Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.
A process and a resulting product by process of an aluminum hydride which is modified with by physically combining in a ball milling process an aluminum hydride with a triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid. The resulting product is an aluminum hydride which is resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while maintaining useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinemia (PNH is a rare but serious condition characterized by complement-mediated red blood cell (RBC hemolysis and episodic thrombotic attack. It results from decay accelerating factor (CD55, and protectin (CD59, becoming attached to RBC and other cell surfaces. Absence of these protective proteins leaves such cells vulnerable to self attack at the C3 convertase and membrane attack complex (MAC stages of complement activation. We have previously reported that aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA is an orally effective agent that selectively blocks complement activation at the C3 convertase stage as well as MAC formation at the C9 insertion stage. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a CH50 assay method and western blot analysis to investigate the vulnerability to complement attack of PNH RBCs compared with normal RBCs. Zymosan was used as the activator of normal serum and PNH serum. ATA was added to the sera to determine the concentration necessary to protect the RBCs from lysis by the zymosan-activated sera. RESULTS: We found that erythrocytes from PNH patients on long term treatment with eculizumab were twice as vulnerable as normal erythrocytes to lysis induced by complement activated serum. Western blot data showed the presence of both C3 and C5 convertases on the PNH patient erythrocyte membranes. These data indicate persistent vulnerability of PNH erythrocytes to complement attack due to deficiencies in CD55 and CD59. ATA, when added to serum in vitro, protected PNH erythrocytes from complement attack, restoring their resistance to that of normal erythrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ATA, by protecting PNH erythrocytes from their decay accelerating factor (CD55 and protectin (CD59 deficiencies, may be an effective oral treatment in this disorder.
Giles-Corti, Billie; Macaulay, Gus; Middleton, Nick; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Butterworth, Iain; Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Roberts, Rebecca; Christian, Hayley
Growing evidence shows that higher-density, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly neighbourhoods encourage active transport, including transport-related walking. Despite widespread recognition of the benefits of creating more walkable neighbourhoods, there remains a gap between the rhetoric of the need for walkability and the creation of walkable neighbourhoods. Moreover, there is little objective data to benchmark the walkability of neighbourhoods within and between Australian cities in order to monitor planning and design intervention progress and to assess built environment and urban policy interventions required to achieve increased walkability. This paper describes a demonstration project that aimed to develop, trial and validate a 'Walkability Index Tool' that could be used by policy makers and practitioners to assess the walkability of local areas; or by researchers to access geospatial data assessing walkability. The overall aim of the project was to develop an automated geospatial tool capable of creating walkability indices for neighbourhoods at user-specified scales. The tool is based on open-source software architecture, within the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN) framework, and incorporates key sub-component spatial measures of walkability (street connectivity, density and land use mix). Using state-based data, we demonstrated it was possible to create an automated walkability index. However, due to the lack of availability of consistent of national data measuring land use mix, at this stage it has not been possible to create a national walkability measure. The next stage of the project is to increase useability of the tool within the AURIN portal and to explore options for alternative spatial data sources that will enable the development of a valid national walkability index. AURIN's open-source Walkability Index Tool is a first step in demonstrating the potential benefit of a tool that could measure walkability across Australia. It
Badland, Hannah; White, Marcus; Macaulay, Gus; Eagleson, Serryn; Mavoa, Suzanne; Pettit, Christopher; Giles-Corti, Billie
Pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods with proximal destinations and services encourage walking and decrease car dependence, thereby contributing to more active and healthier communities. Proximity to key destinations and services is an important aspect of the urban design decision making process, particularly in areas adopting a transit-oriented development (TOD) approach to urban planning, whereby densification occurs within walking distance of transit nodes. Modeling destination access within neighborhoods has been limited to circular catchment buffers or more sophisticated network-buffers generated using geoprocessing routines within geographical information systems (GIS). Both circular and network-buffer catchment methods are problematic. Circular catchment models do not account for street networks, thus do not allow exploratory 'what-if' scenario modeling; and network-buffering functionality typically exists within proprietary GIS software, which can be costly and requires a high level of expertise to operate. This study sought to overcome these limitations by developing an open-source simple agent-based walkable catchment tool that can be used by researchers, urban designers, planners, and policy makers to test scenarios for improving neighborhood walkable catchments. A simplified version of an agent-based model was ported to a vector-based open source GIS web tool using data derived from the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The tool was developed and tested with end-user stakeholder working group input. The resulting model has proven to be effective and flexible, allowing stakeholders to assess and optimize the walkability of neighborhood catchments around actual or potential nodes of interest (e.g., schools, public transport stops). Users can derive a range of metrics to compare different scenarios modeled. These include: catchment area versus circular buffer ratios; mean number of streets crossed; and modeling of different walking
Full Text Available This study’s aim is provide an overview of the patients who suffered spinal cord injury (SCI after the magnitude 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, including each patient’s demographic and epidemiological characteristics, bladder management status, and quality of life (QOL. We also assessed the relationships between bladder management methods, symptomatic urinary tract infection (SUTI, and QOL. Two years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted on 180 patients with SCI. A self-administered questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF assessment were used to assess injury-related information, bladder management methods, and SUTI. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and analysis of variance. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. This study found that a male-to-female ratio of approximately 1.2:1, including 98 (54.4% male patients and 82 (45.6% female patients. Thoracic-level injuries were seen in 82 patients (45.56%, 60 (33.33% patients had lumbar-level injuries, 18 (8.33% patients had thoracolumbar-level injuries, and a small number of patients had cervical- or sacral-level injuries. Sixty-two patients (34.44% demonstrated normal voiding, 65 (36.11% required manually assisted voiding, 29 (16.11% required catheterization, and 24 (13.33% used aurine-collecting apparatus. The prevalence of SUTI was 43.89%. Patients who emptied their bladder via manually assisted voiding, catheterization, or with the use of a urine-collecting apparatus demonstrated higher rates of SUTI compared with patients who voided normally (p < 0.05; the patients who required catheterization had higher rates of SUTI compared with patients who required manually assisted voiding (p < 0.05. When manually assisted voiding and catheterization were compared with the use a urine-collecting apparatus, no statistically significant differences were observed in terms of the risk of developing SUTI. The patients
Wyborn, L. A.; Woodcock, R.
environments and workflows. The eResearch Infrastructure Stack is designed to support 12 individual domain-specific capabilities. Four are relevant to the Earth and Space Sciences: (1) AuScope (a national Earth Science Infrastructure Program), (2) the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), (3) the Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network (TERN) and (4) the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN). The two main research integration infrastructures, ANDS and NeCTAR, are seen as pivotal to the success of the Australian eResearch Infrastructure. Without them, there was a risk that that the investments in new computers and data storage would provide physical infrastructure, but few would come to use it as the skills barriers to entry were too high. ANDS focused on transforming Australia's research data environment. Its flagship is Research Data Australia, an Internet-based discovery service designed to provide rich connections between data, projects, researchers and institutions, and promote visibility of Australian research data collections in search engines. NeCTAR focused on building eResearch infrastructure in four areas: virtual laboratories, tools, a federated research cloud and a hosting service. Combined, ANDS and NeCTAR are ensuring that people ARE coming and ARE using the physical infrastructures that were built.