ACP-5 and Mac-3/Lamp-2 as markers, we additionally detected ATMs in other species, such as the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Feline and canine ATMs also express the murine macrophage marker F4/80 antigen. In the lean condition, the alternative macrophage activation marker CD206 is expressed by feline and canine ATMs and arginase-1 by feline ATMs. Obesity is associated with interleukin-6 and interferon gamma expression and with overt tyrosine nitration in both feline and canine ATMs. This resembles the obesity-induced phenotype switch of murine and human ATMs. Thus, we show, for the first time, that the presence of ATMs is a general trait of mammals. The interaction between the adipose cells and SVF immune cells might be evolutionarily conserved among mammals. PMID:26239911

  17. Random Regression Models for Estimation of Covariance Functions, Genetic Parameters and Prediction of Breeding Values for Rib Eye Area in a Colombian Bos indicus-Bos taurus Multibreed Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO MARTÍNEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an application of random regression models (RRM to obtain restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance functions and predictions of breeding values for longitudinal records of rib eye area measured by ultrasound (REA in a Colombian multibreed cattle population. The dataset contained 708 records from 340 calves progeny of 37 sires from nine breeds mated to Gray Brahman Cows. The mixed model was a RRM that used Legendre polynomials (LP of order 1 to 3. Fixed effects were age of animal, dam parity, contemporary group (herd*year*season*sex, breed additive genetic and heterosis, whereas direct and maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment were random effects. Residual variances were modeled either as constant or changing across the growth trajectory. Models were compared with two Information Criteria, the corrected Akaikes and the Schwartzs Bayesian. According to these criteria the best model was the one with first order LP and constant residual variance. Given that with this model estimated maternal additive genetic and permanent environment covariance functions showed that these effects were not accurately disentangled, a parsimonious model without maternal additive genetic effects was used to obtain genetic parameters and breeding values. Direct additive genetic variance decreased until 150 days and then increased. Maternal permanent environment variance increased with age. Direct heritability estimates for REA at 4 months, weaning, 12 and 15 months (considered as target ages, were 0.003, 0.007, 0.034 and 0.058, respectively. Direct additive correlations ranged from -0.7 to 1. Maternal permanent environmental correlations were close to unity across the entire range of ages. Estimates of (covariance components showed the need to validate results with larger multigenerational multibreed populations before implement RRM in regional or national genetic evaluation procedures in Colombia.

  18. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    OpenAIRE

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia; Rafael María Roman Bravo; Adelina Díaz de Ramirez; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which w...

  19. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (Pmeat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the blood or muscle of any cattle at slaughter. PMID:22061376

  20. Adapting of the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Technique in the Characterization of the Flow Regimes in Thermal Spraying Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Abdulgader, M.; Rademacher, H. G.; Anjami, N.; Hagen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In thermal spraying technique, the changes in the in-flight particle velocities are considered to be only a function of the drag forces caused by the dominating flow regimes in the spray jet. Therefore, the correct understanding of the aerodynamic phenomena occurred at nozzle out let and at the substrate interface is an important task in the targeted improvement in the nozzle and air-cap design as well as in the spraying process in total. The presented work deals with the adapting of an innovative technique for the flow characterization called background-oriented Schlieren. The flow regimes in twin wire arc spraying (TWAS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) were analyzed with this technique. The interfering of the atomization gas flow with the intersected wires causes in case of TWAS process a deformation of the jet shape. It leads also to areas with different aero dynamic forces. The configurations of the outlet air-caps in TWAS effect predominantly the outlet flow characteristics. The ratio between fuel and oxygen determine the dominating flow regimes in the HVOF spraying jet. Enhanced understanding of the aerodynamics at outlet and at the substrate interface could lead to a targeted improvement in thermal spraying processes.

  1. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  2. Comparative proteomics and transcriptomics analyses of livers from two different Bos taurus breeds: "Chianina and Holstein Friesian".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna Maria; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Pariset, Lorraine; D'Amici, Gian Maria; Valentini, Alessio; Zolla, Lello

    2009-12-01

    The Holstein Friesian and Chianina cattle breeds are representative of extreme selection for milk and meat traits, respectively, with significant changes in metabolism resulting from human selection over the past centuries. In the present study, we wanted to assess whether selection for different purposes has had a measurable effect on liver metabolism through a comparison of the protein and gene expression profiles of the two breeds. We applied 2-DE in order to identify proteins which were differentially expressed in the livers of the two breeds and relate them to different liver functions. We expected to find that only a small number of proteins would be differentially expressed, due to the relatively short phylogenetic distance between these cattle breeds. Nonetheless, thirty nine differentially-expressed proteins were characterized between Chianina and Holstein Friesian, out of a total of 560+/-57 spots that matched. Microarray analyses evidenced the differential expression of 167 genes (148 for the Holstein Friesian and 19 for the Chianina). Despite being closely related at the genetic level, the disparity of the proteomic and transcriptomic profiles of these two breeds allows us to perform pathway analysis thus to pinpoint proteins whose expression might render the latter capable of greater milk production, or proteins involved in altered thermoregulatory ability or hormone production. On the other hand, we found proteins and gene transcripts in Chianina, not expressed in Holstein, which, upon interaction pathway analysis, were mainly involved in anabolic pathways. In brief, our integrated study provides molecular evidences to support the physiological differences between Holstein and Chianina cattle breeds. PMID:19782776

  3. The Agersoe cattle: the last remnants of the Danish island cattle (Bos taurus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K B; Brüniche-Olsen, A; Pedersen, B.V.;

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...... characterize the Agersoe cattle, using microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and mtDNA markers, and analyse the genetic variability within the breed and the genetic relationship to 14 European breeds with focus on the Red Danish and Jutland breed. The results show diversity in nuclear...... breeds. Several arguments based on this survey have been put forward in favour of characterizing the Agersoe cattle as being the last remnants of the Danish Island Cattle...

  4. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kouamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon for in vitro embryo production (IVEP. The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9% and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm. Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10 and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI: oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII: oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII: oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV: denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS and pregnancy status of cow on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%. Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%, 2.72±0.15 (24.82%, 2.24±0.15 (20.43% and 2.47±0.20 (22.54% respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05 compared with other animals. Oocytes with quality (grade I and II acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP.

  5. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P heifers receiving MGA had lower conception results following AI (51.6 vs. 71.4%; P = 0.01). In addition, MGA-treated heifers were more likely to have a corpus luteum in the middle of the breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers. PMID:26115267

  6. The polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts and their associations with cattle (Bos taurus) growth traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun Lei Zhang; Hong Chen; Yan Hong Wang; Xian Yong Lan; Chu Zhao Lei; Xing Tang Fang

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART). The coding and regulating regions of CART were screened in 7 cattle breeds by the single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The four loci (C1, C2, C3 and C4) studied were all polymorphic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products representing different SSCP variants were sequenced and a total of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. The associations between polymorphic loci and the growth traits of Nanyang cattle were analysed. The results indicated that genotype A1A1 of the C1 locus was associated with a higher body weight ( < 0.05) than heterozygous A1B1. Genotype A2A2 of the C2 locus was associated with lower body weight and average daily weight gain ( ≤ 0.001) than heterozygous A2B2. C3 and C4 loci had no significant effect on Nanyang cattle growth traits (P > 0.05).

  7. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Corva; Liliana Soria; Alejandro Schor; Edgardo Villarreal; Macarena Pérez Cenci; Mariana Motter; Carlos Mezzadra; Lilia Melucci; Cristina Miquel; Enrique Paván; Gustavo Depetris; Francisco Santini; Juan Grigera Naón

    2007-01-01

    The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G) and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G). We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from cro...

  8. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  9. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  10. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  11. Effect of Addition of Taurine on the Liquid Storage (5°C of Mithun (Bos frontalis Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of taurine on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT, and biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malondialdehyde (MDA production. A total of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from 8 mithun bulls, and semen was split into 4 equal aliquots and diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen was without additives (control; groups 2 to 4: semen was diluted with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM of taurine, respectively. Seminal parameters and enzymatic and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C. Inclusion of taurine into diluent resulted in significant ( decreases in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities after liquid storage compared with the control group. Additionally, taurine at 50 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than taurine at 25 or 100 mM stored in in vitro at 5°C. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of taurine on sperm parameters are from enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes, preventing efflux of cholesterol from cell membranes and decreased MDA production.

  12. Effect of Addition of Melatonin on the Liquid Storage (5°C of Mithun (Bos frontalis Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of melatonin (MT on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, DNA abnormality, antioxidant profiles such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, and biochemical profiles such as malonaldehyde (MDA production and cholesterol efflux. Total numbers of 30 ejaculates were collected twice a week from eight mithun bulls and semen was split into five equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1 has semen without additives (control and group 2 to group 5 have semen that was diluted with 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, and 4 mM of melatonin, respectively. These seminal parameters, antioxidant, enzymatic, and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 30 h of incubation. Inclusion of melatonin into diluent resulted in significant (P<0.05 decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods as compared with control group. Additionally, melatonin at 3 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than melatonin at 1 mM, 2 mM or 4 mM stored in in vitro for up to 30 h. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of melatonin on sperm parameters are it prevents MDA production and preserve the antioxidants and intracellular enzymes during preservation.

  13. Bos(d)-(-B)os(d) Mixing and New Physics Effects in a Top Quark Two-Higgs Doublet Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Lin-Xia; XIAO Zhen-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the new physics contributions to the neutral B0d and B0s meson mass splitting △Md and △Ms induced by the box diagrams involving the charged-Higgs bosons in the top quark two-Higgs doublet model (T2HDM).Using the precision data, we obtain the bounds on the parameter space of the T2HDM: (a) For fixed MH = 400 Ge V and δ = [0°,60°], the upper bound on tanβ is tanβ≤ 30 after the inclusion of major theoretical uncertainties; (b) For the case of tanβ≤ 20, a light charged Higgs boson with a mass around 300 Ge V is allowed; and (c) The bounds on tanβ and MH are strongly correlated: a smaller (larger) tanβ means a lighter (heavier) charged Higgs boson.

  14. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  15. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Ha; Manya Sabherwal; Elizabeth Duncan; Stewart Stevens; Peter Stockwell; Michelle McConnell; Alaa El-Din Bekhit; Alan Carne

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 pr...

  16. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  17. Screening and characterization of a novel ruminal cellulase gene (Umcel-1) from a metagenomic library of gayal (Bos frontalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bi-feng; MAO Hua-ming; YANG Shu-Li; ZHU Ya-xin; GU Zhao-bing; CHEN Yuan; LENG Jing; GOU Xiao; FENG Li; LI Qing; XI Dong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Gayal is a rare semi-wild bovine species found in the Indo-China. They can graze grasses, including bamboo leaves, as wel as reeds and other plant species, and grow to higher mature live weights than Yunnan Yelow cattle maintained in similar harsh environments. The aim of this study was to identify speciifc celulase in the gayal rumen. A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed using genomic DNA isolated from the ruminal contents of four adult gayals. This library contained 38400 clones with an average insert size of 35.5 kb. TheUmcel-1 gene was isolated from this library. Investigation of the celulase activity of 24 random clones led to the identiifcation of theUmcel-1 gene, which exhibited the most potent celulase activity. Sequencing theUmcel-1 gene revealed that it contained an open reading frame of 942 base pairs that encoded a product of 313 amino acids. The putativegene Umcel-1 product belonged to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 and showed the highest homology to the celulase (GenBank accession no. YP_004310852.1) fromClostridium lentocelum DSM 5427, with 44% identity and 62% similarity. TheUmcel-1 gene was heterologously expressed inEscherichia coli BL21, and recombinant Umcel-1 was puriifed. The activity of puriifed recombinant Umcel-1 was assessed, and the results revealed that it hydrolyzed carboxymethyl celulose with optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 45°C. To our knowledge, this study provides the ifrst evidence for a celulase produced by bacteria in gayal rumen.

  18. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P differences ( P different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  19. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  20. Differences in PAR-2 activating potential by king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), salmon (Salmo salar), and bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anett Kristin; Kristiansen, Kurt; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Seternes, Ole Morten; Bang, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salmon trypsin is shown to increase secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 from human airway epithelial cells through activation of PAR-2. Secretion of IL-8 induced by king crab trypsin is observed in a different concentration range compared to salmon trypsin, and seems to be only partially related to PAR-2 activation. This report aim to identify differences in the molecular structure of king crab trypsin (Paralithodes camtschaticus) compared to salmon (S...

  1. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  2. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  3. Stroomlijning NatuurPlanBureau modellen. Inventarisatie van en keuze voor modellen voor Natuur, Landschap en Bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsberg A van; Dijkstra HL; Hinssen PJW; Kramer K; Leus FMR; Reiling R; Tol MWM van der; Wiertz J; Staringcentrum SC-DLO; Instituut voor Bos- en Natuuronderzoek IBN-DLO; Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee RIKZ; Rijksinstituut voor Integraal Zoetwaterbeheer en; LBG; MNV; SC-DLO; SC-IBN; RIKZ; RIZA

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the proposal for the set of (ecological) models to be used as the prime tools in the analysis of the Nature, Landscape and Woodland policy by the Dutch Nature Policy Assessment Office. The identification of the key models is regarded as the first step towards the construction o

  4. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  5. Effect of foot and mouth disease vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Perumal; K Khate; C Rajkhowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of semen of mithun at pre and post vaccinated stage. Methods: The breeding bulls were maintained at Semen Collection Centre, National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland. A total of 160 ejaculates were collected from eight mithun bulls twice a week at about 4 weeks in pre vaccinated stage and 12 weeks post vaccinated stage to know the effect of vaccine stress on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun semen. The vaccine was given at the end of 4th week of experimental period and semen was collected and evaluated upto the 16th weeks of experimental period. Results: It revealed that FMD vaccination affected the sperm functional and biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) upto 10th weeks of vaccination. But the animal recovered slowly in both physical health and spermiogram.Conclusions:The adverse effect of vaccination on seminal parameters suggest that the semen collection and preservation should be suspended till 10th weeks of vaccination to get normal fertility of sperm to avoid the failure of conception from artificial insemination using such semen in this precious species.

  6. Influencia del encierro en la respuesta fisiológica del toro (Bos Taurus, L.) durante la lidia

    OpenAIRE

    Salamanca Llorente, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La raza bovina de lidia dispone de una serie de particularidades, en su producción, manejo, selección y comportamiento que la hacen única en el mundo. La raza dispone de un censo aproximado a los 251.000 ejemplares (Lomillos et al, 2012), de los que derivan las reses que demandan los 16.000 espectáculos taurinos (de plaza de toros y populares), que se celebran cada año en España (Ministerio del Interior, 2010). El sector taurino mantiene una cifra cercana a los 200.000 puestos de trabajo y ge...

  7. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  8. Efecto de SNPs de genes candidatos asociados a textura de la carne en bovinos Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla López, Yenny Catherine

    2014-01-01

    La terneza de la carne es el principal atributo de aceptación de la carne por parte del consumidor, sin olvidar las características de jugosidad y el sabor; por lo que su impacto en la rentabilidad y la calidad de la carne es de gran importancia. La terneza de la carne de bovinos está influenciada por factores genéticos y ambientales. El evaluar el desempeño de la terneza a través de factores como son el tiempo de maduración y el efecto del cruce de los animales, estos han sido de uso frecuen...

  9. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P P P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  10. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A. P.; Bah, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced in...

  11. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamo, J; Dawaye, S M; Zoli, A P; Bah, G S

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  12. Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Jae Yeon; Kim, Eun Joong

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed) steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens). In each group, one (G1), two (G2), three (G3), and four steers (G4) per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was 32.0 m2, and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3,...

  13. Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Jae Yeon; Kim, Eun Joong

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed) steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens). In each group, one (G1), two (G2), three (G3), and four steers (G4) per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was 32.0 m(2), and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3, and G4 were reared under different space allowances, i.e. 32.0, 16.0, 10.6, and 8.0 m(2)/steer, respectively. Steers were reared following a conventional beef cattle management method in Korea, and were offered a fixed amount of commercial concentrate with ad libitum forages. Results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect, and significance was declared at pmeat yield index, and meat yield grade were similar among all levels of stocking density. However, longissimus muscle area was larger in G1 and G2 (pquality traits, including marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and meat quality grade, as determined by a group of experts, were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, lower stocking density resulted in increased feed efficiency, daily gain, and carcass weight in Hanwoo steers. However it remains unclear whether such differences are the results of stocking density or group size, or a combination of both. Nonetheless, these results confirm previous studies reporting a negative effect of increased stocking density on animal productivity. Further, animal welfare under an intensive farming system in relation to economical return is discussed. PMID:25049516

  14. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P Angus were lighter (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  15. Mammoth bone deposits and subsistence practices during Mid-Upper Palaeolithic in Central Europe: three cases from Moravia and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Péan, S.; Wojtal, P.

    126-128, - (2005), s. 209-221. ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Moravia, Poland * gravettian * Mammuthus primigenius Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.210, year: 2005

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 0.0 78% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 9e-85 39% ...

  18. [Characteristics of intranuclear inclusions formed during the reproduction of bovine adenoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosach, L N; Belousova, R V; Diachenko, N S; Kolenkova, L M

    1986-01-01

    A cytomorphological method was used to study the reproduction of bovine adenoviruses: Ad bos 1 - Ad bos 3, belonging to the serological subgroup I, and Ad bos 4, Ad bos 5, Ad bos 7, Ad bos 8, belonging to the serological subgroup II, and those isolated from animal adenoviruses N18 and N3056. Cytomorphological method is supposed to be used not only for revealing bovine adenoviruses but also for determining preliminarily their subgroup belonging. PMID:3754069

  19. Oxidative stress and nutritional intakes in lung patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, J; Aghdassi, E; Arendt, B M; Gutierrez, C; Singer, L; Chow, C-W; Keshavjee, S; Allard, J P

    2009-11-01

    Survival after lung transplantation is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Oxidative stress (OxS) can be associated with BOS due to chronic inflammation. The type of fat and antioxidant intakes may also contribute to OxS. Our aim was to compare OxS and nutritional intakes in non-BOS versus various stages of BOS. Fifty-eight lung recipients with versus without BOS were prospectively classified as: non-BOS; BOS Op-1 (mild), and BOS 2-3 (severe). We measured nutritional intake and plasma vitamins A, C, and E. Among a subgroup of 37 patients, OxS was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO micromol/L MDA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in bronchoalveolar lavage BAL fluid (BALF). One-way analysis of variance was used to compare groups. Results are reported as mean values +/- standard errors of the mean. There was no significant difference in demographic features on time posttransplant among groups. Although there were comparable cell counts in BALF, severe BOS patients showed significantly higher BALF LPO concentrations when compared with milder stage of BOS or with non-BOS (P = .001, for both). Severe BOS recipients also displayed higher BALF GSSG concentrations compared to milder stage of BOS (P = .001) or non-BOS (P = .007). In conclusion, patients with severe BOS were more oxidatively stressed compared with mild and non-BOS recipients. PMID:19917398

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 88% ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  4. A novel analytical method, Birth Date Selection Mapping, detects response of the Angus (Bos taurus genome to selection on complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Jared E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several methods have recently been developed to identify regions of the genome that have been exposed to strong selection. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that polygenic models are required to identify the genomic regions that are more moderately responding to ongoing selection on complex traits. We examine the effects of multi-trait selection on the genome of a population of US registered Angus beef cattle born over a 50-year period representing approximately 10 generations of selection. We present results from the application of a quantitative genetic model, called Birth Date Selection Mapping, to identify signatures of recent ongoing selection. Results We show that US Angus cattle have been systematically selected to alter their mean additive genetic merit for most of the 16 production traits routinely recorded by breeders. Using Birth Date Selection Mapping, we estimate the time-dependency of allele frequency for 44,817 SNP loci using genomic best linear unbiased prediction, generalized least squares, and BayesCπ analyses. Finally, we reconstruct the primary phenotypes that have historically been exposed to selection from a genome-wide analysis of the 16 production traits and gene ontology enrichment analysis. Conclusions We demonstrate that Birth Date Selection Mapping utilizing mixed models corrects for time-dependent pedigree sampling effects that lead to spurious SNP associations and reveals genomic signatures of ongoing selection on complex traits. Because multiple traits have historically been selected in concert and most quantitative trait loci have small effects, selection has incrementally altered allele frequencies throughout the genome. Two quantitative trait loci of large effect were not the most strongly selected of the loci due to their antagonistic pleiotropic effects on strongly selected phenotypes. Birth Date Selection Mapping may readily be extended to temporally-stratified human or model organism populations.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in domestic yak Bos grunniens and their herders in a transhumant pastoralist system of Dolpo, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel S; Nydam, Daryl V; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Disease caused by Brucella spp. represents the most common bacterial zoonotic infection worldwide. The distribution and public health impact of these infections in Nepal's mountain regions are poorly characterized. This cross sectional study assesses the burden of brucellosis on transhumant pastoralists and their yak in and around Shey Phoksundo National Park, Nepal. Objectives were to: (1) estimate individual animal prevalence of Brucella-seropositive yak, (2) identify herd- and individual-level risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity in individual yak, and (3) identify herd-level risk factors associated with reported human brucellosis-like symptoms in a household. A case of household symptoms was defined as the reported occurrence within the previous year of at least one of three acute symptoms (chills, fever, night chills) and one of two chronic symptoms (joint pain, swollen joint(s)) in one or both of two individuals interviewed in a household. Two-hundred-ninety-seven yak from 61 herds were sampled, and 61 household questionnaires were completed. Estimated true prevalence was 0.22 (95% CI: 0.17; 0.28). Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to account for repeated measures within a cluster (herd). Yak in herds reporting abortion occurrence within the previous year were 2.3 times more likely to be seropositive than those in herds not reporting abortion (95% CI: 1.2; 4.2, p = 0.01). For every 10 animal increase in herd number, individual animal seropositivity risk increased by 30% (95% CI: 10%; 50%, p = 0.001). Male yak were 0.7 times as likely to be seropositive as female yak (95% CI: 0.5; 0.9, p = 0.01). Three to five year old yak were 2 times more likely to be seropositive than yak 5 years old were 4.9 times more likely to be seropositive than yak 1 reactor, and was 3.6 (95% CI: 1.4; 9.2, p = 0.008) times greater for households reporting the practice of raw milk consumption. These results indicate that yak seropositivity for Brucella spp. is widespread in the region, and is associated with reported human disease. This epidemiologic understanding is essential to the identification of public health opportunities at the interface of Himalayan livestock populations and the transhumant pastoralists that depend on them. PMID:24416799

  6. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano; Usaquén Martínez William

    2006-01-01

    La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es e...

  7. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  8. Dinámica folicular y función lútea durante la gestación temprana. Estudio de un caso en Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henao R Guillermo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A una vaca Cebú de seis años, tres partos y 432 Kg de peso, se le practicaron ecografías ováricas transrectales y muestreos sanguíneo tres veces por semana desde el día uno al 74 de gestación. Se contó el número de folículos > 4 mm y se midió el diámetro de los folículos y el diámetro y tiempo de observación ecográfica del cuerpo lúteo. Se determinó la ovulación y se calculó la tasa de crecimiento del folículo dominante y el intervalo interdominancia. Los niveles de progesterona se midieron por radioinmunoanálisis. Durante los primeros 74 días de la gestación se desarrollaron 10 ondas foliculares; la primera fue conformada por seis folículos  4mm, de los cuales se desarrolló uno dominante que alcanzó un diámetro de 11 mm, creció a una tasa de un mm/día y presentó un intervalo interdominancia de 10 días. El folículo subordinado más desarrollado alcanzó un diámetro de 6 mm. Los folículos dominantes alcanzaron 9.11 mm de diámetro, crecieron a una tasa de 1,0  0,19 mm/día y presentaron un intervalo interdominancia de 7,5  1,73 días. El cuerpo lúteo alcanzó un diámetro máximo de 21mm el día 40 de gestación. La progesterona alcanzó niveles >10 ng/100ml a partir del día 11. Durante la gestación temprana de una vaca Cebú se presentó dinámica folicular caracterizada por el desarrollo de ondas foliculares semejantes a las producidas durante el ciclo estral y se formó un cuerpo lúteo activo productor de niveles característicos de progesterona.

  9. Protocolos de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo en vacas (Bos indicus en el trópico bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M. Sanabria-V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En una hacienda de clima tropical bajo, se evalula  respuesta  a  tres  programas de  Inseminación Artificial a Tiempo Fijo (IATF en 30 vacas vacías cebú  comercial, cíclicas,  con buena  condición corporal,  seleccionadas por  palpación  rectal  ydistribuidas al azar en  tres grupos de 10 vacas cada uno. A  éstos  se  les  asignó  un  protocolo  de sincronización de celos y ovulación diferente. En el grupo 1 se utilizó un dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona;  las vacas del grupo 2 recibieron un  implante auricular  impregnado de Norgestomet  y  en  el  grupo  3  se  realizó  el protocolo de Ovsynch. Se diagnosticó la preñez mediante ultrasonografía, 30 días después de la inseminación en  los  tratamientos y  los datos  fueron analizados mediante  estadística descriptiva  con variables  de  tipo  cuantitativo.  Los  resultados obtenidos para el grupo 1, fueron 4 de 10 vacas preñadas, en el grupo 2, 6 de 10 vacas preñadas y en  el  grupo  3, 3  de 10  vacas. Se  encontraron diferencias  significativas  entre  las  vacas  que recibieron  el  implante  auricular,  así  como  a aquellas  vacas que  se  les hizo  el protocolo de Ovsynch,  pero  no  se  encontraron  diferencias significativas  entre  el  dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona,  respecto de  los dos restantes. El valor más económico por preñez se obtuvo  con  la  utilización  del  protocolo  de Ovsynch; sin embargo, en  términos de eficiencia,fue mejor usar el implante auricular impregnado de  Norgestomet;  esto  por  razones  de mejoramiento  genético.  De  esta  forma  se concluyó que el protocolo del implante auricular con Norgestomet  tuvo una superior  tasa de preñez,sin que  esto  sea  una  constante,  debido  a  que  existen diferentes  factores que hacen variar  los resultados de la IATF.

  10. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic analyses placed with high support the cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta into two monophyletic sister groups, and the same was true for the cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi. Hence, the study established that S. buffalonis and S. levinei are distinct species different from S. hirsuta and S. cruzi, respectively. Nucleotide sequences of S. buffalonis could be distinguished from those of S. hirsuta also at the 28S rRNA gene (clearly different) and the ITS1 region (small and uncertain difference) but not at the 18S rRNA gene. Sequences of S. levinei could be distinguished from those of S. cruzi both at the 18S and 28S rRNA genes (ITS1 region not examined). However, the cox1 gene was superior to the 18S and 28S rRNA genes as regards the ability to unambiguously delimit the species within each species pair, since at the latter markers, the number of consistent nucleotide differences between the species was low and there was a slight overlap between the intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence. Comparison of the newly generated 18S rRNA gene sequences of S. levinei from water buffaloes with similar sequences deposited in GenBank suggested that S. levinei and S. cruzi are not strictly intermediate host specific but might occasionally infect cattle and water buffaloes, respectively. PMID:26979729

  11. Measurement of the CP-violating phase φs in the decay Bo/s →J/ψ/φ

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Conor Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to making precision measurements involving beauty and charm hadrons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The LHCb RICH detectors provide charged particle identification required to distinguish final states in many decays important to the LHCb physics programme. Time alignment of the RICH photon detectors is necessary in order to ensure a high photon collection efficiency. Using both a pulsed laser and proton-proton collision data the photon det...

  12. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P heifers. PMID:26169688

  13. SELEKSI JENIS TUMBUHAN PAKAN DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRIEN JENIS TUMBUHAN YANG DIMAKAN SAPI BALI (Bos sondaicus LEPAS SAPIH DI DAERAH BUKIT BADUNG SELATAN, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Heri Dismawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the plants species and nutrient content of plantspecies selected by weaning of bali cattle in South Badung Hill, Badung regency, Bali. Studywas conducted in three Grazing unit Bali cattle are Sawangan, Kutuh and Pecatu. InDecember 2013 to February 2014. Determination of the composition of plant species in thehabitat (n? is determined by the square method. Determination of plants composition in diet(r? determined by utilization methods. This method is based on the percentage bite mark ofplants species in plot sampling. Nutrient content was analyzed crude protein, energy, calciumand phosphorus. Crude protein determination with a Semi-micro Kjeldahl technique andenergy content by Bomb Calorimeter. Determination of mineral content of calcium (Ca andPhosphorus (P by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ASS. Tests carried out inthe Laboratory of Nutrition and Forage Analytical Chemistry, University of Udayana. TheJURNAL SIMBIOSIS II (2: 192- 202 ISSN: 2337-7224Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Udayana September 2014results study showed 32 species of plants available in the habitat, there are nine species ofplants that are selected by weaning bali cattle, that are Desmodium heterofilum, Pleurainterupta, Polygala glomerata, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium triflorum, Dactylocteniumaegyptium, Portulaca sp. Polygala chinensis, and Panicum eruciforme. Nutrient content ofplant species eaten a protein ranged from 11.25% - 17.14%, GE 3.10 kcal / g - 4.11 kcal / g,Ca 0.33% - 1.86%, and 0.026% P - 0.24%.Keywords: Weaning bali cattle, plants selected species, nutrient content

  14. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus) gestantes e não gestantes

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. Vargas; P.R. Xavier; C.A. Rezende; M.M. Neves; A.P. Marques Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o tr...

  15. Effect of seasons on semen production, effect of melatonin on the liquid storage (5℃) with correlated study of birth rate in mithun (Bos frontalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Perumal; JK Chamuah; AK Nahak; C Rajkhowa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of melatonin (MT) at different seasons of the year on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal membrane, plasma membrane and nuclear integrity, antioxidant profiles such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and biochemical profiles such as malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Methods: Total numbers of 80 ejaculates (20 ejaculates in each season) were collected twice a week from mithun bulls and semen was split into five equal aliquots, diluted with the tris egg yolk citrate (TEYC) extender. Group 1:semen without additives (control), group 2 to group 5:semen was diluted with 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, and 4 mM of melatonin, respectively. These seminal parameters, antioxidant, enzymatic and biochemical profiles were assessed at liquid storage of mithun semen (5 ℃). Simultaneously, retrospective study was conducted on birth rate of calf at different seasons from 2002 to 2012 from farm birth register of mithun farm. Results: Inclusion of melatonin into diluent resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different seasons of the year as compared with control group. Additionally, spring season has highest seminal and antioxidant profiles followed by autumn and winter season, whereas lower values were observed in ejaculates collected from summer season. Similarly retrospective study revealed that highest birth rate was in winter followed by autumn, spring and summer season and breeding was occurred in spring, winter, summer and autumn season, respectively with gestation period of 270- 290 days. Conclusions:The result of present study indicates that the melatonin protects seminal and antioxidant profiles varied in different seasons, semen quality also varied from different seasons and was highest in spring and lowest in summer season. It was concluded from the present study that breeding takes place throughout year but the peak breeding season is from November to April (spring and winter season) in mithun.

  16. Effect of seasons on semen production, effect of melatonin on the liquid storage (5 °C with correlated study of birth rate in mithun (Bos frontalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The result of present study indicates that the melatonin protects seminal and antioxidant profiles varied in different seasons, semen quality also varied from different seasons and was highest in spring and lowest in summer season. It was concluded from the present study that breeding takes place throughout year but the peak breeding season is from November to April (spring and winter season in mithun.

  17. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa

    OpenAIRE

    S.D. Gad; S.K. Shyama

    2009-01-01

    Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%). In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) and teak (Tectona grandis) trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square...

  18. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae in two protected areas of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Gad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%. In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale and teak (Tectona grandis trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square=12.94; p=0.001. Peak feeding activity was observed early in the morning (0630 to 0830 hr and in the evening (1730 to 1845 hr. During hot hours of the day (1330 to 1530 hr, animals were found resting in the shade of large trees.

  19. Integrasi Aplikasi Metode Quality Function Deployment (QFD) dengan Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) untuk Meningkatkan Mutu Pelayanan Hotel, Studi Kasus: Hotel Grand Angkasa Internasional Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Herda, Dara Muthia

    2013-01-01

    Keluhan yang dirasakan pelanggan dari pelayanan Hotel Grand Angkasa Internasional di Medan membuat pelanggan menjadi kurang puas terhadap pelayanan yang diberikan. Keluhan tersebut antara lain: lambatnya respon karyawan didalam melayani permintaan pelanggan, kurangnya inovasi menu makanan yang disediakan, air conditioner yang kurang dingin, air panas yang tidak berfungsi maksimal, dan kualitas air yang kurang jernih. Inovasi nilai digunakan dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan...

  20. Short communication: Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L P; Engberg, R M; Løvendahl, P; Larsen, T

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes. In particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31 Holstein cows divided into 4 groups representing repeated experiments and, within group, divided according to quantitative trait locus haplotype. All cows were inoculated with viable E. coli, and milk samples were collected 27 times from -6 to 396 h post-E. coli inoculation (PI). Activity of the 4 enzymes in milk, somatic cell count (SCC), daily milk yield, viable E. coli counts, and results of a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction for pathogen detection, were all analyzed with a repeatability model. The response variables all expressed a strong reaction to the E. coli infection. Daily milk yield decreased significantly at 12 h PI and bacteria counts increased 100-fold and peaked at 18 h PI, which was validated by PCR. Also, SCC started to increase at 12 h PI and increased on average 70 times; however, no significant differences in SCC level were detected between HH and HL cows at any sampling point. The enzymes LDH, NAGase, and alkaline phosphatase showed similar responses, with a significantly increased activity and higher peak values for the HH than the HL cows. Significant differences between HH and HL cows were detected at different time points for these 3 enzymes, but not after adjusting P-values for multiple testing. A different pattern was also observed for GLU, where HL cows expressed the highest peak activity. Indication of differences in GLU activity between the 2 haplotype groups was only seen at 60 h PI. It was concluded that HL and HH cows expressed similar response patterns after E. coli infection but with differences in the size and profile of the activity of the 4 enzymes. The enzyme GLU was an equally good indicator of E. coli mastitis compared with the other studied enzymes, although it showed a slower response compared with LDH and NAGase. PMID:26026757

  1. 牦牛矿物质营养研究进展%Research Progress of Mineral Nutrition of Yak (Bos grunniens )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国璧; 才让东智; 赵月平; 陈生梅; 马志杰

    2012-01-01

    自20世纪90年代以来,牦牛矿物质营养研究一直受到科研人员的重视.目前,在对牦牛部分组织及畜产品、牦牛生存地牧草和土壤中矿物质含量测定等方面已取得一定的成果.对近20 a来牦牛矿物质营养研究进展进行了综合论述和分析.受牦牛性别、年龄以及组织类型、所测矿物质元素种类、不同区域生态类型和草场状况等因素的影响,所测定的矿物质元素水平间缺乏可比性.同时,牦牛矿物质营养研究缺乏系统性,这在一定程度上限制了其研究成果在牦牛生产中的实际指导作用.由此提出,应建立针对不同区域生态类型、草场状况和针对不同年龄、性别、组织以及不同季节的牦牛矿物质营养标准.%Since the late 1990s,researchers pay more attention to the studies on mineral nutrition of yak and some achievements have been obtained from the measurements of minerals content in some yak's tissues and products (i. e. meat,milk, et al. ), the grass and soil where yak lived. In this paper,the authors summarized the research progress of mineral nutrition of yak during the past 20 years. However, the differences of sex, age, ecological grassland types, mineral element types and other factors result in the lack of comparability at the mineral element levels in yak. At the same time, the researches of mineral nutrition in yak are also lack of systematic analysis, which restricts the use of research results in yak production and the practical guide. Therefore, the authors think that it is necessary and urgent to establish the mineral nutrition standard in yak based on the different area, seasons, ecological types and grassland status, together with the age and sex of yak.

  2. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  3. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) and their correlation with climatic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Francisco Carlos Platzeck Estrella Alves; Eunice Oba; Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of t...

  4. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  5. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for...

  6. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and their replationship with mRNA and the microRNA transcriptome in bovine muscle tissue (Bos Taurine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals, having essential and important roles in muscle development. We sample longissimus thoracis tissues from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within comparable environments at fetal and adult stages, using methy...

  7. Postweaning substitution of grazed forage with a high-energy concentrate has variable long-term effects on subcutaneous fat and marbling in Bos taurus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Siddell, J P; Walmsley, B J; Geesink, G H; Pethick, D W; McPhee, M J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects and interactions of stage of growth and genotype on commercial carcass traits and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in 5 muscles of steers ( = 165) and to test the hypothesis that substituting pasture with a high-energy concentrate during the immediate postweaning period increases IMF. Cattle of 3 genotypes (Angus, Hereford, and Wagyu × Angus; = 55/genotype) were selected at weaning from commercial herds, targeting genotypic differences in marbling and subcutaneous fatness. Following weaning, steers were fed for 168 d within 2 different improved, temperate pasture-based nutritional systems: a forage-only system (FS) and forage with high-energy supplemented system (SS), with 2 replicates per system. The supplement was fed at a level of 1% of average BW adjusted every 2 wk to provide an estimated 50% of energy requirements for 168 d from weaning. Pasture on offer in both systems was managed to match the BW of the FS and SS steers during the postweaning treatment period to avoid confounding due to differences in growth rate during this period. Steers were then regrouped into 2 replicates and backgrounded on improved, temperate pasture for 158 d and then grain fed within 1 group for 105 d (short fed) or 259 d (long fed). Groups were slaughtered at commencement (d 0) and end of postweaning nutritional treatments (d 168), end of backgrounding (d 326), and after short (d 431) or long feedlotting (d 585). Serial slaughter stage had an effect on all traits assessed ( < 0.01). The FS steers had more rib fat ( < 0.01) and higher Meat Standards Australia marbling score ( < 0.05) and a tendency ( < 0.10) to have greater eye muscle area than the SS steers throughout the study. Genotypic differences were evident ( < 0.05) for all traits assessed except HCW, dressing percentage, rib fat depth, ossification score, ultimate pH, and IMF in the semitendinosus muscle. The results for marbling and IMF do not support the use of a high-energy feed as a substitute for an equivalent amount of energy from pasture during the immediate postweaning period to enhance development of marbling. PMID:26440193

  8. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and sarcocysts of S. bovini in samples from Argentina and New Zealand. The microscopic sarcocysts from water buffaloes were confirmed to belong to S. sinensis. The cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis and S. bovini, respectively, shared an identity of 93-94 % with each other, and these sequences shared an identity of 89-90 % with cox1 of S. sinensis. In contrast, the intraspecific sequence identity was 98.4-100 % (n = 45), 99.3-100 % (n = 24) and 99.5-100 % (n = 7) for sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively. In each of the latter three species, an aberrant type of cox1 sequences was also identified, which was only 91-92 % identical with the predominant cox1 type of the same species and about 98 % identical with the aberrant types of the two other species. These aberrant cox1 sequences are believed to represent non-functional nuclear copies of the mitochondrial genes (numts or pseudogenes). They might be used as additional markers to separate the three species from each other. Sequencing of a considerable number of clones of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis from each of the three regions of the rDNA unit revealed intraspecific sequence variation in all loci in all species and particularly in the ITS1 locus (78-100 % identity). As regards the 18S rRNA gene, it was possible to separate the three species from each other on the basis of a few consistent nucleotide differences in the less variable 3' end half of the gene. A comparison of the new sequences with GenBank sequences obtained from S. sinensis-like sarcocysts in cattle in other studies indicated that previous sequences derived from cattle in Germany and Austria belonged to S. bovifelis, whereas those derived from cattle in China belonged to S. bovini. On the basis of the new 28S rRNA sequences, it was possible to separate S. sinensis from S. bovifelis and S. bovini, whereas the latter two species could not be separated from each other. Based on ITS1 sequences, the three species were indistinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony placed with fairly high support cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively, into three monophyletic clusters, with S. bovifelis and S. bovini being a sister group to S. sinensis. In contrast, phylogenies based on each of the three regions of the rDNA unit did not separate sequences of the three species completely from each other. Characterisation of cox1 of 56 isolates of S. hirsuta from four countries revealed only 13 haplotypes and an intraspecific sequence identity of 99.3-100 %. In the three regions of the rDNA unit, there was more extensive sequence variation, particularly in the ITS1 region. The 22 cox1 sequences of S. cruzi displayed a moderate intraspecific variation (98.6-100 %), whereas there was no variation at the 18S rRNA gene among 10 sequenced isolates. Sequencing of 16 clones of the partial 28S rRNA gene of S. cruzi yielded two markedly different sequence types, having an overall sequence identity of 95-100 %. PMID:26677095

  9. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible. PMID:25981105

  10. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Ppractices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  11. SELEKSI JENIS TUMBUHAN PAKAN DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRIEN JENIS TUMBUHAN YANG DIMAKAN SAPI BALI (Bos sondaicus) LEPAS SAPIH DI DAERAH BUKIT BADUNG SELATAN, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Heri Dismawan; I Ketut Ginantra; Ni Luh Ni Luh Suriani

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the plants species and nutrient content of plantspecies selected by weaning of bali cattle in South Badung Hill, Badung regency, Bali. Studywas conducted in three Grazing unit Bali cattle are Sawangan, Kutuh and Pecatu. InDecember 2013 to February 2014. Determination of the composition of plant species in thehabitat (n?) is determined by the square method. Determination of plants composition in diet(r?) determined by utilization methods. This method is ba...

  12. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Løvendahl, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31...... adjusting P-values for multiple testing. A different pattern was also observed for GLU, where HL cows expressed the highest peak activity. Indication of differences in GLU activity between the 2 haplotype groups was only seen at 60 h PI. It was concluded that HL and HH cows expressed similar response...

  13. Marcadores moleculares asociados a la Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) en carne de Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Gutiérrez, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    La Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) es una de las características de la carne con mayor efecto sobre la rentabilidad del sector, al estar asociada a las mermas y a la jugosidad. Los objetivos principales son: resaltar la importancia de la CRA de la carne de bovino, evaluar el desempeño de estos parámetros según los factores tiempo de maduración y cruce de los animales y establecer polimorfismos en genes candidatos asociados al parámetro evaluado. Varios genes y sus polimorfismos han sido ...

  14. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas europeas a esta raza.

  15. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

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    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  16. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  17. Estimulação hormonal, punção folicular transvaginal e avaliação ovocitária em bezerras pré-púberes da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus Hormonal stimulation and ultrasound guided transvaginal follicle aspiration and oocyte recovery in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus prepubertal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Viviane Snel-Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de bezerras pré-púberes como doadoras de ovócitos oferece um considerável potencial para acelerar o ganho genético através da diminuição do intervalo de gerações, além de incrementar o aproveitamento de fêmeas bovinas de alto valor genético. Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar o efeito da idade e do tratamento estimulatório com gonadotrofinas sobre a resposta folicular, a taxa de recuperação, a produção e a avaliação morfológica de ovócitos colhidos em bezerras da raça nelore (B. t. indicus a partir de 10 meses de idade. As bezerras foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos (n=4 e receberam tratamentos hormonais distintos, repetidos nos mesmos animais nos três períodos, aos 10, 11 e 12 meses de idade. No dia zero (D0, todas as bezerras receberam um implante intravaginal de progesterona e, em D1, 2 mg de benzoato de estradiol intramuscular (im. Em D6, deu-se início à diferenciação dos tratamentos (T: T1- 120 UI de FSH, divididos em quatro aplicações im a cada 12 horas; T2 - 120 UI de FSH, em uma única aplicação subcutânea (sc, mais 300 UI de eCG sc, T3 - sem tratamento estimulatório. No D8, o implante de progesterona foi retirado e a punção folicular transvaginal, guiada por ultra-som (PFTV, foi realizada no D9. Dos 402 ovócitos coletados, 53 foram desnudados e medidos, incluindo a zona pelúcida, encontrando-se um diâmetro médio de 153,38 (8,06 mm. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos e entre as idades para quantidade de folículos > 3 mm, de ovócitos recuperados e de ovócitos viáveis. A média de ovócitos recuperados e ovócitos viáveis para cada tratamento foi: T1- 11,08 (6,20 e 59,58% (25,80, T2- 12,75 (8,04 e 66,02% (36,71, T3 - 9,66 (8,15 e 51,51% (30,69, respectivamente. O valor médio da taxa de recuperação foi de 78,70%. O uso de FSH e FSH + eCG não aumentou significantemente a quantidade de folículos > 3 mm no momento da PFTV, assim como dos ovócitos recuperados e viáveis aos 10, 11 e 12 meses de idade.The use of pre-pubertal calves as oocyte donors offers a considerable potential to increase the genetic gain lowering the generations interval, as well as increase the usage of bovine females with high genetic value. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of age and of the stimulatory treatment with gonadotropins in the follicular response, the recovery rate, quantity and quality of oocytes of the prepubertal Nelore (B. t. indicus calves. Twelve Nelore prepubertal females were stimulated with gonadotrophin hormone and were submitted to ultrasound guided transvaginal oocyte recovery (OPU at 10, 11 and 12 months of age. Before OPU the females were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (n=4, which consist of different protocols of ovarian super stimulation. For all treatments the animals on day zero (D0 received one intravaginal progesterone implant (CIDR-G® and on D1, 2 mg of estradiol benzoate im (Estrogin®. The stimulatory treatment began on D6 according to the following treatments: T1-120 IU of FSH (Foltropin®, divided in 4 im injections with 12 hours interval; T2-120 IU of FSH in one sc application plus 300 IU of eCG (Folligon® on D6; T3 - without stimulatory treatment (control. At D8 the CIDR-G®was removed and OPU was performed on D9. Among the 402 oocytes retrieved, 53 were denuded and measured (including the pellucid zone where a mean diameter of 153.38 ± 8.06 mm was obtained. No significant difference was detected among treatments and among ages for the quantity of follicles > 3 mm, quantity of oocytes recovery and quantity of oocytes morphologically viable. The mean of recovery oocytes and viable oocytes for each treatment was T1- 11.08 (6.20 and 59.58% (25.80, T2 - 12.75 (8.04 and 66.02% (36.71, T3 - 9.66 (8.15 and 51.51% (30.69, respectively. The mean value of recovery rate was 78.70%. The use of FSH or FSH + eCG does not increase significantly the amount of follicles > 3 mm at the OPU moment, as well as the total and viable oocytes by 10, 11 and 12 months of age.

  18. Estimación del comportamiento productivo y parámetros genéticos de características predestete en bovinos de carne (Bos taurus y sus cruzas, VIII Región, Chile Estimation of pre-weaning productive performance and genetic parameters in beef cattle (Bos taurus and crosses, VIII Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E G Cienfuegos-Rivas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el comportamiento productivo al nacimiento y destete de los terneros hijos de toros Angus, Hereford y Polled Hereford con vacas Clavel, Hereford, Holstein, Polled Hereford e Híbridas (cruzas de Holstein con combinaciones de Hereford en un rebaño bovino de carne en la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región de Chile. Los animales fueron clasificados de acuerdo a sus características fenotípicas. El comportamiento productivo se evaluó analizando 1.119 registros productivos, desde 1999 al 2000, para las variables peso al nacimiento (PN, N=1.119, peso al destete ajustado (PD205, N=660 y ganancia predestete (GDP, N=660 utilizando el método de mínimos cuadrados para determinar el efecto de la raza del toro (GRT, la raza de la vaca (GRV, el grupo contemporáneo (GC y edad de la vaca (EDV como covariable sobre las variables PN, PD205 y GDP. Los parámetros genéticos y ambientales fueron estimados usando un modelo animal con la metodología MTDFREML, empleándose análisis univariados y bivariados para la estimación de los componentes de varianza. El efecto de GRT y GC fue significativo (PThe objective was to determine the productive performance in body weight change from birth until weaning, of calves sired by Angus, Hereford and Polled Hereford with Clavel, Hereford, Holstein, Polled Hereford, and Hybrid (different Holstein and Hereford combinations cows in a beef cattle herd in the dry area of the Ñuble, province of the VIII Region in Chile. The sires and cows were classified according to their phenotypic characteristics. The productive performance was evaluated by analyzing 1,119 production records from year 1990 to 2000 for the variables: birth weight (PN, N=1,119, adjusted weaning weight (PD205, N=660 and preweaning daily gain (GDP; N=660 using the least squares method to determine the effects of breed group of the sire (GRT, breed group of the dam (GRV, and contemporary groups (GC, with age of dam (EDV as a covariable, on PN, PD205 and GDP. Genetic and environmental parameters were estimated using an animal model with MTDFREML methodology, through univariable and bivariable analyses to estimate variance and covariance components. GRT and the GC had a significant effect (P<0.05 on PN and PD205 but did not affect GDP (P•0.05. Calves sired by Hereford bulls were 7.5, 12.5 y 14.0 % above the herd average for PN, PD205 and GDP, respectively. The GRV did not have an effect (P•0.05 on PN, PD205 and GDP. Heritabilities (h² calculated were 0.49 for PN, 0.15 for PD205 and 0.35 for GDP. Genetic correlation between PN and PD205 was 0.23. Within the GRT the h2 for PN and PD205 were 0.69 and 0.21 for Angus and 0.47 and 0.23 for Polled Hereford, respectively.

  19. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus) (Nota Científica) EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo; Gabriella Biondi de Godoy; Andrea Novoa Castillo Oliveira; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2009-01-01

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0) e 120 (D120) por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC) com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT) com onze animais. Os to...

  20. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus (Nota Científica EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0 e 120 (D120 por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT com onze animais. Os touros do GT receberam 4g de probiótico/animal/dia, durante 120 dias. Houve diferença (p<0,01 entre as colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT para o perímetro escrotal (GC – D0: 30,50 cm e D120: 33,55 cm; GT – D0: 29,90 cm e D120: 34,30 cm. Houve diferença (p<0,05 entre colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT, respectivamente, para: defeitos menores (GC – D0: 13,84 % e D120: 21,79%; GT – D0: 14,99% e D120: 20,84% e defeitos totais (GC – D0: 22,29% e D120: 29,24%; GT – D0: 25,14% e D120: 32,81%. Os resultados demonstram que, entre grupos, não houve alteração significativa das características seminais e perímetro escrotal.
       
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aditivo, nutrição, sêmen, touro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Touro, sêmen, nutrição, aditivo.    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Proenzime® on scrotal perimeter and spermiogram in young Tabapua bulls. Two samples of semen from 21 Tabapua bulls, aging 30 months, were collected in day zero (D0 and 120 (D120 by electroejaculation, totalizing 42 samples. The bulls were divided in control group (CG with 10 animals and trated group (TG with 11 animals. The bulls of TG received 4g of probiotic/animal/day, during 120 days. There was difference (p<0.01 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG for scrotal perimeter (CG – D0: 30.50 cm and D120: 33.55 cm; TG – D0: 29.90 cm and D120: 34.30 cm. There was difference (p<0.05 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG, respectively. Minor defects (CG – D0: 13.84% and D120: 21.79%; TG – D0: 14.99% and D120: 20.84% and total defects (CG – D0: 22.29% and D120: 29.24%; TG – D0: 25.14% and D120: 32.81%. The results exposed allow concluding that significant alterations were not observed between groups for the seminal characteristics and scrotal perimeter.   

    KEY WORDS: Aditive, bull, nutrition, semen.

  1. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration 32.81 ± 1.84 ; Reticulocytes 0.27 ± 0.54%; erythroblast 214 ± 594/mul; leukocytes (mu l: 10593 ± 3008; band neutrophils 97 ± 165; segmented neutrophils 4837 ± 2201; lymphocytes 5222 ± 1909; eosinophils 86 ± 139: monocytes 346 ± 221; basophils 3 ± 24. Sex had no influencing the hemogram values except to reticulocytes and erythroblast that were higher in females. Age significantly influenced the leucogram and eritrogram values (p≤0.0 3. The Package Cell Volume, erythrocytes, and hemoglobin decreasing and the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration and reticulocytes increasing until the thirth to seventh days. There was an subsequent inversion of this variation in this period until the thirtieth day. The lymphocyte percentage regression curve increasing and neutrophils decreasing after birth. The intersection between the two leukocytes curves occurred between the seventh and the fourteenth day of life.

  2. Bomen als voedselbron voor insecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Informatiemap van het communicatieproject van LNV Kennis en Informatiesysteem Bos. Doelgroep zijn eigenaren en beheerders van bos. Elk hoofdstuk behandeld een apart thema. Aan de orde komen wetten en regelingen, beheerplanning, ziekten en plagen, natuurlijke verjonging, kwaliteitshout, certificering

  3. Nature Conservation and Veterinary Problems: Issues and Options. With case studies of foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Butter, Maureen E.; Prent, K.

    2005-01-01

    Large herbivores in nature suffer from veterinary law In the Habitat Directive, Natura 2000, the EU aims at preservation, restoration and interconnection of large-scale nature reserves throughout the union. Such a network of interconnected wilderness will provide dearly needed space to large wild animals, many of which are declining or even in danger of extinction. A thousand years ago most of Europe was nature, providing space for aurochs, moose, wild horse, reindeer, wild boar, bear, wolf a...

  4. Insights into the Genetic History of French Cattle from Dense SNP Data on 47 Worldwide Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Gautier; Denis Laloë; Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Modern cattle originate from populations of the wild extinct aurochs through a few domestication events which occurred about 8,000 years ago. Newly domesticated populations subsequently spread worldwide following breeder migration routes. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.[br/] Methodology...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0585 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0585 ref|NP_001071387.1| hypothetical protein LOC514131 [Bos taurus] r...ef|XP_001254537.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein LOC514131 [Bos taurus] dbj|BAF36506.1| p97Bucentaur-2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|AAI49203.1| P97Bucentaur-2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071387.1 4e-12 32% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0063 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 2e-49 86% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0052 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-113 62% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-37-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-37-0004 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-173 82% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-03-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0018 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 1e-169 79% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-01-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-01-0025 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-145 71% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0080 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0080 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-148 71% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0053 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 6e-33 72% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1390 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1390 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 6e-88 76% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1467 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1467 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-117 81% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1472 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1472 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-121 76% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2178 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2178 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 1e-61 57% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1334 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-134 79% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0816 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0816 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-125 79% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0732 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0732 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-113 59% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0338 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0338 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 1e-124 68% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2252 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2252 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 4e-70 71% ...

  2. UCP Mainport : kontseptuaalne uurimus Utrechti raudteejaama maa-ala arendamiseks = UCP Mainport : concept study redevelopment station area Utrecht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Mainporti projekti arhitekt Ben van Berkel, projekteerijad: Van Berkel & Bos, Holland Railconsult. Projekti II etapis uuriti Hoog Catherijne ostukeskuse laiendamist. Projekteerijad: Van Berkel & Bos, Neutelings & Riedijk, Alsop & Störmer.Van Berkel & Bos (arhitektibüroo, Holland). Holland Railconsult (projekteerimisbüroo, Utrecht). Alsop & Störmer (arhitektibüroo, London). Neutelings & Riedijk (arhitektibüroo, Rotterdam)

  3. Predictive Value of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome Stage 0p in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Sameem; Yanik, Gregory A.; Braun, Thomas; Pawarode, Attaphol; Magenau, John; Goldstein, Steven C.; Levine, John E.; Kitko, Carrie L.; Couriel, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a significant post-transplant complication with low survival. BOS stage 0p (BOS 0p) is a parameter detected on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after lung transplantation to identify patients at risk to develop BOS. We performed a retrospective study on 442 patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant from 2007 to 2011 to evaluate whether development of BOS 0p is a risk factor in this population for BOS. Patients who met criteria for BOS 0p were significantly more likely to develop BOS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.22; P HR, 2.48; P =.001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) outside the lung post-transplant (HR, 23; P < .001). Finally, BOS 0p criteria were adequately sensitive in predicting BOS (85%), with a high negative predictive value (98%). Our findings suggest a routine PFT screening strategy with the intent of detecting BOS 0p, especially among patients with prior lung disease and who developed chronic GVHD, could suitably identify an at-risk population for the development of BOS. PMID:25687798

  4. An international ISHLT/ATS/ERS clinical practice guideline:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Keith C; Raghu, Ganesh; Verleden, Geert M;

    2014-01-01

    describe and/or provide recommendations for 1) the definition of BOS, 2) the risk factors for developing BOS, 3) the diagnosis of BOS, and 4) the management and prevention of BOS. A pragmatic evidence synthesis was performed to identify all unique citations related to BOS published from 1980 through to...... March, 2013. The expert committee discussed the available research evidence upon which the updated definition of BOS, identified risk factors and recommendations are based. The committee followed the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to develop specific......Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a major complication of lung transplantation that is associated with poor survival. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society convened a committee of international experts to...

  5. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  6. PENGARUH PENERAPAN GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PERILAKU ETIS DALAM PENGELOLAAN DANA BANTUAN OPERASIONAL SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Fauzan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji pengaruh penerapan good corporate governance terhadap perilaku etis dalam pengelolaan Dana BOS SMP di Kota Malang. Jenis penelitian adalah survey. Populasinya adalah kepala sekolah SMP baik negeri dan swasta penerima Dana BOS. Ada 24 SMP Negeri dan 66 SMP Swasta penerima Dana BOS. Teknik pengambilan sampelnya adalah simple random sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi linear berganda. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa semua variabel independen secara simultan berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap variabel dependen. Secara parsial, transparansi berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap pengelolaan dana BOS. Akuntabilitas berpengaruh negative dan tidak signifikan terhadap pengelolaan dana BOS. Partisipasi masyarakat berpengaruh secara positif dan tidak signifikan terhadap pengelolaan dana BOS. Transparansi yang paling dominan mempengaruhi pengelolaan dana BOS.

  7. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus durante o anestro pós-parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12. Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica de imunoistoquímica. Altas contagens relativas e alta intensidade de marcação para receptor de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma foram observadas nos dois grupos. No entanto, a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular foi mais alta no grupo 2 comparado ao grupo 1. Quando o epitélio glandular e o estroma foram comparados, o número relativo de receptor de estrógeno no grupo 1 foi mais alto no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma, e a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no grupo 2 foi mais alta no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma. Os resultados sugerem que os mecanismos que controlam a expressão de receptores no anestro são semelhantes aos observados durante o ciclo estral.

  8. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm, índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 hubo diferencia (p<0,05 entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto al peso corpóreo (627,70±11,37 e 611,58±8,66Kg; la altura (1,44±0,01e 1,47±0,01m; el volumen del eyaculado (5,82±0,48 e 5,17±0,29 mL, la motilidad espermática progresiva (73,50±2,81% e75,62±0,97%, el vigor espermático (4,30±0,19 e4,27±0,11 y motilidad en masa (4,27±0,11 e3,33±0,23 no se presentó diferencia (p>0,05. En morfología espermática, tampoco hubo desigualdad entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente con 5,06 ± 8,20% e 5,32 ± 6,40% de defectos mayores; 9,91±6,74% e 8,36±6,06% para los defectos menores; e 14,76±13,20% e 13,82±12,61% para los defectos totales. La electroforesis del plasma seminal reveló bandas proteicas con pesos entre 5 a 105 KDa. En el 100% de toros aptos para la reproducción, la proteína con pesos de 13 Kda estuvo presente. De la misma forma ocurrió con las bandas de 20 KDa. El resto de las bandas proteicas mostraron presencia con diferentes porcentajes de incidencia en toros aptos o parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Las dos variedades estudiadas hicieron evidente la adaptación reproductiva eficaz en condiciones de clima semejantes.

  9. Búsqueda del Bosón de Higgs del Modelo Standard en el canal de desintegración H → WW∗ → 2μ2ν en el experimento CMS del LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Rodrigo Anoro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    A prospective analysis for the search of a SM Higgs boson in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC is performed in this thesis, focusing in the gg → H → WW∗ → μνμν process. The search channel has a clear signature characterized by the presence of two high PT muons in the final state and a significant amount of missing ET due to the undetected neutrinos. No hard jet activity is expected. The principal sources of background come from several SM processes that may have similar final states as those of the signal, mainly W + jets, Z + jets, tt and the almost irreducible WW. Other sources of background are WZ, ZZ and tW processes. Final states coming from QCD processes have different signatures but very large cross-sections and they have also been studied. Several analysis techniques have been developed in this work. The main one is based on the application of a sequential selection criteria using a set of physical observables which characterize the main kinematic properties of the sign...

  10. Tipos de fibras en el músculo esquelético del toro bravo (bos taurus ibericus) : su relación con la caída durante la lídia / 2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Gomariz, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Tesis-Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. T.M.-2275. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. Fac. Veterinaria. Departamentos. E002B TESIS 95. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. Fac. Veterinaria. Sala de estudio. Tesis-V 153.

  11. Análisis de los tipos de fibras musculares del toro bravo (Bos Taurus ibericus): su relación con algunas enzimas de fatiga muscular y el comportamiento durante la lidia

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Sempere, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Muestras de músculo esquelético y sangre fueron tomadas a 48 toros bravos (novillos) lidiados en la plaza de toros de Calasparra (Murcia). Los músculos seleccionados, cabeza larga del tríceps braquial y semitendinoso, fueron analizados desde el punto de vista histológico, con el fin de estudiar las características morfológicas e histoquímicas de los distintos tipos de miocitos y las posibles alteraciones consecuencia de la lidia. Las técnicas histoquímicas han posibilitado reconocer tres tipo...

  12. Análisis de los tipos de fibras musculares del toro bravo (Bos Taurus ibericus): su relación con algunas enzimas de fatiga muscular y el comportamiento durante la lidia

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Sempere, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Muestras de músculo esquelético y sangre fueron tomadas a 48 toros bravos (novillos) lidiados en la plaza de toros de Calasparra (Murcia). Los músculos seleccionados, cabeza larga del tríceps braquial y semitendinoso, fueron analizados desde el punto de vista histológico, con el fin de estudiar las características morfológicas e histoquímicas de los distintos tipos de miocitos y las posibles alteraciones consecuencia de la lidia. Las técnicas histoquímicas han posibilitado reconocer tres tip...

  13. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) durante o anestro pós-parto

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, R S; I. Martin; W.C. Marques Filho; M.M.P. Rodrigues; R Laufer-Amorim; Ferreira, J.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12). Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica d...

  14. Cadenas cuánticas con acoplos espín-bosón: aplicaciones en simulación cuántica (Quantum chains with spin-boson couplings: applications in quantum simulation)

    OpenAIRE

    Nevado Serrano, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo pretendemos estudiar modelos colectivos de espines acoplados a bosones para ser implementados en sistemas de iones atrapados o cavity/circuit QED. El problema que vamos a tratar podría servir para generar estados entrelazados de fotones, lo cual tiene especial utilidad en cualquier realización práctica de información o computación cuántica. Existen modelos relacionados que se han introducido en física del estado sólido para el estudio de acoplos Jahn-Teller entre estados elect...

  15. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede;

    2013-01-01

    , rumen motility; and the paraclinical parameters: bacterial counts, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk amyloid A levels in milk; and white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMNL) count, and serum amyloid A levels in blood were recorded at different time points post-E. coli...

  16. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sánchez; Marcelo Mungai; Nelson Machado

    2006-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm), índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 ) hubo diferencia (p<0,05) entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto...

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in cattle (Bos taurus), moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway. The effect of anthelmintic treatment in relation to a possible cross-infection.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered to be a problem in domestic cattle, and various studies have tried to present reasons for and solutions to this problem. A study was conducted in Southern Norway in order to examine whether anthelmintic treatment in cattle is adequate and to investigate if wild cervids like moose and roe deer should be considered as a reservoir for nematode parasites in cattle. The results showed that egg output from cattle was low, which together with ...

  18. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12 months; group IV-12 to 24 months; group V-24 to 48 months; group VI-48 to 72 months and group VII-older than 72 months were studied. The highest and lowest mean values observed were total white blood cell/mm³-16992±4104 (group III and 10353±2397 (group VI; neutrophils/mm³-3931±1578 (group I and 2416 ±1118 (group III; eosinophils/ mm³-999±499 (group V and 265±276 (group II; basophils/mm³-67±88 (group VII and 39±78 (group III; typical lymphocytes/ mm³-12758±3608 (group III and 5906±1883 (group VI; atypical lymphocytes/ mm³-1310±603 (group II and 760±419 (group VI ; lymphocytes total/ mm³-14079±4027 (group III and 6666±2059 (group VI; monocytes/mm³-27±62 (group I and 0 (group III. The differences (p>0.05 observed among the groups in relation to total white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils can be related to the influence of the age on leukogram of Nelore (Zebu cattle raised in São Paulo- Brazil.

  19. 川西北牦牛布鲁氏菌病血清流行病学调查%Sero-epidemiological Survey of Brucellosis among Yak(Bos grunniens) in Northwestern Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨发龙; 张焕容; 王言轩; 周子雄; 王远微; 汤承

    2013-01-01

    The indirect ELISA(iELISA),the Rose bengal plate test(RBPT)and standard tube agglutination test(SAT), were used to investigate the serological prevalence of bovine brucellosis in yak in regions ordering northwestern Sichuan province of China. A total of 1070 serum samples collected from 8 counties in the grassland area in northwest Sichuan province of China,were examined to investigate the brucellosis sero-prevalence by the three methods. Serological evi-dence indicated that the apparent prevalence of brucellosis in yaks was 25.4%(272/1070) detected by iELISA,12.7%(136/1070)by RBPT,and 9.1%(97/1070) by STAT,suggesting that yak brucellosis existed in all the 8 counties under in the study. The relative sensitivity and speciifcity of RBPT were 50.0%and 100%,those of STAT were 35.7%and 100%respectively,compared with iELISA. The results shown that iELISA was the most sensitive method.%同时采用间接ELISA、虎红平板凝集试验和试管凝集试验三种血清学方法调查川西北牦牛布鲁氏菌病血清流行情况。对1070份采自川西北阿坝州8个草地县的牦牛血清样品经三种血清学方法检测,间接ELISA检测阳性率为25.4%(272/1070),虎红平板凝集试验检测阳性率为12.7%(136/1070),而试管凝集试验检测阳性率为9.1%(97/1070)。8个县均发现阳性布鲁氏菌病血清。与间接ELISA相比,虎红平板凝集试验的相对敏感性和特异性分别为50%和100%,而试管凝集试验的相对敏感性和特异性分别为35.7%和100%。布鲁氏菌病在川西北地区广泛存在,血清学方法是检测和监测布鲁氏菌病最常用和最简便的方法,其中间接ELISA方法最为敏感。

  20. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitro en los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  1. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitroen los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  2. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  3. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  4. An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Healthcare Professionals: A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of healthcare professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care healthcare professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care healthcare professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care healthcare professionals and for patients. PMID:27309157

  5. An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health Care Professionals: A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health care professionals and for patients. PMID:27369038

  6. A Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health-care Professionals. A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients. PMID:27367887

  7. An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement-Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health-care Professionals: A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients. PMID:27396776

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dren's ... 48 0.79 1 ( AC231868 ) Bos taurus BAC CH240-211C14 (Children's Hospital...aurus BAC CH240-242E2 (Children's Hospital ... 48 0.79 1 ( AC231833 ) Bos taurus NOVECTOR CH240-254C23 (Chil...dren's Hos... 48 0.79 1 ( AC231397 ) Bos taurus BAC CH240-464P17 (Children's Hospital...... 48 0.79 1 ( AC229882 ) Bos taurus BAC CH240-237N14 (Children's Hospital... 48 0.79 1 ( AC229870 ) Bo...s taurus NOVECTOR CH240-367D19 (Children's Hos... 48 0.79 1 ( AC229801 ) Bos taurus BAC CH240-431E22 (Children's Hospital

  9. Exposing Compassion Fatigue and Burnout Syndrome in a Trauma Team: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gina M; Harshbarger, Jenni L; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lippoldt, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout syndrome (BOS) are identified in trauma, emergency, and critical care nursing practices. The purpose of this qualitative study was to measure CF and BOS in a trauma team and allow them to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. Surveys to measure CF and BOS and a focus group allowed a trauma team (12 practitioners) to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. More than half scored at risk for CF and BOS. Stress triggers were described as situation (abuse, age of patient) versus injury-related. Personal coping mechanisms were most often reported. Both CF and BOS can be assessed with a simple survey tool. Strategies for developing a program culturally sensitive to CF and BOS are provided. PMID:26745533

  10. Measurement sensitivity and resolution for background oriented schlieren during image recording

    CERN Document Server

    Gojani, Ardian B; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) visualization technique is examined by means of optical geometry. Two most important results are the calculation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of a BOS system, which allows for the determination of the experiment design space. A set of relations that characterize the performance of a BOS measurement is given, with emphasis on the design of background pattern and spatial placement of optical components.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1445 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1445 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-116 76% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0130 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0130 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-149 83% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0695 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0695 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 2e-85 72% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0520 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0520 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 6e-62 69% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1099 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 9e-88 57% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2166 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2166 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-140 84% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-131 73% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0605 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0605 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-135 74% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2300 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2300 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 8e-44 81% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1132 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1132 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 3e-53 70% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0282 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0282 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-125 69% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0460 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0460 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-149 84% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0607 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0607 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-108 65% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0397 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-151 85% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0275 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-101 71% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0010 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 6e-65 81% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2372 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2372 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-127 71% ...

  8. Improving survival outcomes in lung transplant recipients through early detection of bronchiolitis obliterans: Daily home spirometry versus standard pulmonary function testing

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Kevin S; West, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term lung transplant success is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a form of chronic allograft rejection that manifests in the majority of patients by five years post-transplant. Frequent monitoring of pulmonary function measurements through the use of daily home spirometry may have the capability to detect the onset of BOS sooner than standard pulmonary function testing. Early detection of BOS would confer a treatment advantage that may improve survival outc...

  9. Tracking of wisent–bison–yak mitochondrial evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyland, Joanna; Wolko, Łukasz; Lipiński, Daniel; Woźniak, Anna; Nowak, Agnieszka; Szalata, Marlena; Bocianowski, Jan; Słomski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    One of the most informative sources which allow the drawing of far-reaching conclusions about the origins and phylogenetics of many species, including domestic animals and humans, is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the important research targets should include the identification of similarities between wild and domestic species. The analysis involved the nucleotide sequences of mtDNA of wisent, auroch, bison, yak, bovine reference sequence (BRS) T3, T3a, T3b, T1, T1a, T1’2’3, T2, T3, T4, T5...

  10. Lung transplantation: does oxidative stress contribute to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Janet; Aghdassi, Ellie; Arendt, Bianca; Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Gutierrez, Carlos; Chow, Chung-Wai; Allard, Johane

    2009-04-01

    Lung transplantation is the ultimate treatment of end-stage lung disease. After transplantation, the 1-year survival rate is 80%. However, 5-year survival rates drop to 50% due to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Ischemia/reperfusion injury, infections, and acute rejection are major risk factors contributing to the development of BOS. These risk factors are also associated with increased oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a condition whereby prooxidants overwhelm the antioxidant defense system and may contribute to the pathogenesis of BOS by inducing more tissue injury and inflammation. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on oxidative stress in lung transplantation and BOS. PMID:19298941

  11. Note: Background Oriented Schlieren as a diagnostics for airflow control by plasma actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, I; Capone, C; Barni, R; Riccardi, C

    2015-02-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is an optical technique sensitive to the first spatial derivative of the refractive index inside a light-transmitting medium. Compared to other Schlieren-like techniques, BOS is more versatile and allows to capture bi-dimensional gradients rather than just one spatial component. We propose to adopt BOS for studying the capabilities of surface dielectric barrier discharges to work like plasma actuators in flow control applications. The characteristics of the BOS we implemented at this purpose are discussed, together with few results concerning the ionic wind produced by the discharge in absence of an external airflow. PMID:25725896

  12. Gene : CBRC-PCAP-01-0209 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SSEHCNISDWLRLEAAVKASVYAVAFSFATFITVVITSVVLQNWKLRKEARYILLCHHLLCISSYCGLGIVFQGMRALVANSPLLICWVVFGVQLSVGEGILFTLALMALNSY...LAICWPLRSPALVNSVKYKILAGTWTIIVFKNVCLFLIEGTNPTLVNVLKSEPLCPVILNGIPARVVGMVFIFLLLSVILISYS...1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein coupled receptor [Bos taurus] 1e-116 77% MYSEENLTTESIIVLIVEPRKAVKSMNS

  13. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1469 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED: similar to chromosome 8 open reading frame 1 isoform 1 [Bos taurus] 7e-85 40% MAERKILFERRERKQIPSRLSLPPYIPSPV...YPFPRISLSSYVPSPIYTFPCVSQPLYIPSPVYPVSRISLPLYIPSPVYSFPCISLPLDILSPVYPIPCLSLLLCITSPVYPFPCISCPPYIPFPIYPFPCISHPPYIPSPV...YPIPCISRPPCIPSLVYPFPCISLPLDILSPIYPIPCLSLPLCITSSVYPFPRISHPPYIPSPVYHSPCISHPLYIPSSVYPFPCLSLPQSILSPV...YPIPHISLPPYIPPPVYPVPCISHPLCIPSPVYPFPCLSLPLYIISRVYPVPRISHPLYILSPVYPFPCLSLPLYTPSPVYPIPCISLPLSIPSPV...YPFPYVSHPPYIPSPIYPFPRISRPLYIPSPVYHFPCISCPLYILSPVCPFPCVSHSPYIPFPVYPFPCLSLPLSILSPVYPFPCLSLPVSILSPVYPFFCLSLPLSIPSPVYPFPCISLPLHIYLFLSVSLPLYIPSPVYLQLDKLQFESWL ...

  14. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-1304 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| PREDICTED: similar to vomeronasal 1 receptor, K1 [Bos taurus] 2e-45 50% MILMHLTLANIMTILFRGIQDAMSSFGIWPIMG...DIGCKSLLYIHRVTQGISLCTISVLNTFQAIRISPRNSKRAWLKPQISTCILPSFLFFWVINMLIYFWIITNNKAVTNASAAQPGYSLAYCTTKQGGYRVSAVFQSAMLI*NFLCINLMIWTSGYMVMLLYNHHKTVQNLRGNNFSPRLSPETKLPTPFCS ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2431 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2431 ref|NP_001030220.1| neuromedin U receptor 2 [Bos taurus] sp|Q58CW...4|NMUR2_BOVIN RecName: Full=Neuromedin-U receptor 2; Short=NMU-R2 gb|AAX46680.1| neuromedin U receptor 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001030220.1 0.0 84% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1168 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1168 ref|NP_001030220.1| neuromedin U receptor 2 [Bos taurus] sp|Q58CW...4|NMUR2_BOVIN RecName: Full=Neuromedin-U receptor 2; Short=NMU-R2 gb|AAX46680.1| neuromedin U receptor 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001030220.1 1e-163 90% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0659 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0659 ref|NP_001030220.1| neuromedin U receptor 2 [Bos taurus] sp|Q58CW...4|NMUR2_BOVIN RecName: Full=Neuromedin-U receptor 2; Short=NMU-R2 gb|AAX46680.1| neuromedin U receptor 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001030220.1 0.0 84% ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSI876 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI876 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15499-1 SSI876F (Link to Original ... 6 AF451177 |AF451177.1 AF451177 Bos taurus retinal pigment ... epithelium Bos taurus cDNA, mRNA sequence. 36 0.40 ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0844 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0844 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 88% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1166 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1166 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 68% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-05-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-05-0029 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 75% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0850 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0850 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 1e-159 92% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2842 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2842 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 99% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0577 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0577 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 1e-156 77% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-08-0024 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-08-0024 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 72% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-08-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-08-0025 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 90% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 ref|NP_776631.1| thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [Bos taurus] sp|Q27987|TSH ... SHR_BOVIN Thyrotropin receptor precursor (TSH -R) (Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) gb|AAC18 ... 639.1| thyrotropin (TSH ) receptor [Bos taurus] NP_776631.1 0.0 52% ...

  8. 9 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the FSIS regulations at 9 CFR 310.22(a). Suspect for a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. (1..., hoof meal, horn meal, blood meal, meat meal, tankage, glands, organs, or other parts or products of... animals. Bone meal means ground animal bones and hoof meal and horn meal. Bovine. Bos taurus, Bos...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-15-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-15-0022 ref|NP_001073692.1| solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters...), member 3 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI26742.1| Solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters), member 3 [Bos taurus] NP_001073692.1 9e-68 49% ...

  10. Dampak Program Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOSTerhadap Tingkat Putus Sekolah Di Indonesia: Analisis DID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Kharisma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the impact of school operational assistance (BOS program on the dropout rate of school during the post-rising fuel prices using difference in difference (DID approach. BOS program is a further development of the social safety net programs (JPS education of the government in the period of 1998-2003 and a reduction in fuel subsidy compensation program implemented over 2003-2005. The results showed that the impact of BOS on the dropout rate of students aged 7-15 years, during the period investigated in this study was lower than those who did not receive BOS fund, but it was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, if the account of the research is to be limited to the influence of students aged 16-20 years who had previously received the benefit of  BOS, it shows that BOS program had a positive influence to the dropout rates of school. However, children aged 16-20 years who had not previously received benefits BOS program have negatively affect to the dropout rates of school. Based on this fact, the benefit of the BOS proram following the fuel price hike in Indonesia during the research  period did not seem to be particularly effective in reducing the dropout rates of school.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0631 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0631 ref|NP_776543.2| myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocor...ticoid response [Bos taurus] gb|AAI04572.1| Myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response [Bos taurus] NP_776543.2 1e-102 53% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0016 ref|NP_776543.2| myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocor...ticoid response [Bos taurus] gb|AAI04572.1| Myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response [Bos taurus] NP_776543.2 1e-99 58% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0016 ref|NP_776543.2| myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocor...ticoid response [Bos taurus] gb|AAI04572.1| Myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response [Bos taurus] NP_776543.2 1e-115 50% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0439 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0439 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 91% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-13-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-13-0056 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 89% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-12-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-12-0048 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 89% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1399 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1399 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 86% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-07-0387 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-07-0387 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 82% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-11-0047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-11-0047 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 86% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1351 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1351 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 85% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1419 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1419 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-156 73% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1013 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-129 59% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1169 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1169 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-167 79% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-23-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-23-0004 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-108 51% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-27-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-27-0019 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 83% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0486 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0486 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-105 52% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-15-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-15-0051 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 82% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0242 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0242 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 85% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0838 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0838 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-92 84% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-13-0047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-13-0047 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 89% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1883 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1883 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 99% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2762 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-110 85% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1395 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1395 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-132 85% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1501 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1501 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 89% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0607 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0607 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 86% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0121 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0121 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-131 72% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1283 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1283 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 89% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1175 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1175 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 89% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1579 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1579 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 84% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0778 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0778 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 8e-63 89% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0848 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0848 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-135 64% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-11-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-11-0018 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 1e-105 51% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1221 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1221 ref|NP_001033657.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled recept...or EX33 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX31354.1| inflammation-related G protein-coupled receptor EX33 [Bos taurus] NP_001033657.1 0.0 85% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0682 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0682 ref|XP_595062.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256907.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595062.2 1e-134 90% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1390 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1390 ref|XP_874556.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 49 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001255792.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 49 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_874556.1 1e-151 83% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0520 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0520 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 6e-62 69% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0986 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0986 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-146 83% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2306 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2306 ref|XP_595062.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256907.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595062.2 1e-110 86% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0990 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0990 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-150 86% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1177 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1177 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 6e-36 79% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0010 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 6e-65 81% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0373 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0373 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-125 82% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0503 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0503 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-139 80% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1137 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-147 84% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0651 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0651 ref|XP_609523.4| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 694 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256288.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 694 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_609523.4 1e-141 82% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0607 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0607 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-108 65% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0797 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0797 ref|XP_874556.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 49 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001255792.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 49 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_874556.1 1e-156 85% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1100 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1100 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-104 76% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1007 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 5e-98 56% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0267 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0267 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-130 74% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1333 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1333 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-140 81% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0126 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0126 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 1e-158 88% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0609 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0609 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 1e-161 88% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0013 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 2e-93 80% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0282 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0282 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-125 69% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0460 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0460 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-149 84% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0987 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0987 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-128 78% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0889 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0889 ref|NP_001039933.1| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI14746.1| Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001039933.1 1e-173 68% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0672 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0672 ref|NP_001039933.1| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI14746.1| Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001039933.1 1e-178 74% ...

  10. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha;

    2011-01-01

    , with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were...

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Jerry; Norder, Emily; Diaz, Phil; Gary S Phillips; Elder, Pat; Devine, Steven M; Wood, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a progressive, insidious lung disease affecting allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Unfortunately, there is no standardized approach for treatment of BOS in post HSCT patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a standard treatment in emphysema, an irreversible obstructive lung disease secondary to tobacco abuse. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) demonstrated improved exercise tolerance, decrease dyspnea, and increa...

  12. Information on State versus Local Administration of CETA Prime Sponsors in Michigan. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    State administration of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) Balance of State (BOS) programs was compared with administration of CETA programs by local (regular) prime sponsors in Michigan to gain insight on the potential impact of increased state control. BOS prime sponsors spent less than regular prime sponsors for administration…

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling tick [Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] resistance on bovine cjrp,psp,es 5, 7 and 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds have diverged at approximately 10.000 years ago, the differences in the process of domestication and subsequent selection for desired phenotypes is presumed to have contributed the phenotypic and genetic differences between these subspecies. Of particu...

  14. AcEST: DK955653 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nase WNK4 OS=Rattu... 29 9.6 sp|P98091|MUCS_BOVIN Submaxillary mucin-like protein OS=Bos taur... 29 9.6 sp|Q...PLPLASC----DQESLSAQTAETENEASRN 971 >sp|P98091|MUCS_BOVIN Submaxillary mucin-like protein OS=Bos taurus PE=2

  15. Assessing the Role of the School Operational Grant Program in Improving Education Outcomes in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Over the last ten years, Indonesia has continued to make significant progress in improving educational opportunities for all its citizens. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the national school grants program, Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS), and its contribution to progress in the education sector. The BOS program aimed to raise educational attainment through the ...

  16. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0470 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0470 ref|NP_776863.1| protein S (alpha) [Bos taurus] sp|P07224|PROS_BOVIN Vitamin ... K ... nnamed protein product [Bos taurus] gb|AAA30757.1| vitamin ... K-dependent protein S precursor NP_776863.1 2.1 37 ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2855 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2855 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-104 69% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0169 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0169 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-134 76% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1454 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1454 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 1e-146 84% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0130 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0130 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-149 83% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1251 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1251 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-158 88% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1902 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1902 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-62 43% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-131 73% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0266 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0266 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-130 74% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1001 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-159 90% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0007 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 1e-131 80% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1224 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1224 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-153 85% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0630 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0630 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-149 84% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0358 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0358 ref|XP_595585.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001253182.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor Olr60 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595585.2 1e-73 59% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2166 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2166 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-140 84% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2372 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2372 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-127 71% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0453 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0453 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 1e-157 89% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0147 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0147 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 3e-56 86% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0947 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0947 ref|XP_595062.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256907.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595062.2 3e-55 88% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0797 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0797 ref|XP_589319.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256154.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 601 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_589319.3 3e-62 66% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1445 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1445 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-116 76% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1697 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1697 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 5e-96 55% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1184 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1184 ref|XP_595062.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256907.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595062.2 1e-135 90% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0115 ref|XP_595062.2| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predi...cted) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001256907.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 564 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_595062.2 5e-96 89% ...