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Sample records for aureus vibrio spp

  1. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. in seafood products using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Maktabi, Siavash; Ghorbanpour, Masoud

    2012-02-01

    Although several etiological agents can be transmitted through seafood consumption, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. are considered among the most important pathogens in terms of public health and disease. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a rapid and cost-effective method, was used to determine the prevalence of these pathogens in 245 samples of raw/fresh, frozen, and ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood products marketed in Iran. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw/fresh fish and shrimp samples was 1.4%, whereas 2.9% of the raw/fresh fish and 7.1% of the shrimp samples were contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus. No contamination with L. monocytogenes and V. parahaemolyticus was found in frozen and RTE seafood products. The prevalence of S. aureus was found to be higher than other investigated pathogens. S. aureus was detected in 5% of the raw/fresh samples of fish and shrimp, 17.5% of the frozen, and 12.3% of the RTE samples. Further, our findings indicate that 2.9% of the fish samples, 4.3% of the shrimp samples, and 1.5% of the RTE samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Owing to the potential hazard of these pathogenic bacteria, multiplex PCR can provide a rapid and cost-effective method for the surveillance of these pathogens in seafood products.

  2. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  3. A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in Korean ready-to-eat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nari; Kwon, Kyung Yoon; Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Chun, Hyang Sook; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2014-07-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in various Korean ready-to-eat foods. The six specific primer pairs for multiplex PCR were selected based on the O157 antigen (rfbE) gene of E. coli O157:H7, the DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene of B. cereus, the toxin regulatory protein (toxR) gene of V. parahaemolyticus, the invasion protein A (invA) gene of Salmonella spp., the hemolysin (hly) gene of L. monocytogenes, and the thermonuclease (nuc) gene of S. aureus. The 16S rRNA gene was targeted as an internal control gene in the presence of bacterial DNA. The specificity and sensitivity assays for multiplex primer pairs were investigated by testing different strains. When this multiplex PCR assay was applied to evaluate the validity of detecting six foodborne pathogens in artificially inoculated several ready-to-eat food samples, the assay was able to specifically simultaneously detect as few as 1 colony-forming unit/mL of each pathogen after enrichment for 12 h. Their presence in naturally contaminated samples also indicates that the developed multiplex PCR assay is an effective and informative supplement for practical use.

  4. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  5. Abundance and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio spp. isolated from microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, A. L.; Darr, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing concern for `microplastics' (particles pieces, paired seawater samples, and from them cultured 44 putative Vibrio spp. isolates, 18 of which were PCR-confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus and 3 as V. vulnificus. There were no PCR-confirmed V. cholerae isolates. We used the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to examine the isolates' response to six antibiotics: chloramphenicol (30μg), gentamicin (10μg), ampicillin (10μg), streptomycin (10μg), tetracycline (30μg), and rifampin (5μg). Vibrio isolates were susceptible to three or more of the six antibiotics tested and all were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There were no apparent differences between the antibiotic susceptibilities of vibrios isolated from microplastics compared to those from the water column. In every instance tested, vibrios on microplastics were enriched by at least two orders of magnitude compared to those from paired seawater samples. This study demonstrates that microplastic particles serve as a habitat for Vibrio species, in particular V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, confirming the conjecture of Zettler et al. (2013) that plastics may serve as a vector for these and other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    % of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at ... coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis...

  7. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  8. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody L. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.

  9. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Azwai; E.A. Alfallani; S.K. Abolghait; A.M. Garbaj; H.T. Naas; A.A. Moawad; F.T. Gammoudi; H.M. Rayes; I. Barbieri; I.M. Eldaghayes

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localitie...

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  11. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea...... 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing......, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens....

  12. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

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    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  13. Temperature affects species distribution in symbiotic populations of Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, M K

    2000-08-01

    The genus Sepiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) contains 10 known species that occur in the Mediterranean Sea today. All Sepiola species have a light organ that contains at least one of two species of luminous bacteria, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio logei. The two Vibrio species coexist in at least four Sepiola species (S. affinis, S. intermedia, S. ligulata, and S. robusta), and their concentrations in the light organ depend on changes in certain abiotic factors, including temperature. Strains of V. fischeri grew faster in vitro and in Sepiola juveniles when they were incubated at 26 degrees C. In contrast, strains of V. logei grew faster at 18 degrees C in culture and in Sepiola juveniles. When aposymbiotic S. affinis or S. ligulata juveniles were inoculated with one Vibrio species, all strains of V. fischeri and V. logei were capable of infecting both squid species at the optimum growth temperatures, regardless of the squid host from which the bacteria were initially isolated. However, when two different strains of V. fischeri and V. logei were placed in direct competition with each other at either 18 or 26 degrees C, strains of V. fischeri were present in sepiolid light organs in greater concentrations at 26 degrees C, whereas strains of V. logei were present in greater concentrations at 18 degrees C. In addition to the competition experiments, the ratios of the two bacterial species in adult Sepiola specimens caught throughout the season at various depths differed, and these differences were correlated with the temperature in the surrounding environment. My findings contribute additional data concerning the ecological and environmental factors that affect host-symbiont recognition and may provide insight into the evolution of animal-bacterium specificity.

  14. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

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    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  15. Evaluation of the natural prevalence of Vibrio spp. in Uruguayan mussels (Mytilus sp.) and their control using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Vibrionacea, especially Vibrio cholerae, and of Salmonella spp., was examined in fresh Uruguayan mussels (Mytilus sp.) during two annual seasons. The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) of various toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae was determined to vary in vitro between 0.11 and 0.19 kGy. These results and those from the examination of natural Vibrio spp. contamination in mussels were used to conclude that 1.0 kGy would be enough to render Uruguayan mussels Vibrio-safe. Mussels irradiated in the shell at the optical dose survived long enough to allow the eventual introduction of irradiation as an effective intervention measure without affecting local marketing practices, and making it possible to market the fresh mussels live, as required by Uruguayan legislation. (author)

  16. Mentha spicata Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Vibrio spp. Strains

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    Mejdi Snoussi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Vibrio spp. activities of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint are investigated in the present study. The effect of the essential oil on Vibrio spp. biofilm inhibition and eradication was tested using the XTT assay. A total of 63 chemical constituents were identified in spearmint oil using GC/MS, constituting 99.9% of the total identified compounds. The main components were carvone (40.8% ± 1.23% and limonene (20.8% ± 1.12%. The antimicrobial activity against 30 Vibrio spp. strains (16 species was evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution assays. All microorganisms were strongly affected, indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of the oil. Moreover, the investigated oil exhibited high antioxidant potency, as assessed by four different tests in comparison with BHT. The ability of the oil, belonging to the carvone chemotype, to inhibit or reduce Vibrio spp. biofilm warrants further investigation to explore the use of natural products in antibiofilm adhesion and reinforce the possibility of its use in the pharmaceutical or food industry as a natural antibiotic and seafood preservative against Vibrio contamination.

  17. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

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    Moltira Tonganunt1*

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  18. Effects of Desiccation Practices of Cultured Atlantic Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on Vibrio spp. in Portersville Bay, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodeska, Stephanie M; Jones, Jessica L; Arias, Covadonga R; Walton, William C

    2017-08-01

    The expansion of off-bottom aquaculture to the Gulf of Mexico has raised public health concerns for human health officials. High temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico are associated with high levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Routine desiccation practices associated with off-bottom aquaculture expose oysters to ambient air, allowing Vibrio spp. to proliferate in the closed oyster. Currently, there is limited research on the length of time needed for Vibrio spp. levels in desiccated oysters to return to background levels, defined as the levels found in oysters that remain continually submersed and not exposed to ambient air. This study determined the time needed to return V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae levels to background levels in oysters exposed to the following desiccation practices: 3-h freshwater dip followed by 24-h ambient air exposure, 27-h ambient air exposure, and control. All oysters were submerged at least 2 weeks prior to the beginning of each trial, with the control samples remaining submerged for the duration of each trial. Vibrio spp. levels were enumerated from samples collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14 after resubmersion using a three-tube most-probable-number enrichment followed by BAX PCR. V. cholerae levels were frequently (92%) below the limit of detection at all times, so they were not statistically analyzed. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels in the 27-h ambient air exposure and the 3-h freshwater dip followed by 24-h ambient air exposure samples were significantly elevated compared with background samples. In most cases, the Vibrio spp. levels in oysters in both desiccation treatments remained elevated compared with background levels until 2 or 3 days post-resubmersion. However, there was one trial in which the Vibrio spp. levels did not return to background levels until day 7. The results of this study provide scientific support that oyster farmers should be required to

  19. Evaluation of Ice Slurries as a Control for Postharvest Growth of Vibrio spp. in Oysters and Potential for Filth Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Keri Ann; Farrell-Evans, Melissa; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-07-01

    Raw oyster consumption is the most common route of exposure for Vibrio spp. infections in humans. Vibriosis has been increasing steadily in the United States despite efforts to reduce the incidence of the disease. Research has demonstrated that ice is effective in reducing postharvest Vibrio spp. growth in oysters but has raised concerns of possible contamination of oyster meat by filth (as indicated by the presence of fecal coliform bacteria or Clostridium perfringens). This study examined the use of ice slurries (oysters, from 23.9°C (75°F) to 10°C (50°F) within 12 min. The initial bacterial loads in the ice slurry waters were near the limits of detection. Following repeated dipping of oysters into ice slurries, water samples exhibited significant (P oyster meat, however, was unchanged after 15 min of submergence, with no significant differences (P oysters to minimize Vibrio growth.

  20. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana).; Radiossensibilidade de Salmonella spp e Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporadas artificialmente por ostras (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-07-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ({sup 60}Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  1. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwai, S.M.; Alfallani, E.A.; Abolghait, S.K.; Garbaj, A.M.; Naas, H.T.; Moawad, A.A.; Gammoudi, F.T.; Rayes, H.M.; Barbieri, I.; Eldaghayes, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products. PMID:27004169

  2. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Azwai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk. Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6% yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27 of processed seafood samples (n=46 yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 х104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 х104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9% were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products.

  3. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwai, S M; Alfallani, E A; Abolghait, S K; Garbaj, A M; Naas, H T; Moawad, A A; Gammoudi, F T; Rayes, H M; Barbieri, I; Eldaghayes, I M

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products.

  4. Anti-biofilm Properties of the Fecal Probiotic Lactobacilli Against Vibrio spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanpreet Kaur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in developing countries including India and is associated with high rate of mortality especially in children. V. cholerae is known to form biofilms on the gut epithelium, and the biofilms once formed are resistant to the action of antibiotics. Therefore agents that prevent the biofilm formation and disperse the preformed biofilms are associated with therapeutic benefits. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera is associated with side effects such as gut dysbiosis due to depletion of gut microflora, and the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. Thus search for safe alternative therapeutic agents is warranted. Herein, we screened the lactobacilli spp. isolated from the fecal samples of healthy children for their abilities to prevent biofilm formation and to disperse the preformed biofilms of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus by using an in vitro assay. The results showed that the culture supernatant (CS of all the seven isolates of Lactobacillus spp. used in the study inhibited the biofilm formation of V. cholerae by more than 90%. Neutralization of pH of CS completely abrogated their antimicrobial activities against V. cholera, but had negligible effects on their biofilm inhibitory potential. Further, CS of all the lactobacilli isolates caused the dispersion of preformed V. cholerae biofilms in the range 62–85%; however, pH neutralization of CS reduced the biofilm dispersal potential of the 4 out of 7 isolates by 19–57%. Furthermore, the studies showed that CS of none of the lactobacilii isolates had antimicrobial activity against V. parahaemolyticus, but 5 out of 7 isolates inhibited the formation of its biofilm in the range 62–82%. However, none of the CS dispersed the preformed biofilms of V. parahaemolyticus. The ability of CS to inhibit the adherence of Vibrio spp. to the epithelial cell line was also determined. Thus, we conclude that the biofilm dispersive

  5. The effect of γ radiation on the expression of the virulence genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Dongho

    2007-01-01

    The principle benefit of food irradiation is the reduction of food-borne bacteria in food products. However, the microbiological safety with respect to increased virulence of surviving pathogens after irradiation remains an important issue with regard to the effectiveness of food irradiation. In this study, the transcriptional changes of virulence genes of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. after γ radiation were investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Samonella typhimurium is dependent upon the products of a large number of genes located within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) on the chromosome. The expressions of seven genes including four SPI genes, hilD, ssrB, pipB, and sopD, were measured at 1 h after 1 kGy irradiation. Compared with non-irradiated controls, the expression of hilD encoded within SPI1 and sopD encoding SPI1-related effector proteins was reduced about 4- and 16-fold, respectively. The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes, vvhA, ctxA, and tdh, were also monitored during the course of a growth cycle after re-inoculation of irradiated Vibrio spp. (0.5 and 1.0 kGy). The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes tested did not increase compared with non-irradiated counterparts. Results from this study indicate that γ radiation is much more likely to reduce the virulence gene expression of surviving pathogens

  6. The effect of {gamma} radiation on the expression of the virulence genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongho [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    The principle benefit of food irradiation is the reduction of food-borne bacteria in food products. However, the microbiological safety with respect to increased virulence of surviving pathogens after irradiation remains an important issue with regard to the effectiveness of food irradiation. In this study, the transcriptional changes of virulence genes of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. after {gamma} radiation were investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Samonella typhimurium is dependent upon the products of a large number of genes located within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) on the chromosome. The expressions of seven genes including four SPI genes, hilD, ssrB, pipB, and sopD, were measured at 1 h after 1 kGy irradiation. Compared with non-irradiated controls, the expression of hilD encoded within SPI1 and sopD encoding SPI1-related effector proteins was reduced about 4- and 16-fold, respectively. The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes, vvhA, ctxA, and tdh, were also monitored during the course of a growth cycle after re-inoculation of irradiated Vibrio spp. (0.5 and 1.0 kGy). The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes tested did not increase compared with non-irradiated counterparts. Results from this study indicate that {gamma} radiation is much more likely to reduce the virulence gene expression of surviving pathogens.

  7. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ( 60 Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  8. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  9. Detection of Vibrio spp. in shrimp from aquaculture sites in Iran using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    Faham Khamesipour; Esmat Noshadi; Mitra Moradi; Mehdi Raissy

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most important fishery products of the coastal provinces in the Persian Gulf in Iran. Vibriosis has been an important cause of production loss due to bacterial disease in shrimp farms in south Iran in recent years. The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp samples from farms in the southern provinces of Iran by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total number of 36 shrimp were caught from south coast of Iran and were stud...

  10. Detection of Salmonella Spp., Shigella (Flexneri and Sonnei) and Vibrio Cholerae O1 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Exported Shrimp from the Mexican Northeast Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, L.; Nuñez, F.; Rubio, M.; Nicoli, M. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    The objective of the present work was to use the PCR technique for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae O1 in frozen shrimp for export. The DNA segments located in the gene A [284 pairs of bases (pb)] from Salmonella spp. locus ial (217 and 320 pb) from Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei and the gene ctxA and ctxB (777 pb) from Vibrio cholerae O1 were amplified. The different primers that amplify these segments were assayed in a PCR reaction for the simultaneous detection of DNA from the microorganisms. It was not possible to amplify the gene of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri under the assay’s conditions, whilst those of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were successfully amplified. The amplification conditions for the PCR were: 94° C, 58° C and 72° C during 30 cycles, allowing a reduction from 15 days test time with the official microbiological methods to 28 hours (24 for the pre-enrichment and four for the PCR). Samples of raw-frozen-headless shrimps were taken from production plants located in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. A random sampling procedure was used, according to the guidelines described by the International Commission of Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF, 1999). Five packages per lot per production plant were obtained. From each individual package (5 pounds 80 OZ ≈ 2.27 kg) three samples were taken for the bacteriological assays to search for Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by PCR. Results showed that none of the samples were positive by PCR to any of the studied bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were not detected in these samples by the official methods. However, the latter were able to identify other Vibrio species and enterobacteria like Proteus and Acromobacter. These results confirmed PCR’s rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  11. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  13. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Calenbergh Serge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp. Results Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120. Conclusion Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs.

  15. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Defoirdt, Tom; Miyamoto, Carol; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans; Coenye, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Background To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp. Results Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i) inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii) result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii) reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv) protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120. Conclusion Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs. PMID:18793453

  16. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp., Listonella spp., and Clostridium botulinum in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswaran, K; Nakano, H; Okabe, T; Takayama, K; Matsuda, O; Hashimoto, H

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of Vibrio species in samples of surface water, bottom water (water 2 m above the sediment), and sediment from the Seto Inland Sea was studied. A simple technique using a membrane filter and short preenrichment in alkaline peptone water was developed to resuscitate the injured cells, followed by plating them onto TCBS agar. In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Clostridium botulinum in sediment samples. Large populations of heterotrophs were found i...

  17. Increases in the amounts of Vibrio spp. in oysters upon addition of exogenous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James

    2013-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is found naturally in brackish coastal waters but can be greatly concentrated by filter-feeding organisms such as shellfish. Numerous experiments in which exogenous V. vulnificus cells are added to oysters in an attempt to measure uptake and depuration have been performed. In nearly all cases, results have shown that laboratory-grown bacteria are rapidly taken up by the oysters but ultimately eliminated, while naturally present Vibrio populations in oysters are resistant to depuration. In this study, oysters harvested during winter months, with low culturable Vibrio concentrations, were incubated in aquaria supplemented with strains of V. vulnificus that were either genotypically or phenotypically distinct from the background bacteria. These exogenous cells were eliminated from the oysters, as previously seen, but other vibrios already inhabiting the oysters responded to the V. vulnificus inoculum by rapidly increasing in number and maintaining a large stable population. The presence of such an oyster-adapted Vibrio population would be expected to prevent colonization by exogenous V. vulnificus cells, thus explaining the rapid depuration of these added bacteria.

  18. Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxin Associated to Marine Vibrio spp. in Bivalves from the Galician Rias (Northwest of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Leão

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxins (TTX are a potent group of natural neurotoxins putatively produced by symbiotic microorganisms and affecting the aquatic environment. These neurotoxins have been recently found in some species of bivalves and gastropods along the European Coasts (Greece, UK, and The Netherlands linked to the presence of high concentrations of Vibrio, in particular Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This study is focused on the evaluation of the presence of Vibrio species and TTX in bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, and razor clams from Galician Rias (northwest of Spain. The detection and isolation of the major Vibrio spp. and other enterobacterial populations have been carried out with the aim of screening for the presence of the pathways genes, poliketide synthase (PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS possibly involved in the biosynthesis of these toxins. Samples containing Vibrio spp. were analyzed by biochemical (API20E-galery and genetic tests (PCR-RT. These samples were then screened for TTX toxicity by a neuroblastoma cell-based assay (N2a and the presence of TTX was further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. TTX was detected in two infaunal samples. This is the first confirmation of the presence of TTX in bivalve molluscs from the Galician Rias.

  19. Vigilancia en red de los serotipos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Y Vibrio cholerae O1, 1997 - 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Muñoz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología del INS estableció un programa en red con los Laboratorios de Salud Pública (LSP del país y el apoyo de la OPS, para la vigilancia de los principales patógenos causantes de enfermedad diarreica aguda. El objetivo fue conocer los serotipos y los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. y Vibrio cholerae O1. Los aislamientos fueron confirmados de acuerdo con los esquemas de identificación bioquímica y serológica estandarizados y la determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó por la técnica de difusión de disco (Kirby-Bauer. De 1997 a 1999, participaron 22 LSP con el envio de 976 aislamientos, 96% de origen clínico y 4% de alimentos; 34% Salmonella spp., 23% Shigella spp. y 42% V. cholerae 01. La distribución por serotipo de Salmonella fue 39% S. Enteritidis, 27% S. Typhimurium, 9% grupo El, 5% S. Typhi y 20% otros serotipos; de los aislamientos de Shigella, 67% fueron S. grupo flexneriza, 30% S sonnei, 2% S. dysenteriae y 1% S. boydii. Para V. cholerae 01, 99% fue serotipo Ogawa. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana determinó que 56% de los aislamientos de Salmonella eran resistentes y 22% multirresistentes, con un patrón predominante de ampicilina, tetraciclina y trimetoprim-sulfa (SXT. De los aislamientos de Shigella, 97% fueron resistentes y 57% multirresistentes, con un patrón de ampicilina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol y SXT. No se observaron cambios en la susceptibilidad de V. cholerae O1. Este estudio enfatiza la importancia de continuar con el programa de vigilancia, para conocer la epidemiologia de la EDA en Colombia, darle un tratamiento óptimo a estas infecciones y poder diseñar programas para disminuir la diseminación de bacterias resistentes.

  20. Role of golden jackals (Canis aureus) as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Juránková, Jana; Ionescu, Dan Traian; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David; Gherman, Călin Mircea

    2016-04-28

    Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are mosquito-transmitted zoonotic nematodes, causing heartworm disease and skin lesions, respectively, in carnivores. In Europe, the domestic dog is apparently the main definitive host, but patent infections occur also in other species of carnivores. The rapid spread of the golden jackals (Canis aureus) throughout Europe opens a question of involvement of this species in the sylvatic cycle of pathogens in the colonised territories, including Dirofilaria spp. Between January 2014 and May 2015, 54 golden jackals from 18 localities in Romania were examined by full necropsy for the presence of adult filarioid nematodes and blood samples from all animals were screened for the presence of microfilariae of D. immitis, D. repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum by multiplex PCR DNA amplification. Nematodes morphologically identified as D. immitis were found in 18.52% of the animals, originating from the southern part of Romania. No D. repens or A. reconditum were found at necropsy. The molecular prevalence in blood samples from the same animals was 9.26% for D. immitis and 1.85% for D. repens. All samples were negative by PCR for A. reconditum. The relatively high prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in golden jackals from Romania together with the increasing density of the jackal populations highlight their potential role in the transmission of these zoonotic parasites and in the maintenance of natural disease foci.

  1. Molecular characterization of non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. from heifer intramammary infections and body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, P R F; Dufour, S; Spain, J N; Calcutt, M J; Reilly, T J; Stewart, G C; Middleton, J R

    2018-03-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. intramammary infections (IMI) in periparturient heifers and determine the relationship of precalving body site isolation with precalving IMI and postcalving IMI using molecular speciation and strain-typing methods. Primiparous heifers were enrolled at approximately 14 d before expected calving date. Precalving mammary quarter secretions and body site swabbing samples (teat skin, inguinal skin, muzzle, and perineum) were collected. Postcalving, mammary quarter milk samples were collected for culture and somatic cell counting. Precalving body site samples were cultured, and up to 10 staphylococcal colonies were saved for characterization. Staphylococcal isolates were speciated using matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or sequencing of rpoB or tuf. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to strain type a subset of isolates. Overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus agnetis, and Staphylococcus simulans were the most common species identified in precalving mammary secretions, whereas S. chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, and S. agnetis were the most common species found in postcalving milk samples. The most common species identified from body site samples were S. chromogenes, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Mammary quarters that had a precalving mammary secretion that was culture positive for S. agnetis, S. chromogenes, or Staphylococcus devriesei had increased odds of having an IMI with the same species postcalving. A S. chromogenes IMI postcalving was associated with higher somatic cell count when compared with postcalving culture-negative quarters. Among heifers identified with a non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. IMI either precalving or postcalving, heifers that had S. agnetis or S. chromogenes isolated from their teat skin had increased odds of having the same species found in their precalving mammary secretions, and heifers

  2. Application of Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE as a rapid method for routine determination of Vibrio spp. in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahorm, Kanchana; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of PCR-DGGE and Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE techniques for rapid detection of Vibrio species in foods. Primers GC567F and 680R were initially evaluated for amplifying DNA and cDNA of ten references Vibrio species by PCR method. The GC-clamp PCR amplicons were separated according to their sequences by the DGGE using 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gel containing 45-70% urea and formamide denaturants. Two pair of Vibrio species, which could not be differentiated on the gel, was Vibrio fluvialis - Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio parahaemolyticus - Vibrio harveyi. To determine the detection limit, in the community of 10 reference strains containing the same viable population, distinct DNA bands of 3 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio alginolyticus were consistently observed by PCR-DGGE technique. In fact, 5 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio fluvialis consistently observed by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE. In the community containing different viable population increasing from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/mL, PCR-DGGE analysis only detected the two most prevalent species, while RT-PCR-DGGE detected the five most prevalent species. Therefore, Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was also selected for detection of various Vibrio cell conditions, including viable cell (VC), injured cells from frozen cultures (IVC) and injured cells from frozen cultures with pre-enrichment (PIVC). It was found that cDNA band of all cell conditions gave the same migratory patterns, except that multiple cDNA bands of Plesiomonas shigelloides under IVC and PIVC conditions were found. When Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was used for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the pathogen-spiked food samples, Vibrio parahaemolyticus could be detected in the spiked samples containing at least 10 2 CFU/g of this pathogen. The results obtained also corresponded to standard method (USFDA, 2004

  3. Isolation, characterization, and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio spp. in sea turtles from Northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan A.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Ley-Quiñonez, C. P.; Hernández-Díaz, Lucio De Jesús; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aerobic oral and cloacal bacterial microbiota and their antimicrobial resistance were characterized for 64 apparently healthy sea turtles captured at their foraging grounds in Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL), Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico (Pacific Ocean) and the lagoon system of Navachiste (LSN) and Marine Area of Influence (MAI), Guasave, Sinaloa (Gulf of California). A total of 34 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) were sampled in OLL and eight black turtles and 22 olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were sampled in LSN and MAI, respectively from January to December 2012. We isolated 13 different species of Gram-negative bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Vibrio alginolyticus in 39/64 (60%), V. parahaemolyticus in 17/64 (26%), and V. cholerae in 6/64 (9%). However, V. cholerae was isolated only from turtles captured from the Gulf of California (MAI). Among V. parahaemolyticus strains, six O serogroups and eight serovars were identified from which 5/17 (29.4%) belonged to the pathogenic strains (tdh+ gene) and 2/17 (11.7%) had the pandemic clone (tdh+ and toxRS/new+). Among V. cholerae strains, all were identified as non-O1/non-O139, and in 4/6 (66%) the accessory cholera enterotoxin gene (ace) was identified but without virulence gene zot, ctxA, and ctxB. Of the isolated V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, and V. alginolyticus strains, 94.1, 33.4, and 100% demonstrated resistance to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic (primarily to ampicillin), respectively. In conclusion, the presence of several potential (toxigenic) human pathogens in sea turtles may represent transmission of environmental microbes and a high-risk of food-borne disease. Therefore, based on the fact that it is illegal and unhealthy, we discourage the consumption of sea turtle meat or eggs in northwestern Mexico. PMID:26161078

  4. Isolation, Characterization, and Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Sea Turtles from Northwestern Mexico

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    Alan A. eZavala-Norzagaray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic oral and cloacal bacterial microbiota and their antimicrobial resistance were characterized for 64 apparently healthy sea turtles captured at their foraging grounds in Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL, Baja California Sur, Mexico (Pacific Ocean and the lagoon system of Navachiste (LSN and Marine Area of Influence (MAI, Guasave, Sinaloa (Gulf of California. A total of 34 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii were sampled in OLL and eight black turtles and 22 olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea were sampled in LSN and MAI, respectively from January to December 2012. We isolated 13 different species of Gram-negative bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Vibrio alginolyticus in 39/64 (60%, V. parahaemolyticus in 17/64 (26% and V. cholerae in 6/64 (9%,. However, V. cholerae was isolated only from turtles captured from the Gulf of California (MAI. Among V. parahaemolyticus strains, six O serogroups and eight serovars were identified from which 5/17 (29.4% belonged to the pathogenic strains (tdh+ gene and 2/17 (11.7% had the pandemic clone (tdh+ and toxRS/new+. Among V. cholerae strains, all were identified as non-O1/non-O139, and in 4/6 (66% the accessory cholera enterotoxin gene (ace was identified but without virulence gene zot, ctxA and ctxB. Of the isolated V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae and V. alginolyticus strains, 94.1%, 33.4% and 100% demonstrated resistance to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic (primarily to ampicillin, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of several potential (toxigenic human pathogens in sea turtles may represent transmission of environmental microbes and a high-risk of food-borne disease. Therefore, based on the fact that it is illegal and unhealthy, we discourage the consumption of sea turtle meat or eggs in northwestern Mexico.

  5. Isolation, characterization, and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio spp. in sea turtles from Northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan A; Aguirre, A Alonso; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Ley-Quiñonez, C P; Hernández-Díaz, Lucio De Jesús; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aerobic oral and cloacal bacterial microbiota and their antimicrobial resistance were characterized for 64 apparently healthy sea turtles captured at their foraging grounds in Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL), Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico (Pacific Ocean) and the lagoon system of Navachiste (LSN) and Marine Area of Influence (MAI), Guasave, Sinaloa (Gulf of California). A total of 34 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) were sampled in OLL and eight black turtles and 22 olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were sampled in LSN and MAI, respectively from January to December 2012. We isolated 13 different species of Gram-negative bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Vibrio alginolyticus in 39/64 (60%), V. parahaemolyticus in 17/64 (26%), and V. cholerae in 6/64 (9%). However, V. cholerae was isolated only from turtles captured from the Gulf of California (MAI). Among V. parahaemolyticus strains, six O serogroups and eight serovars were identified from which 5/17 (29.4%) belonged to the pathogenic strains (tdh (+) gene) and 2/17 (11.7%) had the pandemic clone (tdh (+) and toxRS/new (+)). Among V. cholerae strains, all were identified as non-O1/non-O139, and in 4/6 (66%) the accessory cholera enterotoxin gene (ace) was identified but without virulence gene zot, ctxA, and ctxB. Of the isolated V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, and V. alginolyticus strains, 94.1, 33.4, and 100% demonstrated resistance to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic (primarily to ampicillin), respectively. In conclusion, the presence of several potential (toxigenic) human pathogens in sea turtles may represent transmission of environmental microbes and a high-risk of food-borne disease. Therefore, based on the fact that it is illegal and unhealthy, we discourage the consumption of sea turtle meat or eggs in northwestern Mexico.

  6. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  7. Isolation of vibrio spp. In oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) caught in the ‘de la virgen’ swamp

    OpenAIRE

    López Gutiérrez, Lercy; Autor; Manjarrez Pava, Ganiveth; Autor; Herrera Rodríguez, Lilibeth; Autor; Montes Payares, Ana Elena; Autor; Olascuaga Ruíz, Yuranis Paola; Autor; Ortega Quiroz, Rolando José; Autor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:  To establish contamination by Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) caught in De La Virgen Swamp, in order to alert entities in charge or protecting consumer health in Cartagena city. Methods: Between February and April 2006, 67 oysters from 5 strategic sites along De La Virgen Swamp, were analyzed. Insulation and identification of Vibrio was performed through a culture and biochemical tests.Results.  Predominant species were V. alginolyticus (23%),V fluvialis  (20%),V. para...

  8. Vibrio spp. isolados a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos de Estação Experimental de Cultivo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Vibrio spp. isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna of an Experimental Station Culture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise microbiológica dos mexilhões reflete a qualidade do habitat aquático, pois estes animais podem reter em seus organismos diversos patógenos, dentre os quais aqueles pertencentes à família Vibrionaceae. No presente estudo foi avaliada a presença de Vibrio spp. em mexilhões (in natura e pré-cozidos, comercializados na Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões, situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram avaliadas 86 amostras, tomando como procedimento, o enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA adicionada de 1 e 3% de NaCl, isolamento em Agar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e confirmação das colônias típicas por análise bioquímica. Dentre as 12 espécies de Vibrio identificadas destacaram-se como de maior prevalência as espécies Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae não-O1, V. parahaemolyticus, V. carchariae e Vibrio vulnificus. A relevância epidemiológica destes patógenos associada a casos de gastrenterite humana após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, reforça a importância de alertar as autoridades de Vigilância Sanitária sobre sua presença na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a Saúde Pública.The microbiology analysis of mussels reflects the aquatic environment quality because these animals retain various pathogens such as Vibrionaceae family microorganisms in their organism. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of Vibrio spp. in mussels (in natura and precooked commercialized at an Experimental Station Mussel Culture in Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. A total of 86 samples were analyzed using the enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added to 1 and 3% of NaCl, isolated in Thiossulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar (TCBS and confirmed that there were suspect colonies by biochemical tests. The results showed the identification of 12 different Vibrio species whereby Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae non-O1, V. parahaemolyticus, V. carchariae

  9. Influence of holding temperature on the growth and survival of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin in egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Yu, R C; Chou, C C

    2001-01-22

    In this study, growth and survival of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in steamed egg and scrambled egg held at 5, 18, 22, 37, 55 and 60 degrees C are investigated. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxin in steamed egg is also examined. Results reveal that Salmonella spp. and Staph. aureus in the egg products multiply best at 37 degrees C, followed closely by 22 and 18 degrees C. Neither pathogen showed growth in the egg products held at 5 degrees C. Initial inoculation dose, holding temperature and holding time affected the population of both organisms found in the egg products. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and B (SEB) are detected only in the egg products held at 37 or 22 degrees C. After holding at 37 degrees C for 36 h, scrambled egg inoculated with ca. 5.0 log cfu/g Staph. aureus contains the highest levels of SEA (> 64 ng/g) and SEB (> 64 ng/g). Although Salmonella spp. and Staph. aureus grow better in steamed eggs than in scrambled eggs, production of staphylococcal enterotoxin, in general, was higher in scrambled eggs than in steamed eggs. On the other hand, a repaid destruction of the test organisms in steamed eggs held at 60 degrees C was observed. Holding the steamed eggs at 60 degrees C, Salmonella spp. and Staph. aureus with an initial population of ca. 5.9 and 5.6 log cfu/g, respectively, reduced to a non-detectable level in 1 h.

  10. Harmful algal blooms and Vibrio spp. association in fishing and marine farming areas of mollusk bivalves in Sechura and Pisco bays, Peru

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    Rita Orozco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between February 2010 and May 2014, 22 surveys in Pisco and 16 in Sechura were conducted; both are major areas for shellfish production and mariculture in Peru. The incidence of Vibrio in seawater was monitored during algal blooms and in their absence. Environmental parameters such as temperature and nutrients were measured. In Sechura, Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and Protoperidinium depressum caused algal blooms and were dominant throughout the evaluation period. The temperatures in this area ranged from 21.8 to 25.3 °C. In Pisco, the harmful algal bloom-forming Akashiwo sanguinea, Messodinium rubrum, and Prorocentrum minimum and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polikrykoides were most prevalent. Harmful algal blooms occurred when temperatures were between 17.1 and 23.3 °C, with phosphates ranging 1.22 - 6.85 µM and nitrates 0.15 - 7.85 µM. In May 2012, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium peruvianum caused an algal bloom, with temperatures ranging 18.0 to 23.2 °C, phosphate values from 0.73 to 11.56 µM, and nitrates from 0.76 to 9.81 µM. Coliforms were low, < 2 - 23 MPN/100 ml, in both bays throughout the study period. Vibrio alginolyticus was the dominant Vibrio spp. predominated in both bays, while V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus were detected in Pisco, where warmer sea temperatures are common and severe infections cases by seafood ingestion has been associated with a pathogen V. parahaemolyticus.

  11. Efeito do uso de bactérias probióticas na sobrevivência de larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei expostas à infecção experimental por Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Angélica Lyra Vogeley de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência de larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei tratadas com bactérias probióticas e posteriormente infectadas por Vibrio harveyi e Vibrio alginolyticus. Os camarões foram mantidos em dois tanques de 80L nas mesmas condições, mas apenas um deles foi previamente tratado com probiótico comercial (Bacillus spp.) adicionado diariamente na água na concentração de 105 UFC/ml. Este protocolo foi mantido até os animais alcançarem o estágio de desen...

  12. Temporal and spatial variability in culturable pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Hou, Aixin; Vithanage, Gayatri; Fujioka, Roger S; Steward, Grieg F

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the abundance, distribution, and virulence gene content of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus in the waters of southern Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana on four occasions from October 2005 to September 2006, using selective cultivation and molecular assays. The three targeted pathogenic vibrios were generally below the detection level in January 2006, when the water was cold (13°C), and most abundant in September 2006, when the lake water was warmest (30°C). The maximum values for these species were higher than reported previously for the lake by severalfold to orders of magnitude. The only variable consistently correlated with total vibrio abundance within a single sampling was distance from shore (P = 0.000). Multiple linear regression of the entire data set revealed that distance from shore, temperature, and turbidity together explained 82.1% of the variability in total vibrio CFU. The log-transformed mean abundance of V. vulnificus CFU in the lake was significantly correlated with temperature (P = 0.014), but not salinity (P = 0.625). Virulence-associated genes of V. cholerae (ctx) and V. parahaemolyticus (trh and tdh) were not detected in any isolates of these species (n = 128 and n = 20, respectively). In contrast, 16S rRNA typing of V. vulnificus (n = 298) revealed the presence of both environmental (type A) and clinical (type B) strains. The percentage of the B-type V. vulnificus was significantly higher in the lake in October 2005 (35.8% of the total) than at other sampling times (P ≤ 0.004), consistent with the view that these strains represent distinct ecotypes.

  13. A Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. Detection in Raw Milk with Pre-enrichment

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    Tian Ding

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study firstly developed a multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR technique combined with a pre-enrichment step to simultaneously detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in raw milk and the dairy farm environment (feces, soil, feed, water in one reaction. Brain heart infusion (BHI broth was selected for the enrichment step to increase the density of the target bacteria by using an incubation of 4 h before multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the detection limit of the multiplex real-time assay was approximately 102 CFU/mL for pure cultures and artificially contaminated milk without enrichment, while 12, 14, and 10 CFU/25 mL, respectively, for S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. after pre-enrichment. The newly developed multiplex RT-PCR assay was applied to 46 dairy farm environmental samples and raw milk samples covering a wide variety of sample types. The results demonstrated that the multiplex RT-PCR assay coupled with the BHI enrichment broth was suitable for the simultaneous screening of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. in the pasture environment and in raw milk. The multiplex RT-PCR assay clearly and successfully shortened the total detection time and reduced labor compared to conventional culture-based methods for testing natural samples.

  14. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species conditions and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Moreno, Maricarmen; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Avila-Novoa, María Guadalupe

    The aim of this study was evaluated the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species biofilms, onto stainless steel 316 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP), and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The biofilms were developed by immersion of the surfaces in TSB by 10 d at 37°C. The results showed that in monospecies biofilms the type of surface not affected the cellular density (p>0.05). However, in dual-species biofilms on PP the adhesion of Salmonella spp. was favored, 7.61±0.13Log 10 CFU/cm 2 , compared with monospecies biofilms onto the same surface, 5.91±0.44Log 10 CFU/cm 2 (pdisinfection treatments; and the most effective disinfectant was peracetic acid (3500ppm), reducing by more than 5Log 10 CFU/cm 2 , while the least effective was cetrimonium bromide. In addition, S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to the disinfectants in mono than in dual-species biofilms (p<0.05). Therefore, the interspecies interactions between S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. had a negative effect on the antimicrobial resistance of each microorganism, compared with the monospecies biofilms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species conditions and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Iñiguez-Moreno

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was evaluated the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species biofilms, onto stainless steel 316 (SS and polypropylene B (PP, and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The biofilms were developed by immersion of the surfaces in TSB by 10 d at 37 °C. The results showed that in monospecies biofilms the type of surface not affected the cellular density (p > 0.05. However, in dual-species biofilms on PP the adhesion of Salmonella spp. was favored, 7.61 ± 0.13 Log10 CFU/cm2, compared with monospecies biofilms onto the same surface, 5.91 ± 0.44 Log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.05. The mono and dual-species biofilms were subjected to disinfection treatments; and the most effective disinfectant was peracetic acid (3500 ppm, reducing by more than 5 Log10 CFU/cm2, while the least effective was cetrimonium bromide. In addition, S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to the disinfectants in mono than in dual-species biofilms (p < 0.05. Therefore, the interspecies interactions between S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. had a negative effect on the antimicrobial resistance of each microorganism, compared with the monospecies biofilms.

  16. Vibrio spp. ISOLATED FROM SHRIMPS AND WATER FROM A MARINE FARM IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL Víbrios en el agua y en las gambas del mar (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931 cultivado en Pernambuco Vibrio spp. ISOLADOS DE CAMARÃO E ÁGUA DE CULTIVO DE FAZENDA MARINHA EM PERNAMBUCO

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    Carlos André Bezerra Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Water and shrimp samples were collected monthly, during all cultivation phases, in three located farms at Pernambuco coast, on winter and summer, for Vibrio spp. quantification and identification. The counting’s were correlated, through mathematical models (P<0.05, with the variables season, water biochemical parameters, wet mount, histopathology exam, toxins presence and handling techniques used. Just the variable cultivation time interfered at total counting of Vibrio spp. in all samples were obtained countings that varied 0.1x 10 to 6.2 x 103 UFC/mL in water, of 7.0 x 10 to 8.2 x 105 UFC/g in powder-larva, of 1.1 x 10 to 1.1 x 105 UFC/mL in hemolymph and of 2.5 x 102 to 1.1 x 106UFC/g in hepatopancreas. The species V. mediterranei (1%, V. mimicus (1.25%, V. fischeri (4.25%, V. cincinnatiensis (4.25%, V. metschnikovii (4.25%, V. proteolyticus (5.5%, V. harveyi (5.5%, V. hollisae (5.5%, V. carchariae (7%, V. vulnificus (8.5%, V. damsela (8.5%, V. parahaemolyticus (13%, V. fluvialis (15%, V. anguillarum (16.5% were identified. It is concluded that the Vibrionaceae load increases proportionally with cultivation time, due to the organic matter increment, what can turn the susceptible animals to the infection for vibrios.

    KEY WORD: Vibrionaceae, Vibrio spp., shrimp and pond water.
    El agua y muestras de la gamba eran la publicación mensual reunido, durante todas las fases del cultivo, en tres granjas localizadas a la costa de Pernambuco, en invierno y verano, para la cuantificación e identificación el de Vibrio spp.. El contando fueron puestos en correlación, a través de los modelos matemáticos (P <0,05, con la estación de las variables, agua que los parámetros bioquímicos, montaña mojada, examen del histopatologia, presencia de las toxinas y técnicas manejando usaron. Simplemente el tiempo del cultivo inconstante interfirió a total que

  17. Antagonistic action of Lactobacillus spp. against Staphylococcus aureus in cheese from Mompox - Colombia

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    Piedad M. Montero Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, food preservation techniquesthat do not use chemical products are becoming more common.Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the antagonisticactivity (antibiosis of lactic-acid bacterial strains againstpathogenic microorganisms. Lactic-acid bacterial strains wereisolated from layered cheese and a commercial product (yogurt;and the same was done with pathogenic bacteria solely fromlayered cheese. The lactic-acid bacterial strains were identified asspecies from the Lactobacilli family, while the pathogenic bacteriafrom layered cheese were identified as Micrococcaceae familyspecies (Staphylococcus aureus. Subsequently, in the sameculture medium, bacteria of each species were sowed in order todetermine the inhibitory activity ability of the Lactic Acid Bacteria(BAL As a result, the highly antagonistic activity of the Lactobacilli(inhibition halos were larger than 0.5 centimeters in diameteragainst isolated pathogenic microorganisms was demonstrated.

  18. Ocurrence of Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci and enteric bacteria in oysters (Crassostrea gigas harvested in the south bay of Santa Catarina island, Brazil Ocorrência de Vibrio spp., estafilococos coagulase positivo e bactérias entéricas em ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas na baía sul da ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Roberta Juliano Ramos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of oysters (Crassostrea gigas, harvested in six different regions of the South Bay of Santa Catarina Island, with Coliforms at 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci, and Salmonella sp. over a period of one year. One hundred eighty oyster samples were collected directly from their culture sites and analyzed. Each sample consisted of a pool of 12 oysters. All of the samples analyzed showed absence of Salmonella, 18 (10% samples showed presence of Escherichia coli, 15 (8.3% samples were positive for V. alginolyticus, and Vibriocholerae was detected in 4 samples (2.2%. The counts of positive-coagulase staphylococci varied from O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação de ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em diferentes regiões da Baía Sul da Ilha de Santa Catarina, por coliformes a 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp. Estafilococos coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp., durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas 180 amostras, coletadas diretamente no local de cultivo. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram ausência de Salmonella, 18 (10% amostras apresentaram presença de Escherichia coli, 15 (8,3% amostras positivas para Vibrio alginolyticus e V. cholerae foi detectado em 4 amostras (2,2%. As contagens de Estafilococos coagulase positiva variaram de <10 a 1,9 x 102 UFC.g-1, enquanto que as contagens de coliformes a 45 ºC e E. coli variaram de <3 a 1,5 x 102 NMP.g-1 e <3 e 4,3 x 10 NMP.g-1, respectivamente. As contagens de V. parahaemolyticus e V. vulnificus variaram de <3 a 7 NMP.g-1, para ambos os microrganismos, sugerindo um monitoramento tanto destas espécies quanto da temperatura das águas marinhas nas regiões de cultivo. Com base nos resultados das análises microbiológicas, as amostras analisadas mostraram qualidade bacteriológica aceitável, ou seja, dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos na legislação brasileira.

  19. Determination of Profiles of Salmonella and Pathogenic Vibrio SPP. in Black Tiger Shrimp for Export by Introduction of Quality Assured Microbiological Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongchinda, N.; Sirimanuyutt, S.; Piromrak, R.; Rachniyom, S. [Fishery Technological Development Institute, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2005-01-15

    Studies were conducted on contamination by Salmonella and pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of aquaculture black tiger shrimp, the water supply (canal water which is supplied as raw pond water before treatment), pond water, feed materials, and fresh and frozen shrimp. Salmonella was detected in samples of the water supply, pond water, feed materials, fresh shrimp at farm, fresh shrimp from wholesale market and frozen shrimp destined for export at levels of 13.95%, 1.53%, 1.14%, 3.17%, 30.4% and 0.21% respectively. V. cholerae non 01 was found in one sample of water from a culture pond of 131 tested (0.8%). V. parahaemolyticus was found in samples of canal water, pond water, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at farms, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at wholesale shrimp markets and frozen black tiger shrimp destined for export at levels of 2.3%, 5.3%, 14.3%, 48 % and 0.2% respectively. The strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were examined for the presence or absence of the TDH and TRH. The incidence of TDH (KP+) was 2.67% (seven of 262 strains) and of TRH (urease reaction) was 1.15% (three of 262 strains). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus were found in a high percentage in fresh black tiger shrimp collected from wholesale shrimp markets. These shrimp are used as raw material for domestic consumption and for processing for exported shrimp products. Therefore GMP and/or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system for shrimp distributors/producers should be applied. (author)

  20. Elevated cytokine responses to Vibrio harveyi infection in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) treated with Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (06TCa22) isolated from the Mongolian dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, G; Korenaga, H; Nagamine, R; Kawahara, S; Takeda, S; Kikuchi, Y; Dashnyam, B; Yoshida, T; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of a Mongolian dairy product derived Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (strain 06TCa22) (Lpp) on the cytokine-mediated immune responses to Vibrio harveyi infection, we examined 16 cytokine expressions in the Japanese pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Fish were orally treated with the heat-killed Lpp at 1 mg g(-1) body weight d(-1) for 3 days. At 24 h posttreatment, fish were infected by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL V. harveyi bacterial suspension (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Additionally, superoxide anion production (SAP) and phagocytic activity (PA) of head kidney cells were assessed during 120 h postinfection period. Significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A/F-3, TNF-α and TNF-N), cell-mediated immune inducing (IL-12p35, IL-12p40 and IL-18), antiviral/intra-cellular pathogen killing (I-IFN-1 and IFN-γ), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and lymphocyte agonistic (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21 and TGF-β1) cytokines was observed in the treated fish compared to control ones during the pathogen infection. Furthermore, significantly increased SAP and PA (P < 0.01; 0.05) were recorded in the treated fish compared to untreated fish. These results suggest the beneficial role of Lpp in enhancement of cytokine-mediated immunity in the Japanese pufferfish against V. harveyi infection and application of this product as a potential fish immunostimulant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistência bacteriana e ação das bacteriocinas de Lactobacillus spp em Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Pribul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen causing intramammary infections in dairy cattle worldwide. Among the factors that contribute to its spread and infectious potential is the ability to overcome the mechanisms of antimicrobials activity. The present work investigated the antimicrobial resistance pattern and sensibility to bacteriocins produced by strains of Lactobacillus spp of 30 isolates of S. aureus from mastitis. From this, 29 are beta-lactamase producers. Eight isolates (26.6% showed resistance to at least four antibiotics being considered multiresistent. All of them were mecA-positive. Otherwise, all isolates tested showed sensibility to at least one of the four bacteriocin producer strains. Due to the significant depletion of the efficacy of antimicrobials, pathogen growth inhibition by bacteriocins seems an alternative of biological control in infectious processes.

  2. Prevalence of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Maryland Coastal Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascuale, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterial family of Vibrionaceae is indigenous in the marine estuarine environments such as the Maryland Coastal Bays. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are both pathogenic bacteria. Understanding the distribution of Vibrio species is crucial because of the health concerns associated with the bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall abundance of bacteria with a focus on Vibrio species in the Maryland Coastal Bays. Seawater samples were collected from 10 different sites that differ with regard to water quality. The total bacteria count (TBC) was determined by two methods: Total plate count and Epifluorescence microscopy. The most-probable-number (MPN) methodology was used to estimate the population of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to the bacteriological analysis, the environmental parameters of temperature and salinity were measured using YSI 6600 multiparameter meter. The average total bacteria count was 2.21 log CFU ml-1. Vibrio vulnificus comprised 5% of the total bacteria count while Vibrio parahaemolyticus comprised only 2% of the total bacteria count. Vibrio vulnificus ranged from 0.30 to 2.48 log MPN ml-1 at the sites tested. Lower Vibrio parahaemolyticus count was observed at the sites with a range of 0.30 to 1.97 log MPN ml-1. There was no significant correlation between the environmental parameters and the Vibrio spp. Since both Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus peak in the summer, there is a potential for a risk of wound infections and gastrointestinal illness based on this data.

  3. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  4. In vitro and in vivo effect of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol as an antibiofilm agent against quorum sensing mediated biofilm formation of Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumari, Sivasubramanian; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Logalakshmi, Ravichandran; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Abdul Nazar, Abdul Kuthus; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

    2018-05-25

    This study unveils the in vitro and in vivo antibiofilm potential of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (DTBMP) from Chroococcus turgidus against Vibrio spp. In the preliminary study, cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) of C. turgidus inhibited the violacein production in biomarker strain Chromobacterium violaceum and its mutant strain CV026 in a dose dependent manner. The effective biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of pure compound DTBMP from C. turgidus was identified as 250 μg/ml concentration in tested Vibrio species. Furthermore, DTBMP proved to effectively inhibit the bioluminescence production in V. harveyi and other biofilm related virulence traits such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, hydrophobicity index, swimming and swarming motility at its BIC concentration in three major pathogenic vibrios: V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. The antibiofilm potential of DTBMP was validated through light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopic analyses. In addition, the non-bactericidal effect of DTBMP was determined through growth curve and 2,3-bis (2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay. Real-time PCR studies revealed the down-regulation of master quorum sensing (QS) regulator genes of V. harveyi such as luxR, luxS, luxP, luxQ and luxO on treatment with DTBMP. In vivo results confirmed that DTBMP augmented the survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae up to 75, 88 and 66% upon infection with V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, respectively. The results of this study ascertain the promising effects of DTBMP as an antibiofilm agent, which could be positively explored to treat biofilm-associated vibrios infections in aquaculture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  6. The ecology of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in North Carolina estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Karen Dyer; Oliver, James D

    2008-04-01

    While numerous studies have characterized the distribution and/or ecology of various pathogenic Vibrio spp., here we have simultaneously examined several estuarine sites for Vibrio vulnificus, V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus. For a one year period, waters and sediment were monitored for the presence of these three pathogens at six different sites on the east coast of North Carolina in the United States. All three pathogens, identified using colony hybridization and PCR methods, occurred in these estuarine environments, although V. cholerae occurred only infrequently and at very low levels. Seventeen chemical, physical, and biological parameters were investigated, including salinity, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, levels of various inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, as well as total vibrios, total coliforms, and E. coli. We found each of the Vibrio spp. in water and sediment to correlate to several of these environmental measurements, with water temperature and total Vibrio levels correlating highly (P<0.0001) with occurrence of the three pathogens. Thus, these two parameters may represent simple assays for characterizing the potential public health hazard of estuarine waters.

  7. Survival of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in raw ready-to-eat crab marinated in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, T J; Kim, N H; Kim, S A; Song, J H; Rhee, M S

    2016-12-05

    Knowing the survival characteristics of foodborne pathogens in raw ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood is the key to predicting whether they pose a microbiological hazard. The present study examined the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemoliticus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw RTE crab marinated in soy sauce. Inoculated crabs (initial bacterial population=4.1-4.4logCFU/g) were immersed in soy sauce and then stored at refrigeration (5°C) or room temperature (22°C) for up to 28days. At 5°C, all bacteria (except V. parahaemolyticus) survived in crab samples until Day 28 (counts of 1.4, 1.6, 3.1, 3.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively). However, at 22°C, all tested bacteria were more susceptible to the antimicrobial effects of marination. Regardless of temperature, foodborne pathogens attached to crab samples were more resistant to marination than those suspended in soy sauce samples; however, the survival pattern for each species was different. Gram-positive bacteria were most resistant to marination conditions (high salinity, low pH), whereas V. parahaemolyticus was extremely susceptible. Marination is the only antibacterial step in the manufacturing processes; however, the results presented herein reveal that this is not sufficient to inactivate foodborne pathogens. In particular, the survival of pathogens on crabs at refrigeration temperature may pose a major hazard for the consumption of raw RTE seafood. Thus, appropriate decontamination methods and implementation of safety management practices are needed. This study provides predictive microbiological information of foodborne pathogens in raw RTE seafood with marination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in Chouriço de Vinho, a dry fermented sausage made from wine-marinated meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, J García; Patarata, L

    2013-04-01

    Portuguese chouriço de vinho is made by drying coarsely minced meat and fat that has been previously marinated with wine (usually red), salt, and garlic for 1 to 2 days at a low temperature (4 to 8 °C). This procedure may improve the microbiological safety of the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of three pathogens in this product, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, to establish the minimum period of drying and maturation necessary to render safe products. The pathogens were inoculated in the chouriço de vinho batter. A factorial design was used to study the following variables in the fermentation process: (i) the presence or absence of an indigenous Lactobacillus sakei starter culture; (ii) the presence or absence of fermentable carbohydrates; and (iii) the salt level (1.5 or 3%). The samples were analyzed 24 h after the preparation of the batter (at stuffing); after 7, 15, and 30 days of drying; and after 30 days of storage at 4 °C under vacuum. Under all of the conditions studied, the levels of the three pathogens decreased during the drying period. In the early stages of drying, the addition of L. sakei starter culture and/or carbohydrates resulted in lower levels of gram-positive pathogens. After 15 days of drying, populations of all pathogens decreased by ca. 2 log in all samples. At that sampling time, L. monocytogenes was undetectable in the chouriço de vinho with L. sakei starter culture and carbohydrates. The mean count of S. aureus after 15 days of drying was below 1 log CFU/g. After 30 days of drying, no pathogens were detected. The drying period could be shortened to 15 days when considering only the gram-positive pathogens studied and the use of a starter culture and carbohydrates. Due to the low infective dose of Salmonella spp., the product should be considered safe after 30 days, when this pathogen became undetectable.

  9. Evaluation of the synergistic potential of vancomycin combined with other antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Viganor da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (CNS are the most common pathogens that cause serious long term infections in patients. Despite the existence of new antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, vancomycin (VAN remains the standard therapy for the treatment of infections caused by these multidrug-resistant strains. However, the use of VAN has been associated with a high frequency of therapeutic failures in some clinical scenarios, mainly with decreasing concentration of VAN. This work aims to evaluate the synergic potential of VAN plus sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, VAN plus rifampin (RIF and VAN plus imipenem (IPM in sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations against 22 clinical strains of MRSA and CNS. The checkerboard method showed synergism of VAN/RIF and VAN/SXT against two and three of the 22 strains, respectively. The combination of VAN with IPM showed synergistic effects against 21 out of 22 strains by the E-test method. Four strains were analyzed by the time-kill curve method and synergistic activity was observed with VAN/SXT, VAN/RIF and especially VAN/IPM in sub-inhibitory concentrations. It would be interesting to determine if synergy occurs in vivo. Evidence of in vivo synergy could lead to a reduction of the standard VAN dosage or treatment time.

  10. The importance of subcutaneous abscess infection by Pasteurella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous abscesses are lesions frequently reported in commercial rabbits. Both at farm and slaughterhouse level, these lesions are responsible for economic losses and a potential decrease in meat quality. The present study was devised to identify the main causes of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits and assess the importance of abscess lesions in this domain. For these purposes, 281423 rabbits were evaluated during meat inspection at the slaughterhouse. The results achieved showed that subcutaneous abscesses were the major cause of condemnation, being responsible for the rejection of 1355 (0.48% rabbit carcasses. The main affected area was the hind limbs (31.37%, followed by the cervical area (23.10%. Microbiological analyses of 27 abscess samples indicated Pasteurella spp. as the bacteria mostly isolated (59.3%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. These results enable us to advise the industry on the significance of abscesses as an important cause of economic losses, due to meat condemnation during post mortem inspection, and highlight the importance of implementing monitoring plans as a way to control this pathological problem.

  11. A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

    1996-01-01

    A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated...

  12. Chemical and structural characterization of hydroxamate siderophore produced by marine Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, R M; Aravinth, A; Karthikeyan, M

    2011-02-01

    In the present study, 22 different bacteria were isolated from open ocean water from the Gulf of Mannar, India. Of the 22 isolates, 4 were identified as Vibrio spp. (VM1, VM2, VM3 and VM4) and found to produce siderophores (iron-binding chelators) under iron-limited conditions. Different media were found to have an influence on siderophore production. Maximum siderophore production was observed with VM1 isolate in MM9 salts medium at 48 h of incubation. The isolate was confirmed as Vibrio harveyi based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed the hydroxamate nature of the siderophore produced. Further characterization of the siderophore revealed it to be of dihydroxamate nature, forming hexadentate ligands with Fe(III) ions. A narrow shift in ultraviolet (UV)-Vis spectrum was observed on photolysis due to ligand oxidation. Growth-promotion bioassay with Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli confirmed the iron-scavenging property of the siderophore produced by Vibrio harveyi.

  13. Single- and Multispecies Biofilms by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Isolated from Raw Fish and a Fish Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesieli Braz Frozi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The consumption of fish by the Brazilian population is increasing. However, fish and seafood are highly perishable and can be contaminated with several microorganisms. In addition, the possibility of biofilm formation is a greater cause for concern. In this study, biofilm formation was evaluated in single- and multispecies cultures at 25°C for incubation periods of 0, 4, 8, 24, and 48h in stainless steel coupons (size, 1.0×1.0cm immersed in tryptic soy broth. The characteristics of the formed biofilms after sanitizing by immersing the coupons in 200ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 10min were also evaluated under the same experimental conditions but with some modifications. Biofilm structure was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of single-species biofilms indicated that all bacterial strains formed biofilms at different intervals without any statistically significant difference. However, comparison of the growth of single- and multispecies cultures indicated a significantly higher biofilm formation by the pure cultures. In multispecies biofilms, compared with the other microorganisms, growth of Salmonella spp. was significantly lower for all tested incubation periods; whereas, of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher than that of E. coli until 8h of incubation; the differences in growth were not significantly different after this incubation period. Sanitizing with sodium hypochlorite was effective because no cell growth was observed in the coupons that were treated with 200ppm sodium hypochlorite for 10min. This study demonstrated the ability of isolated microorganisms to form biofilms, reinforcing the need for food handling establishments to adopt good manufacturing practices, developing adequate protocols for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and equipment used in food production, maintaining and replacing equipment when necessary.

  14. Marine Bacillus spp. associated with the egg capsule of Concholepas concholepas (common name "loco") have an inhibitory activity toward the pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Yanett; Riquelme, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The pandemic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated from seawater, sediment, and marine organisms, is responsible for gastroenteric illnesses in humans and also cause diseases in aquaculture industry in Chile and other countries around the world. In this study, bacterial flora with inhibitory activity against pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were collected from egg capsules of Concholepas concholepas and evaluated. The 16S rRNA fragment was sequenced from each isolated strain to determine its identity using the GenBank database. A phylogenetic analysis was made, and tests for the productions of antibacterial substance were performed using the double-layer method. Forty-five morphotypes of bacterial colonies were isolated, 8 of which presented an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. 16S rRNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis show that these strains constitute taxa that are phylogenetically related to the Bacillus genus and are probably sister species or strains of the species Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniform, or Bacillus sp. It is important to determine the nature of the antibacterial substance to evaluate their potential for use against the pathogen species V. parahaemolyticus.

  15. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Alexandra R.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. PMID:26658001

  17. Effects of Pollution on Vibrios in Woji River | Ojesanmi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pollution on Vibrio spp. in five sampling stations along Woji River in Port Harcourt was studied in the months of April and November 2010. Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were isolated. The Plate count technique on Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt agar revealed a high population density ...

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals unique immune-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhendong; Babu, V Sarath; Wan, Quanyuan; Zhou, Meng; Liang, Risheng; Muhammad, Asim; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Jun; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2018-06-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important cultural species worldwide. However, Vibrio spp. infections have caused a great economic loss in Pacific white shrimp culture industry. The immune responses of Pacific white shrimp to the Vibrio spp. is not fully characterized. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hemocytes were explored by injecting with or without Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Totally, 42,632 high-quality unigenes were obtained from RNAseq data. Comparative genome analysis showed 2258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following the Vibrio challenge, including 1017 up-regulated and 1241 down-regulated genes. Eight DEGs were randomly selected for further validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that are consistent with the RNA-seq data. Due to the lack of predictable adaptive immunity, shrimps rely on an innate immune system to defend themselves against invading microbes by recognizing and clearing them through humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we focused our studies on the humoral immunity, five genes (SR, MNK, CTL3, GILT, and ALFP) were selected from the transcriptomic data, which were significantly up-regulated by V. parahaemolyticus infection. These genes were widely expressed in six different tissues and were up-regulated by both Gram negative bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). To further extend our studies, we knock-down those five genes by dsRNA in L. vannamei and analyzed the functions of specific genes against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial clearance analysis. We found that the ability of L. vannamei was significantly reduced in bacterial clearance when treated with those specific dsRNA. These results indicate that those five genes play essential roles in antibacterial immunity and have its specific functions against different types of pathogens. The obtained data will shed a new light on the immunity

  19. Effects of ambient exposure, refrigeration, and icing on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundances in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Lydon, K A; Kinsey, T P; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2017-07-17

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ). As the United States shellfish program recommendations include testing for total these organisms and gene targets, Vv and total (tlh) and pathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) Vp were enumerated from samples using MPN-real-time-PCR approaches. Mean Vv and Vp abundances in oysters from AL-DR were lowest in immediately iced samples (2.3 and -0.1 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in the 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (3.4 and 0.5 log MPN/g, respectively). Similarly, in AL-CP Vv and Vp mean levels in oysters were lowest in immediately iced samples (3.6 and 1.2 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (5.1 and 3.2 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean levels of pathogenic Vp from AL sites were frequently below the limit of detection (oysters were highest in samples which were held for 7h in the shade (5.3 and 4.8 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean pathogenic Vp levels in oysters at initial harvest were also highest in oysters 7h in the shade (2.1 and 2.2 log MPN/g for tdh+ and trh+ Vp). Regardless of sampling location, Vibrio spp. levels were generally significantly (poysters exposed to 5h of air storage compared to the initially harvested samples. In addition, the data demonstrated that the use of layered ice resulted in lower Vibrio spp. levels in oysters, compared to those that were refrigerated post-harvest. These results suggest vibriosis risk can be mitigated by shorter storage times and more rapid cooling of oysters

  20. A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

    1996-01-01

    A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated from the larval rearing water of a commercial prawn hatchery with V. harveyi agar as a primary isolation medium and were positively identified, by conventional tests, as V. harveyi. This agar displays great potential as a primary isolation medium and offers significant advantages over thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar as a medium for differentiating V. harveyi from other marine and estuarine Vibrio species. PMID:8795252

  1. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of...

  2. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA...... Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also......-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae....

  3. Effects of Intertidal Harvest Practices on Levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus Bacteria in Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Kinsey, T P; Johnson, L W; Porso, R; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Wesighan, P; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus can grow rapidly in shellfish subjected to ambient air conditions, such as during intertidal exposure. In this study, levels of total and pathogenic (tdh(+) and/or trh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus and total V. vulnificus were determined in oysters collected from two study locations where intertidal harvest practices are common. Samples were collected directly off intertidal flats, after exposure (ambient air [Washington State] or refrigerated [New Jersey]), and after reimmersion by natural tidal cycles. Samples were processed using a most-probable-number (MPN) real-time PCR method for total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus In Washington State, the mean levels of V. parahaemolyticus increased 1.38 log MPN/g following intertidal exposure and dropped 1.41 log MPN/g after reimmersion for 1 day, but the levels were dependent upon the container type utilized. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels followed a similar trend. However, V. vulnificus levels increased 0.10 log MPN/g during intertidal exposure in Washington but decreased by >1 log MPN/g after reimmersion. In New Jersey, initial levels of all vibrios studied were not significantly altered during the refrigerated sorting and containerizing process. However, there was an increase in levels after the first day of reimmersion by 0.79, 0.72, 0.92, and 0.71 log MPN/g for total, tdh(+) and trh(+) V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, respectively. The levels of all targets decreased to those similar to background after a second day of reimmersion. These data indicate that the intertidal harvest and handling practices for oysters that were studied in Washington and New Jersey do not increase the risk of illness from V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood-associated infectious morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vibrio spp. can grow rapidly in shellfish subjected to ambient

  4. Vibrios patogênicos em ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorae servidas em restaurantes no Rio de Janeiro: um alerta para a Saúde Pública Pathogenic Vibrios in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae served at restaurants in Rio de Janeiro: a public health warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 40 amostras de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorae servidas in natura em 15 restaurantes da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a fim de investigar a presença de Vibrio spp. As amostras de ostras foram analisadas e submetidas a enriquecimento em água peptonada alcalina adicionada de 1 e 3% de NaCl, incubadas a 37°C por 24 horas. Em seguida, os cultivos foram semeados em agar tiossulfato citrato bile sacarose e as colônias suspeitas foram submetidas à caracterização bioquímica. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio carchariae, Vibrio alginolyticus e Vibrio vulnificus representaram as principais espécies (> 60% isoladas a partir das ostras in natura.Forty oyster samples (Crassostrea rhizophorae served raw in 15 restaurants in the city of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated in order to investigate the presence of Vibrio spp. The oyster samples were analyzed and subjected to enrichment in alkaline peptone water with the addition of 1 and 3% NaCl and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Following this, the cultures were seeded onto thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS and the suspected colonies were subjected to biochemical characterization. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio carchariae, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were the main species (> 60% isolated from raw oysters.

  5. Temperature-dependent inhibition of opportunistic Vibrio pathogens by native coral commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenborg, Beck R; Krediet, Cory J; Teplitski, Max; Ritchie, Kim B

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria living within the surface mucus layer of corals compete for nutrients and space. A number of stresses affect the outcome of this competition. The interactions between native microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens largely determine the coral holobiont's overall health and fitness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria isolated from the mucus layer of a healthy elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are capable of inhibition of opportunistic pathogens, Vibrio shiloi AK1 and Vibrio coralliilyticus. These vibrios are known to cause disease in corals and their virulence is temperature dependent. Elevated temperature (30 °C) increased the cell numbers of one commensal and both Vibrio pathogens in monocultures. We further tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature favors pathogenic organisms by simultaneously increasing the fitness of vibrios and decreasing the fitness of commensals by measuring growth of each species within a co-culture over the course of 1 week. In competition experiments between vibrios and commensals, the proportion of Vibrio spp. increased significantly under elevated temperature. We finished by investigating several temperature-dependent mechanisms that could influence co-culture differences via changes in competitive fitness. The ability of Vibrio spp. to utilize glycoproteins found in A. palmata mucus increased or remained stable when exposed to elevated temperature, while commensals' tended to decrease utilization. In both vibrios and commensals, protease activity increased at 30 °C, while chiA expression increased under elevated temperatures for Vibrio spp. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms through which elevated temperature may select for pathogenic bacterial dominance and lead to disease or a decrease in coral fitness.

  6. A pan-European ring trial to validate an International Standard for detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seafoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, R E; Stockley, L; Keay, W; Rosec, J-P; Hervio-Heath, D; Van den Berg, H; Leoni, F; Ottaviani, D; Henigman, U; Denayer, S; Serbruyns, B; Georgsson, F; Krumova-Valcheva, G; Gyurova, E; Blanco, C; Copin, S; Strauch, E; Wieczorek, K; Lopatek, M; Britova, A; Hardouin, G; Lombard, B; In't Veld, P; Leclercq, A; Baker-Austin, C

    2018-02-10

    Globally, vibrios represent an important and well-established group of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The European Commission (EC) mandated the Comite de European Normalisation (CEN) to undertake work to provide validation data for 15 methods in microbiology to support EC legislation. As part of this mandated work programme, merging of ISO/TS 21872-1:2007, which specifies a horizontal method for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, and ISO/TS 21872-2:2007, a similar horizontal method for the detection of potentially pathogenic vibrios other than V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus was proposed. Both parts of ISO/TS 21872 utilized classical culture-based isolation techniques coupled with biochemical confirmation steps. The work also considered simplification of the biochemical confirmation steps. In addition, because of advances in molecular based methods for identification of human pathogenic Vibrio spp. classical and real-time PCR options were also included within the scope of the validation. These considerations formed the basis of a multi-laboratory validation study with the aim of improving the precision of this ISO technical specification and providing a single ISO standard method to enable detection of these important foodborne Vibrio spp.. To achieve this aim, an international validation study involving 13 laboratories from 9 countries in Europe was conducted in 2013. The results of this validation have enabled integration of the two existing technical specifications targeting the detection of the major foodborne Vibrio spp., simplification of the suite of recommended biochemical identification tests and the introduction of molecular procedures that provide both species level identification and discrimination of putatively pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus by the determination of the presence of theromostable direct and direct related haemolysins. The method performance characteristics generated in this have been included in revised

  7. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY-Encapsulated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  8. Antagonistic Activities of Purple Non-sulfur Bacterial Extracts Against Antibiotic Resistant Vibrio sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracts of native purple non-sulfur bacterial (PNSB isolates from the effluents of brackish shrimp culture ponds, near Nagapattinam coast (South India were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the disc diffusion method. Best results were shown by the chloroform extracts against oxytetracycline resistant Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischerii. Among the purple non-sulfur bacterial isolates, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, showed maximum antagonistic activity. The findings suggest that the antagonistic extracts from Rba. sphaeroides could be used as an effective antibiotic in controlling Vibrio spp., in aquaculture systems.

  9. Vibrio trends in the ecology of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Martino, Maria Elena; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization.

  10. Diversity and dynamics of the Vibrio community in well water used for drinking in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A; Bordalo, A A

    2014-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and can be found either in culturable or in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. The genus comprises many pathogenic species accountable for water and food-borne diseases that prove to be fatal, especially in developing countries, as in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa), where cholera is endemic. In order to ascertain the abundance and structure of Vibrio spp. community in well waters that serve as the sole source of water for the population, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), PCR-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and cloning approaches were used. Results suggest that Vibrio spp. were present throughout the year in acidic, freshwater wells with a seasonal community composition shift. Vibrio spp. abundance was in accordance with the abundance found in coastal environments. Sequences closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species were retrieved from well water revealing exposure of the population to such pathogens. pH, ammonium, and turbidity, regulated by the rain pattern, seem to be the variables that contributed mostly to the shaping and selection of the Vibrio spp. community. These results reinforce the evidence for water monitoring with culture-independent methods and the clear need to create/recover water infrastructures and a proper water resources management in West African countries with similar environmental conditions.

  11. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  12. Ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters of eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Courtney S; Hite, M Frances; Oliver, James D

    2003-06-01

    While several studies on the ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Gulf Coast environments have been reported, there is little information on the distribution of this pathogen in East Coast waters. Thus, we conducted a multiyear study on the ecology of V. vulnificus in estuarine waters of the eastern United States, employing extensive multiple regression analyses to reveal the major environmental factors controlling the presence of this pathogen, and of Vibrio spp., in these environments. Monthly field samplings were conducted between July 2000 and April 2002 at six different estuarine sites along the eastern coast of North Carolina. At each site, water samples were taken and nine physicochemical parameters were measured. V. vulnificus isolates, along with estuarine bacteria, Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli organisms, and total coliforms, were enumerated in samples from each site by using selective media. During the last 6 months of the study, sediment samples were also analyzed for the presence of vibrios, including V. vulnificus. Isolates were confirmed as V. vulnificus by using hemolysin gene PCR or colony hybridization. V. vulnificus was isolated only when water temperatures were between 15 and 27 degrees C, and its presence correlated with water temperature and dissolved oxygen and vibrio levels. Levels of V. vulnificus in sediments were low, and no evidence for an overwintering in this environment was found. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vibrio levels were controlled primarily by temperature, turbidity, and levels of dissolved oxygen, estuarine bacteria, and coliforms. Water temperature accounted for most of the variability in the concentrations of both V. vulnificus (47%) and Vibrio spp. (48%).

  13. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

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    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  14. Carbapenemase VCC-1-Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jaeckel, Claudia; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    During antimicrobial drug resistance testing for Vibrio spp. from coastal waters of Germany, we identified 4 nontoxigenic, carbapenem-resistant V. cholerae isolates. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the carbapenemase gene bla(VCC-1). In addition, a molecular survey showed that more bla...

  15. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  16. Vibrios and Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, S D

    1988-09-01

    There are many similarities in the Vibrionaceae that cause human illness in the United States (see Table 1). Vibrios are characteristically indigenous to marine, estuarine, and brackish environments. They are distributed mainly in Gulf of Mexico coastal water, and these organisms "bloom" when the water is warm. Outbreaks of disease in humans frequently occur in summer, coinciding with multiplication of vibrios in warm water. Sporadic cases and small outbreaks of cholera continue to occur in persons living on or near the Gulf of Mexico, but infection in most persons is unrecognized. In fact, more serious and frequent illnesses result from V. vulnificus wound infections and from gastroenteritis caused by vibrios other than V. cholerae 01. Underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease (especially leukemia) apparently increases the likelihood and severity of illnesses caused by V. vulnificus and Aeromonas. Some Vibrionaceae produce clinical illness by means of enterotoxins identical or similar to cholera toxin. For many others, hemolysins, cytotoxins, and other exotoxins are necessary to produce disease; the importance of these virulence factors often is not known or the importance of these virulence factors often is not known or is of doubtful significance. Also, purported pathogenicity as demonstrated by animal models, such as fluid accumulation in ligated ileal loops, is quite nonspecific and needs to be interpreted cautiously. For Plesiomonas, a mode of pathogenesis has not been discovered. Eating raw shellfish (frequently raw oysters) has been linked epidemiologically to enteric infections with most of these bacteria; foreign travel and exposure to seawater are other frequently observed epidemiologic associations with infection. Foreign travel, particularly to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, has been strongly associated with the acquisition of non-01 V. cholerae and Plesiomonas organisms. Most Vibrionaceae in the United States are susceptible in vitro--and illnesses

  17. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy.

  18. Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various ecological niches on Vibrio species pathogenic to crustaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhakaran Priyaja; Puthumana Jayesh; Neil Scolastin Correya; Balachandran Sreelakshmi; Naduthalmuriparambil S Sudheer; Rosamma Philip; Isaac Sarogeni Bright Singh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To abrogate pathogenic vibrios in aquaculture by testing the potential of Pseudomonas isolates from fresh water, brackish and marine environments as probiotics.Methods:Antagonistic activity of the compound against 7 Vibrio spp. was performed. Influence of salinity on the production of pyocyanin and the toxicity was done through the compound using brine shrimp lethality assay. Molecular characterization was performed to confirm that the isolates werePseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Salinity was found to regulate the levels of pyocyanin production, with 5-10 g/L as the optimum. All Pseudomonas isolates grew at salinities ranging from 5 to 70 g/L. Isolates of marine origin produced detectable levels of pyocyanin up to 45 g/L salinity. Brackish and freshwater isolates ceased to produce pyocyanin at salinities above 30 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Culture supernatants of all 5 Pseudomonas isolates possessed the ability to restrict the growth of Vibrio spp. and maximum antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi was obtained when they were grown at salinities of 5 to 10 g/L. The marine isolate MCCB117, even when grown at a salinity of 45 g/L possessed the ability to inhibit Vibrio spp.Conclusions:Purification and structural elucidation of antagonistic compound were carried out. ideal for application in freshwater, MCCB102 and MCCB103 in brackish water and MCCB117 and The present investigation showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB119 would be MCCB118 in marine aquaculture systems as putative probiotics in the management of vibrios.

  19. Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various ecological niches on Vibrio species pathogenic to crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran Priyaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To abrogate pathogenic vibrios in aquaculture by testing the potential of Pseudomonas isolates from fresh water, brackish and marine environments as probiotics. Methods: Purification and structural elucidation of antagonistic compound were carried out. Antagonistic activity of the compound against 7 Vibrio spp. was performed. Influence of salinity on the production of pyocyanin and the toxicity was done through the compound using brine shrimp lethality assay. Molecular characterization was performed to confirm that the isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Salinity was found to regulate the levels of pyocyanin production, with 5-10 g/L as the optimum. All Pseudomonas isolates grew at salinities ranging from 5 to 70 g/L. Isolates of marine origin produced detectable levels of pyocyanin up to 45 g/L salinity. Brackish and freshwater isolates ceased to produce pyocyanin at salinities above 30 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Culture supernatants of all 5 Pseudomonas isolates possessed the ability to restrict the growth of Vibrio spp. and maximum antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi was obtained when they were grown at salinities of 5 to 10 g/L. The marine isolate MCCB117, even when grown at a salinity of 45 g/L possessed the ability to inhibit Vibrio spp. Conclusions: The present investigation showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB119 would be ideal for application in freshwater, MCCB102 and MCCB103 in brackish water and MCCB117 and MCCB118 in marine aquaculture systems as putative probiotics in the management of vibrios.

  20. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  1. Microbial Ecophysiology of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Danevčič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use different adaptation strategies to survive environmental perturbations. In this minireview, adaptation strategies of new red-pigmented Vibrio ruber isolated from coastal environments to different environmental stresses (i.e. salinity, viscosity, UV light, mitomycin C, nutrient availability and temperature are reviewed. To cope with environmental stresses Vibrio ruber uses several different adaptive strategies. For example, lipid composition as well as phase behaviour are strongly dependent on salt concentration. Vibrio ruber membrane has no hydroxy fatty acids, but exceptionally high lysolipid content compared to other related Vibrio species. Inorganic nutrient uptake by bacteria is selective, depends on environmental conditions and varies several fold with environmental perturbations. Protein composition, carbon flow through the central metabolic pathways, energy generation as well as secondary metabolite production adapt readily to stress conditions. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase proved to be a good indicator of Vibrio ruber stress. Cells are able to modulate their local viscosity in response to variations of environmental viscosity. The bacterium harbours several viral genetic elements in its genome, which could be induced by mitomycin C. Environmental conditions during growth of bacteria have a significant effect on lysate carbon turnover. Secondary metabolite prodigiosin confers protection against UV in the environment, which adds to the known repertoire of prodigiosin ecophysiological functions. In conclusion, Vibrio ruber in its short acquaintance with the scientific community (less than ten years has proven to be an immensely valuable model system for ecophysiological studies of bacteria.

  2. A New Niche for Vibrio logei, the Predominant Light Organ Symbiont of Squids in the Genus Sepiola

    OpenAIRE

    Fidopiastis, Pat M.; von Boletzky, Sigurd; Ruby, Edward G.

    1998-01-01

    Two genera of sepiolid squids—Euprymna, found primarily in shallow, coastal waters of Hawaii and the Western Pacific, and Sepiola, the deeper-, colder-water-dwelling Mediterranean and Atlantic squids—are known to recruit luminous bacteria into light organ symbioses. The light organ symbiont of Euprymna spp. is Vibrio fischeri, but until now, the light organ symbionts of Sepiola spp. have remained inadequately identified. We used a combination of molecular and physiological characteristics to ...

  3. Extract from the fermented soybean product Natto inhibits Vibrio biofilm formation and reduces shrimp mortality from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatip, Pattanan; Nitin Chandra Teja, D; Flegel, Timothy W; Soowannayan, Chumporn

    2018-01-01

    Many bacteria, including Vibrio pathogens of shrimp, need to colonize and/or form biofilms in hosts or the environment to cause disease. Thus, one possible control strategy for shrimp Vibriosis is biofilm inhibition. With this objective, an extract from the Japanese fermented soybean product, Natto was tested with the luminescent shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi (VH) for its ability to inhibit or degrade biofilm and to interfere with cell growth in broth. Natto is a traditional fermentation product of Bacillus subtilis var Natto (BSN1). Using 96 well microtiter plates coated with 0.4% chitosan, we found that biofilm formation by VH was inhibited, while growth in parallel broth cultures was not. When an extract from Natto prepared using BSN1 was mixed with feed for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei before immersion challenge with V. harveyi at 10 6  cfu/ml, survival was significantly higher (p≤0.05) than for control shrimp given feed without these additives. Further work done to test whether d-amino acids were involved in biofilm formation as previously reported for B. subtilis, Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave negative results. In conclusion, we discovered that Natto extract can inhibit Vibrio biofilm formation and that it or BSN1 alone added to shrimp feed can significantly reduce shrimp mortality in immersion challenges with pathogenic VH. This shows some promise for possible application against Vibriosis in shrimp since Natto is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The annual cycle of zooplankton-associated Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in Albufera lake and its coastal surrounding waters (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; Pujalte, M J; Amaro, C; Garay, E

    1988-12-01

    Most probable numbers of zooplankton-associated Vibrio spp. and V. cholerae were determined in Albufera lake, Spain, and in its coastal receiving waters throughout a year. Highest counts of 10(5) bacterial cells/g of plankton were associated to high temperatures and were also related to the kind of water. All isolates were non-01 serovars, and most belonged to Heiberg groups I and II.

  5. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster...

  6. Identification of DLD, by immunoproteomic analysis and evaluation as a potential vaccine antigen against three Vibrio species in Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huanying; Chen, Liming; Hoare, Rowena; Huang, Yucong; ZaoheWu; Jian, Jichang

    2016-02-24

    Vibrio spp. represent a serious threat to the culture of Epinephelus coioides (Orange-spotted Grouper) in Southeast Asia. In this study we used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting to identify common immunogenic proteins of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Membranes were probed with orange-spotted grouper anti-V. alginolyticus sera and accordingly 60, 58 and 48 immunogenic protein spots were detected. By matching analysis for the three Western blotting membranes, 6 cross immunogenic spots for the three Vibrio species were identified. They were Outer membrane protein W (OmpW), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit(SDHA), elongation factor Ts(Ts), peptide ABC transporter periplasmic peptide-binding protein and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). One of the proteins, DLD, was used to evaluate the cross protective function for E. coioides with a bacterial immunization and challenge method. The relative percent survival rate of E. coioides against V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus was 90%, 86% and 80%, respectively. This work may provide potential cross protective vaccine candidate antigens for three Vibrio species, and DLD may be considered as an effective cross-protective immunogen against three Vibrio species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Occurrence of Vibrio Pathotypes in the Final Effluents of Five Wastewater Treatment Plants in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa

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    Vuyokazi Nongogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa over a 12 months period between September 2012 and August 2013 using standard membrane filtration technique followed by cultivation on thiosulphate citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS agar. The identities of the presumptive Vibrio isolates were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR including delineation into V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis pathotypes. The counts of Vibrio spp. varied with months in all the study sites and ranged in the order of 101 and 104 CFU/100mL. Vibrio distribution also showed seasonality with high counts being obtained in autumn and spring (p < 0.05. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. among the five WWTPs also differed significantly (p < 0.05. Of the 300 isolates that were confirmed as belonging to the Vibrio genus, 29% (86 were V. fluvialis, 28% (84 were V. vulnificus and 12% (35 were V. parahaemolyticus. The isolation of Vibrio pathogens from the final effluent suggests that this pathogen is in circulation in some pockets of the population and that the WWTPs under study do not efficiently remove bacterial pathogens from the wastewater and consequently are threats to public health.

  8. Distribution of multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp across Palk Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sneha, K.G.; Anas, A.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Jasmin, C.; VipinDas, P.V.; Pai, S.S.; Pappu, S.; Nair, M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sudheesh, K.; Nair, S.

    Presence of multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms in marine systems is increasingly a focus of concern as they pose potential health risk to humans and animals. The present study reports the distribution, diversity, antibiotic resistance...

  9. Vibrio Parahaemolyticus: The Threat of Another Vibrio Acquiring Pandemic Potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G.B.

    investigations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters following outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York. (1997 and 1998). Appl. Envrion. Microbiol. 66, 4649- 4654. DePaola, A., Ulaszek, J., Kaysner, C. A., Tenge, B. J., Nordstrom, J. L., Wells, J., Puhr, N...-710. Andrews, L. S., DeBlanc, S., Veal, C. D., Park, D. L., 2003. Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to a hot water/ cold shock pasteurization process. Food Addit. Contam. 20, 331-334. Bag, P. K., Nandi, S., Bhadra, R. K., Ramamurthy, T., Bhattacharya, S...

  10. Sensitivity of the vibrios to ultraviolet-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet-inactivation kinetics of a number of strains of Vibrio cholerae (classical), Vibrio cholerae (el tor), NAG vibrios and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were investigated. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between any two of the four types of vibrio in respect of their sensitivity to U.V. (author)

  11. In vitro interactions of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Liendo, Aitor Rizo; Bethencourt Estrella, Carlos J; García Méndez, Ana B; Chiboub, Olfa; Hajaji, Soumaya; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are opportunistic protozoa widely distributed in the environment. They are frequently found in water and soil samples, but they have also been reported to be associated with bacterial human pathogens such as Legionella spp. Campylobacter spp or Vibrio cholerae among others. Including within Vibrio spp. V. harveyi (Johnson and Shunk, 1936) is a bioluminescent marine bacteria which has been found swimming freely in tropical marine waters, being part of the stomach and intestine microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals. Our aim was to study the interactions between Vibrio harveyi and Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Firstly, in order to analyze changes in it cultivability, V. harveyi was coincubated with A. castellanii Neff axenic culture and with Acanthamoeba Conditioned Medium (ACM) at different temperatures in aerobic conditions. Interestingly, at 4 °C and 18-20 °C bacteria were still cultivable in marine agar, at 28 °C, in aerobic conditions, but there weren't significant differences comparing with the controls. We also noted an enhanced migration of Acanthamoeba toward V. harveyi on non-nutrient agar plates compared to controls with no bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface 0.3 m and near-bottom just above the sediment. Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration change for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water and sediment concentrations. V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r=0.41, p=0.04, and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r=-0.93, p< 0.01, salinity (r=-0.46, p=0.02, tidal height (r=-0.45, p=0.03, and surface water V. vulnificus (r=0.98, p< 0.01. V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth (r=-0.48, p=0.02[sediment]; r=-0.97 p< 0.01[surface water] and tidal height (r=-0.96. p< 0.01[sediment], r=-0.59,p< 0.01 [surface water]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4x105 MPN g-1, V. parahaemolyticus 1x105 MPN g-1, and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment and

  13. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus) and gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus luteus) bacteria and various Candida spp. (Candida glabrata, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and ...

  14. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae in oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, collected from a natural nursery in the Cocó river estuary, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Isolamento de Vibrio parahaemolyticus e Vibrio cholerae em ostras, Crassostrea rhizophorae, coletadas em um criadouro natural no estuário do rio Cocó, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina Viana de Sousa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are edible organisms that are often ingested partially cooked or even raw, presenting therefore a very high risk to the consumers' health, especially in tropical regions. The presence of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters sampled at an estuary in the Brazilian northeastern region was studied, with 300 oysters tested through an 8-months period. The salinity of the water at the sampling point varied between 3% and 27‰. V. cholerae was the most frequently detected species (33.3% of the samples, and of the 22 V. cholerae isolates, 20 were identified as non-O1/non-O139, with two of the colonies presenting a rough surface and most of remaining ones belonging to the Heiberg II fermentation group. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from just one of the samples. Other bacteria such as Providencia spp., Klebsiella spp. and Morganella morganii were also isolated.As ostras são alimentos marinhos freqüentemente ingeridos crus ou parcialmente cozidos. Por esta razão, o risco para a saúde dos consumidores desses produtos é muito elevado, principalmente, quando são de regiões tropicais. Foi estudada a presença de Vibrio cholerae e Vibrio parahaemolyticus em ostras de um estuário na região Nordeste do Brasil. Trezentas ostras foram analisadas, em um período de 8 meses. A salinidade da água, no local de coleta, variou de 3 a 27‰. V. cholerae foi o vibrio mais freqüentemente detectado (33,3% das amostras. Dos 22 isolados, 20 foram identificados como V. cholerae não-O1/não-O139, duas delas apresentando forma rugosa sendo a maioria das demais pertencente ao tipo fermentativo Heiberg II. V. parahaemolyticus foi isolado em apenas umas das coletas. Foram, também, identificadas nas amostras isolados de Providencia spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. e Morganella morganii.

  15. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme has antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; García-Galaz, Alfonso; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2006-03-01

    C-type lysozyme has been described as an antibacterial component of the shrimp innate defence system. We determined quantitatively the antibacterial activity of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme against three Gram negative bacteria: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, using a turbidimetric assay with live bacteria and differential bacterial viable count after interaction with the protein. In conclusion, the antibacterial activity of recombinant shrimp lysozyme against Vibrio sp. is at least equal to the values against the Gram positive M. luteus and more active against the shrimp pathogens V. alginolyticus and V. parahemolyticus.

  16. Abundance and Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Vibrio Bacteria Associated with Diseased Elkhorn Coral (Acropora palmata) of the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Keri M; Westrich, Jason R; Alabady, Magdy S; Edwards, Martinique L; Lipp, Erin K

    2018-01-15

    The critically endangered elkhorn coral ( Acropora palmata ) is affected by white pox disease (WPX) throughout the Florida Reef Tract and wider Caribbean. The bacterium Serratia marcescens was previously identified as one etiologic agent of WPX but is no longer consistently detected in contemporary outbreaks. It is now believed that multiple etiologic agents cause WPX; however, to date, no other potential pathogens have been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the association of Vibrio bacteria with WPX occurrence from August 2012 to 2014 at Looe Key Reef in the Florida Keys, USA. The concentration of cultivable Vibrio was consistently greater in WPX samples than in healthy samples. The abundance of Vibrio bacteria relative to total bacteria was four times higher in samples from WPX lesions than in adjacent apparently healthy regions of diseased corals based on quantitative PCR (qPCR). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was used to assess the diversity of 69 Vibrio isolates collected from diseased and apparently healthy A. palmata colonies and the surrounding seawater. Vibrio species with known pathogenicity to corals were detected in both apparently healthy and diseased samples. While the causative agent(s) of contemporary WPX outbreaks remains elusive, our results suggest that Vibrio spp. may be part of a nonspecific heterotrophic bacterial bloom rather than acting as primary pathogens. This study highlights the need for highly resolved temporal sampling in situ to further elucidate the role of Vibrio during WPX onset and progression. IMPORTANCE Coral diseases are increasing worldwide and are now considered a major contributor to coral reef decline. In particular, the Caribbean has been noted as a coral disease hot spot, owing to the dramatic loss of framework-building acroporid corals due to tissue loss diseases. The pathogenesis of contemporary white pox disease (WPX) outbreaks in Acropora palmata remains poorly understood. This study investigates the

  17. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  18. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...... chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein...... families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different "Molecular Function" GO categories were found for chromosome 1...

  19. Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Cristina Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG, Hypnea musciformes (HM, Ulva fasciata (UF and Caulerpa prolifera (CP was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  20. Occurrence and molecular characterisation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustaceans commercialised in Venice area, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, Greta; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Toson, Marica; Fasolato, Luca; Antonetti, Paolo; Zambon, Michela; Manfrin, Amedeo

    2016-03-02

    Infections due to the pathogenic human vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, are mainly associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked bivalve molluscs. At present, little is known about the presence of Vibrio species in crustaceans and the risk of vibriosis associated with the consumption of these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and concentration of the main pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of crustaceans (n=143) commonly eaten in Italy, taking into account the effects of different variables such as crustacean species, storage conditions and geographic origin. Subsequently, the potential pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans (n=88) was investigated, considering the classic virulence factors (tdh and trh genes) and four genes coding for relevant proteins of the type III secretion systems 2 (T3SS2α and T3SS2β). In this study, the presence of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus was never detected, whereas 40 samples (28%) were positive for V. parahaemolyticus with an overall prevalence of 41% in refrigerated products and 8% in frozen products. The highest prevalence and average contamination levels were detected in Crangon crangon (prevalence 58% and median value 3400 MPN/g) and in products from the northern Adriatic Sea (35%), with the samples from the northern Venetian Lagoon reaching a median value of 1375 MPN/g. While genetic analysis confirmed absence of the tdh gene, three of the isolates contained the trh gene and, simultaneously, the T3SS2β genes. Moreover three possibly clonal tdh-negative/trh-negative isolates carried the T3SS2α apparatus. The detection of both T3SS2α and T3SS2β apparatuses in V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans emphasised the importance of considering new genetic markers associated with virulence besides the classical factors. Moreover this study represents the first report dealing with Vibrio spp. in

  1. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.

  2. Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters by high-hydrostatic pressure and mild heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2012-10-01

    Several recent outbreaks associated with oysters have heightened safety concerns of raw shellfish consumptions, with the majority being attributed to Vibrio spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) followed by mild heating on the inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in live oysters. Inoculated oysters were randomly subjected to: a) pressurization at 200-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, b) mild heat treatment at 40, 45 or 50 °C for up to 20 min and c) pressure treatment of 200-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C followed by heat treatment at 40-50 °C. Counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were then determined using the most probable number (MPN) method. Pressurization at 200-300 MPa for 2 min resulted in various degrees of inactivation, from 1.2 to >7 log MPN/g reductions. Heat treatment at 40 and 45 °C for 20 min only reduced V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus by 0.7-2.5 log MPN/g while at 50 °C for 15 min achieved >7 log MPN/g reduction. HHP and mild heat had synergistic effects. Combinations such as HHP at 250 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 45 °C for 15 min and HHP at 200 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 50 °C for 5 min reduced both V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus to non-detectable levels by the MPN method (oysters (negative enrichment results). This study demonstrated the efficiency of HHP followed by mild heat treatments on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus and could help the industry to establish parameters for processing oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crayfish: a newly recognized vehicle for vibrio infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, N H; Maloney, E K; Potter, M E; Korazemo, P; Ray, B; Taylor, J P; Seigler, S; Snowden, J

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a 1-year case-control study of sporadic vibrio infections to identify risk factors related to consumption of seafood products in two coastal areas of Louisiana and Texas. Twenty-six persons with sporadic vibrio infections and 77 matched controls were enrolled. Multivariate analysis revealed that crayfish (P Vibrio parahemolyticus infection (OR 9.24, P vibrio infection.

  4. Vibrio harveyi as a causative agent of the White Syndrome in tropical stony corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gian Marco; Bongiorni, Lucia; Gili, Claudia; Biavasco, Francesca; Danovaro, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    We investigated bacterial assemblages associated with corals displaying symptoms of the 'White Syndrome' (WS), a general term used for indicating the appearance of bands, spots or patches of tissue loss, which is devastating wide areas of tropical ecosystems worldwide. We collected WS-diseased (n = 15) and healthy (n = 15) corals from the natural reef (Indonesia, Indian Ocean) and from four large public aquaria. By using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, we found that a large fraction (73%) of the investigated WS events was associated with the presence of a high bacterial abundance and, specifically, of Vibrio spp. Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of many marine organisms and recently involved in coral Yellow Band disease, was the most represented species, being recovered from five out of 15 diseased corals. In experimental infection assays, two V. harveyi strains, isolated from diseased corals, were inoculated on a total of 62 healthy colonies of Pocillopora damicornis. WS signs appeared in 57 corals, confirming the ability of V. harveyi strains to induce the disease. We conclude that V. harveyi is one of the coral pathogens involved in the appearance of WS. However, not all of the investigated WSs were associated to V. harveyi detection, nor to other Vibrio species (such as V. coralliilyticus), which supports the hypothesis that WS is not caused exclusively by Vibrio spp., but rather can have a multifactorial aetiology, or can represent a group of diseases caused by a variety of agents. Further investigations to identify specific virulence traits will contribute to the understanding of the role of V. harveyi in WS pathogenesis. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio campbellii LMB 29 Isolated from Red Drum with Four Native Megaplasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are the most common pathogens for animals reared in aquaculture. Vibrio campbellii, which is often involved in shrimp, fish and mollusks diseases, is widely distributed in the marine environment worldwide, but our knowledge about its pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance is very limited. The existence of this knowledge gap is at least partially because that V. campbellii was originally classified as Vibrio harveyi, and the detailed information of its comparative genome analysis to other Vibrio spp. is currently lacking. In this study, the complete genome of a V. campbellii predominant strain, LMB29, was determined by MiSeq in conjunction with PacBio SMRT sequencing. This genome consists of two circular DNA chromosomes and four megaplasmids. Comparative genome analysis indicates that LMB29 shares a 96.66% similarity (average nucleotide identity with the V. campbellii ATCC strain BAA-1116 based on a 75% AF (average fraction calculations, and its functional profile is very similar to V. campbellii E1 and V. campbellii CAIM115. Both type III secretion system (T3SS and type VI secretion system (T6SS, along with the tlh gene which encodes a thermolabile hemolysin, are present in LMB29 which may contribute to the bacterial pathogenesis. The virulence of this strain was experimental confirmed by performing a LDH assay on a fish cell infection model, and cell death was observed as early as within 3 h post infection. Thirty-seven antimicrobial resistance genes (>45% identity were predicted in LMB29 which includes a novel rifampicin ADP ribosyltransferase, arr-9, in plasmid pLMB157. The gene arr-9 was predicted on a genomic island with horizontal transferable potentials which may facilitate the rifampicin resistance dissemination. Future researches are needed to explore the pathogenesis of V. campbellii LMB29, but the availability of this genome sequence will certainly aid as a basis for further analysis.

  6. Application of chitosan microparticles for reduction of vibrio species in seawater and live oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Wolmarans, Bernhard; Kang, Minyoung; Jeong, Kwang C; Wright, Anita C

    2015-01-01

    Human Vibrio infections associated with consumption of raw shellfish greatly impact the seafood industry. Vibrio cholerae-related disease is occasionally attributed to seafood, but V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are the primary targets of postharvest processing (PHP) efforts in the United States, as they pose the greatest threat to the industry. Most successful PHP treatments for Vibrio reduction also kill the molluscs and are not suitable for the lucrative half-shell market, while nonlethal practices are generally less effective. Therefore, novel intervention strategies for Vibrio reduction are needed for live oyster products. Chitosan is a bioactive derivative of chitin that is generally recognized as safe as a food additive by the FDA, and chitosan microparticles (CMs) were investigated in the present study as a potential PHP treatment for live oyster applications. Treatment of broth cultures with 0.5% (wt/vol) CMs resulted in growth cessation of V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus, reducing culturable levels to nondetectable amounts after 3 h in three independent experiments. Furthermore, a similar treatment in artificial seawater at 4, 25, and 37°C reduced V. vulnificus levels by ca. 7 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure, but 48 h of exposure and elevated temperature were required to achieve similar results for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae. Live oysters that either were artificially inoculated or contained natural populations of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed significant and consistent reductions following CM treatment (5%) compared to the amounts in the untreated controls. Thus, the results strongly support the promising potential for the application of CMs as a PHP treatment to reduce Vibrio spp. in intact live oysters. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Vibrio parahemolyticus bacteremia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T C; Chiang, P C; Wu, T L; Leu, H S

    1999-09-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) is a halophilic gram-negative bacillus that lives in the ocean. It is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in Taiwan and sometimes produces soft tissue infections, but it is rarely a cause of bacteremia. There have been only 11 cases reported in the literature. Most of the cases involved a history of ingestion of seafood or exposure to seawater. In addition, those patients were all immunosuppressed, especially with leukemia and cirrhosis. We report a 60-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis C and adrenal insufficiency. He developed V. parahemolyticus bacteremia following ingestion of seafood one week prior to admission. His condition was complicated with neck and right lower leg soft tissue infection, as well as multiple organ failure. The patient survived after intravenous ceftazidime, oral doxycycline, and surgical debridement. To our knowledge, this is the 12th reported cases on Medline, and the second bacteremic case in Taiwan. After reviewing the literature, we suggest that all patients with immunosuppressed conditions or adrenal insufficiency should eat foods that are well cooked and avoid raw seafood. Moreover, when patients who are at risk to develop fever, diarrhea, and soft tissue infection after ingestion of seafood, V. parahemolyticus infection should be suspected. All culture specimens should be inoculated on Vibrios selective media.

  8. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  9. Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides in Vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrios are associated with a broad diversity of hosts that produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs as part of their defense against microbial infections. In particular, vibrios colonize epithelia, which function as protective barriers and express AMPs as a first line of chemical defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown they can also colonize phagocytes, key components of the animal immune system. Phagocytes infiltrate infected tissues and use AMPs to kill the phagocytosed microorganisms intracellularly, or deliver their antimicrobial content extracellularly to circumvent tissue infection. We review here the mechanisms by which vibrios have evolved the capacity to evade or resist the potent antimicrobial defenses of the immune cells or tissues they colonize. Among their strategies to resist killing by AMPs, primarily vibrios use membrane remodeling mechanisms. In particular, some highly resistant strains substitute hexaacylated Lipid A with a diglycine residue to reduce their negative surface charge, thereby lowering their electrostatic interactions with cationic AMPs. As a response to envelope stress, which can be induced by membrane-active agents including AMPs, vibrios also release outer membrane vesicles to create a protective membranous shield that traps extracellular AMPs and prevents interaction of the peptides with their own membranes. Finally, once AMPs have breached the bacterial membrane barriers, vibrios use RND efflux pumps, similar to those of other species, to transport AMPs out of their cytoplasmic space.

  10. Hatchery mortalities of larval oysters caused by Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio coralliilyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery production of bivalve shellfish has been hampered by the occasional presence of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii. The present study reports the results of several avenues of research to better define these pathogens and the roles they play i...

  11. Effect of probiotic supplemented diet on marine shrimp survival after challenge with Vibrio harveyi Efeito do uso de dieta suplementada com o probiótico sobre a sobrevivência de camarões marinhos após o desafio com Vibrio harveyi

    OpenAIRE

    F.N. Vieira; C.C. Buglione; J.P.L. Mouriño; A. Jatobá; M.L. Martins; D.D. Schleder; E.R. Andreatta; M.A. Barraco; L.A. Vinatea

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a Lactobacillus plantarum-supplemented diet on shrimp growth, digestive tract bacterial microbiota, survival, and some hemato-immunological parameters after an experimental challenge with Vibrio harveyi was studied. No difference (P>0.05) was observed in shrimp survival (80±6%) and final weight (6.63±0.56g) after 60 days feeding trial. Total bacteria count and Vibrio spp. count in the digestive tract were not diferent (P>0.05) until day 40, but they were lower (P0.05) than the c...

  12. Vibrios among patients of good socioeconomic conditions during the cholera epidemic in Recife, Brazil Vibriões coléricos e não coléricos entre pacientes de boas condições sódo-econômicas durante a epidemia de coléra no Recife, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Magalhães

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Between March and July, 1992, we screened for Vibrio all fecal samples submitted for bacteriologic diagnosis at a private clinical laboratory in Recife. Of 1435 cultures examined only 1 (0.07% was positive for V.cholerae 01, biovar Eltor, serovar Inaba, but 17 (1.2% yielded non-cholera Vibrio (V.cholerae non-01; V.fluvialis; V.furnissii, V.parahaemolyticus and Vibrio spp. Thus, V.cholerae 01, differently of other enteropathogenic vibrios, spared individuals of good socioeconomic conditions even during the cholera epidemic, which made hundreds of victims in the neighboring slums.Entre março e julho de 1992, pesquisou-se Vibrio em todos os espécimes fecais enviados para diagnóstico bacteriológico a um laboratório clínico privado do Recife. De 1435 culturas examinadas apenas 1 (0.07% foi positiva para V.cholerae 01, biovar Eltor, sorovar Inaba, porém 17 (1,2% forneceram outras espécies de Vibrio (V.cholerae nao-01; V.fluvialis; V.furnissii; V.parahaemolyticus e Vibrio spp. Portanto, V.cholerae 01, diferentemente de outros vibriões entero patogênicos, poupou indivíduos de boas condições sócio-econômicas, mesmo durante uma epidemia de cólera que atingiu centenas de pessoas nas favelas vizinhas.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with butyrate and probiotic on the survival of Pacific white shrimp after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norha Constanza Bolívar Ramírez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the performance, immunology, and survival of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to experimental challenge to Vibrio alginolyticus based on the use of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and the combined use of probiotic and butyrate. Four different diets resulted from the addition of additives: butyrate, probiotic, butyrate + probiotic, and control (no additives. The attractiveness of the diets was assessed by the percentage of positive choices and rejections, using a dual-choice Y-maze format aquarium. The shrimps were fed during four weeks and performance parameters, intestinal microbiota, and immunological parameters were all evaluated. Subsequently, the shrimps were challenged with V. alginolyticus and after 48 h, survival and immunological parameters were evaluated. The results showed increased attractiveness and intake, but only with diets supplemented with sodium butyrate. However, other diets were not rejected. No difference in performance or immunological parameters was observed among the different diets. Also, among the treatments, no difference in Vibrio spp., or total heterotrophic bacteria counts, was found in the intestinal tract. However, the lactic acid bacteria count was higher in the intestinal tract of shrimps fed diets supplemented with probiotic. After bacterial challenge, shrimp fed all diets had a greater survival when compared with the control group. Lactobacillus plantarum and sodium butyrate increase the resistance of shrimp to infection with V. alginolyticus, but do so without affecting performance, immunological parameters, or Vibrio spp., and total heterotrophic bacteria counts in the intestinal tract.

  14. Suspension of oysters reduces the populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K M; Supan, J; Ramirez, A; Johnson, C N

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are associated with the consumption of raw oysters and cause illnesses ranging from simple gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicaemia. These halophilic bacteria are frequently found in marine and estuarine systems, accumulating within the tissues of a number of aquatic organisms and passing on to humans after consumption, through contaminated water, or via open wounds. As benthic organisms capable of filtering 40 gallons of water per hour, sediment is an important source of potentially pathogenic vibrios in oysters destined for raw consumption. This research used off-bottom oyster culture to reduce vibrio concentrations in oysters. Colony hybridization was used to enumerate Vp and Vv in bottom and suspended oysters. Vv and Vp concentrations were generally lower in oysters suspended off-bottom, and suspension decreased vibrio loads in oysters by an average of 13%. Suspension of oysters reduced vibrio concentrations. This study found that oyster suspension significantly reduced some populations of potentially pathogenic vibrios. These results indicate that oyster suspension could be a viable approach for preharvest treatment to reduce illness in consumers of raw oysters. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  16. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  17. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish.  The taxonomic identification of Vibrio spp.was performed based on the physiological and biochemical characteristic following the isolation by Thiosulphate Citrate Bile-salt Sucrose Agar (TCBSA media. Amplified Ribosomoal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA for 16S-rRNA analysis and Macrorestriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (MLFP analysis using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE were applied to reveal the genetic diversity of V. harveyi. According to the taxonomic identification, of 361 isolates of Vibrio spp., 129 isolates (35.7% were identified as V. harveyi. The result of ARDRA analysis showed that the 16S-rRNA gene of V. harveyi digested by RsaI and HhaI enzyme, each generated three and four identical fragments respectively for the all samples. These meaned that ARDRA could not reveal any genetic variation on V. harveyi. The size range of all DNA fragment was less than 500 bp. This result indicated that the high genetic diversity of V. harveyi was revealed by MFLP-PFGE analysis. DNA fragment of V. harveyi was digested by NotI enzyme.

  18. Bacteriophage interactions with marine pathogenic Vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalatzis, Panagiotis

    development and spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. Bacteriophage therapy, constitutes a potent alternative not only for treatment but also for prevention of vibriosis in aquaculture and the current thesis addresses the potential and challenges of using phages to control Vibrio...... pathogens. The combinatory administration of virulent bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1, isolated against Vibrio alginolyticus significantly reduced the Vibrio load in cultures of Artemia salina live prey, decreasing subsequently the risk of a vibriosis outbreak in the marine hatchery. During infection...... therapy applications. Lytic phage vB_VspP_pVa5 that has been isolated against the rapidly emerging pathogen V. splendidus is also a promising candidate for phage therapy application according to its gene content and in vitro performance against its host. The genetic features of vB_VspP_pVa5 provide also...

  19. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of...

  1. Bacteriophages in the control of pathogenic vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Nicolás; Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Perez-Reytor, Diliana

    2018-01-01

    constitute a continuing threat for aquaculture. Moreover, the continuous use of antibiotics has been accompanied by an emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, implying a necessity for efficient treatments. One promising alternative that emerges is the use of lytic bacteriophages; however......, there are some drawbacks that should be overcome to make phage therapy a widely accepted method. In this work, we discuss about the major pathogenic Vibrio species and the progress, benefits and disadvantages that have been detected during the experimental use of bacteriophages to their control....

  2. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  3. Vibrio population structure - Genetic and population structure analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium capable of causing severe gastroenteritis in humans, usually through the consumption of raw shellfish. Before...

  4. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Buah Adas (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill) pada Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Budianto, Budianto; Prajitno, Arief; Yuniarti, Ating

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of natural products as a safe and effective antimicrobial agent is a scientific strategy to treat the drugresistant pathogens.Fennel(FoeniculumvulgareMill) is an herbal plant that has an active in gredient which is one of its benefit sasan antibacterial material. In thisstudy,water extract of fennel fruit determined the antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio alginolyticus using the minimum Inhibitory  Concentration Test (MIC) and paper disk diffusion method....

  5. Luminescence, virulence and quorum sensing signal production by pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, T; Verstraete, W; Bossier, P

    2008-05-01

    To study the relationship between luminescence, autoinducer production and virulence of pathogenic vibrios. Luminescence, quorum sensing signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp nauplii of 13 Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi strains were studied. Although only two of the tested strains were brightly luminescent, all of them were shown to produce the three different types of quorum sensing signals known to be produced by Vibrio harveyi. Cell-free culture fluids of all strains significantly induced bioluminescence in the cholerae autoinducer 1, autoinducer 2 and harveyi autoinducer 1 reporter strains JAF375, JMH597 and JMH612, respectively. There was no relation between luminescence and signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp. There is a large difference between different strains of Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi with respect to bioluminescence. However, this is not reflected in signal production and virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp. Moreover, there seems to be no relation between quorum sensing signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp. The results presented here indicate that strains that are most brightly luminescent are not necessarily the most virulent ones and that the lower virulence of some of the strains is not due to a lack of autoinducer production.

  6. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  7. Comparison of classifications of aptamers against Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a novel method to detect the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus, 45 aptamers were previously selected and tested. In order to better understand the properties of these aptamers, it was essential to classify these aptamers based on appropriate criteria. The primary structure of 45 aptamers against V. alginolyticus was analyzed ...

  8. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  9. Existing drug resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from raw milk samples in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand by direct quadriplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buppachat Trakarnchan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and mupirocin resistant among the isolates from milk, three hundred and eighty-one samples were collected in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, during January to March, 2014. Quadriplex PCR was a method of choice. The occurrence of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. were 21.26 and 34.12%, respectively. Among the 81 S. aureus isolates, 82.72 (67/81, 11.11 (9/81, and 6.17% (5/81 were S. aureus, S. aureus carrying mecA, and S. aureus harboring mupA genes, respectively. These two mutant genes may possibly be transferred to other bacteria in milk. Therefore, good hygienic practices and strict control may limit the spread.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection...... of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected...... among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock...

  11. A new niche for Vibrio logei, the predominant light organ symbiont of squids in the genus Sepiola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidopiastis, P M; von Boletzky, S; Ruby, E G

    1998-01-01

    Two genera of sepiolid squids--Euprymna, found primarily in shallow, coastal waters of Hawaii and the Western Pacific, and Sepiola, the deeper-, colder-water-dwelling Mediterranean and Atlantic squids--are known to recruit luminous bacteria into light organ symbioses. The light organ symbiont of Euprymna spp. is Vibrio fischeri, but until now, the light organ symbionts of Sepiola spp. have remained inadequately identified. We used a combination of molecular and physiological characteristics to reveal that the light organs of Sepiola affinis and Sepiola robusta contain a mixed population of Vibrio logei and V. fischeri, with V. logei comprising between 63 and 100% of the bacteria in the light organs that we analyzed. V. logei had not previously been known to exist in such symbioses. In addition, this is the first report of two different species of luminous bacteria co-occurring within a single light organ. The luminescence of these symbiotic V. logei strains, as well as that of other isolates of V. logei tested, is reduced when they are grown at temperatures above 20 degrees C, partly due to a limitation in the synthesis of aliphatic aldehyde, a substrate of the luminescence reaction. In contrast, the luminescence of the V. fischeri symbionts is optimal above 24 degrees C and is not enhanced by aldehyde addition. Also, V. fischeri strains were markedly more successful than V. logei at colonizing the light organs of juvenile Euprymna scolopes, especially at 26 degrees C. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the ecological dynamics and evolution of cooperative, and perhaps pathogenic, associations of Vibrio spp. with their animal hosts.

  12. Isolation of lytic bacteriophage against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers-Stomps, C; Høj, L; Bourne, D G; Hall, M R; Owens, L

    2010-05-01

    The isolation of lytic bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Water samples from discharge channels and grow-out ponds of a prawn farm in northeastern Australia were enriched for 24 h in a broth containing four V. harveyi strains. The bacteriophage-enriched filtrates were spotted onto bacterial lawns demonstrating that the bacteriophage host range for the samples included strains of V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Bacteriophage were isolated from eight enriched samples through triple plaque purification. The host range of purified phage included V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus and V. parahaemolyticus. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that six purified phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae, whilst two belonged to the family Myoviridae. The Myoviridae appeared to induce bacteriocin production in a limited number of host bacterial strains, suggesting that they were lysogenic rather than lytic. A purified Siphoviridae phage could delay the entry of a broth culture of V. harveyi strain 12 into exponential growth, but could not prevent the overall growth of the bacterial strain. Bacteriophage with lytic activity against V. harveyi were isolated from prawn farm samples. Purified phage of the family Siphoviridae had a clear lytic ability and no apparent transducing properties, indicating they are appropriate for phage therapy. Phage resistance is potentially a major constraint to the use of phage therapy in aquaculture as bacteria are not completely eliminated. Phage therapy is emerging as a potential antibacterial agent that can be used to control pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems. The development of phage therapy for aquaculture requires initial isolation and determination of the bacteriophage host range, with subsequent creation of

  13. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  14. AN INVESTIGATION ON PATHOGENIC VIBRIOS DISTRIBUTION IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Almasi

    2005-01-01

    Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for controlling and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research was carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios with emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholera in the wastewater of Kermanshah city western Iran in 2002. The method of study was cr...

  15. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEsteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species can induce infections in humans. Therefore understanding the structure and dynamics of non-pandemic environmental populations in temperate regions, such as Mediterranean coastal systems, is important if we are to evaluate the risks of infection to humans.Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n=109 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=89 sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA. V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity conditions for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  16. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  17. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  18. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail chicken carcasses and pet workers in Northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene; Gilmore, David; Pendleton, Sean; Fleck, Scott; Clement, Ashley; Park, Si Hong; Scott, Erin; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can be carried on the skin and nasal passages of humans and animals as a commensal. A case of human methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection resulting from contact with pork has been reported. Poultry carcasses are sold at retail with the skin intact, but pork and beef typically are not. Thus, the risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus human infection from whole raw poultry carcasses may be greater than that of exposure from pork or beef. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize S. aureus from whole retail poultry carcasses and compare the isolates to S. aureus isolates from humans. A total of 25 S. aureus isolates were collected from 222 whole poultry carcasses. The isolates were characterized phenotypically with antibiotic resistance disc diffusion assays and genotypically using multilocus sequence typing. A total of 17 S. aureus isolates obtained from healthy humans were included and characterized in the same way as the poultry isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from all poultry carcasses. Only 25 poultry carcasses (11.2%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Of these 25 isolates, 36% were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested and 20% were resistant to two or more antibiotics tested. However, 100% of the human isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics and 94% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The results of the multilocus sequence typing indicate that most of the isolates grouped according to source. These results indicate a low prevalence of S. aureus present in poultry, and the isolates were not phenotypically similar to human isolates. The low number of S. aureus isolates from this study indicates that chicken carcasses would appear to not be a significant source of this bacterium.

  19. Bacteroides species produce Vibrio harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Luis Caetano Martha; Ferreira, Lívia Queiroz; Ferreira, Eliane Oliveira; Miranda, Karla Rodrigues; Avelar, Kátia Eliane Santos; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto; Ferreira, Maria Candida de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Quorum sensing is a density-dependent gene regulation mechanism that has been described in many bacterial species in the last decades. Bacteria that use quorum sensing as part of their gene regulation circuits produce molecules called autoinducers that accumulate in the environment and activate target genes in a quorum-dependent way. Some specific clues led us to hypothesize that Bacteroides species can produce autoinducers and possess a quorum sensing system. First, Bacteroides are anaerobic bacteria that are frequently involved in polymicrobial infections. These infections often involve Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two of the best understood examples of bacteria that employ quorum sensing systems as part of their pathogenesis. Also, studies have detected the presence of a quorum sensing gene involved in the production of autoinducers in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a species closely related to the Bacteroides genus. These and other evidences prompted us to investigate if Bacteroides strains could produce autoinducer molecules that could be detected by a Vibrio harveyi reporter system. In this paper, we show that supernatants of B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis strains are able to stimulate the V. harveyi quorum sensing system 2. Also, we were able to demonstrate that the stimulation detected is due to the production of autoinducer molecules and not the growth of reporter strains after addition of supernatant. Moreover, the phenomenon observed does not seem to represent the degradation of repressors possibly present in the culture medium used. We could also amplify bands from some of the strains tested using primers designed to the luxS gene of Escherichia coli. Altogether, our results show that B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis (but possibly some other species) can produce V. harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules. However, the role of such molecules in the biology of these organisms remains unknown.

  20. The Frequency of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Endocervix of Infertile Women in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhi Mohammad Taghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility is one of the major social issues. Due to the asymptomatic cervical infection associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. The present study intended to assess the frequency of S. aureus isolated from infertile women’s endocervix in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods In a descriptive cross sectional study, specimens were randomly collected during vagina examination using a sterile speculum and swabbing. After performance of antibiotic susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Results About 26 (26% and 9 (9% women’s urogenital tracts were colonized by S. aureus and Candida spp., respectively, of which three (11.5% patients were infected with fungi and S. aureus, simultaneously. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed high activity of vancomycin and co-trimoxazole on isolates. Regarding PCR results, mecA sequences were detected in 7 (26.9% strains, whilst the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was not detected in any of clinical strains. Conclusion The prevalence of S. aureus was very high in infertile women. Therefore, it demands all patients undergoing infertility treatment to be investigated thoroughly for this type of infection.

  1. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  2. CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS: A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chakravarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of infections and early diagnosis of Osteomyelitis have led to the improved management of Osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of Osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained as it is an important cause of morbidity. A total of 50 patients of Osteomyelitis either attending the outpatient department or admitted in the wards of a teaching and tertiary care hospita l in Sikkim from October 2013 to October, 2014 were included in the study. All those patients who were clinically and/ or radiologically suspected of having Osteomyelitis were enrolled as cases. Pus/ pus swabs or sequestrum samples taken aseptically were c ultured aerobically at 37 0 C for 18 - 24 hours in Blood and Mac Conkey agar plates. Culture isolates were identified by a series of standard biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested on Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion met hod. Betalactamase production of S. aureus strains were verified by iodometric filter paper and acidometric agar plate methods. S. aureus strains were screened for methicillin resistance by using conventional microbiological methods. S. aureus turned out t o be the most common organism isolated. Other organism isolated were P. Aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Enterobacter spp., S. epidermitis, Streptococcus pyogens and Enterococcus spp. Beta - lactamase production and methicillin resistance was seen in S. aureus strains respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in other strains. Infection caused by Methicillin resistant S. aureus and multidrug resistant organisms are posing a major challenge in the treatment of Osteomyelitis. So, appropriate drug selected by antibiotic sensitivity testing should be used to treat Osteomyelitis

  3. Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Thapa Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45% contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%. The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11073 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 139-145

  4. Uncertainty in model predictions of Vibrio vulnificus response to climate variability and change: a Chesapeake Bay case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available The effect that climate change and variability will have on waterborne bacteria is a topic of increasing concern for coastal ecosystems, including the Chesapeake Bay. Surface water temperature trends in the Bay indicate a warming pattern of roughly 0.3-0.4°C per decade over the past 30 years. It is unclear what impact future warming will have on pathogens currently found in the Bay, including Vibrio spp. Using historical environmental data, combined with three different statistical models of Vibrio vulnificus probability, we explore the relationship between environmental change and predicted Vibrio vulnificus presence in the upper Chesapeake Bay. We find that the predicted response of V. vulnificus probability to high temperatures in the Bay differs systematically between models of differing structure. As existing publicly available datasets are inadequate to determine which model structure is most appropriate, the impact of climatic change on the probability of V. vulnificus presence in the Chesapeake Bay remains uncertain. This result points to the challenge of characterizing climate sensitivity of ecological systems in which data are sparse and only statistical models of ecological sensitivity exist.

  5. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles of marine Vibrio sp. 010 in response to an antifoulant challenge

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Dash, Swagatika; Zhang, Yu; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Peiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio spp. have the ability to form biofilms, which may contribute to the subsequent successful colonization by microfouling and macrofouling organisms. The effects of an antifouling compound, poly-ether B, on Vibrio sp. 010 were investigated using flow cytometry, proteomics, and metabolomics. A 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins responsive to poly-ether B treatment. The profiles of biofilm metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Poly-ether B caused a significant reduction in viability. The proteins affected by the treatment were related to nucleotide metabolism, the glyoxylate cycle, and stress responses. Metabolites such as tripeptides, fatty acids, and quorum-sensing molecules were regulated differentially. Down-regulation of proteins and metabolites potentially led to a loss in colonisation ability, thereby affecting the structure of the biofilm. These results suggest that the proteins and metabolites identified may serve as target molecules for potent antifouling compounds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles of marine Vibrio sp. 010 in response to an antifoulant challenge

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-01

    Vibrio spp. have the ability to form biofilms, which may contribute to the subsequent successful colonization by microfouling and macrofouling organisms. The effects of an antifouling compound, poly-ether B, on Vibrio sp. 010 were investigated using flow cytometry, proteomics, and metabolomics. A 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins responsive to poly-ether B treatment. The profiles of biofilm metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Poly-ether B caused a significant reduction in viability. The proteins affected by the treatment were related to nucleotide metabolism, the glyoxylate cycle, and stress responses. Metabolites such as tripeptides, fatty acids, and quorum-sensing molecules were regulated differentially. Down-regulation of proteins and metabolites potentially led to a loss in colonisation ability, thereby affecting the structure of the biofilm. These results suggest that the proteins and metabolites identified may serve as target molecules for potent antifouling compounds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBA Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with fungicide action, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. with planktonic and biofilm growth. To study the micro-organisms in planktonic cells, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by using 9 clinical strains for each species and 1 ATCC (American Type Culture Collection from C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. mutans. In order to evaluate the effects of the essential oils on biofilms, strains of S. aureus (ATCC 6538, S. mutans (ATCC 35688 and C. albicans (ATCC 18804 were used. The biofilm was formed on acrylic resin discs with isolated micro-organisms or in associations. The number of colony-forming-units (CFU obtained in each biofilm (CFU/ml was submitted to Student's t statistical test. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus showed microbiostatic and microbicidal activity against all tested strains. The average CFU/ml for the biofilm of S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans, whether isolated or in association, was lower in the group treated with essential oil than in the control group.

  9. Comparison of the anaerobic microbiota of deep-water Geodia spp. and sandy sediments in the Straits of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Wolfram M; Brück, Thomas B; Self, William T; Reed, John K; Nitecki, Sonja S; McCarthy, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    Marine sediments and sponges may show steep variations in redox potential, providing niches for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Geodia spp. and sediment specimens from the Straits of Florida were fixed using paraformaldehyde and 95% ethanol (v/v) for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, homogenates of sponge and sediment samples were incubated anaerobically on various cysteine supplemented agars. FISH analysis showed a prominent similarity of microbiota in sediments and Geodia spp. samples. Furthermore, the presence of sulfate-reducing and annamox bacteria as well as other obligate anaerobic microorganisms in both Geodia spp. and sediment samples were also confirmed. Anaerobic cultures obtained from the homogenates allowed the isolation of a variety of facultative anaerobes, primarily Bacillus spp. and Vibrio spp. Obligate anaerobes such as Desulfovibrio spp. and Clostridium spp. were also found. We also provide the first evidence for a culturable marine member of the Chloroflexi, which may enter into symbiotic relationships with deep-water sponges such as Geodia spp. Resuspended sediment particles, may provide a source of microorganisms able to associate or form a symbiotic relationship with sponges.

  10. Exposure to static magnetic field stimulates quorum sensing circuit in luminescent Vibrio strains of the Harveyi clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelfia Talà

    Full Text Available In this study, the evidence of electron-dense magnetic inclusions with polyhedral shape in the cytoplasm of Harveyi clade Vibrio strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with marine organisms, led us to investigate the behavior of this bacterium under exposure to static magnetic fields ranging between 20 and 2000 Gauss. When compared to sham-exposed, the light emission of magnetic field-exposed bacteria growing on solid medium at 18°C ±0.1°C was increased up to two-fold as a function of dose and growth phase. Stimulation of bioluminescence by magnetic field was more pronounced during the post-exponential growth and stationary phase, and was lost when bacteria were grown in the presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine, which caused disassembly of the magnetic inclusions suggesting their involvement in magnetic response. As in luminescent Vibrio spp. bioluminescence is regulated by quorum sensing, possible effects of magnetic field exposure on quorum sensing were investigated. Measurement of mRNA levels by reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrated that luxR regulatory gene and luxCDABE operon coding for luciferase and fatty acid reductase complex were significantly up-regulated in magnetic field-exposed bacteria. In contrast, genes coding for a type III secretion system, whose expression was negatively affected by LuxR, were down-regulated. Up-regulation of luxR paralleled with down-regulation of small RNAs that mediate destabilization of luxR mRNA in quorum sensing signaling pathways. The results of experiments with the well-studied Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 (originally classified as Vibrio harveyi and derivative mutants unable to synthesize autoinducers suggest that the effects of magnetic fields on quorum sensing may be mediated by AI-2, the interspecies quorum sensing signal molecule.

  11. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  12. Vibrio damsela as a pathogenic agent causing mortalities in cultured sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Tristan; Haffner, Philippe; Malfondet, C.; Weppe, Maurice

    1994-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordali are species frequently described as fish pathogens. Seven species of Vibrio can also be implicated in disease problems in mariculture (Toranzo 1990). sorne of Vibrios and Barja, In addition, these marine such as V. vulnificus (Tison et al.. 1982) and V. damsela (Love et al., 1981) can also cause illness homoiothermic animals

  13. Staphylococcus aureus: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Susan J; Tice, Alan

    2010-09-15

    The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections.

  14. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  15. In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Xanthium strumarium L. extracts on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi Rad

    2013-01-01

    Results and Conclusions: The IC 50 values of the extract were 0.02 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL for the antioxidant and DPPH-scavenging capacity, respectively. X. strumarium extract affected both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, though antibacterial activity was more effective on methicillin-susceptible S. aureus spp. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities exhibited by the methanol extract may justify the traditional use of this plant as a folk remedy worldwide.

  16. Stress response and virulence in Vibrio anguillarum

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing, a cell to cell signaling mechanism mediated by small molecules that are produced by specific signal molecule synthases, to regulate gene expression in response to population density. In Vibrio anguillarum, the quorum-sensing phosphorelay channels information from three hybrid sensor kinases VanN, VanQ, CqsS that sense signal molecules produced by the synthases VanM, VanS and CqsA, onto the phosphotransferase VanU, to regulate activity of the response regulator Van...

  17. Coral-Associated Bacteria as a Promising Antibiofilm Agent against Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the evaluation of two coral-associated bacterial (CAB extracts to inhibit the biofilm synthesis in vitro as well as the virulence production like hemolysin and exopolysaccharide (EPS, and also to assess their ability to modify the adhesion properties, that is cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH of methicillin-resistant (MRSA and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. Out of nine CAB screened, the ethyl acetate extract of CAB-E2 (Bacillus firmus and CAB-E4 (Vibrio parahemolyticus have shown excellent antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. CAB-E2 reduced the production of EPS (57–79% and hemolysin (43–70%, which ultimately resulted in the significant inhibition of biofilms (80–87% formed by both MRSA and MSSA. Similarly, CAB-E4 was also found to decrease the production of EPS (43–57%, hemolysin (43–57% and biofilms (80–85% of test pathogens. CLSM analysis also proved the antibiofilm efficacy of CAB extracts. Furthermore, the CAB extracts strongly decreased the CSH of S. aureus. Additionally, FT-IR analysis of S. aureus treated with CAB extracts evidenced the reduction in cellular components compared to their respective controls. Thus, the present study reports for the first time, B. firmus—a coral-associated bacterium, as a promising source of antibiofilm agent against the recalcitrant biofilms formed by multidrug resistant S. aureus.

  18. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. QStatin, a Selective Inhibitor of Quorum Sensing in Vibrio Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Sik Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Vibrio species cause diseases in diverse marine animals reared in aquaculture. Since their pathogenesis, persistence, and survival in marine environments are regulated by quorum sensing (QS, QS interference has attracted attention as a means to control these bacteria in aquatic settings. A few QS inhibitors of Vibrio species have been reported, but detailed molecular mechanisms are lacking. Here, we identified a novel, potent, and selective Vibrio QS inhibitor, named QStatin [1-(5-bromothiophene-2-sulfonyl-1H-pyrazole], which affects Vibrio harveyi LuxR homologues, the well-conserved master transcriptional regulators for QS in Vibrio species. Crystallographic and biochemical analyses showed that QStatin binds tightly to a putative ligand-binding pocket in SmcR, the LuxR homologue in V. vulnificus, and changes the flexibility of the protein, thereby altering its transcription regulatory activity. Transcriptome analysis revealed that QStatin results in SmcR dysfunction, affecting the expression of SmcR regulon required for virulence, motility/chemotaxis, and biofilm dynamics. Notably, QStatin attenuated representative QS-regulated phenotypes in various Vibrio species, including virulence against the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana. Together, these results provide molecular insights into the mechanism of action of an effective, sustainable QS inhibitor that is less susceptible to resistance than other antimicrobial agents and useful in controlling the virulence of Vibrio species in aquacultures.

  20. Abundance of Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) from Long Island sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; DeRosia-Banick, Kristin; Carey, David H; Hastback, William

    2014-12-01

    Vibriosis is a leading cause of seafood-associated morbidity and mortality in the United States. Typically associated with consumption of raw or undercooked oysters, vibriosis associated with clam consumption is increasingly being reported. However, little is known about the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in clams. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters and clams harvested concurrently from Long Island Sound (LIS). Most probable number (MPN)-real-time PCR methods were used for enumeration of total V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, and pathogenic (tdh(+) and/or trh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. V. cholerae was detected in 8.8% and 3.3% of oyster (n = 68) and clam (n = 30) samples, with levels up to 1.48 and 0.48 log MPN/g in oysters and clams, respectively. V. vulnificus was detected in 97% and 90% of oyster and clam samples, with median levels of 0.97 and -0.08 log MPN/g, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in all samples, with median levels of 1.88 and 1.07 log MPN/g for oysters and clams, respectively. The differences between V. vulnificus and total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the two shellfish species were statistically significant (P oysters than in hard clams. Additionally, the data suggest differences in vibrio populations between shellfish harvested from different growing area waters within LIS. These results can be used to evaluate and refine illness mitigation strategies employed by risk managers and shellfish control authorities. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Antibacterial activity of the parotid glands secretions of sudanese indigenous african toad (Bufo spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugabr, H. E.; Elhussein, S. A.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study revealed a well-built first line innate immunity system in Bufo Spp., the skin extracts illustrated a very active antibiotic attitude which inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria species, Escherichia coli (ATCC 19615), staphylococcus aureus(ATCC29213) and streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC25922). Heat treatment of secretion supported the fact that the antibacterial components possess an enzymatic attitude. Gel filtration chromatography accompanied with sensitivity tests against S.aureus showed the existence of four groups responsible for antibacterial activity in the parotoid glands secretions.(Author)

  2. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Six Different Staphylococcus spp. and Simultaneous Detection of Methicillin and Mupirocin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Peña, E.; Martín-Nuñez, E.; Pulido-Reyes, G.; Martín-Padrón, J.; Caro-Carrillo, E.; Donate-Correa, J.; Lorenzo-Castrillejo, I.; Alcoba-Flórez, J.; Machín, F.; Méndez-Alvarez, S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new, efficient, sensitive, and fast single-tube multiple-PCR protocol for the identification of the most clinically significant Staphylococcus spp. and the simultaneous detection of the methicillin and mupirocin resistance loci. The protocol identifies at the species level isolates belonging to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, and S. saprophyticus.

  3. [Mexican phenotype and genotype Vibrio cholerae 01].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, S; Gutiérrez Cogno, L; Rodríguez Angeles, G; del Rio Zolezzi, A; Valdespino González, J L; Sepúlveda Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the phenotypical and genotypical characterization of 26922 Vibrio cholerae 01 strains isolated in Mexico from 1991 to 1993. All strains isolated were El Tor biovar. Strains were sensitive to antibiotics excluding furazolidone, streptomycin and sulfisoxasole to which we found resistance in 97% and we are using this characteristic as epidemiological markers. We detected a marked change in frequency of Inaba serotype from 1991, when it was dominant, with 99.5%, until 1992 when Ogawa serotype turned to be dominant with 95% of isolates. All Vibrio cholerae 01 strains, except one Ogawa strain, were to igenic, and V. choleraeno 01 were not toxigenic by ELISA, PCR and cell culture tests. Dominant ribotype was 5, but we found some strains with 6a pattern and two with ribotype 12. We are searching for ribotype 2 among hemolytic strains in order to learn if there is any relation to Gulf Coast strains prevalent in the USA, but until now we have not found any V. cholerae ribotype 2 in our isolates. Even if rapid tests are recommended for immediate diagnosis of cholera, it is necessary to continue bacterial isolation in order to have strains for phenotyping and genotyping studies that may support epidemiological analysis.

  4. Luminescence, virulence and quorum sensing signal production by pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Defoirdt, T.; Verstraete, W.; Bossier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To study the relationship between luminescence, autoinducer production and virulence of pathogenic vibrios.Methods and Results: Luminescence, quorum sensing signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp nauplii of 13 Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi strains were studied. Although only two of the tested strains were brightly luminescent, all of them were shown to produce the three different types of quorum sensing signals known to be produced by Vibrio harveyi. Cell-free cultu...

  5. Influence of the vaginal microbiota on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Roderick A; Miller, Wayne L; Gloor, Gregory B; McCormick, John K; Hammond, Jo-Anne; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2013-03-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious illness that afflicts women of premenopausal age worldwide and arises from vaginal infection by Staphylococcus aureus and concurrent production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Studies have illustrated the capacity of lactobacilli to reduce S. aureus virulence, including the capacity to suppress TSST-1. We hypothesized that an aberrant microbiota characteristic of pathogenic bacteria would induce the increased production of TSST-1 and that this might represent a risk factor for the development of TSS. A S. aureus TSST-1 reporter strain was grown in the presence of vaginal swab contents collected from women with a clinically healthy vaginal status, women with an intermediate status, and those diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial supernatant challenge assays were also performed to test the effects of aerobic vaginitis (AV)-associated pathogens toward TSST-1 production. While clinical samples from healthy and BV women suppressed toxin production, in vitro studies demonstrated that Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus spp. significantly induced TSST-1 production, while some Lactobacillus spp. suppressed it. The findings suggest that women colonized by S. aureus and with AV, but not BV, may be more susceptible to menstrual TSS and would most benefit from prophylactic treatment.

  6. A survey of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirs, M; Depaola, A; Fyfe, R; Jones, J L; Krantz, J; Van Laanen, A; Cotton, D; Castle, M

    2011-05-27

    A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand. The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely to coincide with the increased abundance of pathogenic vibrio species. Vp was detected in 94.8% of oyster samples examined (n=58) with a geometric mean concentration of 99.3 MPN/g, while Vv was detected in 17.2% of oyster samples examined with a geometric mean concentration of 7.4 MPN/g. The frequency of Vp positive samples was 1.7 fold greater than reported in a study conducted three decades ago in New Zealand. Potentially virulent (tdh positive) Vp was detected in two samples (3.4%, n=58) while no trh (another virulence marker) positive samples were detected. 16S rRNA genotype could be assigned only to 58.8% of Vv isolates (8:1:1 A:B:AB ratio, n=10). There was a good agreement [98.2% of Vp (n=280) and 94.4% of Vv (n=18) isolates] between molecular tests and cultivation based techniques used to identify Vibrio isolates and there was a significant (R(2)=0.95, Pcultivation. There was no significant correlation between any of the environmental parameters tested and Vp or Vv concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Metalloprotease Gene Expression in Vibrio vulnificus by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR Homologue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chung-Ping; Hor, Lien-I

    2001-01-01

    Expression of the Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease gene, vvp, was turned up rapidly when bacterial growth reached the late log phase. A similar pattern of expression has been found in the metalloprotease gene of Vibrio cholerae, and this has been shown to be regulated by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional activator. To find out whether a LuxR homologue exists in V. vulnificus, a gene library of this organism was screened by colony hybridization using a probe derived from a sequence that is conserved in various luxR-like genes of vibrios. A gene containing a 618-bp open reading frame was identified and found to be identical to the smcR gene of V. vulnificus reported previously. An isogenic SmcR-deficient (RD) mutant was further constructed by an in vivo allelic exchange technique. This mutant exhibited an extremely low level of vvp transcription compared with that of the parent strain. On the other hand, the cytolysin gene, vvhA, was expressed at a higher level in the RD mutant than in the parent strain during the log phase of growth. These data suggested that SmcR might not only be a positive regulator of the protease gene but might also be involved in negative regulation of the cytolysin gene. Virulence of the RD mutant in either normal or iron-overloaded mice challenged by intraperitoneal injection was comparable to that of the parent strain, indicating that SmcR is not required for V. vulnificus virulence in mice. PMID:11157950

  8. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Presencia de los géneros Vibrio y Salmonella, y detección de coliformes fecales en almejas del Golfo de México

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Pedroche, Francisco F.; Moreno-Sepúlveda, L.; Rodas-Suárez, O. R.

    2000-01-01

    Los moluscos bivalvos, por su tipo de alimentación y por las zonas elegidas para su cultivo, pueden ser un vehículo de transmisión de microorganismos patógenos. Un total de 260 muestras de almejas obtenidas a lo largo de un ciclo anual, en la porción norte del Estado de Veracruz, Golfo de México, se estudiaron para determinar la presencia de Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae y organismos coliformes fecales. La metodología usada fue la recomendada por el Manual de Bacteriología Analítica de la ...

  10. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%, V. mimicus (16.7%, V. parahaemolyticus (10%, V. vulnificus (6.7%, and V. alginolyticus (1.7%. Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  11. Microbial risk assessment of Vibrio spp. in seafood products in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla M López-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne diseases are among the major public health problems that currently exist. Microbiological risk assessment is a process used to evaluate the hidden hazards in food, the likelihood of exposure to these hazards and their impact on public health. Risk assessment is performed in four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, assessment of exposure and risk characterization. According to the process/response microbial risk assessment is classified in two categories, qualitative and quantitative. The aim of this review is to underline the importance of implementing assessments in seafood that is usually consumed raw, strengthening access to good quality and safe food for the consumer’s benefit and to stress the necessity of microbiological risks assessments in Mexico.

  12. QStatin, a Selective Inhibitor of Quorum Sensing in Vibrio Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Jang, Song Yee; Bang, Ye-Ji; Hwang, Jungwon; Koo, Youngwon; Jang, Kyung Ku; Lim, Dongyeol; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Sang Ho

    2018-01-30

    Pathogenic Vibrio species cause diseases in diverse marine animals reared in aquaculture. Since their pathogenesis, persistence, and survival in marine environments are regulated by quorum sensing (QS), QS interference has attracted attention as a means to control these bacteria in aquatic settings. A few QS inhibitors of Vibrio species have been reported, but detailed molecular mechanisms are lacking. Here, we identified a novel, potent, and selective Vibrio QS inhibitor, named QStatin [1-(5-bromothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-1H-pyrazole], which affects Vibrio harveyi LuxR homologues, the well-conserved master transcriptional regulators for QS in Vibrio species. Crystallographic and biochemical analyses showed that QStatin binds tightly to a putative ligand-binding pocket in SmcR, the LuxR homologue in V. vulnificus , and changes the flexibility of the protein, thereby altering its transcription regulatory activity. Transcriptome analysis revealed that QStatin results in SmcR dysfunction, affecting the expression of SmcR regulon required for virulence, motility/chemotaxis, and biofilm dynamics. Notably, QStatin attenuated representative QS-regulated phenotypes in various Vibrio species, including virulence against the brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana ). Together, these results provide molecular insights into the mechanism of action of an effective, sustainable QS inhibitor that is less susceptible to resistance than other antimicrobial agents and useful in controlling the virulence of Vibrio species in aquacultures. IMPORTANCE Yields of aquaculture, such as penaeid shrimp hatcheries, are greatly affected by vibriosis, a disease caused by pathogenic Vibrio infections. Since bacterial cell-to-cell communication, known as quorum sensing (QS), regulates pathogenesis of Vibrio species in marine environments, QS inhibitors have attracted attention as alternatives to conventional antibiotics in aquatic settings. Here, we used target-based high-throughput screening to identify

  13. Autoinducers act as biological timers in Vibrio harveyi

    OpenAIRE

    Anetzberger, C.; Reiger, M.; Fekete, A.; Schell, U.; Stambrau, N.; Plener, L.; Kopka, J.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Hilbi, H.; Jung, K.

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific ...

  14. Characterization of Vibrio species isolated from freshwater fishes by ribotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, P.; Samanta, M.; Mohanty, S.; Maiti, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Three Vibrio species from the resident microflora of gastrointestinal tract of freshwater carps and prawns were isolated and confirmed biochemically as V. fluvialis from Cyprinus carpio/Labeo rohita; V. parahaemolyticus from Macrobrachium rosenbergii and V. harveyi from Macrobrachium malcomsoni. The genetic relationship among these Vibrio species was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA gene followed by restriction digestion with Hae III, Bam HI and Pst I. ...

  15. Septicemia caused by Vibrio parahemolyticus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G J; Young, T; Peng, M Y; Chang, F Y; Chou, M Y

    1993-11-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a halophilic marine vibrio commonly associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis which also sometimes causes serious wound infection. It is an uncommon cause of septicemia. A few reports suggest that patients with chronic liver disease and leukemia are more susceptible. A case of liver cirrhosis with septicemia caused by this organism is discussed. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and he died 12 hours after admission.

  16. Occurance and survival of Vibrio alginolyticus in Tamouda Bay (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, M; Cohen, N; Boukhanjer, A; Ennaji, M M

    2011-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial and seasonal fluctuations of Vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the Tamouda Bay on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco and to determine the dominant factors of the environment that govern these fluctuations. The samples (sea water, plankton, shellfish and sediment) were collected fortnightly for two years from three study sites on the coast Tamouda Bay in northern Morocco. The charge of Vibrio alginolyticus is determined by MPN method. The physicochemical parameters including temperature of sea water, pH, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll a concentration were determined. Analysis of variance of specific variables and several principal component analyses showed that the temperature of seawater is the major determinant of seasonal distribution of Vibrio alginolyticus. The results showed a positive linear correlation between Vibrio alginolyticus and the water temperature, pH, turbidity and chlorophyll a. Similarly, there are seasonal variations and spatial of Vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the Tamouda bay and the highest concentrations were recorded in both years of study during the warm season whereas it was minimal during the cold season. Linear positive correlation was recorded between Vibrio alginolyticus populations in all ecological types of samples studied.

  17. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, femoral head necrosis, .... Markey, 2008) where occurrence of multidrug ... Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in. Denmark. Veterinary.

  18. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1299, p<0.05) and Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent and more resistant in inpatients. There is a higher risk of acquiring drug resistant staphylococcus aureus infection in ...

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  1. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  2. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Almagro-Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms.

  3. Vibrio vulnificus: An Environmental and Clinical Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing-Peng Heng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Vibrionaceae. It is a deadly, opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide. V. vulnificus infection can be fatal as it may cause severe wound infections potentially requiring amputation or lead to sepsis in susceptible individuals. Treatment is increasingly challenging as V. vulnificus has begun to develop resistance against certain antibiotics due to their indiscriminate use. This article aims to provide insight into the antibiotic resistance of V. vulnificus in different parts of the world as well as an overall review of its clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention. Understanding the organism's antibiotic resistance profile is vital in order to select appropriate treatment and initiate appropriate prevention measures to treat and control V. vulnificus infections, which should eventually help lower the mortality rate associated with this pathogen worldwide.

  4. A Case of Childhood Lichen Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Byung Yoon; Park, Kyung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong

    2009-01-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare type of chronic pigmented purpuric dermatosis. The eruptions consist of discrete or confluent golden to brownish lichenoid macules and papules, and are usually asymptomatic. Lichen aureus commonly occurs in young adults, but less frequently in children. We report the first case of multiple lichen aureus occurring in a Korean child.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The bio-effects of the ethanol extracts from the leaf and stem of Momordica charantia were studied with the view to ascertain the medical usefulness ascribed to the plant by the locals. The plant parts, stem and leaf, revealed remarkable activity against Escherichia coli and Staphlococcus aureus. The leaves ...

  7. Liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultraviolet-inactivated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultra-violet-inactivated vibrios have been investigated. Photoreactivation was highest (about 80%) for Vibrio cholerae (classical) strains but the liquid holding recovery was highest (about 29%) for Vibrio parahemolyticus ones. Significance of the differences between any two of the four vibrio biotypes in respect of their liquid holding recovery and also photoreactivation was analysed statistically. (auth.)

  8. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific oyster Larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S; Church, Karlee M; Häse, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 10(4) and 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ≥1.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Prevalence study of Vibrio species and frequency of the virulence genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimps in Genaveh seaport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are important seafood-borne pathogens that are responsible for 50-70% of gasteroenteritis. The present study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Vibrio species and the distribution of tdh, tlh and trh virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimp samples. Totally, 60 fresh and salted shrimp samples were collected from the Genaveh seaport. Microbial culture was used to isolate Vibrio species. In addition, the presences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio harveyi and the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied using the PCR method. Results showed that 20% of fresh and 23.33% of salted shrimp samples were positive for Vibrio species. In studied samples, V. vulnificus had the highest prevalence rate (8.33%, while V. cholera had the lowest prevalence rate (1.66%. From a total of 4 detected V. parahaemolyticus, all of them had tlh gene (100%. The distribution of tdh and trh genes in isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains were 50% and 25%, respectively. High prevalence of Vibrio species and especially virulent V. parahaemolyticus in samples confirmed the lack of hygienic condition in the production and distribution centers of shrimp.

  10. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Acosta-Smith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species.

  11. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J.; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species. PMID:29375503

  12. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  13. Isolation, Identification and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. Associated with the Mobile Phones of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Yasushi; Lee, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Masahiro; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    From May 2014 to February 2015, 319 university students (male, n=173; female n=146) of 18 to 24 years of age who carried mobile phones or computer tablets were selected as subjects. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 101 of 319 samples (31.7%). In the present study, 11 strains of S. aureus were isolated and identified, not all of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overall, 14 species were identified, with 11 strains (10.9%) of S. xylosus being isolated at the highest frequency. Following this were eight strains (7.9%) of S. cohnii and seven strains (6.9%) each of S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed with bacterial samples obtained from the mobile phones of 22 specific subjects (males, n=12; females, n=10). Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed on days -1, 7 and 30 of the experiment. Staphylococcus spp. were positively detected one or more times in 12 subjects (54.5%). In one subject (8.3%), all three tests were positive. Furthermore, two tests were positive in three (25.0%). In the eight remaining subjects (66.7%) Staphylococcus spp. were detected only once. For the three abovementioned tests, we investigated the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the strains derived from the mobile phone and from the fingers of three subjects in whom the same bacterial species were isolated twice. From the cases with similarities between strains derived from the fingers and the mobile phones and cases, with consistency in the strains derived from the mobile phone at different times, commonality was observed in the strains derived from the fingers and mobile phones along with chronological uniformity in the strains derived from the mobile phones. A total of 101 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from mobile phones. According to drug susceptibility tests, 99 strains (98.0%) were found to have some degree of resistance to drugs (excluding one strain each of S. aureus and S. haemolyticus

  14. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  15. Influence of water temperature and salinity on seasonal occurrences of Vibrio cholerae and enteric bacteria in oyster-producing areas of Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Chávez, Maria del Refugio; Pardio Sedas, Violeta; Orrantia Borunda, Erasmo; Lango Reynoso, Fabiola

    2005-12-01

    The influence of temperature and salinity on the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. associated with water and oyster samples was investigated in two lagoons on the Atlantic Coast of Veracruz, Mexico over a 1-year period. The results indicated that seasonal salinity variability and warm temperatures, as well as nutrient influx, may influence the occurrence of V. cholera. non-O1 and O1. The conditions found in the Alvarado (31.12 degrees C, 6.27 per thousand, pH=8.74) and La Mancha lagoons (31.38 degrees C, 24.18 per thousand, pH=9.15) during the rainy season 2002 favored the occurrence of V. cholera O1 Inaba enterotoxin positive traced in oysters. Vibrio alginolyticus was detected in Alvarado lagoon water samples during the winter season. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were isolated from water samples from the La Mancha (90-96.7% and 86.7-96.7%) and Alvarado (88.6-97.1% and 88.6-100%) lagoons. Occurrence of bacteria may be due to effluents from urban, agricultural and industrial areas.

  16. Incidencia y fármaco-resistencia de cepas de Staphylococcus spp aisladas de exudados conjuntivales Incidence and drug-resistance of Staphylococcus spp strains isolated from conjunctival swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Noya Cabaña

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la incidencia de cepas del género Staphylococcus aisladas de exudados conjuntivales y analizar su resistencia frente a diferentes antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se revisaron 3554 exudados conjuntivales a pacientes que acudieron en el período comprendido entre enero de 2002 a diciembre de 2003 y desde enero de 2005 hasta diciembre de 2007 al Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología «Ramón Pando Ferrer» por presentar un diagnóstico de infección ocular externa. RESULTADOS: Se aislaron 874 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus para un 47,5 % y 965 cepas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa negativa con prueba de patogenicidad positiva para un 52,4 %. En 69 de esos exudados los cultivos presentaron etiología mixta con dos bacterias diferentes, para el 3,7 %. Se determinaron los porcentajes de resistencia a las cepas aisladas pertenecientes al género Staphylococcus. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontró una alta incidencia de las especies del género Staphylococcus en las infecciones oculares, así como se pudo apreciar que la menor fármaco-resistencia para Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa negativa correspondieron a los antimicrobianos ciprofloxacina y amikacina. La mayor fármaco-resistencia de las cepas de Staphylococcus aureus correspondió a eritromicina y tetraciclina y en Staphylococcus spp coagulasa negativa fue frente a la tetraciclina.OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of Staphylococcus strains isolated from conjunctival swaps and their resistance to several antimicrobial agents. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and observational study was performed to review 3554 conjunctival swabs from patients who went to "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Institute of Ophthalmology in the period from January 2002 to December 2009 due to a diagnosis of external ocular infection. RESULTS: From the total of conjunctival swabs, 874 Staphylococcus aureus strains (47.5 % and

  17. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  18. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  19. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- An emerging foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nelapati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63

  20. Cell vacuolation caused by Vibrio cholerae hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Heuser, J E; Akopyants, N S; Morisaki, J H; Giono-Cerezo, S; Enríquez-Rincón, F; Berg, D E

    2001-03-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (approximately 1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (approximately 16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses.

  1. Relationship of aquatic environmental factors with the abundance of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal area of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Robles, A; Acedo Félix, E; Gomez-Gil, B; Quiñones Ramírez, E I; Nevárez-Martínez, M; Noriega-Orozco, L

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Vibrio are common in aquatic environments. Among them are V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus. Several studies have shown that environmental factors, such as temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, are involved in their epidemiology. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between the presence/amount of V. cholerae, V, vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus and the environmental conditions of the seawater off the coast of Guaymas, México. Quantification of all four pathogenic bacteria was performed using the most probable number method, and suspected colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations were found using principal component analysis. V. parahaemolyticus was the most abundant and widely distributed bacteria, followed by V. vulnificus, V. mimicus and V. cholerae. Positive correlations between V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus with temperature, salinity, electric conductivity, and total dissolved solids were found. The abundance of V. cholerae was mainly affected by the sampling site and not by physicochemical parameters.

  2. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen...... patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained...... from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages...

  3. Multiple enzymatic profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    Full Text Available The enzymatic characterization of vibrios has been used as a virulence indicator of sanitary interest. The objective of this study was to determine the enzymatic profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (n = 70 isolated from Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters. The strains were examined for the presence of gelatinase (GEL, caseinase (CAS, elastase (ELAS, phospholipase (PHOS, lipase (LIP, amilase (AML and DNase. All enzymes, except elastase, were detected in more than 60% of the strains. The most recurrent enzymatic profiles were AML + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 16; 22.9% and AML + CAS + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 21; 30%. Considering the fact that exoenzyme production by vibrios is closely related to virulence, one must be aware of the bacteriological risk posed to human health by the consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  4. Insights into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh Letchumanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages - viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy.

  5. Chitovibrin: a chitin-binding lectin from Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildemeister, O S; Zhu, B C; Laine, R A

    1994-12-01

    A novel 134 kDa, calcium-independent chitin-binding lectin, 'chitovibrin', is secreted by the marine bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus, inducible with chitin or chitin-oligomers. Chitovibrin shows no apparent enzymatic activity but exhibits a strong affinity for chitin and chito-oligomers > dp9. The protein has an isoelectric pH of 3.6, shows thermal tolerance, binds chitin with an optimum at pH 6 and is active in 0-4 M NaCl. Chitovibrin appears to be completely different from other reported Vibrio lectins and may function to bind V. parahemolyticus to chitin substrates, or to capture or sequester chito-oligomers. It may be a member of a large group of recently described proteins in Vibrios related to a complex chitinoclastic (chitinivorous) system.

  6. Impairments of mecA gene detection in bovine Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Araújo de Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance, especially to beta-lactams, favors treatment failures and its persistence in herd environment. This work aimed to develop a more specific primer for mecA gene detection based on the comparison of the conserved regions from distinct host origins and also investigated the presence of homologue mecA LGA251 in bovine strains. A total of 43 Staphylococcus spp. were included in this study, comprising 38 bovine S. aureus, two human and three equine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS. Phenotypical methicillin-resistance detection was performed through oxacillin agar-screening and cefoxitin disk-diffusion test. None isolate tested positive for mecA LGA251 gene. For mecA gene PCR, new primers were designed based on the sequences of human S. aureus (HE681097 and bovine S. sciuri (AY820253 mecA. The new primers based on the S. aureus mecA sequence amplified fragments of human and equine CNS and the ones based on S. sciuri mecA sequence only yielded fragments for S. aureus bovine strains. Multiples alignments of mecA gene sequences from bovine, human and equine revealed punctual but significant differences in bovine strains that can lead to the mecA gene detection impairment. The observed divergences of mecA gene sequences are not a matter of animal or human origin, it is a specificity of bovine samples.

  7. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  8. Vibrio infections in Louisiana: twenty-five years of surveillance 1980-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Annu; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sokol, Theresa M; Ratard, Raoult C

    2007-01-01

    A total of 1,007 Vibrio infections were reported to the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Department at the Louisiana Office of Public Heath, between 1980 and 2005. The most common were Vibrio vulnificus (257 infections), Vibrio parahemolyticus (249 infections), and Vibrio cholerae non O1 (200 cases). Other species were much less common. Vibrio vulnificus infections, which are associated with consumption of raw seafood (particularly oysters) or contact with sea water, and severe immuno-suppression or liver disease were increasing. Septicemia and blood stream infections are the main manifestations of this infection. The number of infections due to Vibrio parahemolyticus on the other hand, causing mostly gastroenteritis, has remained stable. Vibrio cholerae infections are less common and almost always associated with consumption of partially cooked or contaminated crabs.

  9. Development of a rapid immunochromatographic assay to detect contamination of raw oysters with enteropathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Junko; Yonekita, Taro; Kawatsu, Kentaro

    2018-01-02

    Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are major virulence factors of enteropathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TDH and TRH are bacterial exotoxins, and their presence in culture medium serves as a specific marker for detecting this significant pathogen. Here, we developed and evaluated an immunochromatographic assay (TDH/TRH-ICA) to simultaneously or individually detect TDH and TRH. The TDH/TRH-ICA detected TDH in all broth cultures of 47 V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying tdh. The genes encoding TRH are classified as variants trh1 and trh2, and TRH was detected in all broth cultures of 25 V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying trh1 and certain proportion (5/31) of broth cultures of V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying trh2. In contrast, TDH and TRH were not detected in broth cultures of 12 non-enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains without tdh and trh. It was difficult to detect TRH2 using the TDH/TRH-ICA. However, TRH2 may not serve as a suitable marker for detecting enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, and evidence indicates that TRH2 may not contribute to enteropathogenesis. Further, a screening method using a combination of TDH/TRH-ICA and SPP medium supplemented with 1.5% NaCl (modified-SPP medium) detected oyster samples artificially spiked with 1.1-22 colony-forming units of enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus per 25g of oysters within approximately 8.5h, including the enrichment culture. The assay may serve as a method that facilitates the rapid and easy detection of raw oysters contaminated with enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance against rifampicin doubled to 68%. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is frequent in China. Two predominant S. aureus lineages, ST6 and ST943, were identified causing outbreaks of SFP in Southern China...

  11. Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (∼1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (∼16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  12. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  13. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  15. Development and efficacy of an attenuated Vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate with cross protectivity against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong-hua; Deng, Tian; Sun, Bo-guang; Sun, Li

    2012-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of marine animals. In previous studies, we have reported a virulent V. harveyi strain, T4D. In the present study, an attenuated mutant of T4D, T4DM, was obtained by selection of rifampicin resistance. Compared to the wild type, T4DM was different in whole-cell protein profile and much slower in growth rate when cultured in stress conditions caused by iron depletion. Virulence analysis showed that compared to T4D, T4DM exhibited a dramatically increased median lethal dose, impaired tissue dissemination capacity, defective hemolytic activity, and significantly reduced resistance against the killing effect of host serum. To examine the potential of T4DM as a live attenuated vaccine, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated with T4DM via intraperitoneal injection or immersion. The results showed that at one and two months post-vaccination, fish administered with T4DM via both approaches, in particular that of immersion, were effectively protected against not only V. harveyi but also Vibrio alginolyticus, another important fish pathogen. Microbiological analysis showed that following immersion vaccination, T4DM was recovered from the internal organs of the vaccinated fish in a time-dependent manner within the first 6 days post-vaccination. Serum antibodies against V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus were detected in T4DM-vaccinated fish, and, compared to serum from control fish, serum from T4DM-vaccinated fish was significantly enhanced in bactericidal activity. These results indicate that T4DM is an attenuated strain with residual infectivity and that T4DM can induce effective cross-species protection against both V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus when used as a live immersion vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Localization of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outer membrane protein U (OmpU), an adhesion protein of Vibrio mimicus, is a good antigen, but its epitopes are still unclear. In order to locate the epitopes of OmpU protein, epitope prediction was performed using the amino acid sequence of OmpU protein of V. mimicus HX4 strain that was isolated from the diseased ...

  17. Pseudomonas piscicida kills vibrios by two distinct mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudoalteromonas piscicida is a naturally-occurring marine bacterium which kills competing bacteria, including vibrios. In studies by Richards et al. (AEM00175-17), three strains of P. piscicida were isolated and characterized. Strains secreted proteolytic enzymes which likely killed competing or...

  18. Vibrio Cholerae 01 Infections In Jos, Nigeria | Opajobi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae 01 in stool sample submitted for routine examination of enteric pathogens, as well as identify the serotypes and antibiogram of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics was undertaken. The survey involved the examination of 774 (763 stool and 11 rectal swabs) ...

  19. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru.

  20. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, EF; Cohen, AL; Naughton, LM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogrou...

  1. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínez-P., M. E.; Macek, Miroslav; Castro-G., M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2004), s. 133-140 ISSN 1360-2276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296 Grant - others:UNAM/DGAPA/PAPIT(MX) IN216796 Keywords : Vibrio cholerae * protozoan feeding * brackish water Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2004

  2. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in industrially polluted water, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing industrial effluents. The effect of iron as well as pH on the survival of Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, El Tor and classical strains) in water samples from 12 points, where selected industrial effluents were discharged into rivers, was studied.

  3. Detection of quorum sensing molecules from Vibrio harveyi and use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the extraction and detection processes of quorum sensing molecules such as N-aceyl homoserine lactone compounds (AHL) from marine Vibrio harveyi. The spent culture of V. harveyi was solvent partitioned for AHL, rotary evaporated and re-suspended in 50% acetonitrile then detected with reporter ...

  4. Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) industry in East Africa has suffered severe economic losses in the last few years due to failure to comply with the microbiological standards of European Union (E.U). Fresh and frozen products have been suspected to be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae. This has led to a ...

  5. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  6. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of vibrio cholerae 01 strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 7 July 2000. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 STRAINS DURING TWO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN DAR ES SALAAM,. TANZANIA. W.K. Urassa, MD, MSc, MMed, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University ...

  7. Dermoscopy of lichen aureus Dermatoscopia do liquen aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Santin Portela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen aureus (also called "lichen purpuricus" is an uncommon subtype of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Clinically characterized by rust macules, papules or plaques, it is a chronic disease which more often affects young adults and is localized mainly on the lower extremities. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical and histopathological features. Dermoscopy findings are useful to confirm clinical diagnosis.O líquen aureus (também denominado "liquen purpuricus" é um subtipo pouco comum entre as dermatoses purpúricas pigmentadas. Clinicamente caracterizado por máculas, pápulas ou placas de coloração ferruginosa, é doença crônica, que acomete mais frequentemente adultos jovens e localiza-se principalmente nos membros inferiores. O diagnóstico pode ser feito a partir das características clínicas e histopatológicas, sendo os achados dermatoscópicos úteis para corroborar o diagnóstico clínico.

  8. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  10. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance

  11. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... and in the nose in all cases, and between visits in 90% of cases. Ten different CC types were identified, no association with severity was found, and toxin-producing strains were not found more frequently in patients with HE than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus was present on hands in almost half...

  13. Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob; Penadés, José R; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic...... of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus cells...... are effective in exchanging mobile genetic elements, including antibiotic-resistance genes.During colonization or infection of host organisms, the exchange appears to be particularly effective.Bacteriophage-mediated transfer involves both transduction and autotransduction, which may enable lysogenic S. aureus...

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and Co

  15. The role of staphylococci in subclinical mastitis of cows and lytic phage isolation against to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Gulmez Saglam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the role of Staphylococcus in the formation of subclinical mastitis in cows and to isolate the phage against isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods: In this study, 400 milk cows were screened by California Mastitis Test (CMT for subclinical mastitis and 235 udders of 96 cows, which were determined to be positive, were evaluated for Staphylococcus. Milk samples were evaluated using conventional and molecular methods. In addition, phage isolation studies were performed against S. aureus strains causing mastitis. Results: At the result of cultural examination, of 235 milk samples that were found as positive for mastitis by CMT, a total of 117 (49.7% Staphylococcus spp. were isolated as a distribution of 74 (63.24% coagulase-positive staphylococci and 43 (36.75% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of these isolates, 76 (64.95% were characterized as S. aureus both conventional and molecular techniques. Lytic bacteriophages against two S. aureus strains which were isolated from mastitic milk samples were obtained from wastewater samples. Conclusion: The results of this study show that a significant portion of subclinical mastitis was formed by staphylococci. In addition, phage isolation against S. aureus strains isolated can be considered as one of the steps to be applied in the prophylaxis and treatment of such infections.

  16. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  17. Oral administration of formalin killed Vibrio anguillarum cells improves growth and protection against challenge with Vibrio harveyi in banana shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, P K; Gopal, C; Panigrahi, A; Rajababu, D; Pillai, S M

    2014-03-01

    Larval rearing in hatcheries and highly intensive grow-out culture practices followed in shrimp production systems favour the growth of potential pathogenic bacterial loads. This study reports the efficacy of formalin-killed vibrio bacterin on growth, survival and protection to challenge with virulent Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum in juveniles of banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Postlarvae 15 (0·24 ± 0·01 g) were administered orally in different concentrations of bacterial preparation (0, 10(6) , 10(8) , 10(10) and 10(12 ) CFU kg(-1) feed) for a period of 6 weeks. Physicochemical and microbial quality of water in larval rearing tanks, and growth and survival of the postlarvae were monitored at regular intervals, and body composition was estimated at the end of the experiment. Shrimps were challenged with V. harveyi and V. anguillarum, and cumulative mortality was calculated. The group receiving 10(8)  CFU kg(-1) feed showed highest average weight gain (162·66 ± 22·94 mg) and survival (90·33 ± 4·5%) and lowest cumulative mortality following the challenge with V. anguillarum (26%) and V. harveyi (36·67%). The results of the study suggest that formalized vibrio administered orally to F. merguiensis postlarvae could induce both homologous and heterologous protection against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. 'Vaccination' of shrimp postlarvae at hatcheries would help in preventing the losses due to vibriosis and the most susceptible stages of shrimp development. The study demonstrates the cross-protection offered by the oral feeding of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum against pathogenic V. harveyi challenge at the early developmental stages of banana shrimp, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Vibrio Parahemolyticus in the Wastewater of Kermanshah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Almasi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available آب و فاضلاب                                                                                                                                                                                                               شماره 51- سال 1383     Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Soil, vegetable, and food material are exposed as well. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for control and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholerain the wastewater of city of Kermanshah in 2001. Population of city of Kermanshah was estimated over 713000 and produced wastewater was approximately 150 l/cap/d. The method of study was cross-sectional descriptive. Sampling procedure was adopted from standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, and the method for Vibrios identification was according to finegold 1990. There were 8 discharge outlet domestic wastewaters, which had been chosen as sampling sites. Samples were collected weekly in randomized manner in day time. Although 288 samples should be collected statistically, 339 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that site 7 with 5 positives, sites 4 and 8 with 3 positives, site 5 with 2 postitives and sites 2, 3 and 6 with one positive suspected to vibrio pathogens. However, not any Vibrio detected in site 1. The most positive samples were seen in spring, late summer and early autumn. The positive results were detected in May, June, September, and October. Among samples which have been detected as a

  19. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from burn patients by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Effat Abbasi; Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Jolodar, Abbas; Ghaderpanah, Mozhgan; Azarpira, Samireh

    2015-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) as important human pathogens are causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Burn patients are at a higher risk of local and systemic infections with these microorganisms. A screening method for MRSA by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), mecA, and nuc genes was developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of this PCR assay for the detection of MRSA strains in samples from burn patients. During an 11-month period, 230 isolates (53.11%) of Staphylococcus spp. were collected from burn patients. The isolates were identified as S. aureus by using standard culture and biochemical tests. DNA was extracted from bacterial colonies and multiplex PCR was used to detect MRSA and MRCoNS strains. Of the staphylococci isolates, 149 (64.9%) were identified as S. aureus and 81 (35.21%) were described as CoNS. Among the latter, 51 (62.97%) were reported to be MRCoNS. From the total S. aureus isolates, 132 (88.6%) were detected as MRSA and 17 (11.4%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The presence of the mecA gene in all isolates was confirmed by using multiplex PCR as a gold standard method. This study presented a high MRSA rate in the region under investigation. The 16S rRNA-mecA-nuc multiplex PCR is a good tool for the rapid characterization of MRSA strains. This paper emphasizes the need for preventive measures and choosing effective antimicrobials against MRSA and MRCoNS infections in the burn units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. MR findings of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Na, Jae Boem [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection is a fatal disease occurring after the consumption of seafood in patients with underlying liver disease. Inflammation of the skin, subcutanous fat and fascia disseminates from the lower extremity to the trunk and upper extremity. Infection myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus is rare, and its MR findings have not been reported. We report these in a case of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus involving both lower extremities.

  1. MR findings of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Na, Jae Boem

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection is a fatal disease occurring after the consumption of seafood in patients with underlying liver disease. Inflammation of the skin, subcutanous fat and fascia disseminates from the lower extremity to the trunk and upper extremity. Infection myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus is rare, and its MR findings have not been reported. We report these in a case of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus involving both lower extremities

  2. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Uli Ayini; Siti Harnina B.; Titis Candra Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (%) yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,...

  3. Emergent Patterns of Diversity and Dynamics in Natural Populations of Planktonic Vibrio Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    1973. Ecology of Vibrio parahemolyticus in mixed-template amplifications: formation, consequences and elimination by Chesapeake Bay. J. Bacteriol. 113...Science 1930 and Engineering DOCTORAL DISSERTATION Emergent Patterns of Diversity and Dynamics in Natural Populations of Planktonic Vibrio Bacteria by...DYNAMICS IN NATURAL POPULATIONS OF PLANKTONIC VIBRIO BACTERIA by Janelle Ren6e Thompson B.S. Biological Sciences, Stanford University 1998 M.S

  4. Vibrio parahemolyticus septicaemia in a liver transplant patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fairweather Morgan G; Krishnan Sujatha; Fernando Rajeev R; Ericsson Charles D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Vibrio parahemolyticus is the leading cause of vibrio-associated gastroenteritis in the United States of America, usually related to poor food handling; only rarely has it been reported to cause serious infections including sepsis and soft tissue infections. In contrast, Vibrio vulnificus is a well-known cause of septicaemia, especially in patients with cirrhosis. We present a patient with V. parahemolyticus sepsis who had an orthotic liver transplant in 2007 and was on ...

  5. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  6. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  7. Hemolytic and urease activities in vibrios isolated from fresh and frozen oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to survey the Vibrio microbiota of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae obtained from restaurants in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, and to identify virulence factors. METHODS: The isolated vibrios were submitted to biochemical identification and were tested for hemolytic and urease activities. RESULTS: The isolated strains belonged to 13 species, with predominance of Vibrio mimicus. Of the strain isolates only from fresh samples, 20.5% and 2.8% showed hemolytic and urease activities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the little-publicized claim that Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus can represent a health risk to public health.

  8. Role and regulation of the orphan AphA protein of quorum sensing in pathogenic Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfei; Osei-Adjei, George; Huang, Xinxiang; Zhang, Yiquan

    2018-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, is widely distributed in the bacterial kingdom. Bacteria use QS to control gene expression in response to cell density by detecting the signal molecules called autoinducers. AphA protein is the master QS regulator of vibrios operating at low cell density. It regulates the expression of a variety of genes, especially those encoding virulence factors, flagella/motility and biofilm formation. The role and regulation of AphA in vibrios, especially in human pathogenic vibrios, are summarized in this review. Clarification of the roles of AphA will help us to understand the pathogenesis of vibrios.

  9. BACTERIA STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPP. IZOLATED FROM MASTITIS OF SHEEP AND THEIR ENTEROTOXIGENIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of staphylococcal mastitis in herd of 350 sheep during one lactation season. We found, the bacteria S. schleiferi was identified in 88 from all 204 isolates. In high number were identified also S. caprae (33, S. chromogenes (21, S. aureus (19, S. epidermidis (17, respectively. Important was occurrence S. intermedius, S. simulans, S. xylosus a S. warneri, too. The Staphylococcuss spp. caused latent and subclinical forms of mastitis predominantly, showed into subacute mastitis (26.5%. Acute mastitis was determined in 7.8 %. Eight bacteria S. aureus, two S. chromogenes, and two S. epidermidis produced staphylococcal enterotoxins.doi: 10.5219/171

  10. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    . cholerae El Tor strain N16961, showed hemolysis and proteolysis activity but none of them exhibited any hemagglutinin activity on human erythrocytes. The study findings indicate that V. cholerae contamination is mostly originated in and around kitchen area rather than latrine area. Contaminated food...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh......The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...

  11. Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: managing risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2016-03-05

    The human-pathogenic marine bacteria Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are strongly correlated with water temperature, with concentrations increasing as waters warm seasonally. Both of these bacteria can be concentrated in filter-feeding shellfish, especially oysters. Because oysters are often consumed raw, this exposes people to large doses of potentially harmful bacteria. Various models are used to predict the abundance of these bacteria in oysters, which guide shellfish harvest policy meant to reduce human health risk. Vibrio abundance and behaviour varies from site to site, suggesting that location-specific studies are needed to establish targeted risk reduction strategies. Moreover, virulence potential, rather than simple abundance, should be also be included in future modeling efforts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. The squid-Vibrio symbioses: from demes to genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbell, Jennifer R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2003-04-01

    The monospecific light organ association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri has been used as a model for the study of the most common type of coevolved animal-bacterial interaction; i.e., the association of Gram-negative bacteria with the extracellular apical surfaces of polarized epithelia. Analysis of the squid-vibrio symbiosis has ranged from characterizations of the harvesting mechanisms by which the host ensures colonization by the appropriate symbiont to identification of bacteria-induced changes in host gene expression that accompany the establishment and maintenance of the relationship. Studies of this model have been enhanced by extensive collaboration with microbiologists, who are able to manipulate the genetics of the bacterial symbiont. The results of our studies have indicated that initiation and persistence of the association requires a complex, reciprocal molecular dialogue between these two phylogenetically distant partners.

  13. Characterization of the secretomes of two vibrios pathogenic to mollusks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Madec

    Full Text Available Vibrio tapetis causes the brown ring disease in the Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum while Vibrio aestuarianus is associated with massive oyster mortalities. As extracellular proteins are often associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria, we undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the secretomes of both vibrios. The extracellular proteins (ECPs of both species were fractionated by SEC-FPLC and in vitro assays were performed to measure the effects of each fraction on hemocyte cellular parameters (phagocytosis and adhesion. Fractions showing a significant effect were subjected to SDS-PAGE, and proteins were identified by nano LC-MS/MS. 45 proteins were identified for V. aestuarianus and 87 for V. tapetis. Most of them belonged to outer membrane or were periplasmic, including porins or adhesins that were already described as virulence factors in other bacterial species. Others were transporter components, flagella proteins, or proteins of unknown function (14 and 15 respectively. Interestingly, for V. aestuarianus, we noted the secretion of 3 extracellular enzymes including the Vam metalloprotease and two other enzymes (one putative lipase and one protease. For V. tapetis, we identified five extracellular enymes, i.e. two different endochitinases, one protease, one lipase and an adhesin. A comparison of both secretomes also showed that only the putative extracellular lipase was common to both secretomes, underscoring the difference in pathogenicity mechanisms between these two species. Overall, these results characterize for the first time the secretomes of these two marine pathogenic vibrios and constitute a useful working basis to further analyze the contribution of specific proteins in the virulence mechanisms of these species.

  14. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  15. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-I Hsiao; Man-Ser Jan; Hui-Ju Chi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 201...

  16. Distribution ofVibrio cholerae in two Florida estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-04-01

    The distribution ofVibrio cholerae was examined in 2 Florida estuaries, Apalachicola and Tampa Bay.Vibrio cholerae serotype non-01 was the most abundant serotype, being isolated from 45% of the oyster samples, 30% of the sediments, 50% of the waters, and 75% of the blue crabs.Vibrio cholerae serotype 01 was isolated from only one oyster sample. Strong linear correlations betweenV. cholerae and temperature, salinity, or the other physical/chemical parameters measured,Escherichia coli, or fecal coliforms were not observed, but a range of temperatures and salinities appeared relevant to the distribution of the organism. The organism was present in the highest concentrations when salinities were 10‰-25‰ and temperatures were 20‡C-35‡C.In vitro growth curves of 95V. cholerae environmental isolates further supported that 10‰-25‰ was an ideal salinity range for the organisms. The results suggest thatV. cholerae is a widely distributed organism in the nutrient-rich warm waters of the Gulf Coast estuaries.

  17. [Characterization of haemolysis of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus no.93].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S C; Lee, C Y

    1997-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative bacterium of food poisoning, and the haemolysin produced by this organism has been considered as one of the important virulence factors. In order to understand the pathogenic mechanism of this bacterium, the characteristics of haemolysin from Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from Taiwan were studied. One of the clinical strains, V. parahaemolyticus No.93, presents a weak hemolytic zone on 7% NaCl-Wagatsuma medium. The DNA hybridization results show that V. parahemolyticus has neither tdh nor trh gene. V. parahaemolyticus No.93 shows obviously hemolytic zone on 3%-NaCl Wagatsuma medium (human blood). The crude extracellular protein of V. parahaemolyticus No. 93 was evaluated for its heat tolerance and enzyme activities by media assay. The results show that this crude extracellular protein is thermolabile. The crude extracellular protein of V. parahaemolyticus No.93 was analyzed on 10% SDS-PAGE and an apparent band of 64 kDa protein was observed. Furthermore, the crude extracellular protein was analyzed by running gelatin-SDS-PAGE and hemoglobin-SDS-PAGE, and three clear zones on 62 kDa, 52 kDa and 41 kDa were observed on both SDS-PAGEs. Thus we propose that the crude extracellular protein of the V. parahaemolyticus No.93 can degrade gelatin as well as hemoglobin. Whether these protease being the virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus No.93 needs to be further studied.

  18. Bacteria Associated with Subcutaneous Abscesses of Cattle Caused by Hypoderma spp Larvae in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tajik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed from February to April 2006; several visits were made to abattoirs in the north of Iran for Hypoderma spp infestation. Necropsy inspection of slaughtered and skinned animals were carried out by examination of the inner skin surface and subcutaneous tissues. Warbles were isolated by squeezing nodules from subcutaneous tissues. In the case of abscess presence, aseptic sample were taken from abscesses. The parasitological and bacteriological examinations were performed on the samples. The results indicated that 104 out of 958 of slaughtered animals were infested to Hypoderma spp in which 48 (46.15 %, 34 (32.69 % and 22 (21.15 % were infested to Hypoderma bovis, Hypoderma lineatum and both species, respectively. Following bacterial analysis, the following bacteria were isolated: Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumonia.

  19. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  20. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R; Ebling, Alina M; Landing, William M; Joyner, Jessica L; Kemp, Keri M; Griffin, Dale W; Lipp, Erin K

    2016-05-24

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrio after natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust-Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  1. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it ... humans and animals (Casey et al., 2007). ... of widespread use of antibiotics in animals for ... Laboratory Standards Institute methods (CLSI, 2010). Briefly ...

  2. OCCURRENCE AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF Staphylococcus aureus IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano. 2Department of ... The presence of S.aureus and resistance to commonly used antibiotics by the isolates posses .... mastitic animals or human sources (Akram et al.,. 2013; Oliver et ...

  3. Survival and growth of Salmonella and Vibrio in som-fak, a Thai low-salt garlic containing fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Paludan-Müller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    and potential growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus as influenced by the preservation parameters (sodium chloride, garlic and lactic acid) present in the Thai fermented fish product som-fak. The inhibitory effects of sodium...... chloride (0–4%), garlic (0–10%) and lactic acid (pH levels as in som-fak) were measured in modified brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 30 °C. All bacteria were inhibited by 8–10% sodium chloride. Salmonella grew in all concentrations of garlic whereas Vibrio spp. were inhibited by 1.0–1.5%. Lactic acid...... was inhibitory at levels above 1.5%. The combinations of sodium chloride, lactic acid and garlic showed a distinct hurdle effect in the broth system. Neither S. Enteritidis, V. cholerae nor V. parahaemolyticus grew in garlic (0.5–1%), regardless of the level of sodium chloride (0.5–4% (w/v)), when lactic acid (0...

  4. CONTROLE DE Staphylococcus aureus EM CHARQUES (JERKED BEEF POR CULTURAS INICIADORAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Franke PINTO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Jerked beef - JB - é um produto cárneo curado, salgado e seco ao sol, derivado de um típico produto cárneo brasileiro - o charque. Ambos carecem de estudos que orientem seu aprimoramento. Staphylococcus spp. têm sido reportado como o gênero predominante na microbiota do produto, o que evidencia o risco de desenvolvimento de linhagens enterotoxigênicas de S. aureus. Foram empregadas duas linhagens inócuas de estafilococos na elaboração de JB, a fim de avaliar sua influência sobre o desenvolvimento de S. aureus por mecanismo competitivo ou pela produção de bacteriocinas. Os resultados demonstraram que ambas inibiram o desenvolvimento do patógeno tanto in vitro como durante o processamento do produto. Não se observou produção de compostos inibitórios pelas linhagens iniciadoras, ficando a explicação para a inibição observada restrita ao mecanismo competitivo. Este trabalho permitiu demonstrar a possibilidade de aumentar a segurança e padronização de JB pelo emprego de culturas bacterianas selecionadas.Jerked beef - JB - is a sun-dried, salted and cured meat product, derived from charqui. There are few studies about JB in the literature, as in charqui. Staphylococcus spp has been reported to be the predominant microrganism present in JB. The presence of this genus reveals a possible hazard for S. aureus growth. Two staphilococci strains commonly used as starter in fermented meat products have been employed with the purpose to inhibiting S. aureus either through competitive action or through the production of bacteriocins. The results demonstrated the inhibition S. aureus growth, probably through a competitive action, as they grow better in the medium. These starters have not produced any inhibitory compound. These informations led us to conclude that it is possible to improve the safety and quality standardization of JB through appropriate starter cultures.

  5. Retrospective Study on the Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis Among Patients Suspicious of Bacteremia During 2006 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci bacteria cause different diseases, varies from mild skin infections to serious bacteremia. Also they are a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections globally. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the two important opportunistic pathogens of the staphylococci that both can cause bacteremia. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus and S. epidermidis among blood culture of patients of Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran, during 6 years (2006 - 2011. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, hospital medical records of 28000 patients referred to Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran, who were suspicious of blood infections during 6 years (2005-2011, were extracted. The patient’s blood culture with staphylococcal growth and their antibiogram results during 2006 - 2011 were collected and studied. Results: Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 600 (2.14% out of 28000 blood cultures. Furthermore, 420 (70%, 170 (28.3% and 10 (1.7% out of 600 bacterial isolates identified as S. epidermidis, S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefixime, ceftazidime, penicillin, oxacillin, nalidixic acid and cephepime were the most antibiotics that the isolates were resistant against. Also vancommycin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis and S. aureus, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of Staphylococcal bacteremia caused by S. epidermidis is fairly high comparing to S. aureus among patients referred to Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran. Also the resistance rate of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from blood against commonly used antibiotic is high, but there are some highly sensitive antibiotic against the infection.

  6. Role of golden jackals (Canis aureus) as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D’Amico, G.; Daskalaki, A.A.; Juránková, J.; Ionescu, D.T.; Mihalca, A. D.; Modrý, David; Gherman, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR 28 (2016), č. článku 240. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : wild carnivores * reservoir * heartworm * dirofilariases * dissemination * Romania Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  7. Irradiation to control Vibrio infection from consumption of raw seafood and fresh produce. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Vibrio spp. comprises an important group of pathogenic bacteria in food that often causes human illness and even death when the contaminated food is consumed raw or improperly cooked. The most dangerous member of this group, the El Tor strain of V. cholerae, was responsible for the cholera pandemic which started in Peru in 1991 and spread to nearby countries, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases and thousands of deaths. Recognizing the role of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of food, the Pan American Health Organization of the World Health Organization and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture jointly sponsored a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation as a Public Health Intervention Measure to Control Foodborne Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, to assess the efficacy of this technology for food protection. The CRP was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 1998. The results of this CRP demonstrated that irradiation is effective for ensuring the microbiological safety of food naturally contaminated by Vibrio spp. This process offers unique benefits for decontamination of seafood, often contaminated with this group of aquatic bacteria at the source, and fresh vegetables that may be contaminated during production and handling, especially when these products are consumed raw or not thoroughly cooked. Because of the sensitivity of this group of bacteria to radiation, the dose required to ensure microbiological safety of food against them is not more than 1 kGy. The CRP also generated data on the effectiveness of irradiation to control infection by pork tapeworm (Taenia solium metacestode). However, the results of these studies were not conclusive enough for publication. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Havana, Cuba, 16-20 November 1998

  8. Irradiation to control Vibrio infection from consumption of raw seafood and fresh produce. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Vibrio spp. comprises an important group of pathogenic bacteria in food that often causes human illness and even death when the contaminated food is consumed raw or improperly cooked. The most dangerous member of this group, the El Tor strain of V. cholerae, was responsible for the cholera pandemic which started in Peru in 1991 and spread to nearby countries, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases and thousands of deaths. Recognizing the role of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of food, the Pan American Health Organization of the World Health Organization and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture jointly sponsored a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation as a Public Health Intervention Measure to Control Foodborne Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, to assess the efficacy of this technology for food protection. The CRP was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 1998. The results of this CRP demonstrated that irradiation is effective for ensuring the microbiological safety of food naturally contaminated by Vibrio spp. This process offers unique benefits for decontamination of seafood, often contaminated with this group of aquatic bacteria at the source, and fresh vegetables that may be contaminated during production and handling, especially when these products are consumed raw or not thoroughly cooked. Because of the sensitivity of this group of bacteria to radiation, the dose required to ensure microbiological safety of food against them is not more than 1 kGy. The CRP also generated data on the effectiveness of irradiation to control infection by pork tapeworm (Taenia solium metacestode). However, the results of these studies were not conclusive enough for publication. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Havana, Cuba, 16-20 November 1998.

  9. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osunla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  10. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ.

  11. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Sicairos, N.; Canizalez-Roman, A.; de la Garza, M.; Reyes-Lopez, M.; Zazueta-Beltran, J.; Nazmi, K.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Bolscher, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some

  12. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-07

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  13. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens. PMID:28991153

  14. Genomic diversity of vibrios associated with the Brazilian coral Mussismilia hispida and its sympatric zoanthids (Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, L A; Brocchi, M; Gondo, M; Thompson, C C; Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L

    2009-06-01

    A taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi). Mucus of 54 cnidarian specimens collected in three different places at São Sebastião in two consecutive years (i.e. 2005 and 2006) was used for taxonomic characterization of the cnidarian microbiota. Ninety-eight of the 151 vibrio isolates fell within the vibrio core group according to partial 16S rDNA sequences. We performed the sequencing of recA and pyrH genes of all vibrio isolates. The most abundant taxa belonged to the vibrio core group (Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio alginolyticus), Vibrio mediterranei (=Vibrio shillonii) and Vibrio chagasii. With the exception of V. chagasii which was found only in the mucus of M. hispida, the other species appeared in different hosts with no evidence for the presence of host-specific clones or species. Using rep-PCR analysis, we observed a high genomic heterogeneity within the vibrios. Each vibrio isolate generated a different rep-PCR fingerprint pattern. There was a complete agreement between the grouping based on rep-PCR and concatenated sequences of pyrH, recA and 16S rDNA, but the pyrH gene has the highest discriminatory power for vibrio species identification. The vibrio core group is dominant in the mucus of these cnidarians. There is a tremendous diversity of vibrio lineages within the coral mucus. pyrH gene sequences permit a clear-cut identification of vibrios. The taxonomic resolution provided by pyrH (but not recA) appears to be enough for identifying species of vibrios and for disclosing putative new taxa. The vibrio core group appears to be dominant in the mucus of the Brazilian cnidarians. The overrepresentation of these vibrios may reflect as yet unknown ecological functions in the coral holobiont.

  15. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive

  16. In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Xanthium strumarium L. extracts on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Javad Sharifi; Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini; Rad, Majid Sharifi; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-10-01

    The excessive and repeated use of antibiotics in medicine has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus whose emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has reduced the number of antibiotics available to treat clinical infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves were evaluated on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spp. Antiradical and antioxidant activities X. strumarium L. leaf extract were evaluated based on its ability to scavenge the synthetic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and by the paired diene method, respectively, whereas the antimicrobial activity was assayed by the disc diffusion method. Data were subjected to analysis of variance following an entirely random design to determine the least significant difference at P strumarium extract affected both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, though antibacterial activity was more effective on methicillin-susceptible S. aureus spp. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities exhibited by the methanol extract may justify the traditional use of this plant as a folk remedy worldwide.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  18. Vibrios on the half shell: what the walrus and the carpenter didn't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A

    1983-10-01

    At least nine Vibrio species have been associated with disease in the United States. Vibrio fluvialis, V. hollisae, V. mimicus, and V. parahaemolyticus cause diarrheal diseases, but may also be encountered in extraintestinal infections such as wound and ear infections, septicemia, and cholecystitis. Vibrio alginolyticus, V. damsela, V. metschnikovii, and V. vulnificus primarily cause extraintestinal disease. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 is the cause of epidemic cholera, whereas nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae have been associated with both diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Most reports of vibrio infections have come from states along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and from Hawaii, and most of the infections have occurred during summer and fall. Wound and ear infections have occurred after exposure to salty or brackish water or to drippings from raw seafoods. Foodborne vibrio infections are almost all caused by seafoods, especially oysters eaten raw. Thorough cooking and careful handling will render seafoods safe for consumption.

  19. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Review on the Pathogenesis, Prevalence and Advance Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2 to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the Vibrio parahemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  20. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valles, Iliana Espinoza; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792 is a marine bacterial strain that causes mortality in farmed shrimp in north-west Mexico, and the identification of virulence genes in this strain is important for understanding its pathogenicity. The aim of this work was to compare the V. harveyi CAIM 1792 genome....... The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78 %) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67 %), Vibrio rotiferianus (63 %) and Vibrio campbellii (59 %). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA......-DNA hybridization and multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 concatenated housekeeping genes. SNP analysis clustered 34/38 genomes within their accepted species. The pangenomic and SNP trees showed that V. harveyi is the most conserved of the four species studied and V. campbellii may be divided into at least three...

  1. Vibrio ecology in PNW - The Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for risk assessment and early warning systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in...

  2. Investigation of Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus in large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson reared in Xiangshan Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large yellow croaker (LYC, Pseudosciaena crocea is an economically important fish species of mariculture in China. The variation of yearly production of LYC has been increasingly related to the outbreaks of fish diseases. Moreover, Vibrio infections have been identified in this fish frequently. To understand the pattern of Vibrio infections in LYC, we conducted a culture-independent survey of Vibrios in farmed LYC populations using a multiplex PCR method targeting Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The results showed that three fish pathogenic Vibrios had been detected in LYC populations at each sampling with a prevalence ranging from 6.7% to 73.3% but no single species dominated the Vibrio infection. The findings indicate that three Vibrio species still have impact on health status of farmed LYC and LYC aquaculture requires more efficacious prophylactic strategies. Keywords: Vibrio, Large yellow croaker, Multiplex PCR, Epidemiology

  3. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus ampicillin-resistant from the odontological clinic environment Staphylococcus aureus resistente à ampicilina em ambiente de Clínica Odontológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Luis de Carvalho Bernardo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of Sthaphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in the odontological clinic environment (air, their production of beta-lactamase and antibacterial susceptibility to the major antibiotics utilized in medical particle. During 12 months of samples collect were isolated 9775 CFU by MSA medium suggesting a high amount of Staphylococcus spp. in the clinic environment which can appear through aerosols. A total of 3149 colonies (32.2% were suggestive of pathogenic staphylococci. Gram coloration, catalase test, colony-mallow growing on chromogenic medium, and coagulase test confirmed the identity of 44 (0.45% S. aureus isolates. Of these, 35 isolates (79.5% showed production of beta-lactamase by CefinaseTM discs and resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin (7 isolates and tetracycline (1 isolate suggesting the existence of multiresistant isolates. The evaluation of the oxacillin MIC by Etest® assays showed susceptibility patterns suggesting the inexistence of the mecA gene in chromosomal DNA. These results point out to the need of a larger knowledge on the contamination means and propagation of this microorganism into the odontological clinic.Foi avaliada a prevalência de Staphylococcus spp. e S. aureus no ambiente clínico odontológico, a produção de beta-lactamase e a susceptibilidade antibacteriana aos principais antibióticos utilizados na prática clínica. Durante 12 meses de coleta de amostras foram isolados 9775 UFC no meio de cultura AMS, demonstrando uma elevada quantidade de Staphylococcus spp. no ambiente clínico, provavelmente em decorrência da propagação de aerossóis. Um total de 3149 colônias (32,2% foi sugestivo de estafilococos patogênicos. Coloração de Gram, teste de catalase, crescimento de colônias-malva sobre meio cromogênico e teste de coagulase confirmaram a identidade de 44 (0,45% isolados de S. aureus. Destes, 35 isolados (79,5% mostraram produção de beta

  5. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.

  6. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R; Bohidar, H B; Baral, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 )) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe 3 O 4 and CA-Fe 3 O 4 /ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe 3 O 4 , CA-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe 3 O 4 ) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe 3 O 4 ) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe 2 O 3 /ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5–500 ng mL −1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL −1 , sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml −1 cm −2 , and reproducibility more than 11 times. (paper)

  7. Quorum Sensing Disruption in Vibrio harveyi Bacteria by Clay Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sajo P; Scholin, Jonathon; Ching, San; Chi, Fang; Herpfer, Marc

    2018-01-10

    This work describes the use of clay minerals as catalysts for the degradation of quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-dl-homoserine lactone. Certain clay minerals as a result of their surface properties and porosity can catalytically degrade the quorum sensing molecule into smaller fragments. The disruption of quorum sensing by clay in a growing Gram-negative Vibrio harveyi bacteria culture was also studied by monitoring luminescence and population density of the bacteria, wherein quenching of bacterial quorum sensing activity was observed by means of luminescence reduction. The results of this study show that food-grade clays can be used as biocatalysts in disrupting bacterial activity in various media.

  8. Vibrio cholerae Classical Biotype Strains Reveal Distinct Signatures in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M. Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 199...

  9. Environmental determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin J K; Jacobs, John M; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J; DePaola, Angelo; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-25

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus naturally-occurs in brackish and marine waters and is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness. Previous work studying the ecology of V. parahaemolyticus is often limited in geographic extent and lacking a full range of environmental measures. This study used a unique, large dataset of surface water samples in the Chesapeake Bay ( n =1,385) collected from 148 monitoring stations from 2007 to 2010. Water was analyzed for over 20 environmental parameters with additional meteorological and surrounding land use data. V. parahaemolyticus -specific genetic markers thermolabile hemolysin ( tlh ), thermostable direct hemolysin ( tdh ), and tdh -related hemolysin ( trh ) were assayed using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and interval-censored regression models with non-linear effects were estimated to account for limits of detection and quantitation. tlh was detected in 19.6% of water samples; tdh or trh markers were not detected. Results confirmed previously reported positive associations for V. parahaemolyticus abundance with temperature and turbidity and negative associations with high salinity (> 10-23‰). Furthermore, the salinity relationship was determined to be a function of both low temperature and turbidity, with an increase of either nullifying the high salinity effect. Associations with dissolved oxygen and phosphate also appeared stronger when samples were taken nearby human developments. Renewed focus on the V. parahaemolyticus ecological paradigm is warranted to protect public health. Importance Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness in the United States and across the globe. Exposure is often through consuming raw or undercooked shellfish. Given the natural presence of the bacterium in the marine environment, improved understanding of its environmental determinants is necessary for future preventative measures. This analysis of environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of only a few that

  10. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  11. Epidemiology of drug resistance: The case of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci infections Epidemiología de la resistencia bacteriana: el caso de Staphylococcus aureus y las infecciones Staphylococcus coagulasa negativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the activity of several antibiotics against Staphylococcus spp. Material and Methods. The study included 1209 strains of Staphylococcus spp. from two institutions; Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (National Institute of Pediatrics and Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (Mexico City Children's Hospital. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of all antibiotics were determined by the agar macrodilution technique and standard methods from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results. Resistance of S. aureus was 14.2% and that of coagulase-negative staphylococci was 53.4%. The activity of different antibiotics is presented in detail. Conclusions. Surveillance of strains resistant to methicillin is necessary.Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de la resistencia a la meticilina y la actividad de varios antibióticos. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron 1 209 cepas de Staphylococcus spp. procedentes de pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría y del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Se utilizó la técnica de dilución en placas con agar. El procedimiento e interpretación fueron acordes con lo establecido por el National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Resultados. La frecuencia de la resistencia de S. aureus fue de 14.2% y de 53.4% en los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. La actividad de otros antimicrobianos se presenta en el texto. Conclusiones. Es necesario vigilar continuamente la progresión de la resistencia de Staphylococcus spp. a la meticilina.

  12. Isolation and identification of Vibrio species in the Rio Bravo/Grande and water bodies from Reynosa, Tamaulipas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola-Avila, I; Martínez-Vázquez, V; Requena-Castro, R; Juárez-Rendón, K; Aguilera-Arreola, M G; Rivera, G; Bocanegra-García, V

    2018-05-23

    The Rio Bravo (Rio Grande) adjoins various states in the Mexican region and has a great importance in water distribution in the northeast Tamaulipas (Mexico). In this work 161 strains were isolated, identified and characterized from the water samples taken from the flow of the Rio Bravo and the two inner canals that cover Reynosa city. The strains were identified as V. cholerae (74.5%), Vibrio spp. (1.2%) and V. mimicus (0.6%). Furthermore, the detected virulence genes in the V. cholerae strains, were the hlyA, ompU, tcpA, toxR genes in 78.3%, 62.5%, 15.8% and 90.8%, respectively. Only the ompU and vmh genes were detected in the V. mimicus strain. These results indicate the presence of multi-toxigenic V. cholerae strains in the Rio Bravo/Grande and in the water bodies from Reynosa city, which could represent a risk for the exposed population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsDAHP1 protects zebrafish against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoj, Gopalakrishnan; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Four strains of N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading Pseudomonas spp., named PsDAHP1, PsDAHP2, PsDAHP3, and PsDAHP4 were isolated and identified from the intestine of Fenneropenaeus indicus. PsDAHP1 showed the highest AHL-degrading activity among the four isolates. PsDAHP1 inhibited biofilm-forming exopolysaccharide and altered cell surface hydrophobicity of virulent green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus DAHV2 (GFP-VpDAHV2). Oral administration of PsDAHP1 significantly reduced zebrafish mortality caused by GFP-VpDAHV2 challenge, and inhibited colonisation of GFP-VpDAHV2 in the gills and intestine of zebrafish as evidence by confocal laser scanning microscope and selective plating. Furthermore, zebrafish receiving PsDAHP1-containing feed had increased phagocytic cells of its leucocytes, increased serum activities of superoxide dismutase and lysozyme. The results suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsDAHP1 could protect zebrafish from V. parahaemolyticus infection by inhibiting biofilm formation and enhancing defence mechanisms of the fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  15. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cow milk in settled ... produced alpha haemolysin, 45.5% (n=25) produced beta haemolysin and ... resistant strains of S. aureus of animal and human biotypes and can serve as ...

  16. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, A.; Munir, T.; Rehman, S.; Najeeb, S.; Gilani, M.; Latif, M.; Ansari, M.; Saad, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  17. Preliminary study of transplanting as a process for reducing levels of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellstock oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, William C; Nelson, Chris; Hochman, Mona; Schwarz, John

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly strict standards for harvest of oysters for the raw, half-shell market (designated as "white tag") should increase the proportion of oysters not meeting these standards (designated as "green tag"). Transplanting of green tag oysters into highsalinity waters (>20 practical salinity units) was explored as a means of returning Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels to levels present on initial harvest. In summer 2011, oysters originally harvested in Louisiana were transplanted on two separate occasions (n = 2) to two sites in Mississippi Sound, AL: Sandy Bay and Dauphin Island. Oysters were tested for V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus densities (by using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration enrichment method) after 2, 7, and 14 days deployed, with baseline samples taken (i) at the time of original harvest and iced, (ii) from oysters refrigerated within 1 h of harvest at oysters not refrigerated during the harvest trip (green tag) but refrigerated after an 8-h trip. White and green tag oysters were sampled ∼24 h on arrival in Bon Secour, AL, put on ice, and shipped for analysis. Among baseline samples, there were no significant differences in V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus densities, although the densities in the green tag oysters tended to be highest. After transplanting, V. vulnificus densities were significantly highest on day 2, with no significant differences among any of the other days within a site. On day 2, Sandy Bay had significantly greater densities of V. vulnificus than the Dauphin Island site, but no other days differed from time zero. For Vibrio parahaemolyticus, densities were greatest on day 2 and lowest at time zero, but this did not differ significantly from abundance on day 14. Average survival was 83.4% (± 3.13 SD), with no differences between sites. These preliminary results indicate that high-salinity transplanting could be an effective method of converting green tag oysters to oysters suitable for

  18. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...... included. Most isolates were shown to be monophyletic with 98% of the isolates belonging to the single MLVA complex 621, to which nearly all included isolates from China also belonged. More importantly, all MLST-typed isolates belonged to CC59. Our study implies that the European S. aureus t437 population...

  19. A sensitive assay for Staphylococcus aureus nucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, J K; Vakil, B V; Patil, M S; Pandey, V N; Pradhan, D S [Bhabha Atomic Reserach Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry Div.

    1989-10-01

    A sensitive assay for staphylococcal nuclease involving incubation of the enzyme sample with heat-denatured ({sup 3}H) thymidine labelled DNA from E.coli, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of the radioactivity of acid-soluble nucleotides released has been developed. The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs ., 3 tabs.

  20. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  1. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300.......To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  2. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  3. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes produced by human pathogenic Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichi eMiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Vibrio produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes to obtain nutrients via digestion of various protein substrates. However, the enzymes secreted by human pathogenic species have been documented to modulate the bacterial virulence. Several species including Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus are known to produce thermolysin-like metalloproteases termed vibriolysin. The vibriolysin from V. vulnificus, a causative agent of serious systemic infection, is a major toxic factor eliciting the secondary skin damage characterized by formation of the hemorrhagic brae. The vibriolysin from intestinal pathogens may play indirect roles in pathogenicity because it can activate protein toxins and hemagglutinin by the limited proteolysis and can affect the bacterial attachment to or detachment from the intestinal surface by degradation of the mucus layer. Two species causing wound infections, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, produce another metalloproteases so-called collagenases. Although the detailed pathological roles have not been studied, the collagenase is potent to accelerate the bacterial dissemination through digestion of the protein components of the extracellular matrix. Some species produce cymotrypsin-like serine proteases, which may also affect the bacterial virulence potential. The intestinal pathogens produce sufficient amounts of the metalloprotease at the small intestinal temperature; however, the metalloprotease production by extra-intestinal pathogens is much higher around the body surface temperature. On the other hand, the serine protease is expressed only in the absence of the metalloprotease.

  4. Identification and Initial Characterization of Prophages in Vibrio campbellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lorenz

    Full Text Available Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine γ-proteobacterium Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 (formerly known as V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116, which presumably belong to the family of Myoviridae. One prophage was found on chromosome I and shows significant similarities to the previously identified phage ΦHAP-1. The second prophage region is located on chromosome II and is related to Vibrio phage kappa. Exposure of V. campbellii to mitomycin C induced the lytic cycle of two morphologically distinct phages and, as expected, extracellular DNA from induced cultures was found to be specifically enriched for the sequences previously identified as prophage regions. Heat stress (50°C, 30 min was also found to induce phage release in V. campbellii. Notably, promoter activity of two representative phage genes indicated heterogeneous phage induction within the population.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzali H.MD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Antibiotic resistance is a big challenge in infective disease like Cholera. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and trends of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae isolations in and around Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, samples were gathered using census method from 1998 to 2013 in Kashan, Iran. 1132 fecal samples of patients with acute diarrhea and 237 samples of suspected water samples were taken. The serotypes and biotypes were determined by an enzymatic method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using Disk Diffusion Method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. Fisher-exact and Chi-square tests were used to compare the statistical parameters. Findings: 96 fecal samples (8.5% and 18 water samples (7.6% were positive for Vibrio cholerae. Non-agglutinating (Nag isolates (75.4% were more common than serotype Inaba (13.2% and Ogawa (11.4%. Nag serotypes were mostly resistant to cefixime (44% and ampicillin (33%. In contaminated water samples also the most frequent cases were Nag serotype (50%. Nag serotype showed 22.2% of resistance to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae isolates in Kashan, Iran, are highly resistant to antibiotics, especially Nag serotypes.

  6. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  7. Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  9. Simulated hatchery system to assess bacteriophage efficacy against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Patil, J; Desai, Srividya Narayanamurthy; Roy, Panchali; Durgaiah, Murali; Saravanan, R Sanjeev; Vipra, Aradhana

    2014-12-02

    Vibriosis caused by luminous Vibrio harveyi commonly contributes to poor survival in shrimp hatcheries and aquaculture ponds. Lytic bacteriophages pathogenic for V. harveyi are currently being investigated as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent vibriosis. Here, 8 bacteriophages were isolated from oysters and clams using V. harveyi strains as baiting hosts. Among these bacteriophages, 1 strain (VHP6b) identified as broadly pathogenic for 27 V. harveyi strains examined was further characterized by electron microscopy and genome sequence analysis. Phage VHP6b possessed a tail and morphology consistent with it being a member of the family Siphoviridae, and its genome and proteome were most closely related to the Vibrio phages SSP02 and MAR10. An integrase gene essential for lysogeny was not evident. The ability of bacteriophage VHP6b to protect shrimp postlarvae against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi strain VH6 was demonstrated in a model system designed to simulate typical hatchery conditions. Bacteriophage treatment improved survival of postlarvae by 40 to 60% under these conditions, so therapies based on this or other bacteriophages may be useful in shrimp hatcheries.

  10. Determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus carriers in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. Lestari (Endang Sri); D.O. Duerink (Offra); U. Hadi (Usman); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); K. Kuntaman (Kuntaman); H. Wahjono (Hendro); W. Gardjito (Widjoseno); A. Soejoenoes (Ariawan); P. van den Broek (Peterhans); M. Keuter (Monique); I.C. Gyssens (Inge); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To identify determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus in both hospitalized patients and individuals from the community in two urban centres in Indonesia. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus cultures and data on recent antibiotic use, demographic, socioeconomic,

  11. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  12. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  13. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Panesso , Diana; Planet , Paul J.; Diaz , Lorena; Hugonnet , Jean-Emannuel; Tran , Truc T.; Narechania , Apurva; Munita , José M.; Rincon , Sandra; Carvajal , Lina P.; Reyes , Jinnethe; Londono , Alejandra; Smith , Hannah; Sebra , Robert; Deikus , Gintaras; Weinstock , George M

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  15. Detection of Vibrio harveyi using hemolysin primer in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Suriyani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to analyze the sensitivity and ability of primer hemolysin in detecting pathogenetic Vibrio on tiger shrimp post-larvae (PL exposed under different exposure times in media inoculated with Vibrio harveyi. The PL of tiger shrimp were infected with 106 cfu/mL of V. harveyi by immersion method for three, six, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The presence of hemolisin genes was detected by PCR techniques. The electrophoresis detected narrow hemolysin genes after PL were exposed for three and six hours. Clear visible bands of DNA Vibrio were observed for 12 hours of exposure. In contrast, no detected hemolysin gene of Vibrio was observed for PL exposed within 24, 48, and 72 hours. The rapid detection on Vibrio pathogenic for tiger shrimp PL should be conducted within three to 12 hours of exposure. No recommendation in utilizing this rapid detection for tiger shrimp PL exposed beyond 12 hours of V. harveyi. Keywords: specific primer, luminous Vibrio bacteria, pathogenic, PCR method, hemolysin gene  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan atau sensitivitas primer hemolisin dalam mendeteksi Vibrio patogen dengan lama pemaparan berbeda. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menginfeksikan Vibrio harveyi pada benur udang dengan metode perendaman pada konsentrasi 106 cfu/mL. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada waktu tiga, enam, 12, 24, 48, dan 72 jam pascainfeksi. Keberadaan gen hemolisin pada bakteri V. harveyi dideteksi menggunakan teknik polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Hasil elektroforesis memperlihatkan bahwa pada pemaparan tiga dan enam jam keberadaan gen hemolisin dari bakteri Vibrio patogen yang diinfeksikan sudah dapat terdeteksi pada benur walaupun masih terlihat tipis. Pada pemaparan 12 jam terlihat sangat jelas pita-pita DNA dari bakteri patogen. Sedangkan pada pemaparan 24, 48, dan 72 jam sudah tidak terdeteksi lagi gen hemolisin dari bakteri Vibrio. Hal ini diduga disebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi

  16. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  17. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  18. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  19. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples collected from patients in Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance to quinolones by the agar disk diffusion susceptibility test and the agar ...

  20. Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories ...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A- and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Karlsdóttir, Edda

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus are among the most common causes of food poisoning. Acting as superantigens they intoxicate the organism by causing a massive uncontrolled T cell activation that ultimately may lead to toxic shock and death. In contrast to our detailed knowledge regarding...

  2. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantosti, Annalisa; Sanchini, Andrea; Monaco, Monica

    2007-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can exemplify better than any other human pathogen the adaptive evolution of bacteria in the antibiotic era, as it has demonstrated a unique ability to quickly respond to each new antibiotic with the development of a resistance mechanism, starting with penicillin and methicillin, until the most recent, linezolid and daptomycin. Resistance mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic (penicillinase and aminoglycoside-modification enzymes), alteration of the target with decreased affinity for the antibiotic (notable examples being penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and D-Ala-D-Lac of peptidoglycan precursors of vancomycin-resistant strains), trapping of the antibiotic (for vancomycin and possibly daptomycin) and efflux pumps (fluoroquinolones and tetracycline). Complex genetic arrays (staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec elements or the vanA operon) have been acquired by S. aureus through horizontal gene transfer, while resistance to other antibiotics, including some of the most recent ones (e.g., fluoroquinolones, linezolid and daptomycin) have developed through spontaneous mutations and positive selection. Detection of the resistance mechanisms and their genetic basis is an important support to antibiotic susceptibility surveillance in S. aureus.

  3. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  4. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 1. The presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in coastal areas of Sumatra and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A study was carried out on the presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples of sediment and seafoods originating from the eastern coast of Sumatra and the north coastal areas of Java. In a total of 2.434 samples of sediment and seafoods, 79 (3,3%) were found to contain vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the 467 sediment samples, 1.650 fish, 133 shellfish, 123 shrimps, and 61 crab samples, 22 (4.7%), 41 (2.5%), 12 (9.0%), 2 (1,6%) and 2 (3.3%) were positive for vibrio parahaemolyticus, respectively. Based on the sampling areas, the high incidence of vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples collected from Riau (5.4%), while the samples from East Java was only about 0.4%. The contamination level of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples collected from coastal areas of Sumatra and Java is relatively lower compared with the data obtained from some other coastal areas in the United States and Japan. (author)

  5. [Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among food service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Lavín, María Paula; Oyarzo, Carolina; Escudero, Carlos; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; Valenzuela, Francisco J

    2017-12-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Among these, 26% were toxin A producers. Conclusions Half of the sampled workers carried Staphylococcus aureus and a quarter of these produced type A enterotoxin.

  6. Bacterial and Aspergillus spp. Contamination of Domestic Kitchens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S.

    2007-01-01

    A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)

  7. Structural organization of the transfer RNA operon I of Vibrio cholerae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Ghatak A, Majumdar A and Ghosh R K 2005 Structural organization of the transfer RNA operon I of Vibrio cholerae: Differences ..... clonal relationship are of utmost importance. ... rately derived from environmental, nontoxigenic, non-O1.

  8. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor from contaminated water by water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, W M; Huq, A; Ahmed, Q S; Saeed, Y A

    1981-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  9. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae Biotype eltor from Contaminated Water by Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Spira, William M.; Huq, Anwarul; Ahmed, Qazi Shafi; Saeed, Yusuf A.

    1981-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  10. Risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: interpretative summary and technical report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "Vibrio parahaemolyticus are common causes of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. These marine micro-organisms, native in estuarine waters globally, concentrate in the gut of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, clams and mussels...

  11. Corrosion of mild steel and stainless steel by marine Vibrio sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wagh, A.B.

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel and mild steel coupons exposed to media with and without a bacterial culture Vibrio sp. was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Pitting type of corrosion was noticed which was more...

  12. INFLUENCE OF SEASONAL FACTORS ON OYSTER HEMOCYTE KILLING OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation of cellular defenses of oyster Crassostrea virginica against Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined from June 1997 to December 1998 using a recently developed bactericidal assay that utilizes a tetrazolium dye. Mean hemocyte numbers, plasma lysozyme, and P. mari...

  13. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSES ON CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three clinical (2030, 2062, and 2107) and three environmental (1094, 1163, and ATCC 17802) isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were exposed to hemocytes and plasma collected from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to determine their susceptibility to putative oyster defenses. Clinic...

  14. Microbiota of Vibrio sp. in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of vibrios in the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp. Materials and methods. Vibrios from the hepatopancreas of fifteen samples of five specimens each, of apparently healthy Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were isolated, identified and quantified. Results. The vibrio density ranged from 430 to 2,400 MPN g-1 (rs MPN cm-1=-0.114; rs MPN g-1 = 0.211. Thirty isolations were obtained, most of which belonged to the species V. cholerae (n=11 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=7. Conclusions. The outcomes of the present study suggest that, even in the absence of symptoms of vibriosis, the microbiota of the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp may include sucrose positive and negative vibrios.

  15. [Environmental drivers of emergence and spreading of Vibrio epidemics in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Ronnie G; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2011-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus are the two Vibrio species with a major impact on human health. Diseases caused by both pathogens are acquiring increasing relevance due to their expansion at global scale. In this paper, we resume the ecological aspects associated with the arrival and spreading of infections caused by V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae in Peru from a South American perspective. Moreover, we discuss the similarities in the emergence in Peru of cholera cases in 1991 and V. parahaemolyticus infections in 1997. These constituted exceptional experiments to evaluate the relationships between the Vibrio epidemics and changes in the environment. The epidemic radiations of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus constitute to clear examples supporting the oceanic dispersion of pathogenic vibrios and have enabled the identification of El Niño events as a potential mechanism for the spreading of diseases through the ocean.

  16. Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio Cholerae Paradigm (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, Rita

    2012-06-01

    Rita Colwell on "Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio cholerae paradigm" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  17. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  18. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; López-Martínez, Irma; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2014-10-30

    We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTXφ and RS1φ. Copyright © 2014 Díaz-Quiñonez et al.

  19. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.

    : Gammaproteobacteria Order : Vibrionales Family : Vibrionaceae Genus : Vibrio Species : harveyi Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bioluminescent marine bacterium. It is both a free- living, as well as a symbiont with many... marine animals. In free-living form, it can be found throughout the water column, in the sediment as well as on the exterior surfaces of marine organisms. It causes systemic infection resulting in mortalities in larvae and post-larvae, which sometimes...

  20. Potensi Ekstrak Daun Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) Sebagai Penghambat Bakteri Vibrio harveyi

    OpenAIRE

    Gde Raka Angga Kartika; Sri Andayani; Soelistyowati Soelistyowati

    2016-01-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is a plant that can treat various kinds of diseases, because this plant has a high antioxidant content and as an antibacterial and antiviral. Vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio harveyi is a serious problem in marine and brackish culture, this disease can cause death for shrimp and fish that farmed in marine or brackish. This study aims to determine the potential of using leaf extract Binahong with different concentrations as Vibrio harveyi inhibiti...

  1. Molecular variations in Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi in shrimp-farming systems upon stress

    OpenAIRE

    Santhyia,Anix Vivek; Mulloorpeedikayil,Rosalind George; Kollanoor,Riji John; Jeyaseelan,Prince M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. Samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from Southern Indian coastal shrimp farms. Vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16S rDNA and gyrB gene specific PCR. The bacterial strains were genotyped by PCR fingerprinting using GTG(5) and IS (Insertion Sequence) primers. Sev...

  2. [Factors of persistence and (or) pathogenicity in vibrios and aeromonads belonging to different ecotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Boĭko, A V; Zhuravleva, L A

    1998-01-01

    Factors of persistence and/or pathogenicity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila (hemolytic, lipase, lecithin, DNAase, RNAase, antilysozyme, "anti-interferon", anticomplementary activities and capacity for absorbing Congo red) were studied. The study revealed the interspecific and subpopulation (hospital and extraorganismal parts of the population) differences in the activity of the manifestation of these factors. Strong dependence of the whole complex of persistence and pathogenicity factors of their belonging to the hostal part of Vibrio and Aeromonas populations was shown.

  3. Genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the diversity and topography of S. aureus colonizing BU patients during treatment.We investigated the presence, diversity, and spatio-temporal distribution of S. aureus in 30 confirmed BU patients from Ghana during treatment. S. aureus was isolated from nose and wound swabs, and by replica plating of wound dressings collected bi-weekly from patients. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF and spa-typing, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested.Nineteen (63% of the 30 BU patients tested positive for S. aureus at least once during the sampling period, yielding 407 S. aureus isolates. Detailed analysis of 91 isolates grouped these isolates into 13 MLVF clusters and 13 spa-types. Five (26% S. aureus-positive BU patients carried the same S. aureus genotype in their anterior nares and wounds. S. aureus isolates from the wounds of seven (37% patients were distributed over two different MLVF clusters. Wounds of three (16% patients were colonized with isolates belonging to two different genotypes at the same time, and five (26% patients were colonized with different S. aureus types over time. Five (17% of the 30 included BU patients tested positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA.The present study showed that the wounds of many BU patients were contaminated with S. aureus, and that many BU patients from the different communities carried the same S. aureus genotype during treatment. This calls for improved wound care and hygiene.

  4. Genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Rossen, John W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the diversity and topography of S. aureus colonizing BU patients during treatment. We investigated the presence, diversity, and spatio-temporal distribution of S. aureus in 30 confirmed BU patients from Ghana during treatment. S. aureus was isolated from nose and wound swabs, and by replica plating of wound dressings collected bi-weekly from patients. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and spa-typing, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested. Nineteen (63%) of the 30 BU patients tested positive for S. aureus at least once during the sampling period, yielding 407 S. aureus isolates. Detailed analysis of 91 isolates grouped these isolates into 13 MLVF clusters and 13 spa-types. Five (26%) S. aureus-positive BU patients carried the same S. aureus genotype in their anterior nares and wounds. S. aureus isolates from the wounds of seven (37%) patients were distributed over two different MLVF clusters. Wounds of three (16%) patients were colonized with isolates belonging to two different genotypes at the same time, and five (26%) patients were colonized with different S. aureus types over time. Five (17%) of the 30 included BU patients tested positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The present study showed that the wounds of many BU patients were contaminated with S. aureus, and that many BU patients from the different communities carried the same S. aureus genotype during treatment. This calls for improved wound care and hygiene.

  5. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Romero-Vivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  7. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from the milk of dairy cows in Brazil Isolamento de Arcobacter spp do leite de vacas leiteiras no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pianta

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriologic examinations were performed on 188 milk samples collected from cows from 11 farms for diagnosis of mastitis in three cities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Among the common causes of mastitis, the most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Corynebacterium sp, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus agalactiae. Bacteriologic examination of 32 milk samples from one farm didn't show bacteria known as common etiologic agent of mastitis. Six samples of Arcobacter spp typed by genotypic tests as Arcobacter cryaerophilus (five strains and Arcobacter butzleri (one strain were isolated from cows' milk of that farm. It is reported the isolation of Arcobacter species from the milk of cows in absence of clinical signs of mastitis. This is the first report of the detection of the microorganisms in the milk of dairy cows in Brazil. No previous reports are known from other countries.Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos em 188 amostras de leite colhidas de vacas de 11 propriedades leiteiras para diagnóstico de mastite, em três municípios no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Entre as causas comuns de mastite, os isolados mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus aureus, seguido de Corynebacterium sp, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae e Streptococcus agalactiae. O exame bacteriológico realizado em 32 amostras de leite de vacas de uma propriedade não demonstrou a presença de bactérias conhecidas como causadoras de mastite. Foram isoladas do leite de vacas desta propriedade seis amostras de Arcobacter spp, classificadas por testes moleculares como Arcobacter cryaerophilus (cinco amostras e Arcobacter butzleri (uma amostra. É relatado o isolamento de espécies de Arcobacter do leite de vacas na ausência de sinais clínicos de mastite. Este é o primeiro relato da detecção dos microorganismos no leite de vacas leiteiras no Brasil.

  8. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . cholerae and the invasion plasmid antigen gene (ipaH) of virulent Shigella spp., was performed and the PCR products were visualised by agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay allowed the detection of as few as 1 cfu/100 ml of V. cholerae ...

  9. Natural transformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A rapid method to create genetic deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalapati, Suneeta; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Servage, Kelly; De Nisco, Nicole J; Dalia, Ankur B; Orth, Kim

    2018-03-19

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome. Classically, genetic deletions in V. parahaemolyticus are performed using a laborious, lengthy, multi-step process. Herein, we describe a fast and efficient method to edit this bacterium's genome based on V. parahaemolyticus natural competence. Although this method is similar to one previously described, V. parahaemolyticus requires counter selection for curing of acquired plasmids due to its recalcitrant nature of retaining extrachromosomal DNA. We believe this approach will be of use to the Vibrio community. Importance Spreading of Vibrios throughout the world correlates with increased global temperatures. As they spread, they find new niches to survive, proliferate and invade. Therefore, genetic manipulation of Vibrios is of utmost importance for studying these species. Herein, we have delineated and validated a rapid method to create genetic deletions in Vibrio parahaemolyticus This study provides insightful methodology for studies with other Vibrio species. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the seafood marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadi, Nasreldin; Radu, Son; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2004-07-01

    Seafood samples obtained in seafood markets and supermarkets at 11 sites selected from four states in Malaysia were examined for the presence of nine potentially pathogenic species from the genus Vibrio between July 1998 and June 1999. We examined 768 sample sets that included shrimp, squid, crab, cockles, and mussels. We extensively examined shrimp samples from Selangor State to determine seasonal variation of Vibrio populations. Eight potentially pathogenic Vibrio species were detected, with overall incidence in the samples at 4.6% for V. cholerae, 4.7% for V. parahaemolyticus, 6.0% for V. vulnificus, 11% for V. alginolyticus, 9.9% for V. metschnikovii, 1.3% for V. mimicus, 13% for V. damsela, 7.6% for V. fluvialis, and 52% for a combined population of all of the above. As many as eight Vibrio species were detected in shrimp and only four in squid and peel mussels. The overall percent incidence of any of the eight vibrios was highest (82%) in cockles (Anadara granosa) among the seafoods examined and was highest (100%) in Kuching, Sarawak State, and lowest (25%) in Penang, Pulau Penang State, among the sampling sites. Of 97 strains of V. cholerae isolated, one strain belonged to the O1 serotype and 14 to the O139 serotype. The results indicate that the various seafood markets in Malaysia are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Vibrio species regardless of the season and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer protection measures.

  11. Vibrio rotiferianus sp. nov., isolated from cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Swings, J

    2003-01-01

    Five Gram-negative bacterial strains, oxidase-positive, motile by means of more than one polar flagella, facultative anaerobe, arginine dihydrolase-negative, lysine- and omithine decarboxylase-positive, sensitive to the vibriostatic agent O/129, were isolated from a flow-through rotifer culture system in Gent, Belgium, and previously characterized by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. Comparison of the 16S rDNA sequence of strain LMG 21460T indicated close relationships (approximately 99% similarity) to Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. However, DNA hybridization experiments revealed similarity values below 70% with its closest species V. campbellii and V. harveyi. Additionally, the analysed strains differ from related Vibrio species by the utilization of melibiose and production of acid from L-arabinose and amygdalin. Among the strains analysed, differences were observed in some phenotypic characters, particularly susceptibility to ampicillin, polymyxin B and amikacin, and urease activity. The major fatty acids identified were 16:0, 18:1 omega7c, 14:0, 12:0 3-OH and 18:0. Vibrio rotiferianus sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain LMG 21460T (=CAIM 577T); it has a DNA G+C content of 44.5 +/- 0.01 mol%.

  12. Suscetibilidade in vitro a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus spp e Micrococcus spp isoladas a partir de mucosa oral de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aspis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 29 macacos-pregos (Cebus apella. Foram colhidas 50 amostras de suabe da mucosa oral, junto à transição muco-gengival maxilar, com auxílio de zaragatoas esterilizadas, embebidas em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame clínico para avaliação periodontal. As amostras obtidas foram cultivadas em meios apropriados: caldo simples, caldo BHI, e ágar sangue para o isolamento de cocos Gram-positivos aeróbios da família Micrococcaceae. Para sua classificação utilizou-se as provas de catalase, Staphy-test (teste rápido para caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus e sensibilidade à bacitracina. Foram identificados 73,1% de Staphylococcus spp; 15,4% de Staphylococcus aureus; e 11,5% Micrococcus spp. As cepas isoladas foram testadas em relação à sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Verificou-se para as cepas de Staphylococcus spp, 94,7% de sensibilidade a cefalotina e resistência de 89,5% à penicilina, 97,4% à oxacilina, 55,3% à tetraciclina, 57,9% à clindamicina e 63,2% à amoxicilina. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que a cefalotina foi o antibiótico para o qual as amsotras de Staphylococcus spp estudadas apresentaram, in vitro, maior grau de sensibilidade.

  13. Acute Otitis due to Vibrio fluvialis after Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Jen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old female presented with purulent exudate through the left auditive duct and pain in the left ear region, which intensified during mastication. After collection of the pus from the left ear lesion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for seven days was prescribed for a presumed diagnosis of acute otitis. Four days later, the pus culture grew V. fluvialis which is further identified by API 20E identification system (bioMérieux. Following the successful completion of a course of antibiotics, the patient recovered completely and without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Vibrio fluvialis otitis after swimming in an immunocompetent patient.

  14. Aptamer-Based Paper Strip Sensor for Detecting Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woo-Ri; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Ko, Jung Ho; Ahn, Ji-Young; Min, Jiho; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2018-05-14

    Aptamer-based paper strip sensor for detecting Vibrio fischeri was developed. Our method was based on the aptamer sandwich assay between whole live cells, V. fischeri and DNA aptamer probes. Following 9 rounds of Cell-SELEX and one of the negative-SELEX, V. fischeri Cell Aptamer (VFCA)-02 and -03 were isolated, with the former showing approximately 10-fold greater avidity (in the subnanomolar range) for the target cells when arrayed on a surface. The colorimetric response of a paper sensor based on VFCA-02 was linear in the range of 4 × 10 1 to 4 × 10 5 CFU/mL of target cell by using scanning reader. The linear regression correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) was 0.9809. This system shows promise for use in aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticle probes in paper strip format for in-field detection of marine bioindicating bacteria.

  15. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Elena Martínez; Macek, Miroslav; Galván, María Teresa Castro

    2004-01-01

    In situ elimination of fluorescently labelled Vibrio cholerae (FLB) was measured in two saline water bodies in Mexico: in a brackish water lagoon, Mecoacán (Gulf of Mexico; State of Tabasco) and an athalassohaline lake, Alchichica (State of Puebla). Disappearance rates of fluorescently labelled V. cholera O1 showed that they were eliminated from the environment at an average rate of 32% and 63%/day, respectively (based on the bacterial standing stocks). The indirect immunofluorescence method confirmed the presence of V. cholerae O1 in the lagoon. However, the elimination of FLB was not directly related either to the presence or absence of the bacterium in the water body or to the phytoplankton concentration.

  16. Attenuation of Vibrio fischeri quorum sensing using rationally designed polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Stavroulakis, Georgios; Karim, Kal; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Sharma, Anant; Eboigbodin, Kevin E; Robinson, Gary K; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2010-04-12

    A first attempt to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS) of a marine heterotroph microorganism, Vibrio fischeri , using signal molecule-sequestering polymers (SSPs) is presented. A set of rationally designed polymers with affinity toward a signal molecule of V. fischeri , N-(beta-ketocaproyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-AHL) was produced. It is reported that computationally designed polymers could sequester a signal molecule of V. fischeri and prevent QS-controlled phenotypes (in this case, bioluminescence) from being up-regulated. It was proven that the attenuation of bioluminescence of V. fischeri was due to sequestration of the signal molecule by specific polymers and not due to the toxicity of polymer or nonspecific depletion of nutrients. The ability to disrupt the bacterial communication using easy to synthesize and chemically inert polymers could provide a new concept for the development of pharmaceuticals and susceptible device coatings such as catheters.

  17. Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePukatzki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and exits the human host in vast numbers during diarrheal purges. How V. cholerae rapidly reaches such high numbers during each purge is not clearly understood. We propose that V. cholerae employs its bactericidal type VI secretion system to engage in intraspecies and intraguild predation for nutrient acquisition to support rapid growth and multiplication.

  18. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-I; Jan, Man-Ser; Chi, Hui-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+), ocean temperature (+), ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+), maximum daily rainfall (current (−) and one month ago (−)), and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (−)) had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future. PMID:26848675

  19. Bile Sensing: The Activation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey-Hing Goh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria must develop resistance to various inhospitable conditions in order to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bile, which is secreted by the liver, and plays an important role in food digestion also has antimicrobial properties and is able to disrupt cellular homeostasis. Paradoxically, although bile is one of the guts defenses, many studies have reported that bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus can sense bile and use its presence as an environmental cue to upregulate virulence genes during infection. This article aims to discuss how bile is detected by V. parahaemolyticus and its role in regulating type III secretion system 2 leading to human infection. This bile–bacteria interaction pathway gives us a clearer understanding of the biochemical and structural analysis of the bacterial receptors involved in mediating a response to bile salts which appear to be a significant environmental cue during initiation of an infection.

  20. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+, ocean temperature (+, ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+, maximum daily rainfall (current (− and one month ago (−, and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (− had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future.

  1. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-I; Jan, Man-Ser; Chi, Hui-Ju

    2016-02-03

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+), ocean temperature (+), ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+), maximum daily rainfall (current (-) and one month ago (-)), and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (-)) had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future.

  2. Vibrio cholerae infection, novel drug targets and phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil, Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe; Singh, Durg V

    2011-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Although antibiotic therapy shortens the duration of diarrhea, excessive use has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae. Mobile genetic elements have been shown to be largely responsible for the shift of drug resistance genes in bacteria, including some V. cholerae strains. Quorum sensing communication systems are used for interaction among bacteria and for sensing environmental signals. Sequence analysis of the ctxB gene of toxigenic V. cholerae strains demonstrated its presence in multiple cholera toxin genotypes. Moreover, bacteriophage that lyse the bacterium have been reported to modulate epidemics by decreasing the required infectious dose of the bacterium. In this article, we will briefly discuss the disease, its clinical manifestation, antimicrobial resistance and the novel approaches to locate drug targets to treat cholera.

  3. Competitive Dominance by a Bacteriocin-Producing Vibrio harveyi Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, P R; Sizemore, R K

    1982-09-01

    Vibrio (Beneckea) harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, has been shown to produce a bacteriocin-like substance the production of which is mediated by a plasmid. This substance is assumed to be proteinaceous because of its sensitivity to certain proteolytic enzymes. It is stable at low temperatures and can be concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation or negative-pressure dialysis. The molecular weight of the bacteriocin was determined to be 2.4 x 10 by molecular exclusion chromatography. Competition experiments indicated that bacteriocin-producing strains predominated over cured variants of the same strain in broth culture experiments. We studied several environmental parameters (pH, salinity, temperature, nutrient concentration) to determine their effects on the competitive advantage bestowed on a bacteriocin-producing strain. Under simulated free-living conditions, no competitive advantage attributable to bacteriocin production was observed. In a simulated enteric habitat, a bacteriocin-producing strain showed dramatic (>90%) inhibition of the sensitive strain within 24 h.

  4. Sequence and features of the tryptophan operon of Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I P; Han, C Y; Silverman, M

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the trp operon of the marine enteric bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus is presented. The gene order E, G, D, C(F), B, A is identical to that of other enterics. The structural genes of the operon are preceded by a long leader region encoding a 41-residue peptide containing five tryptophan residues. The organization of the leader region suggests that transcription of the operon is subject to attenuation control. The promoter-operator region of the V. parahemolyticus trp operon is almost identical to the corresponding promoter-operator of E. coli. The similarities suggest that promoter strength and operator function are identical in the two species, and that transcription initiation is regulated by repression. The operon appears to lack the internal promoter within trpD that is common in terrestrial enteric species.

  5. Virulence of luminous vibrios to Artemia franciscana nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodriguez, S A; Roque, A; Lizarraga-Partida, M L; Guerra-Flores, A L; Gomez-Gill, B

    2003-02-27

    From healthy and diseased penaeid shrimp from Asia and the Americas, 25 luminous and 2 non-luminous bacterial strains were isolated, and 14 were phenotypically identified as Vibrio harveyi; 9 isolates produced significant mortalities (45 to 80%) in Artemia franciscana nauplii at inoculation densities of 10(5) to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) compared to the controls (unchallenged nauplii). The maximum number of bacteria ingested (bioencapsulated) by the Artemia nauplii varied from less than 10 to 10(3) CFU nauplius(-1) and no significant relationship was observed between the density of bacteria inoculated, the amount of bacteria ingested, and naupliar mortality. Significant correlations were obtained between naupliar mortality and production of proteases, phospholipases or siderophores, but not between mortality and lipase production, gelatinase production, hydrophobicity or hemolytic activity. The results suggest that virulence of the strains tested was more related to the production of particular exoenzymes than to the measured colonization factors.

  6. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis Detecção de resistência a meticilina e produção do fator slime por Staphylococcus aureus em mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Ciftci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them were found to be methicillin resistant and 4 (30.7% were positive for mecA gene. Although 22 of 59 (37.2% S. aureus isolates were slime-producing in Congo Red Agar, in PCR analysis only 15 were positive for both icaA and icaD genes. Sixteen and 38 out of 59 strains were positive for icaA and icaD gene, respectively. Only 2 of 59 strains were positive for both methicillin resistance and slime producing, phenotypically, suggesting lack of correlation between methicillin resistance and slime production in these isolates. In conclusion, the optimized triplex PCR in this study was useful for rapid and reliable detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Furthermore, only PCR targetting icaA and icaD may not sufficient to detect slime production and further studies targetting other ica genes should be conducted for accurate evaluation of slime production characters of S. aureus strains.Este estudo objetivou a detecção de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina e produtor do fator slime em casos de mastite bovina. Um PCR triplex foi otimizado, com alvo no genes 16SrRNA, nuc e mecA para detecção de Staphylococcus spp, S. aureus e resistencia a meticilina, respectivamente. Para detecção das cepas produtoras do fator slime, empregou-se um PCR com alvo nos genes icaA e icaD. No estudo, 59 cepas foram identificadas como S. aureus por testes convencionais e PCR, sendo 13 resistentes a meticilina e quatro positivas para o gene mecA. Embora 22 das 59 cepas

  7. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P oysters stored for 5 h) were not significantly different (P oysters. Vv and total and pathogenic Vp levels were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  8. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  9. Autoinducers act as biological timers in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetzberger, Claudia; Reiger, Matthias; Fekete, Agnes; Schell, Ursula; Stambrau, Nina; Plener, Laure; Kopka, Joachim; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Hilbi, Hubert; Jung, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.

  10. Autoinducers act as biological timers in Vibrio harveyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Anetzberger

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii, one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Dynamics of Vibrio with virulence genes detected in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California: implications for marine mammal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie N; Greig, Denise J; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Gulland, Frances M D; Harvey, James T

    2013-05-01

    Given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. Seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including Vibrio that may affect their health. To understand Vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent Vibrio in free-ranging and stranded Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California. Vibrio prevalence did not vary with season and was greater in free-ranging seals (29 %, n = 319) compared with stranded seals (17 %, n = 189). Of the factors tested, location, turbidity, and/or salinity best predicted Vibrio prevalence in free-ranging seals. The relationship of environmental factors with Vibrio prevalence differed by location and may be related to oceanographic or terrestrial contributions to water quality. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae were observed in seals, with V. cholerae found almost exclusively in stranded pups and yearlings. Additionally, virulence genes (trh and tdh) were detected in V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Vibrio cholerae isolates lacked targeted virulence genes, but were hemolytic. Three out of four stranded pups with V. parahaemolyticus (trh+ and/or tdh+) died in rehabilitation, but the role of Vibrio in causing mortality is unclear, and Vibrio expression of virulence genes should be investigated. Considering that humans share the environment and food resources with seals, potentially virulent Vibrio observed in seals also may be of concern to human health.

  13. Investigating the decay rates of Escherichia coli relative to Vibrio parahemolyticus and Salmonella Typhi in tropical coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Weng; Ng, Angie Yee Fang; Bong, Chui Wei; Narayanan, Kumaran; Sim, Edmund Ui Hang; Ng, Ching Ching

    2011-02-01

    Using the size fractionation method, we measured the decay rates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. The size fractions were total or unfiltered, 0.7 μm) than in the smaller fraction (Vibrio grew well in seawater. There was usually an increase in Vibrio after one day incubation. Our results confirmed that decay or loss rates of E. coli did not match that of Vibrio, and also did not correlate with Salmonella decay rates. However E. coli showed persistence where its decay rates were generally lower than Salmonella. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  15. TOC-39, a novel parenteral broad-spectrum cephalosporin with excellent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaki, H; Akagi, H; Masaru, Y; Otani, T; Hyodo, A; Hiramatsu, K

    1995-01-01

    TOC-39, a new parenteral cephalosporin, is a hydroxyimino-type cephem antibiotic with vinylthio-pyridyl moiety at the 3 position. TOC-39 was evaluated for antibacterial activity against various clinically isolated strains. TOC-39 had excellent activity, stronger than that of methicillin, oxacillin, the cephalosporins tested, imipenem, gentamicin, minocycline, tobramycin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and had an MIC comparable to that of vancomycin (the MICs of TOC-39 and vancomycin for 90% of the strains tested were 3.13 and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively). Against Enterococcus faecalis strains, which are resistant to cephalosporins, TOC-39 was twice as active as ampicillin. Against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae, TOC-39 was twice as active as or more active than cefotiam, ceftazidime, flomoxef, and cefpirome. Against Streptococcus pyogenes, TOC-39 was superior to cefotiam, ceftazidime, and flomoxef and was similar to cefpirome. In addition, the activity of TOC-39 was equal to or greater than that of cefotiam, ceftazidime, flomoxef, and cefpirome against Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Morganella morganii. In terms of bactericidal effect against MRSA, TOC-39 was superior to vancomycin. No mutant resistant to TOC-39 or vancomycin was obtained from susceptible MRSA strains. In murine systemic infection models, TOC-39 showed potent activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Against highly MRSA, the activity of TOC-39 was comparable to that of vancomycin. PMID:7625799

  16. Effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J; Wiszniewska, A

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 2 Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The study also considered water activity (a(w)) and pH of the products investigated. The results obtained are demonstrated in 5 diagrams. It was found that among 15 strains of Lactobacillus aureus investigated only one strain, Lactobacillus helveticus T 78, showed antagonistic effect on studied strains of Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. Five other strains of Lactobacillus spp. displayed the antagonistic effect in vitro only. The temperature and incubation time of sausages, but also the type of sausage stuffing were found to have a distinct or slight influence, respectively, on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria. However, this phenomenon was affected by neither a(w) nor pH.

  17. Testing the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has in view to establish and test the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics. There are different injuries caused by superficial skin infections: from simple pimples to infections that endanger our lives, like an abscess, furuncle septicemia, meningitis, toxic food, urinary tract infection at sexually active young women. Samples have been taken from 30 people with staphylococcus infections. They were nineteen women and eleven men, between the age of 2 and 79. During this study some antibiograms have been made, based on pharyngeal exudates, acne secretion and urine culture. It has been established that the most efficient recommended antibiotics are: oxacilin, erythromycin, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. The penicillin turned out to be less efficient to remove and destroy the Staphylococcus aureus species.

  18. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1–5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  19. Recovery and evolutionary analysis of complete integron gene cassette arrays from Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillings Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrons are genetic elements capable of the acquisition, rearrangement and expression of genes contained in gene cassettes. Gene cassettes generally consist of a promoterless gene associated with a recombination site known as a 59-base element (59-be. Multiple insertion events can lead to the assembly of large integron-associated cassette arrays. The most striking examples are found in Vibrio, where such cassette arrays are widespread and can range from 30 kb to 150 kb. Besides those found in completely sequenced genomes, no such array has yet been recovered in its entirety. We describe an approach to systematically isolate, sequence and annotate large integron gene cassette arrays from bacterial strains. Results The complete Vibrio sp. DAT722 integron cassette array was determined through the streamlined approach described here. To place it in an evolutionary context, we compare the DAT722 array to known vibrio arrays and performed phylogenetic analyses for all of its components (integrase, 59-be sites, gene cassette encoded genes. It differs extensively in terms of genomic context as well as gene cassette content and organization. The phylogenetic tree of the 59-be sites collectively found in the Vibrio gene cassette pool suggests frequent transfer of cassettes within and between Vibrio species, with slower transfer rates between more phylogenetically distant relatives. We also identify multiple cases where non-integron chromosomal genes seem to have been assembled into gene cassettes and others where cassettes have been inserted into chromosomal locations outside integrons. Conclusion Our systematic approach greatly facilitates the isolation and annotation of large integrons gene cassette arrays. Comparative analysis of the Vibrio sp. DAT722 integron obtained through this approach to those found in other vibrios confirms the role of this genetic element in promoting lateral gene transfer and suggests a high rate of gene

  20. Relative contributions of Vibrio polysaccharide and quorum sensing to the resistance of Vibrio cholerae to predation by heterotrophic protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Sun

    Full Text Available Protozoan grazing is a major mortality factor faced by bacteria in the environment. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, and its survival depends on its ability to respond to stresses, such as predation by heterotrophic protists. Previous results show that grazing pressure induces biofilm formation and enhances a smooth to rugose morphotypic shift, due to increased expression of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. In addition to negatively controlling vps genes, the global quorum sensing (QS regulator, HapR, plays a role in grazing resistance as the ΔhapR strain is efficiently consumed while the wild type (WT is not. Here, the relative and combined contributions of VPS and QS to grazing resistance were investigated by exposing VPS and HapR mutants and double mutants in VPS and HapR encoding genes at different phases of biofilm development to amoeboid and flagellate grazers. Data show that the WT biofilms were grazing resistant, the VPS mutants were less resistant than the WT strain, but more resistant than the QS mutant strain, and that QS contributes to grazing resistance mainly in mature biofilms. In addition, grazing effects on biofilms of mixed WT and QS mutant strains were investigated. The competitive fitness of each strain in mixed biofilms was determined by CFU and microscopy. Data show that protozoa selectively grazed the QS mutant in mixed biofilms, resulting in changes in the composition of the mixed community. A small proportion of QS mutant cells which comprised 4% of the mixed biofilm biovolume were embedded in grazing resistant WT microcolonies and shielded from predation, indicating the existence of associational protection in mixed biofilms.

  1. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  2. Xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hwiesh, Abdulla K.

    2007-01-01

    A 44-year-old man with xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis presented with abdominal distention, left lumber pain, fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight. He had been known to have diabetes mellitus type II for 20 years and he was diagnosed to have a left renal stone three months prior to this presentation. The patient's urine and the left psous abscess grew staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  3. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Humanized Mouse Models of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

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    Dane Parker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice. These results have raised questions as to the utility of mice to predict patient outcome and suggest that humanized mice might prove useful in modeling infection. The development of humanized mouse models of S. aureus infection will allow us to assess the contribution of several human-specific virulence factors, in addition to exploring components of the human immune system in protection against S. aureus infection. Their use is discussed in light of several recently reported studies.

  5. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  6. Effect of dietary formic acid and astaxanthin on the survival and growth of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and their resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchird, Niti; Rorkwiree, Phitsanu; Rairat, Tirawat

    2015-01-01

    A 90-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of formic acid (FA) and astaxanthin (AX) on growth, survival, immune parameters, and tolerance to Vibrio infection in Pacific white shrimp. The study was divided into two experiments. In experiment 1, postlarvae-12 were randomly distributed into six groups and then fed four times daily with six experimental diets contained 0.3 % FA, 0.6 % FA, 50 ppm AX, 0.3 % FA + 50 ppm AX, 0.6 % FA + 50 ppm AX, or none of these supplements (control diet). After 60 days of the feeding trials, the body weight of all treatment groups was not significantly different from the control group, although shrimp fed formic acid had significantly lower body weight than shrimp fed 50 ppm AX. However, the 0.6 % FA + 50 ppm AX group had a significantly higher survival rate (82.33 ± 8.32 %) than the control group (64.33 ± 10.12 %). In experiment 2, Vibrio parahaemolyticus was added to each tank to obtain a final concentration of 10(4) colony-forming units/mL. Each treatment group received the aforementioned diets for another 30 days. At the end of this experiment, there was no difference in the weight gain among all experimental groups. However, the survival rate of shrimps whose diet included FA, AX, and their combination (in the range of 45.83-67.50 %) was significantly higher than the control group (20.00 ± 17.32 %). FA-fed shrimps also had significantly lower total intestinal bacteria and Vibrio spp. counts, while immune parameters [total hemocyte count (THC), phagocytosis activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity] of AX-fed groups were significantly improved compared with the other groups. In conclusion, FA, AX, and their combination are useful in shrimp aquaculture.

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of six edible wild plants (Sonchus spp.) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dao-Zong; Yu, Xin-Fen; Zhu, Zhuo-Ying; Zou, Zhuang-Dan

    2011-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six Sonchus wild vegetables (Sonchus oleraceus L., Sonchus arvensis L., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill., Sonchus uliginosus M.B., Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Sonchus lingianus Shih) in China were investigated. The results revealed that S. arvensis extract and S. oleraceus extract contained the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid, respectively. Among the methanol extracts of six Sonchus species, S. arvensis extract exhibited the highest radical (DPPH and ABTS+ scavenging power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory power. It also exhibited the highest reducing power at 500 µg mL⁻¹ by A (700) = 0.80. The results of antibacterial test indicated that the S. oleraceus extract showed higher activity than the other five Sonchus wild vegetables extracts, both in Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and in a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus). These results indicate that Sonchus wild food plants might be applicable in natural medicine and healthy food.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from sputum culture of patients with cystic fibrosis: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a serious concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Farahmand, Fateme; Motamed, Farzaneh; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-11-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sputum specimens were cultured for the following bacterial pathogens: P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. cepacia complex. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. In our study, 54% of the patients (n = 93) harbored at least once S. aureus, 30% (n = 52) P. aeruginosa, and 2% (n = 3) Burkholderia cepacia. In 40 patients (23%), none of these organisms was grown. An increasing colonization rate of P. aeruginosa in the second decade of life was found. In contrast, the colonization rate of S. aureus was constant in both decades of life. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 40 isolates (43%). Among MRSA, no resistance against vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin occurred. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to meropenem, imipenem, doripenem, levofloxacin and polymixin B were more than 90%. The prevalence of MRSA has been rising. Since its impact on clinical outcomes, optimal prevention and treatment strategies are unclear, further studies to expand the knowledge about the infection control strategies and MRSA treatment are highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes from selective enrichments from animals and retail meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat. The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus, mecA (associated with methicillin resistance and PVL (virulence factor, and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68-0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement and 0.29-0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0-0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA

  10. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  11. Relationships between Environmental Factors and Pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. N.; Flowers, A. R.; Noriea, N. F.; Zimmerman, A. M.; Bowers, J. C.; DePaola, A.; Grimes, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Although autochthonous vibrio densities are known to be influenced by water temperature and salinity, little is understood about other environmental factors associated with their abundance and distribution. Densities of culturable Vibrio vulnificus containing vvh (V. vulnificus hemolysin gene) and V. parahaemolyticus containing tlh (thermolabile hemolysin gene, ubiquitous in V. parahaemolyticus), tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor), and trh (tdh-related hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor) were measured in coastal waters of Mississippi and Alabama. Over a 19-month sampling period, vibrio densities in water, oysters, and sediment varied significantly with sea surface temperature (SST). On average, tdh-to-tlh ratios were significantly higher than trh-to-tlh ratios in water and oysters but not in sediment. Although tlh densities were lower than vvh densities in water and in oysters, the opposite was true in sediment. Regression analysis indicated that SST had a significant association with vvh and tlh densities in water and oysters, while salinity was significantly related to vibrio densities in the water column. Chlorophyll a levels in the water were correlated significantly with vvh in sediment and oysters and with pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh and trh) in the water column. Furthermore, turbidity was a significant predictor of V. parahaemolyticus density in all sample types (water, oyster, and sediment), and its role in predicting the risk of V. parahaemolyticus illness may be more important than previously realized. This study identified (i) culturable vibrios in winter sediment samples, (ii) niche-based differences in the abundance of vibrios, and (iii) predictive signatures resulting from correlations between environmental parameters and vibrio densities. PMID:20817802

  12. Relationships between environmental factors and pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C N; Flowers, A R; Noriea, N F; Zimmerman, A M; Bowers, J C; DePaola, A; Grimes, D J

    2010-11-01

    Although autochthonous vibrio densities are known to be influenced by water temperature and salinity, little is understood about other environmental factors associated with their abundance and distribution. Densities of culturable Vibrio vulnificus containing vvh (V. vulnificus hemolysin gene) and V. parahaemolyticus containing tlh (thermolabile hemolysin gene, ubiquitous in V. parahaemolyticus), tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor), and trh (tdh-related hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor) were measured in coastal waters of Mississippi and Alabama. Over a 19-month sampling period, vibrio densities in water, oysters, and sediment varied significantly with sea surface temperature (SST). On average, tdh-to-tlh ratios were significantly higher than trh-to-tlh ratios in water and oysters but not in sediment. Although tlh densities were lower than vvh densities in water and in oysters, the opposite was true in sediment. Regression analysis indicated that SST had a significant association with vvh and tlh densities in water and oysters, while salinity was significantly related to vibrio densities in the water column. Chlorophyll a levels in the water were correlated significantly with vvh in sediment and oysters and with pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh and trh) in the water column. Furthermore, turbidity was a significant predictor of V. parahaemolyticus density in all sample types (water, oyster, and sediment), and its role in predicting the risk of V. parahaemolyticus illness may be more important than previously realized. This study identified (i) culturable vibrios in winter sediment samples, (ii) niche-based differences in the abundance of vibrios, and (iii) predictive signatures resulting from correlations between environmental parameters and vibrio densities.

  13. Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 pigment production--a competitive advantage in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starič, Nejc; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2010-10-01

    The ability to produce several antibacterial agents greatly increases the chance of producer's survival. In this study, red-pigmented Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 and Bacillus sp., both isolated from the same sampling volume from estuarine waters of the Northern Adriatic Sea, were grown in a co-culture. The antibacterial activity of the red pigment extract was tested on Bacillus sp. in microtiter plates. The MIC(50) for Bacillus sp. was estimated to be around 10⁻⁵ mg/L. The extract prepared form the nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. had no antibacterial effect. The pigment production of Vibrio sp. was studied under different physicochemical conditions. There was no pigment production at high or low temperatures, high or low salt concentrations in peptone yeast extract (PYE) medium, low glucose concentration in mineral growth medium or high glucose concentration in PYE medium. This indicates that the red pigment production is a luxurious good that Vibrio sp. makes only under favorable conditions. The Malthusian fitness of Bacillus sp. in a co-culture with Vibrio sp. under optimal environmental conditions dropped from 4.0 to -7.6, which corresponds to three orders of magnitude decrease in the number of CFU relative to the monoculture. The nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. in a co-culture with Bacillus sp. had a significant antibacterial activity. This result shows that studying antibacterial properties in isolation (i.e. pigment extract only) may not reveal full antibacterial potential of the bacterial strain. The red pigment is a redundant antibacterial agent of Vibrio sp.

  14. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  15. Investigation of Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus in large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) reared in Xiangshan Bay, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Liu; Mingfeng Ge; Xiaoye Zheng; Zhen Tao; Suming Zhou; Guoliang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Large yellow croaker (LYC), Pseudosciaena crocea is an economically important fish species of mariculture in China. The variation of yearly production of LYC has been increasingly related to the outbreaks of fish diseases. Moreover, Vibrio infections have been identified in this fish frequently. To understand the pattern of Vibrio infections in LYC, we conducted a culture-independent survey of Vibrios in farmed LYC populations using a multiplex PCR method targeting Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibri...

  16. Research advance in rapid detection of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Xihong Zhao; Caijiao Wei; Junliang Zhong; Shiwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, coccus-shaped facultative anaerobe and a member of the Staphylococcaceae family. In recent years, alimentary toxicosis caused by S. aureus is a very serious problem worldwide, which constitutes a great threat to public health. In this review, we tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid detection techniques of S. aureus (traditional detection method, biochemical detection, immunology method, molecular biology, and biosensor...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Endocarditis-Associated Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Walker, Mark J.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated ...

  18. Research advance in rapid detection of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihong Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, coccus-shaped facultative anaerobe and a member of the Staphylococcaceae family. In recent years, alimentary toxicosis caused by S. aureus is a very serious problem worldwide, which constitutes a great threat to public health. In this review, we tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid detection techniques of S. aureus (traditional detection method, biochemical detection, immunology method, molecular biology, and biosensor method for their principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications. Furthermore, the future perspectives of S. aureus detection methods were forecasted at last.

  19. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...

  20. Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were S. aureus-positive were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antimicrobial ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ... High numbers of accident cases.

  1. An outbreak of Vibrio cholerae in Vikas Nagar, Chandigarh, India

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    Sonia Puri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : On 1 July 2012, a large number of cases of acute diarrheal episodes were reported in Vikas Nagar, Chandigarh. A rapid response team was sent to investigate this outbreak on 3 July 2012. Aim : To determine the reasons for the outbreak and to focus on the identification of a gap in the management of the epidemic by applying remedial measures in the Vibrio cholera outbreak in the Vikas Nagar area of Chandigarh district. Materials and Methods : A house-to-house survey of 2765 houses was performed with 20 teams of Auxillary Nurse Midwife ANM/Anganwadi workers. Information regarding age, sex, place of residence, occupation, date of onset and treatment history and laboratory finding were collected. Environmental investigation and laboratory investigation of the stool samples were also performed. As the study was conducted during an emergency response to the outbreak, and was designed to provide information to orient the public health response, ethical approval was not required. Remedial measures were implemented. Results : A total of 1875 patients reported to the various health facilities of the Vikas Nagar area with complaints of increased frequency of loose watery diarrhea and a few had vomiting episodes during the time period of 1 - 14 July 2012. Four deaths were reported. Three hundred eighteen (318 cases were found in the house-to-house survey of 2765 houses of the area. Twenty-six percent of the cases were in the age group of 1800 MPN/100 mL was reported from 10 water samples. Investigations revealed that the epidemic was waterborne. Leakages in the pipes were found at many places leading to mixing of water with drainage, and water samples collected from the houses of the cases were found to be positive for Vibrio cholerae. Conclusion : Among the identified gaps, delays in the initiation of the investigation of the epidemic and pipe leakages were the most important. In India, waterborne epidemics are usual occurrences during the year

  2. Vibrio cholerae Colonization of Soft-Shelled Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazheng; Yan, Meiying; Gao, He; Lu, Xin; Kan, Biao

    2017-07-15

    Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae -contaminated soft-shelled turtles, contaminated mainly with toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization by toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surfaces and intestines of soft-shelled turtles was explored. Preferred colonization sites on the turtle body surfaces, mainly the carapace and calipash of the dorsal side, were observed for the O139 and O1 strains. Intestinal colonization was also found. The colonization factors of V. cholerae played different roles in the colonization of the soft-shelled turtle's body surface and intestine. Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of V. cholerae was necessary for body surface colonization, but no roles were found for toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) or N -acetylglucosamine-binding protein A (GBPA). Both TCP and GBPA play important roles for colonization in the intestine, whereas the deletion of MSHA revealed only a minor colonization-promoting role for this factor. Our study demonstrated that V. cholerae can colonize the surfaces and the intestines of soft-shelled turtles and indicated that the soft-shelled turtles played a role in the transmission of cholera. In addition, this study showed that the soft-shelled turtle has potential value as an animal model in studies of the colonization and environmental adaption mechanisms of V. cholerae in aquatic organisms. IMPORTANCE Cholera is transmitted through water and food. Soft-shelled turtles contaminated with Vibrio cholerae (commonly the serogroup O139 strains) have caused many foodborne infections and outbreaks in recent years, and they have become a foodborne disease problem. Except for epidemiological

  3. Vibrio Phage KVP40 Encodes a Functional NAD+ Salvage Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yun; Li, Zhiqun; Miller, Eric S

    2017-05-01

    The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV , would suffice for an NAD + salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase), and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli , the proteins were purified, and their enzymatic properties were examined. KVP40 NadV NAmPRTase is active in vitro , and a clone complements a Salmonella mutant defective in both the bacterial de novo and salvage pathways. Similar to other NAmPRTases, the KVP40 enzyme displayed ATPase activity indicative of energy coupling in the reaction mechanism. The NatV NMNATase activity was measured in a coupled reaction system demonstrating NAD + biosynthesis from nicotinamide, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, and ATP. The NatV Nudix hydrolase domain was also shown to be active, with preferred substrates of ADP-ribose, NAD + , and NADH. Expression analysis using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme assays of infected Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells demonstrated nadV and natV transcription during the early and delayed-early periods of infection when other KVP40 genes of nucleotide precursor metabolism are expressed. The distribution and phylogeny of NadV and NatV proteins among several large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) myophages, and also those from some very large siphophages, suggest broad relevance of pyridine nucleotide scavenging in virus-infected cells. NAD + biosynthesis presents another important metabolic resource control point by large, rapidly replicating dsDNA bacteriophages. IMPORTANCE T4-type bacteriophages enhance DNA precursor synthesis through reductive reactions that use NADH/NADPH as the electron donor and NAD

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  5. Influence of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on solubility, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of commercial turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M

    2016-05-01

    The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications.

  6. Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM.

  7. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  8. POTENCY OF VIBRIO ISOLATES FOR BIOCONTROL OF VIBRIOSIS IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.

  9. Identification of capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili in Vibrio mimicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero-Alburo, J J; González-Márquez, H; Bonilla-González, E; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis; it is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, and can cause acute diarrhea like cholera- or dysentery-type diarrhea. It is distributed worldwide. Factors associated with virulence (such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, phospholipases, aerobactin, and hemagglutinin) have been identified; however, its pathogenicity mechanism is still unknown. In pathogenic Vibrio species such as V. cholerae, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, capsule, biofilms, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili are structures described as essential for pathogenicity. These structures had not been described in V. mimicus until this work. We used 20 V. mimicus strains isolated from water (6), oyster (9), and fish (5) samples and we were able to identify the capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili through phenotypic tests, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. In all tested strains, we observed and identified the presence of capsular exopolysaccharide, biofilm formation in an in vitro model, as well as swarming, multiple flagellation, and pili. In addition, we identified homologous genes to those described in other bacteria of the genus in which these structures have been found. Identification of these structures in V. mimicus is a contribution to the biology of this organism and can help to reveal its pathogenic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Bacillus probionts on growth and toxin production of Vibrio harveyi pathogens of shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Lu, H; Nomura, N

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium in terms of toxin and growth of pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Three Bacillus probionts were isolated from probiotic BZT aquaculture and identified using a 16S rDNA sequence. Growth inhibition assay showed that supernatants from the 24-h culture of three Bacillus species were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi (LMG 4044); B. subtilis was the most effective based on the well diffusion method. Results of a liquid culture model showed that B. subtilis was also widely effective in inhibiting three strains of V. harveyi (isolated from Thailand, the Philippines and LMG 4044), and that both B. licheniformis and B. megaterium inhibit the growth of V. harveyi isolated from the Philippines. Moreover, a haemolytic activity assay demonstrated that V. harveyi (IFO 15634) was significantly decreased by the addition of B. licheniformis or B. megaterium supernatant. Bacillus subtilis inhibited Vibrio growth, and both B. licheniformis and B. megaterium suppressed haemolytic activity in Vibrio. The cell-free supernatants produced by Bacillus probionts inhibit Vibrio disease, and Bacillus probionts might have an influence on Vibrio cell-to-cell communications.

  11. Potensi Ekstrak Daun Binahong (Anredera cordifolia Sebagai Penghambat Bakteri Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gde Raka Angga Kartika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Binahong (Anredera cordifolia is a plant that can treat various kinds of diseases, because this plant has a high antioxidant content and as an antibacterial and antiviral. Vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio harveyi is a serious problem in marine and brackish culture, this disease can cause death for shrimp and fish that farmed in marine or brackish. This study aims to determine the potential of using leaf extract Binahong with different concentrations as Vibrio harveyi inhibiting bacterial growth in vitro. The method used is to test the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to determine minimum levels inhibit the growth of Vibrio harveyi and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using paper disc. The results showed the use of leaf extract Binahong (Anredera cordifolia with different concentrations significant effect on the growth of Vibrio harveyi in vitro. Binahong leaf extract (Anredera cordifolia with a concentration of 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11% and 13% is only bacteriostatic which inhibits the growth of bacteria Vibrio harveyi with the best concentration obtained is equal to 13%.

  12. A novel bacteriocin-like substance (BLIS) from a pathogenic strain of Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sathish; Morris, Peter C; Hansen, Rasmus; Meaden, Philip G; Austin, Brian

    2005-09-01

    Inter-strain and inter-species inhibition mediated by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain VIB 571 was demonstrated against four isolates of the same species, and one culture each of a Vibrio sp., Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio gazogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude BLIS, which was obtained by ammonium-sulphate precipitation of the cell-free supernatant of a 72 h broth culture of strain VIB 571, was inactivated by lipase, proteinase K, pepsin, trypsin, pronase E, SDS and incubation at > or =60 degrees C for 10 min. The activity was stable between pH 2-11 for at least 5 h. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a single major peak, comprising a protein with a pI of approximately 5.4 and a molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein comprised Asp-Glu-Tyr-Ile-Ser-X-Asn-Lys-X-Ser-Ser-Ala-Asp-Ile (with X representing cysteine or modified amino acid residues). A similarity search based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) generated peptide masses and the N-terminal sequence did not yield any significant matches.

  13. Phytoplankton production systems in a shellfish hatchery: variations of the bacterial load and diversity of vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, J; Fernández-Pardo, A; Nóvoa, S; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease caused by some Vibrio species represent the main production bottleneck in shellfish hatcheries. Although the phytoplankton used as food is one of the main sources of bacteria, studies of the associated bacterial populations, specifically vibrios, are scarce. The aim of the study was the microbiological monitoring of the microalgae as the first step in assessing the risk disease for bivalve cultures. Two phytoplankton production systems were sampled weekly throughout 1-year period in a bivalve hatchery. Quantitative analysis revealed high levels of marine heterotrophic bacteria in both systems throughout the study. Presumptive vibrios were detected occasionally and at low concentrations. In most of the cases, they belonged to the Splendidus and Harveyi clades. The early detection of vibrios in the microalgae may be the key for a successful bivalve culture. Their abundance and diversity were affected by factors related to the hatchery environment. This work represents the first long study where the presence of vibrios was evaluated rigorously in phytoplankton production systems and provides a suitable microbiological protocol to control and guarantee the quality of the algal cultures to avoid the risk of transferring potential pathogens to shellfish larvae and/or broodstock. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Comparison of five tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luijendijk (Ad); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFive different laboratory tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus were compared. Analyses of 271 presumptive S. aureus strains, supplemented with 59 well-defined methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, were performed. Only the

  15. Continuous Exposure Of Vibrio Anguillarum To Tropodithietic Acid: Genetic Changes And Influence On Virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; D'Alvise, Paul; Grotkjær, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum is a major problem in aquaculture causing Vibriosis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter clade can antagonize pathogenic vibrios in cultures in live feed such as microalgae, rotifers and Artemia, as well as in fish larvae. Therefore, roseobacters could...

  16. Screening of probiotic bacteria and its role on artificial infection of Vibrio harvey in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukenda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic was screened from 28 strains of normal bacterial flora isolated from rearing water in a Litopenaeus vannamei farm based on its inhibitory activity against the growth of Vibrio harveyi.  Antibacterial activity was also tested in vivo to V. harveyi in L. vannamei.  The result showed that  the probiotic has a antibacterial effect on V. harveyi.  The in vivo test showed that shrimps injected with probiotic previously before challenged with V. harveyi has survival higher than control.  Probiotic isolate was suspected as Vibrio furnissi. Keywords:  biocontrol, inhibitory activity, Vibrio furnissi, Vibrio harveyi, Litopenaeus vannamei   AbstraK Bakteri probiotik ditapis dari 28 strain bacteria flora yang diisolasi dari air pemeliharaan udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei berdasarkan aktivitas penghambatannya terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio harveyi.  Aktivitas bakteri probiotik juga diuji secara in vivo terhadap V. harveyi pada udang putih.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bakteri probiotik isolat memiliki kemampuan antibakteria terhadap V. harveyi.  Uji in vivo menunjukkan bahwa udang yang diinjeksi probiotik sebelum diuji tantang dengan V. harveyi memiliki kelangsungan hidup lebih tinggi daripada kontrol.  Isolat probiotik tersebut diduga adalah Vibrio furnissi. Kata kunci:  biokontrol, aktivitas penghambatan, Vibrio furnissi, Vibrio harveyi, Litopenaeus vannamei

  17. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  18. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  19. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  20. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  1. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  2. Effect of probiotic supplemented diet on marine shrimp survival after challenge with Vibrio harveyi Efeito do uso de dieta suplementada com o probiótico sobre a sobrevivência de camarões marinhos após o desafio com Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a Lactobacillus plantarum-supplemented diet on shrimp growth, digestive tract bacterial microbiota, survival, and some hemato-immunological parameters after an experimental challenge with Vibrio harveyi was studied. No difference (P>0.05 was observed in shrimp survival (80±6% and final weight (6.63±0.56g after 60 days feeding trial. Total bacteria count and Vibrio spp. count in the digestive tract were not diferent (P>0.05 until day 40, but they were lower (P0.05 than the control group (39.9±4.4%. Bacterial counts in hemolymph and hepatopancreas was lower (P0.05 in the probiotic-supplemented group after challenge with V. harveyi. Probiotic-supplemented diet modifies shrimp digestive tract bacterial microbiota, increasing resistance to V. harveyi infection.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma dieta suplementada com Lactobacillus plantarum na engorda de Litopenaeus vannamei sobre a microbiota bacteriana do trato digestivo, a sobrevivência e alguns parâmetros hematoimunológicos após desafio com Vibrio harveyi. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência (80±6% e no peso final dos camarões (6,63±0,56g durante a engorda (60 dias. A população de bactérias totais e Vibrio spp. no intestino não diferiu até o 40° dia de cultivo, mas foi inferior nos camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probiótico no 60° dia de cultivo. A população de bactérias lácticas foi superior no intestino de camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos após o 20° dia de cultivo. Dez horas após o desafio, a sobrevivência dos camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probiótico foi superior (65,7±2,9% a dos camarões do controle (39,9±4,4%. Camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos e desafiados com V. harveyi apresentaram menor contagem de bactérias na hemolinfa e hepatopâncreas. A contagem total de hemócitos e a atividade aglutinante da hemolinfa foram superiores nos camar

  3. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E.; Hanson, Blake M.; Smith, Tara C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n?=?3347) and contemporaneously from meat produc...

  4. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Mun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600 of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD and sodium azide (NaN3 were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0–125 μg/mL gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 μg/mL; however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was

  5. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae cells to lethal and mutagenic effect of UV-irradiation mediated by plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiganova, I.G.; Evdokimova, N.M.; Aleshkin, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of UV-irradiation on Vibrio cholerae cells and its changes mediated by the plasmid R245 have been studied. Vibrio cholerae strains 569B and RV31 have been shown to be considerably more sensitive to lethal effect of UV-irradiation as compared with Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium cells. Highly toxigenic strain 569B and practically atoxigenic strain RV31 have the same UV-sensitivity. Lethla effect of UV-irradiation on Vibrio cholerae cells is incresed when the irradiated cells are plated on enriched media. UV-induction of mutations was not registered in plasmidless strains of Vibrio cholerae. Plasmid R245 increase UV-resistance of vibrio cells and makes them UV-mutable

  7. α-Hydroxyketone Synthesis and Sensing by Legionella and Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Hilbi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria synthesize and sense low molecular weight signaling molecules, termed autoinducers, to measure their population density and community complexity. One class of autoinducers, the α-hydroxyketones (AHKs, is produced and detected by the water-borne opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Vibrio cholerae, which cause Legionnaires’ disease and cholera, respectively. The “Legionella quorum sensing” (lqs or “cholera quorum sensing” (cqs genes encode enzymes that produce and sense the AHK molecules “Legionella autoinducer-1” (LAI-1; 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one or cholera autoinducer-1 (CAI-1; 3-hydroxytridecane-4-one. AHK signaling regulates the virulence of L. pneumophila and V. cholerae, pathogen-host cell interactions, formation of biofilms or extracellular filaments, expression of a genomic “fitness island” and competence. Here, we outline the processes, wherein AHK signaling plays a role, and review recent insights into the function of proteins encoded by the lqs and cqs gene clusters. To this end, we will focus on the autoinducer synthases catalysing the biosynthesis of AHKs, on the cognate trans-membrane sensor kinases detecting the signals, and on components of the down-stream phosphorelay cascade that promote the transmission and integration of signaling events regulating gene expression.

  8. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  9. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ribosome hibernation promoting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, Heather; Berry, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor from V. cholerae has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor (HPF) from Vibrio cholerae is presented at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of HPF linked by four Co atoms. The metal-binding sites observed in the crystal are probably not related to biological function. The structure of HPF has a typical β–α–β–β–β–α fold consistent with previous structures of YfiA and HPF from Escherichia coli. Comparison of the new structure with that of HPF from E. coli bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome [Polikanov et al. (2012 ▶), Science, 336, 915–918] shows that no significant structural changes are induced in HPF by binding

  10. The pathogenesis, detection and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhi eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative motile bacterium that inhabits marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, is a major food-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases in humans after the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. The global occurrence of V. parahaemaolyticus accentuates the importance of investigating its virulence factors and their effects on the human host. This review describes the virulence factors of V. parahaemolyticus reported to date, including hemolysin, urease, two type III secretion systems (T3SS and two type VI secretion systems (T6SS, which both cause both cytotoxicity in cultured cells and enterotoxicity in animal models. We describe various types of detection methods, based on virulence factors, that are used for quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. We also discuss some useful preventive measures and therapeutic strategies for the diseases mediated by V. parahaemolyticus, which can reduce, to some extent, the damage to humans and aquatic animals attributable to V. parahaemolyticus. This review extends our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus mediated by virulence factors and the diseases it causes in its human host. It should provide new insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, P; Delgado, G; Navarro, A; Trujillo, F; Selander, R K; Cravioto, A

    1999-03-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) of 397 Vibrio cholerae isolates, including 143 serogroup reference strains and 244 strains from Mexico and Guatemala, identified 279 electrophoretic types (ETs) distributed in two major divisions (I and II). Linkage disequilibrium was demonstrated in both divisions and in subdivision Ic of division I but not in subdivision Ia, which includes 76% of the ETs. Despite this evidence of relatively frequent recombination, clonal lineages may persist for periods of time measured in at least decades. In addition to the pandemic clones of serogroups O1 and O139, which form a tight cluster of four ETs in subdivision Ia, MLEE analysis identified numerous apparent clonal lineages of non-O1 strains with intercontinental distributions. A clone of serogroup O37 that demonstrated epidemic potential in the 1960s is closely related to the pandemic O1/O139 clones, but the nontoxigenic O1 Inaba El Tor reference strain is not. A strain of serogroup O22, which has been identified as the most likely donor of exogenous rfb region DNA to the O1 progenitor of the O139 clone, is distantly related to the O1/O139 clones. The close evolutionary relationships of the O1, O139, and O37 epidemic clones indicates that new cholera clones are likely to arise by the modification of a lineage that is already epidemic or is closely related to such a clone.

  12. Non-01 Vibrio cholerae infections in Cancun, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, M J; Valdespino, J L; Wells, J G; Perez-Perez, G; Arjona, F; Sepulveda, A; Bessudo, D; Blake, P A

    1987-03-01

    To determine the role of Vibrio cholerae as a cause of diarrheal illness in Cancun, Mexico, an investigation was conducted in July and August 1983. Although toxigenic V. cholerae 01 were not found, non-01 V. cholerae were isolated from 22 (16%) of 134 stools from persons with diarrheal illness and none of 22 stools from well persons; 58 (92%) of 63 sewage samples; 12 (86%) of 14 untreated well water samples; a home storage tank for treated water; and 5 (21%) of 24 samples of raw seafood. None of the V. cholerae isolates from patients were toxigenic. The illness occurred mainly in small children, and were characterized principally by diarrhea and abdominal pain. No patient was seriously ill, and all recovered without sequelae. Seven different serotypes of non-01 V. cholerae were isolated from the stool specimens, and Smith serotype 12 accounted for 10 (46%) of the 22 isolates. A matched-pair case-control study found that cases were more likely than controls to have eaten home prepared gelatin (P = 0.03, OR = 5/0) and seafood (P = 0.06, OR = 4/0).

  13. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  14. Vibrio infections among marine and fresh-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    In 1951. B. J. Earpio found a vibrio infection among salmon fingerlings being reared in saltwater at the Deception Pass Biological Station of the Washington State Department of Fisheries. The disease waa characterized by erythema at the base of fins and on the sides of the fish, necrotic areas in the Inusculature, inflammation of the intestinal tract, and general septicernia. The disease reappeared the next year, killing nearly all of the churn salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fingerlings, killing about half of the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) fingerlings, and affecting to a lesser degree the chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fingerlings. Also, late in 1952. R. R. Rucker and E. J. Ordal found the same disease at a rainbow trout hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game at Vancouver. The disease caused severe losses there among the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and among the sea-run form of the same species (called steelhead trout). The disease was manifested by bloody, necrotic areas in the musculature and inflammation of the viscera, відоіШат to furumaculoвiв,

  15. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (/sup 14/C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (/sup 14/C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with (/sup 14/C)acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition.

  16. Quorum sensing regulates the osmotic stress response in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Julia C; Rutherford, Steven T; Cong, Jian-Ping; Quinodoz, Sofia; Healy, James; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to monitor cell density and to alter behavior in response to fluctuations in population numbers. Previous studies with Vibrio harveyi have shown that LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator, activates and represses >600 genes. These include six genes that encode homologs of the Escherichia coli Bet and ProU systems for synthesis and transport, respectively, of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant used during osmotic stress. Here we show that LuxR activates expression of the glycine betaine operon betIBA-proXWV, which enhances growth recovery under osmotic stress conditions. BetI, an autorepressor of the V. harveyi betIBA-proXWV operon, activates the expression of genes encoding regulatory small RNAs that control quorum-sensing transitions. Connecting quorum-sensing and glycine betaine pathways presumably enables V. harveyi to tune its execution of collective behaviors to its tolerance to stress. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Improved quorum sensing capacity by culturing Vibrio harveyi in microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Song, Huiyi; Liu, Xiudong; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-04-01

    Microcapsule entrapped low density cells with culture (ELDCwc), different from free cell culture, conferred stronger stress resistance and improved cell viability of microorganisms. In this paper, the quorum sensing (QS) system of Vibrio harveyi was used to investigate changes when cells were cultured in microcapsules. Cells in ELDCwc group grew into cell aggregates, which facilitated cell-cell communication and led to increased bioluminescence intensity. Moreover, the luxS-AI-2 system, a well-studied QS signal pathway, was detected as both luxS gene and the AI-2 signaling molecule, and the results were analyzed with respect to QS capacity of unit cell. The V. harveyi of ELDCwc also showed higher relative gene expression and stronger quorum sensing capacity when compared with free cells. In conclusion, the confined microcapsule space can promote the cell aggregates formation, reduce cell-cell communication distance and increase local concentration of signal molecule, which are beneficial to bacterial QS. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterogeneity in quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetzberger, Claudia; Pirch, Torsten; Jung, Kirsten

    2009-07-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) refers to the ability of bacterial populations to read out the local environment for cell density and to collectively activate gene expression. Vibrio harveyi, one of the best characterized model organisms in QS, was used to address the question how single cells behave within a QS-activated community in a homogeneous environment. Analysis of the QS-regulated bioluminescence of a wild type strain revealed that even at high cell densities only 69% of the cells of the population produced bioluminescence, 25% remained dark and 6% were dead. Moreover, light intensities greatly varied from cell to cell at high population density. Addition of autoinducer to a bright liquid culture of V. harveyi increased the percentage of luminescent cells up to 98%, suggesting that V. harveyi produces and/or keeps the autoinducers at non-saturating concentrations. In contrast, all living cells of a constitutive QS-active mutant (DeltaluxO) produced light. We also found that QS affects biofilm formation in V. harveyi. Our data provide first evidence that a heterogeneous population produces more biofilm than a homogeneous one. It is suggested that even a QS-committed population of V. harveyi takes advantage of heterogeneity, which extends the current view of QS-regulated uniformity.

  19. Antigenicity analysis of Vibrio harveyi TS-628 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yingxue; WANG Jun; WANG Shifeng; YAN Qingpi

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi,the major causative agent of vibriosis,affects a diverse range of marine cultured organisms over a wide geographical area.However,reports about screening the effective antigen and research on vaccines of V.harveyi are scarce.Flagellin,lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMP) are major immunogenic antigens in many Gram-negative bacteria.In this study,the flagellin,OMP and LPS of the V.harveyi TS-628 strain isolated from infected groupers were extracted and Western blot analysis was used to detect the antigenicity of these extractions.Results of the Western blot assay reveal that there are four positive flagellin bands:35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa and 52 kDa bands displayed the strongest positive reaction.There are five positive OMP bands about 35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,47 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa appeared to have the strongest positive reaction although the other four proteins also displayed strong reactions.However,LPS is Western blot-negative.These results indicate that the 43 kDa and 52 kDa flagellin and OMP of size 43 kDa,52 kDa can be candidates for developing vaccines against V.harveyi.

  20. Human Gut Microbiota Predicts Susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midani, Firas S; Weil, Ana A; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin A; Khan, Ashraful I; Debela, Meti D; Durand, Heather K; Reese, Aspen T; Nimmagadda, Sai N; Silverman, Justin D; Ellis, Crystal N; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Qadri, Firdausi; David, Lawrence A; LaRocque, Regina C

    2018-04-12

    Cholera is a public health problem worldwide and the risk factors for infection are only partially understood. We prospectively studied household contacts of cholera patients to compare those who were infected with those who were not. We constructed predictive machine learning models of susceptibility using baseline gut microbiota data. We identified bacterial taxa associated with susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae infection and tested these taxa for interactions with V. cholerae in vitro. We found that machine learning models based on gut microbiota predicted V. cholerae infection as well as models based on known clinical and epidemiological risk factors. A 'predictive gut microbiota' of roughly 100 bacterial taxa discriminated between contacts who developed infection and those who did not. Susceptibility to cholera was associated with depleted levels of microbes from the phylum Bacteroidetes. By contrast, a microbe associated with cholera by our modeling framework, Paracoccus aminovorans, promoted the in vitro growth of V. cholerae. Gut microbiota structure, clinical outcome, and age were also linked. These findings support the hypothesis that abnormal gut microbial communities are a host factor related to V. cholerae susceptibility.

  1. Systematic analysis of the lysine acetylome in Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianyi; Ye, Zhicang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Peng, Xiaojun; Wen, Liangyou; Zhao, Fukun

    2014-07-03

    Lysine acetylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspect of cells, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Vibrio parahemolyticus, a model marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of bacterial seafood-borne illness. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in this bacterium through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Overall, we identified 1413 lysine acetylation sites in 656 proteins, which account for 13.6% of the total proteins in the cells; this is the highest ratio of acetyl proteins that has so far been identified in bacteria. The bioinformatics analysis of the acetylome showed that the acetylated proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular functions and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. More specifically, proteins related to protein biosynthesis and carbon metabolism are the preferential targets of lysine acetylation. Moreover, two types of acetylation motifs, a lysine or arginine at the +4/+5 positions and a tyrosine, histidine, or phenylalanine at the +1/+2 positions, were revealed from the analysis of the acetylome. Additionally, protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a wide range of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. This study provides a significant beginning for the in-depth exploration of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.

  2. Metabolic responses of Haliotis diversicolor to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Shi, Yanyan; Cai, Shuhui; Feng, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen that often causes outbreak of vibriosis in abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Elucidation of metabolic mechanisms of abalones in responding to V. parahemolyticus infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In this work, 1 H NMR-based metabolomic techniques along with correlation and network analyses are used to investigate characteristic metabolites, as well as corresponding disturbed pathways in hepatopancreas and gill of H. diversicolor after V. parahemolyticus infection for 48 h. Results indicate that obvious gender- and tissue-specific metabolic responses are induced. Metabolic responses in female abalones are more clearly observed than those in males, which are primarily manifested in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the depletion of organic osmolytes (homarine, betaine and taurine) in the infected gills of female abalones, as well as in the depletion of glutamate, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in the infected hepatopancreases of female abalones. Moreover, based on major metabolic functions of the characteristic metabolites, we have found that V. parahemolyticus infection not only cause the disturbance in energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and osmotic balance, but also induce oxidative stress, immune stress and neurotoxic effect in different tissues with various mechanisms. Our study provides details of metabolic responses of abalones to V. parahemolyticus infection and will shed light on biochemical defence mechanisms of male and female hosts against pathogen infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A conserved tad pilus promotes Vibrio vulnificus oyster colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Meng; Duriez, Patrick; Arazi, Mattan; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A

    2018-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate (>35%) and per-case economic burden ($3.3 million) of any foodborne pathogen in the United States. Infections occur via open wounds or following ingestion of contaminated seafood, most infamously oysters. We isolated a 1000th generation descendant, designated NT that exhibited increased biofilm and aggregate formation relative to its parent. We identified two significant causal changes underlying these phenotypes. First, the entire 24-kb capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, which is essential for virulence but inhibits biofilm formation, had been purged from the genome. However, NT formed more extensive biofilms and aggregates than a defined cps mutant, suggesting that additional factor(s) contributed to its phenotypes. Second, the expression of a tight adherence (tad) pilus locus was elevated in NT. Deletion of the associated pilin (flp) decreased NT biofilm and aggregate formation. Furthermore, NTΔflp strains were deficient relative to NT in an oyster colonization model, demonstrating a positive correlation between the biofilm and aggregation phenotypes associated with Tad pilus production and efficient bacterial retention by feeding oysters. Despite being widely distributed in the Vibrionaceae, this is the first demonstration of a bona fide physiological role for a Tad pilus in this bacterial family. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Population dynamics of Vibrio fischeri during infection of Euprymna scolopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jessica; Stabb, Eric V; Millikan, Deborah S; Ruby, Edward G

    2003-10-01

    The luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri colonizes a specialized light-emitting organ within its squid host, Euprymna scolopes. Newly hatched juvenile squid must acquire their symbiont from ambient seawater, where the bacteria are present at low concentrations. To understand the population dynamics of V. fischeri during colonization more fully, we used mini-Tn7 transposons to mark bacteria with antibiotic resistance so that the growth of their progeny could be monitored. When grown in culture, there was no detectable metabolic burden on V. fischeri cells carrying the transposon, which inserts in single copy in a specific intergenic region of the V. fischeri genome. Strains marked with mini-Tn7 also appeared to be equivalent to the wild type in their ability to infect and multiply within the host during coinoculation experiments. Studies of the early stages of colonization suggested that only a few bacteria became associated with symbiotic tissue when animals were exposed for a discrete period (3 h) to an inoculum of V. fischeri cells equivalent to natural population levels; nevertheless, all these hosts became infected. When three differentially marked strains of V. fischeri were coincubated with juvenile squid, the number of strains recovered from an individual symbiotic organ was directly dependent on the size of the inoculum. Further, these results indicated that, when exposed to low numbers of V. fischeri, the host may become colonized by only one or a few bacterial cells, suggesting that symbiotic infection is highly efficient.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...... increase the risk of contaminating hands, arms and the front of the uniform. Hand hygiene is therefore essential, but the use of protection gowns with long sleeves is also important in order to prevent transmission of MRSA. After culture of MRSA and implementation of specific precautions to prevent...

  6. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  7. Prevalence and antibiogram of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from medical device-related infections; a retrospective study in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31% were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18% and orthopedic implants (15%. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%; other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%, Pseudomonas spp. (10%, Acinetobacter spp. (8% and Candida species (7%. None of MRSA was resistant to vancomycin (MIC ≥16µg/mL. Resistance rates were 98% and 97% for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Escherichia coli and MRSA are major pathogens of medical device-related infections.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated-essential oils from peels of Citrus spp. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against food related microorganisms by broth microdilution assay. Overall, ethyl acetate extracts from all citrus peels showed stronger antimicrobial activities than their essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation. The ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC. peel showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and molds including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. sake and Aspergillus fumigatus TISTR 3180. It exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 0.28 and 0.56 mg/ml against Sac. cerevisiae var. sake and B. cereus, respectively while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values against both microbes were 0.56 mg/ml. The MIC values of the extract against L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus TISTR 3180 and S. aureus were 1.13 mg/ml while the MBC values against L. monocytogenes as well as A. fumigatus TISTR 3180 and S. aureus were 2.25 and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively. The major components of the ethyl acetate extract from kaffir lime were limonene (31.64 %, citronellal (25.96 % and b-pinene (6.83 % whereas b-pinene (30.48 %, sabinene (22.75 % and citronellal (15.66 % appeared to be major compounds of the essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation.

  9. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  12. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecA or mecC and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep farms in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacinti, G; Carfora, V; Caprioli, A; Sagrafoli, D; Marri, N; Giangolini, G; Amoruso, R; Iurescia, M; Stravino, F; Dottarelli, S; Feltrin, F; Franco, A; Amatiste, S; Battisti, A

    2017-10-01

    Between January and May 2012, a total of 286 bulk tank milk samples from dairy sheep farms located in central Italy were tested for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred fifty-three samples were positive for S. aureus (53.5%), with an average count of 2.53 log cfu/mL. A total of 679 S. aureus colonies were screened for methicillin resistance by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, and 104 selected cefoxitin-susceptible isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to other antimicrobials representative of the most relevant classes active against Staphylococcus spp. by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, carrying respectively the mecA and the mecC genes, were detected in 2 samples from 2 different farms (prevalence 0.7%). The mecA-positive MRSA isolate was blaZ positive, belonged to spa type t127, sequence type (ST)1, clonal complex (CC)1, carried a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, and was phenotypically resistant to all the β-lactams tested and to erythromycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. The mecC-positive MRSA isolate was negative for the chromosomally or plasmid-associated blaZ gene but positive for the blaZ allotype associated with SCCmec XI (blaZ-SCCmecXI), belonged to spa type 843, ST(CC)130, carried a SCCmec type XI, and was resistant only to β-lactams. Both MRSA were negative for the presence of specific immune-evasion and virulence genes such as those coding for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and the immune evasion cluster genes. Regarding the presence of the major S. aureus enterotoxin genes, the mecC-positive MRSA tested negative, whereas the ST (CC)1 mecA-positive MRSA harbored the seh gene. Among the 104 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, 63 (60.58%) were susceptible to all the antimicrobials tested, and 41 (39.42%) were resistant to at

  13. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... detection and identification of S. aureus in raw milk demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Key words: Microarray .... sterile after screening for S. aureus contamination according to the procedure described by Wang ... methods, the microarray method is high throughput, specific, and sensitive and also ...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  15. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, K.B.; Lyytikäinen, O.; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance w...

  16. Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Mastitis is one of the common diseases of dairy cattle and an inflammatory ... Key words: Bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, virulence factors, ... frequent cause of subclinical intramammary infections in ... genotypes has not been investigated. ... genes in S. aureus, we were particularly interested in the.

  17. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  18. Nasal carriage of methicilli-resistant staphylococcus aureus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from anterior nares of fifty healthy adults in Zaria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns determined. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while 20% were methicillin-susceptible. The isolates were generally resistant to multiple ...

  19. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes foodborne diseases if consumed in contaminated milk products. Rapid detection and characterization of foodborne pathogen S. aureus is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. It is still a challenge to detect and identify bacterial pathogens quickly and ...

  20. Intercenter reproducibility of binary typing for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Snoeijers, Sandor; van der Werken-Libregts, Christel; Tuip, Anita; van der Zee, Anneke; Egberink, Diane; de Proost, Monique; Bik, Elisabeth; Lunter, Bjorn; Kluytmans, Jan; Gits, Etty; van Duyn, Inge; Heck, Max; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Wannet, Wim; Noordhoek, Gerda T.; Mulder, Sije; Renders, Nicole; Boers, Miranda; Zaat, Sebastiaan; van der Riet, Daniëlle; Kooistra, Mirjam; Talens, Adriaan; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; van der Reyden, Tanny; Veenendaal, Dick; Bakker, Nancy; Cookson, Barry; Lynch, Alisson; Witte, Wolfgang; Cuny, Christa; Blanc, Dominique; Vernez, Isabelle; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fiett, Janusz; Struelens, Marc; Deplano, Ariane; Landegent, Jim; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Belkum, Alex

    2002-01-01

    The reproducibility of the binary typing (BT) protocol developed for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed in a biphasic multicenter study. In a Dutch multicenter pilot study, 10 genetically unique isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were characterized by the BT

  1. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in children: a formidable foe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most common causes of bacteraemia in children. In order to evade and overcome the immune responses of its host and any antimicrobial therapies aimed at destroying it, this organism, through various mechanisms, continues to evolve. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a ...

  2. Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an African adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains an important cause of mortality, in the community and health care set-ups. S. aureus strains with genes encoding lethal toxins and culture negative sepsis augment the diagnostic challenge in resource limited settings. With a growing rate of resistance to the causative bacteria and atypical ...

  3. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic sensitivity, Nigeria, Kano ... infection have an increased colonization risks [8]. ... confirmed Staphylococcus aureus isolates was prepared in peptone water to ... 5 g methicillin discs (oxoid, USA) were aseptically placed on the surface of the inoculated plates and ...

  4. Virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Buruli ulcer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W.

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients.

  5. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Aloe Vera terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, drg.Sp,Pros

    2011-01-01

    Dari hasil penelitian , maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak Aloe Vera dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus, dan kadar hambat minimal ekstrak Aloe Vera adalah pada konsentrasi 25%. Tujuan Penelitan Ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak Aloe vera dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus dan daya hambat menimal, (DHM) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri tersebut. Metode yang digunakan adalah pertumbuhan ekstrak Aloe vera, penegnceran ekstrak , pemur...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. ... of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P < 0.05 ...

  7. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The S. aureus. isolates varied in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern when tested for their sensitivity to 16 antibiotics. Eighty percent of the isolates were resistant to more than one antimicrobial agent. All the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and 100% sensitivity to rifampicin. Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, ...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  9. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in apparently healthy ... treatment failures is vital. Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Nasal swabs, Multidrug resistance, Rational .... defined as resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics other than the ...

  10. Distribution of capsular and surface polysaccharide serotypes of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Taylor, Kimberly L; Mellmann, Alexander; Fattom, Ali I; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    Because of its ability to cause serious and fatal infections, Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most feared microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has long been a common pathogen in healthcare facilities, but within the past decade, it has emerged as a problematic pathogen in

  11. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  12. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in retail raw oysters from the eastern coast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchai, Nuttawee; Saunjit, Sudarat

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence, population density and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in 240 retail raw oysters collected monthly between March 2010 and February 2011 from Ang Sila coast, Chon Buri Province, Thailand were determined using most probable number (MPN) multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR detected V. parahaemolyticus in 219 raw oyster samples, of which 29 samples contained the virulence tdh. MPN values for V. parahaemolyticus and pathogenic strains in most samples ranged from 10 to 10(2) and from 3 to 10 MPN/g, respectively. The presence of V. vulnificus was found in 53 oyster samples in amounts between 10 and 10(2) MPN/g. Of 1,087 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 14 and 2 isolates carried tdh and virulence trh, respectively but none with both genes. However, none of the presumptive isolates was shown to be V. vulnificus. The detection of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in raw oysters has rendered high awareness of risk in consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  13. [Sepsis with Staphylococcus aureus in immunocompromised patients].

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    Petrache, Simona Magdalena; Miftode, Egidia; Vâţă, A; Petrovici, Cristina Mirela; Dorneanu, Olivia; Luca, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze clinical and biological characteristics of immunocompromised patients with staphylococcal sepsis and to compare with the same data in non-immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of sepsis was made based on Bone criteria. MiniAPI system ID 32 STAPH was used for identification and antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by ATB STAPH method and by E-test for oxacillin and vancomycin. Among the 147 patients with Staphylococcus aureus sepsis--66.67% had concomitant immunosuppressive conditions (diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, renal failure, corticotherapy, etc). We have found a significant correlation between the immunosuppressed status and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) involvement (p = 0.0018) and also, between this group of patients and treatment failure (p = 0.0012). Because of the high rate of MRSA involvement in systemic infections in the Eastern region of Romania first intention treatment of patients with staphylococcal infections and conditions of immunosuppression must include antibiotics effective against methicillin-resistant strains.

  14. Antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin against Staphylococcus aureus

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    WANG, HAITING; ZOU, DAN; XIE, KUNPEING; XIE, MINGJIE

    2014-01-01

    Fraxetin is one of the main constituents of the traditional medicinal plant Fraxinus rhynchophylla. The inhibitory effect of fraxetin on various bacterial strains has been extensively reported, however, its mechanism of action on bacterial cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin on Staphylococcus aureus was systematically investigated by examining its effect on cell membranes, protein synthesis, nucleic acid content and topoisomerase activity. The results indicated that fraxetin increased the permeability of the cell membrane but did not render it permeable to macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. Additionally, the quantity of protein, DNA and RNA decreased to 55.74, 33.86 and 48.96%, respectively following treatment with fraxetin for 16 h. The activity of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II were also markedly inhibited as fraxetin concentration increased. The result of the ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry demonstrated that the DNA characteristics exhibited a blue shift and hypochromic effect following treatment with fraxetin. These results indicated that fraxetin had a marked inhibitory effect on S.aureus proliferation. Further mechanistic studies showed that fraxetin could disrupt nucleic acid and protein synthesis by preventing topoisomerase from binding to DNA. PMID:25189268

  15. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

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    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  16. Prevalence of microbial contamination of fresh seafood product sold in Constantine, Algeria

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    Amira Leila Dib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The seafood products are considered as an important element in the Mediterranean diet and play a significant role in the appearance of diseases and food poisoning. Forty samples of seafood products from various provenances of eastern coast of Algeria were randomly collected from several retail markets at the Constantine region. Total bacterial counts of Aerobic Mesophilic bacteria, Salmonella spp., total and fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, sulphite reducing anaerobes bacteria, Vibrio spp., were measured. 39 samples (97.5% of the seafood product analysed, were inappropriate for human consumption, solely one sample 2.5% of sardines were suitable for human consumption. Salmonella spp., was detected in one sample (3% of Sardines, Total and fecal coliforms were detected in 39 samples, Clostridium spp. were detected in 5 samples. No strain of Staphylococcus aureus and vibrio were detected. The results of this study constitute an indicator of bacteriological contamination and showed that samples markets were contaminated with potential pathogenic microorganisms.

  17. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  18. Resistance to antimicrobials and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Krewer, Carina; Santos Amanso, Evandro; Veneroni Gouveia, Gisele; de Lima Souza, Renata; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis is the principal disease affecting dairy herds worldwide. The aim of the present study was to characterize phenotypic and genotypic features associated with resistance to antimicrobials in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 2064 milk samples of 525 lactating cows in the Northeast of Brazil. Of the 218 isolates analyzed, 57.8% were characterized as Staphylococcus aureus, 28% as coagulase-positive staphylococci other than S. aureus (oCPS), and 14.2% as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The test for susceptibility to antimicrobials showed amoxicillin (32.6%) to be the less effective drug in vitro, and the multi-drug resistance (MDR) rate for beta-lactams varied from 0 to 0.75. The genotypic characterization showed that 93.1% of the samples were tested positive for the blaZ gene, while none amplified mecA. The antibiotic efflux mechanism was observed in 0.9% of isolates. The biofilm formation was found in 3.7 and 96.3% of samples, respectively, on Congo red agar and on the microplate adhesion test, while the icaD gene was present in 92.2% of Staphylococcus spp. The high frequency of blaZ gene observed in this study was associated with the resistance of most Staphylococcus spp. to one or more of the beta-lactams tested, which are routinely used in Brazilian herds for mastitis treatment. The biofilm formation was also detected in the isolates analyzed being an important characteristic for pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria.

  19. Is Ureaplasma spp. the leading causative agent of acute chorioamnionitis in women with preterm birth?

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    Kikhney, J; von Schöning, D; Steding, I; Schulze, J; Petrich, A; Hiergeist, A; Reischl, U; Moter, A; Thomas, A

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to detect microorganisms in fetal membranes and placental tissue in preterm chorioamnionitis by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with broad range PCR. The combination of the two molecular techniques enables identification and localization of the microorganisms within the tissue, confirming their clinical relevance. In a prospective cohort study, we compared 31 women with preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm labour and preterm delivery by caesarean section with a control group of 26 women undergoing elective caesarean section at term. Fetal membranes and placental tissue were analysed by FISH and broad range 16S rRNA-gene PCR and sequencing. For 20 women in the preterm group, caesarean section was performed because of a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Microorganisms were detected in the tissues by both molecular techniques in 11 out of 20 women. Among those, Ureaplasma spp. was most abundant, with five cases that remained culture-negative and would have been missed by routine diagnostic procedures. Other infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis or Escherichia coli. FISH and PCR were negative for all women without suspected chorioamnionitis and for the control group. Combination of FISH with broad-range PCR and sequencing permitted unambiguous identification of the causative microorganisms in chorioamnionitis. The high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. should lead to a re-evaluation of its clinical significance and possible therapeutic consequences. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

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    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.