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Sample records for aureus staphylococcus epidermidis

  1. Penetration of antibiotics through Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Rachna; Ray, Pallab; Das, Anindita; Sharma, Meera

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to elucidate the role of reduced antibiotic penetration in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms to different antibiotics. The biofilms...

  2. Transforming the untransformable: application of direct transformation to manipulate genetically Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monk, Ian R; Shah, Ishita M; Xu, Min; Tan, Man-Wah; Foster, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    The strong restriction barrier present in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis has limited functional genomic analysis to a small subset of strains that are amenable to genetic manipulation...

  3. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourtet-Hascoët, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to compare these to the characteristics of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A retrospective multicentre study including all consecutive cases of S. lugdunensis PJI (2000-2014) was performed. Eighty-eight cases of staphylococcal PJI were recorded: 28 due to S. lugdunensis, 30 to S. aureus, and 30 to S. epidermidis, as identified by Vitek 2 or API Staph (bioMérieux). Clinical symptoms were more often reported in the S. lugdunensis group, and the median delay between surgery and infection was shorter for the S. lugdunensis group than for the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, the S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to antibiotics and 61% of the patients could be treated with levofloxacin + rifampicin. The outcome of the PJI was favourable for 89% of patients with S. lugdunensis, 83% with S. aureus, and 97% with S. epidermidis. S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics . Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Protease production by Staphylococcus epidermidis and its effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Depuydt, Pieter; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Due to the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to several antibiotics, treatment of S. aureus infections is often difficult. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, the field of bacterial interference is investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis produces a serine protease (Esp) which inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation and which degrades S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the protease production of 114 S. epidermidis isolates, obtained from biofilms on endotracheal tubes (ET). Most of the S. epidermidis isolates secreted a mixture of serine, cysteine and metalloproteases. We found a link between high protease production by S. epidermidis and the absence of S. aureus in ET biofilms obtained from the same patient. Treating S. aureus biofilms with the supernatant (SN) of the most active protease producing S. epidermidis isolates resulted in a significant biomass decrease compared to untreated controls, while the number of metabolically active cells was not affected. The effect on the biofilm biomass was mainly due to serine proteases. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms treated with the SN of protease producing S. epidermidis were thinner with almost no extracellular matrix. An increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans, infected with S. aureus Mu50, was observed when the SN of protease positive S. epidermidis was added. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological Overlap and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méric, Guillaume; Miragaia, Maria; de Been, Mark; Yahara, Koji; Pascoe, Ben; Mageiros, Leonardos; Mikhail, Jane; Harris, Llinos G; Wilkinson, Thomas S; Rolo, Joana; Lamble, Sarah; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Hanage, William P; Bowden, Rory; Maiden, Martin C J; Mack, Dietrich; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Feil, Edward J; Corander, Jukka; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2015-04-16

    The opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis represent major causes of severe nosocomial infection, and are associated with high levels of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These species are both common commensals on the human skin and in the nasal pharynx, but are genetically distinct, differing at 24% average nucleotide divergence in 1,478 core genes. To better understand the genome dynamics of these ecologically similar staphylococcal species, we carried out a comparative analysis of 324 S. aureus and S. epidermidis genomes, including 83 novel S. epidermidis sequences. A reference pan-genome approach and whole genome multilocus-sequence typing revealed that around half of the genome was shared between the species. Based on a BratNextGen analysis, homologous recombination was found to have impacted on 40% of the core genes in S. epidermidis, but on only 24% of the core genes in S. aureus. Homologous recombination between the species is rare, with a maximum of nine gene alleles shared between any two S. epidermidis and S. aureus isolates. In contrast, there was considerable interspecies admixture of mobile elements, in particular genes associated with the SaPIn1 pathogenicity island, metal detoxification, and the methicillin-resistance island SCCmec. Our data and analysis provide a context for considering the nature of recombinational boundaries between S. aureus and S. epidermidis and, the selective forces that influence realized recombination between these species. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Effect of proteases against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elchinger, P-H; Delattre, C; Faure, S; Roy, O; Badel, S; Bernardi, T; Taillefumier, C; Michaud, P

    2014-11-01

    Biofilms play a key role in bacterial resistance against antibacterial agents-an issue that causes multiple problems in medical fields, particularly with Staphylococcus biofilms that colonize medical indwelling devices. The literature reports several anti-biofilm strategies that have been applied in medicine. Disrupting the biofilm formation process creates new sites open to colonization by treatment-generated planktonic bacteria, so efforts have turned to focus on strategies to prevent and control the initial Staphylococci adhesion. Here, we investigated the preventive activities of three commercial proteases (Flavourzyme, Neutrase and Alcalase) against biofilm formation by two Staphylococcus strains. Some proteolytic extracts revealed interesting results with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus aureus biofilms. Three proteases were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in standard conditions. The Flavourzyme containing a mix of Aspergillus orizae endo- and exoproteases demonstrated significant efficacy against Staph. epidermidis biofilm formation. These results could prove valuable in the effort to develop simple anti-biofilm methods. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Uehara, Yoshio; Shinji, Hitomi; Tajima, Akiko; Seo, Hiromi; Takada, Koji; Agata, Toshihiko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2010-05-20

    Commensal bacteria are known to inhibit pathogen colonization; however, complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions have made it difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of colonization. Here we show that the serine protease Esp secreted by a subset of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium, inhibits biofilm formation and nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogen. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the presence of Esp-secreting S. epidermidis in the nasal cavities of human volunteers correlates with the absence of S. aureus. Purified Esp inhibits biofilm formation and destroys pre-existing S. aureus biofilms. Furthermore, Esp enhances the susceptibility of S. aureus in biofilms to immune system components. In vivo studies have shown that Esp-secreting S. epidermidis eliminates S. aureus nasal colonization. These findings indicate that Esp hinders S. aureus colonization in vivo through a novel mechanism of bacterial interference, which could lead to the development of novel therapeutics to prevent S. aureus colonization and infection.

  8. PREVALENCIA DE Staphylococcus epidermidis Y Staphylococcus aureus EN PACIENTES CON CONJUNTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hernández-Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, se evaluaron clínica y bacteriológicamente 131 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de conjuntivitis. A cada participante se le tomó muestra de secreción ocular, para la coloración de Gram y cultivo; además, se probó la susceptibilidad de los aislamientos frente a Oxacilina (Ox, Gentamicina (GM, Vancomicina (Va, Trimetoprim Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetraciclina (Te, Cefalothin (CF, Ceftriaxone (CRO y Ciprofloxacina (CIP. El 53% de los cultivos bacteriológicos fueron positivos, donde el 87% de los aislamientos correspondieron a Gram positivos, siendo los más frecuentes Staphylococcus epidermidis (43%, Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Streptococcus sp. (15%, Enterococcus (7%, Corynebacterium sp. 5%. Se observó multirresistencia frente a 3 ó más antibióticos en S. epidermidis (44% y S.aureus (42%. La alta frecuencia de estos microorganismos y la multirresistencia encontrada en este estudio, determinan la importancia que tienen, como posibles patógenos oculares, y la necesidad de implementar las pruebas de susceptibilidad bacteriana en el ámbito oftalmológico. Este es el primer estudio publicado en Colombia sobre la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, el cual seguramente originará la iniciación de posteriores investigaciones, encaminadas a determinar el verdadero papel de estos microorganismos, en el proceso infeccioso ocular.

  9. Prevalence of icaA and icaD genes in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from patients and hospital staff

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satorres, Sara Elena; Alcaráz, Lucia Esther

    2007-01-01

    .... Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections, especially in patients with predisposing factors such as indwelling or implanted foreign bodies...

  10. Biofilm-forming ability profiling of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis mastitis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, M; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm-forming ability has been increasingly recognized as an important virulence factor in Staphylococci, facilitating their persistence in the host, evading its defences and allowing bacterial survival at high antimicrobial concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus remains a major pathogen...... of chronic mastitis, but in the last years Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a relevant mastitis pathogen. The present work aimed at the evaluation of the biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococci field isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis and at the development of a fluorescent in situ...

  11. Phenazine antibiotic inspired discovery of potent bromophenazine antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Nicholas V; Bai, Fang; Perez, Cristian; Duong, Benjamin Q; Rocca, James R; Jin, Shouguang; Huigens, Robert W

    2014-02-14

    Nearly all clinically used antibiotics have been (1) discovered from microorganisms (2) using phenotype screens to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth. The effectiveness of these antibiotics is attributed to their endogenous roles as bacterial warfare agents against competing microorganisms. Unfortunately, every class of clinically used antibiotic has been met with drug resistant bacteria. In fact, the emergence of resistant bacterial infections coupled to the dismal pipeline of new antibacterial agents has resulted in a global health care crisis. There is an urgent need for innovative antibacterial strategies and treatment options to effectively combat drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe the implementation of a Pseudomonas competition strategy, using redox-active phenazines, to identify novel antibacterial leads against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis and evaluation of a diverse 27-membered phenazine library. Using this microbial warfare inspired approach, we have identified several bromophenazines with potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The most potent bromophenazine analogue from this focused library demonstrated a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78-1.56 μM, or 0.31-0.62 μg mL(-1), against S. aureus and S. epidermidis and proved to be 32- to 64-fold more potent than the phenazine antibiotic pyocyanin in head-to-head MIC experiments. In addition to the discovery of potent antibacterial agents against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we also report a detailed structure-activity relationship for this class of bromophenazine small molecules.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chessa

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections.

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequently encountered member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci on human epithelial surfaces. It has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, especially in infections of indwelling medical devices. The mechanisms that S. epidermidis uses to survive during infection are in general of a passive nature, reflecting their possible origin in the commensal life of this bacterium. Most importantly, S. epidermidis excels in forming biofilms, sticky agglomerations that inhibit major host defense mechanisms. Furthermore, S. epidermidis produces a series of protective surface polymers and exoenzymes. Moreover, S. epidermidis has the capacity to secrete strongly cytolytic members of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family, but PSMs in S. epidermidis overall appear to participate primarily in biofilm development. Finally, there is evidence for a virulence gene reservoir function of S. epidermidis, as it appears to have transferred important immune evasion and antibiotic resistance factors to Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, S. epidermidis also has a beneficial role in balancing the microflora on human epithelial surfaces by controlling outgrowth of harmful bacteria such as in particular S. aureus. Recent research yielded detailed insight into key S. epidermidis virulence determinants and their regulation, in particular as far as biofilm formation is concerned, but we still have a serious lack of understanding of the in vivo relevance of many pathogenesis mechanisms and the factors that govern the commensal life of S. epidermidis.

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis ΔSortase A strain elicits protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yifang; Wang, Peng; Zou, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two of the most significant opportunistic human pathogens, causing medical implant and nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria contain surface proteins that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It has become apparent that they have evolved a number of unique mechanisms by which they can immobilise proteins on their surface. Notably, a conserved cell membrane-anchored enzyme, sortase A (SrtA), can catalyse the covalent attachment of precursor bacterial cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan. Considering its indispensable role in anchoring substrates to the cell wall and its effects on virulence, SrtA has attracted great attention. In this study, a 549-bp gene was cloned from a pathogenic S. epidermidis strain, YC-1, which shared high identity with srtA from other Staphylococcus spp. A mutant strain, YC-1ΔsrtA, was then constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. The direct survival rate assay suggested that YC-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy mice blood compare with the wild-type strain, indicating that the deletion of srtA affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. epidermidis YC-1. YC-1ΔsrtA was then administered via intraperitoneal injection and it provided a relative percent survival value of 72.7 % in mice against S. aureus TC-1 challenge. These findings demonstrate the possbility that YC-1ΔsrtA might be used as a live attenuated vaccine to produce cross-protection against S. aureus.

  15. Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Coenye, Tom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the metabolic activity in single and dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolates was investigated. Our results demonstrated that there was less metabolic activity in dual species biofilms compared to S. aureus biofilms. However, this was not observed if S. aureus and S. epidermidis were obtained from the same sample. The largest effect on metabolic activity was observed in biofilms of S. aureus Mu50 and S. epidermidis ET-024. A transcriptomic analysis of these dual species biofilms showed that urease genes and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were downregulated in comparison to monospecies biofilms. These results were subsequently confirmed by phenotypic assays. As metabolic activity is related to acid production, the pH in dual species biofilms was slightly higher compared to S. aureus Mu50 biofilms. Our results showed that S. epidermidis ET-024 in dual species biofilms inhibits metabolic activity of S. aureus Mu50, leading to less acid production. As a consequence, less urease activity is required to compensate for low pH. Importantly, this effect was biofilm-specific. Also S. aureus Mu50 genes encoding virulence-associated proteins (Spa, SplF and Dps) were upregulated in dual species biofilms compared to monospecies biofilms and using Caenorhabditis elegans infection assays, we demonstrated that more nematodes survived when co-infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and S. aureus mutants lacking functional spa, splF or dps genes, compared to nematodes infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and wild- type S. aureus. Finally, S. epidermidis ET-024 genes encoding resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin and tobramycin were upregulated in dual species biofilms and increased resistance was subsequently confirmed. Our data indicate that both species in dual species biofilms of S. epidermidis and S. aureus influence each other's behavior, but additional studies are required necessary to elucidate the exact

  16. Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure Increases Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Bilida, Sarah; Mermel, Leonard A; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2015-06-01

    Alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, are used in clinical practice for disinfection and infection prevention. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that alcohols may enhance biofilm production in Staphylococci. We quantified biofilm formation in the presence of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in six different, well-characterized strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. After 24 h of biofilm development, each strain was exposed to normal saline (NS), ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol (40%, 60%, 80% and 95%) for additional 24 h incubation. Adherent biofilms were stained and optical density was determined. Viability of strains was also determined after alcohol exposure. Ethanol increased biofilm formation in all six strains compared to normal saline (p alcohol also increased biofilm formation with increasing alcohol concentration in all six strains (p alcohols, likely reverting back its primary phenotype through modulation of the intercellular adhesin repressor. All strains demonstrated viability after exposure to each alcohol concentration, though viability was decreased. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol exposure increases biofilm formation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations used in clinical settings. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol did not eradicate viable Staphylococci from formed biofilm.

  17. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lourtet-Hascoët

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics .

  18. Generation of a Transposon Mutant Library in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Using bursa aurealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajjala, Vijaya Kumar; Widhelm, Todd J; Endres, Jennifer L; Fey, Paul D; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is a genetic process that involves the random insertion of transposons into a genome resulting in the disruption of function of the genes in which they insert. Identification of the insertion sites through DNA sequencing allows for the identification of the genes disrupted and the creation of "libraries" containing a collection of mutants in which a large number of the nonessential genes have been disrupted. These mutant libraries have been a great resource for investigators to understand the various biological functions of individual genes, including those involved in metabolism, antibiotic susceptibility, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe the detailed methodologies for constructing a sequence defined transposon mutant library in both Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis using the mariner-based transposon, bursa aurealis.

  19. Differentiation Between {\\varvec{Staphylococcus aureus}} and {\\varvec{Staphylococcus epidermidis}} Using Microcalorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Natividad Lago; Soto, José L. Legido; Santos, Isaac Arias; Casás, Lidia M.

    2013-06-01

    Microcalorimetry is a highly sensitive experimental technique that determines heat changes in any process or transformation. All organisms produce heat due to their metabolism. The rate of heat flow is an adequate measure of metabolic activity of living beings and their component parts. Microorganisms produce small amounts of heat: 1 pW to 3 pW per cell. Although the heat produced by bacteria is very small, their exponential reproduction in a culture medium permits heat detection through microcalorimetry. A microcalorimetric growth and metabolic study was carried out for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, by using heat liberated during metabolism. A thermal conductivity calorimeter of the Calvet type was used. The inside of the calorimeter contains two stainless steel cells (experimental and reference) with a screw-on Teflon cap with a hole in the center. Experiments were carried out with final concentrations of the order of (106, 105, 103, and 10) CFU {\\cdot } { ml }^{-1}. These were kept at a constant temperature of 309.65 K. The plot of change in heat voltage versus time enables acquisition of the characteristic growth curve for each bacterial strain. Thermograms were analyzed mathematically and helped determine the characteristic parameters for each microorganism, and led to the identification of the bacterial species.

  20. Amidase, a cell wall hydrolase, elicits protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Vinod, Vivek; Suresh, Maneesha K; Vijayrajratnam, Sukhithasri; Biswas, Lalitha; Peethambaran, Reshmi; Vasudevan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Raja

    2015-01-01

    The morbidity and the mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis infections have greatly increased due to the rapid emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic resistant strains. Development of a vaccine-based therapy is greatly desired. However, no staphylococcal vaccine is available till date. In this study, we have identified Major amidase (Atl-AM) as a prime candidate for future vaccine design against these pathogens. Atl-AM is a multi-functional non-covalently cell wall associated protein which is involved in staphylococcal cell separation after cell division, host extracellular matrix adhesion and biofilm formation. Atl-AM is present on the surface of diverse S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains. When used in combination with Freund's adjuvant, Atl-AM generated a mixed Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response which is skewed more toward Th1; and showed increased production of opsonophagocytic IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies. Significant protective immune response was observed when vaccinated mice were challenged with S. aureus or S. epidermidis. Vaccination prevented the systemic dissemination of both organisms. Our results demonstrate the remarkable efficacy of Atl-AM as a vaccine candidate against both of these pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial effect of antibiotic-loaded SBA-15 on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Colomer, Anna; Doadrio, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Jorge, Concepción; Manzano, Miguel; Vallet-Regí, Maria; Esteban, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are human pathogens involved in implant-related infections. During those diseases, they are able to form biofilms showing resistance to the effect of many different antibiotics. Drug delivery systems allow a local and effective delivery of antibiotics at high concentrations in the infected tissue without causing the cytotoxic effects commonly linked to systemic administration. We report the use of a porous ceramic biomaterial, such as SBA-15 loaded with antibiotics, to deliver them directly to the infected tissue. SBA-15 discs were loaded with Vancomycin, Rifampin and a combination of both, introduced in a suspension of S. aureus 15981 and S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 and incubated during 6 and 24 h. A statistically significant decrease in the biofilm density and the number of viable bacteria was detected for all antibiotics at 6 h in both bacteria. Rifampin showed an increase in the biofilm density and the number of viable bacteria at 24 h. No differences were detected between Vancomycin and the combination of antibiotics. S. epidermidis was more sensitive to the effect of the antibiotics than S. aureus. Here we have demonstrated that SBA-15 is able to act as an effective drug delivery system not only from a pharmaceutical point of view, but also from a biological one.

  2. Induction of oxidative burst response in human neutrophils by adherent staphylococci. Comparison between Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, U; Espersen, F; Skinhøj, P

    1993-01-01

    The ability of staphylococci adherent to silicone surfaces to induce superoxide anion (O2-) production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated and compared with the same activity induced by planktonic bacteria. The responses to Staphylococcus aureus strain E 2371 and Staphylococcus...... epidermidis strain ATCC 14990 were compared. The staphylococci were allowed to adhere to silicone catheters for 2 h at 37 degrees C. After opsonization of adherent bacteria in 30% human AB-positive serum, the induction of superoxide anion production by PMNs was measured in a cytochrome C reduction assay. Both...... bacterial strains, when adhered to the surfaces, were able to induce superoxide anion production by PMNs to about the same extent. Comparing adherent and planktonic bacteria with these two bacterial strains, it was found that planktonic S. epidermidis induced one to three times higher superoxide anion...

  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp degrades specific proteins associated with Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and host-pathogen interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Iwamoto, Takeo; Takada, Koji; Okuda, Ken-Ichi; Tajima, Akiko; Iwase, Tadayuki; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus exhibits a strong capacity to attach to abiotic or biotic surfaces and form biofilms, which lead to chronic infections. We have recently shown that Esp, a serine protease secreted by commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis, disassembles preformed biofilms of S. aureus and inhibits its colonization. Esp was expected to degrade protein determinants of the adhesive and cohesive strength of S. aureus biofilms. The aim of this study was to elucidate the substrate specificity and target proteins of Esp and thereby determine the mechanism by which Esp disassembles S. aureus biofilms. We used a mutant Esp protein (Esp(S235A)) with defective proteolytic activity; this protein did not disassemble the biofilm formed by a clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain, thereby indicating that the proteolytic activity of Esp is essential for biofilm disassembly. Esp degraded specific proteins in the biofilm matrix and cell wall fractions, in contrast to proteinase K, which is frequently used for testing biofilm robustness and showed no preference for proteolysis. Proteomic and immunological analyses showed that Esp degrades at least 75 proteins, including 11 biofilm formation- and colonization-associated proteins, such as the extracellular adherence protein, the extracellular matrix protein-binding protein, fibronectin-binding protein A, and protein A. In addition, Esp selectively degraded several human receptor proteins of S. aureus (e.g., fibronectin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin) that are involved in its colonization or infection. These results suggest that Esp inhibits S. aureus colonization and biofilm formation by degrading specific proteins that are crucial for biofilm construction and host-pathogen interaction.

  4. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus pettenkoferi from a small animal clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sonja; Kadlec, Kristina; Fessler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-12-27

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) in a small animal clinic and to investigate their distribution and possible transmission. Swabs (n=72) were taken from hospitalized pets, the environment and employees of a small animal clinic and screened for the presence of MRS. The staphylococcal species was confirmed biochemically or by 16S rDNA sequencing. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested by broth dilution. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Molecular typing of the isolates followed standard procedures. In total, 34 MRS belonging to the four species Staphylococcus aureus (n=5), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=21), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=6) or Staphylococcus pettenkoferi (n=2) were isolated. All isolates were multidrug-resistant with resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobial agents. Among the five methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, four belonged to the clonal complex CC398; two of them were isolated from cats, the remaining two from pet cages. Overall, the MRS isolates differed in their characteristics, except for one S. epidermidis clone (n=9) isolated from hospitalized cats without clinical staphylococcal infections, pet cages, the clinic environment as well as from a healthy employee. This MRSE clone was resistant to 10 classes of antimicrobial agents, including aminocyclitols, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides, macrolides, phenicols, pleuromutilins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim. These findings suggest a possible transmission of specific MRS isolates between animal patients, employees and the clinic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Silver doped titanium oxide-PDMS hybrid coating inhibits Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth on PEEK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhiem; Kelley, Michael N; Tran, Phong A; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Jarrell, John D; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial infection remains one of the most serious issues affecting the successful installation and retention of orthopedic implants. Many bacteria develop resistance to current antibiotics, which complicates or prevents traditional antibiotic-dependent eradication therapy. In this study, a hybrid coating of titanium dioxide and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was synthesized to regulate the release of silver. The coatings were benefited from the antimicrobial activity of silver ion, the biocompatibility of titanium dioxide, and the flexibility of the polymer. Three studied silver doped coatings with different titanium dioxide-PDMS ratios effectively inhibited the attachment and growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in a dose-dependent manner. The coatings were successfully applied on the discs of polyether ether ketone (PEEK), a common spinal implant material and antibacterial property of these coatings was assessed via Kirby Bauer assay. More importantly, these selected coatings completely inhibited biofilm formation. The release study demonstrated that the release rate of silver from the coating depended on doping levels and also the ratios of titanium dioxide and PDMS. This result is crucial for designing coatings with desired silver release rate on PEEK materials for antimicrobial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of icaA and icaD genes in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from patients and hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satorres, Sara Elena; Alcaráz, Lucia Esther

    2007-06-01

    Staphylococci are ubiquitous microorganisms that predominate in normal skin and mucosal flora. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections, especially in patients with predisposing factors such as indwelling or implanted foreign bodies. The ability of both S. epidermidis and S. aureus to produce biofilm was compared between 116 clinically significant strains (46 from blood cultures of patients with bloodstream infection and 70 isolated from catheters) and 60 strains isolated from nasal swabs of healthy carriers from hospital staff. The presence of the intercellular adhesion genes (icaA and icaD) was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, and slime production was examined using qualitative Congo red agar technique. Among clinical strains, 35.2% (19/54) of S. aureus and 48.4% (30/62) of S.epidermidis were both positive icaA and icaD and they produced slime. Among carrier strains, 22.2% (8/36) of S. aureus and 33.3% (8/24) of S. epidermidis were positive for slime synthesis and exhibited ica genes. Our results suggest that the virulence factors contributing to the development of infections can be present in patient and hospital staff isolates. Thus, we consider it is important to detect healthy carriers of slime-producing staphylococci and to control the dissemination of these microorganisms especially in a hospital.

  7. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990. Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  8. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Thaís Honório Lins; Sales Santos Veríssimo, Regina Célia; Alvino, Valter; Silva Araujo, Maria Gabriella; Evangelista Pires dos Santos, Raíssa Fernanda; Maurício Viana, Max Denisson; de Assis Bastos, Maria Lysete; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990). Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  9. 1Molecular basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci and one of the most abundant colonizers of human skin. While for a long time regarded as innocuous, it has been identified as the most frequent cause of device-related infections occurring in the hospital setting and is therefore now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. S. epidermidis produces a series of molecules that provide protection from host defenses. Specifically, many proteins and exopolymers, such as the exopolysaccharide PIA, contribute to biofilm formation and inhibit phagocytosis and the activity of human antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, recent research has identified a family of pro-inflammatory peptides in S. epidermidis, the phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), which have multiple functions in immune evasion and biofilm development, and may be cytolytic. However, in accordance with the relatively benign relationship that S. epidermidis has with its host, production of aggressive members of the PSM family is kept at a low level. Interestingly, in contrast to Staphylococcus aureus with its large arsenal of toxins developed for causing infection in the human host, most if not all “virulence factors” of S. epidermidis appear to have original functions in the commensal lifestyle of this bacterium. PMID:22095240

  10. Staphylococcus epidermidis Strategies to Avoid Killing by Human Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Rigby, Kevin; Wang, Rong; Queck, Shu Y.; Braughton, Kevin R.; Whitney, Adeline R.; Teintze, Martin; DeLeo, Frank R.; Otto, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSMδ, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS). These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus. PMID:20949069

  11. Cervical adenitis caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan-Poirier, K; Patrick, C C

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a human commensal, is a common cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients with indwelling medical devices. We report a case of isolated cervical adenitis caused by S. epidermidis in an immunocompetent patient and comment on the presumed pathogenesis.

  12. Cervical adenitis caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Poirier, K; Patrick, C C

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a human commensal, is a common cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients with indwelling medical devices. We report a case of isolated cervical adenitis caused by S. epidermidis in an immunocompetent patient and comment on the presumed pathogenesis. PMID:8432830

  13. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on the hands of health-care workers using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, P; Schouenborg, P Øland; Brandslund, I

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay intended as a tool for monitoring hand hygiene in hospital wards. METHODS: The hands of 20 health-care workers were sampled for 10 days using real-time PCR for quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and S...

  14. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI LOTION MINYAK KAYU MANIS TERHADAP Staphylococcus epidermidis PENYEBAB BAU KAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Apriliyani Tiran

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis. Moreover, cinnamon oil and its formulation showed similar antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Keywords : antibacterial activity, cinnamon oil, lotion, Staphylococcus epidermidis

  15. Current concepts in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Paul D; Olson, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a highly significant nosocomial pathogen mediating infections primarily associated with indwelling biomaterials (e.g., catheters and prostheses). In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, virulence properties associated with S. epidermidis are few and biofilm formation is the defining virulence factor associated with disease, as demonstrated by animal models of biomaterial-related infections. However, other virulence factors, such as phenol-soluble modulins and poly-γ-DL-glutamic acid, have been recently recognized that thwart innate immune system mechanisms. Formation of S. epidermidis biofilm is typically considered a four-step process consisting of adherence, accumulation, maturation and dispersal. This article will discuss recent advances in the study of these four steps, including accumulation, which can be either polysaccharide or protein mediated. It is hypothesized that studies focused on understanding the biological function of each step in staphylococcal biofilm formation will yield new treatment modalities to treat these recalcitrant infections. PMID:20521936

  16. Host Response to Staphylococcus epidermidis Colonization and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuan H; Park, Matthew D; Otto, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research in the Staphylococcus field has been dedicated to the understanding of Staphylococcus aureus infections. In contrast, there is limited information on infections by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) and how the host responds to them. S. epidermidis, a member of the coagulase-negative Staphylococci, is an important commensal organism of the human skin and mucous membranes; and there is emerging evidence of its benefit for human health in fighting off harmful microorganisms. However, S. epidermidis can cause opportunistic infections, which include particularly biofilm-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. These often can disseminate into the bloodstream; and in fact, S. epidermidis is the most frequent cause of nosocomial sepsis. The increasing use of medical implants and the dramatic shift in the patient demographic population in recent years have contributed significantly to the rise of S. epidermidis infections. Furthermore, treatment has been complicated by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. Today, S. epidermidis is a major nosocomial pathogen posing significant medical and economic burdens. In this review, we present the current understanding of mechanisms of host defense against the prototypical CoNS species S. epidermidis as a commensal of the skin and mucous membranes, and during biofilm-associated infection and sepsis.

  17. AI-2-dependent gene regulation in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdevant Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoinducer 2 (AI-2, a widespread by-product of the LuxS-catalyzed S-ribosylhomocysteine cleavage reaction in the activated methyl cycle, has been suggested to serve as an intra- and interspecies signaling molecule, but in many bacteria AI-2 control of gene expression is not completely understood. Particularly, we have a lack of knowledge about AI-2 signaling in the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Results To determine the role of LuxS and AI-2 in S. epidermidis, we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in an S. epidermidis luxS mutant and after addition of AI-2 synthesized by over-expressed S. epidermidis Pfs and LuxS enzymes. Genes under AI-2 control included mostly genes involved in sugar, nucleotide, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism, but also virulence-associated genes coding for lipase and bacterial apoptosis proteins. In addition, we demonstrate by liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry of culture filtrates that the pro-inflammatory phenol-soluble modulin (PSM peptides, key virulence factors of S. epidermidis, are under luxS/AI-2 control. Conclusion Our results provide a detailed molecular basis for the role of LuxS in S. epidermidis virulence and suggest a signaling function for AI-2 in this bacterium.

  18. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with ... from your health care provider. What is a staph infection? Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of ...

  20. Staphylococcus epidermidis as a cause of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Sharon; Huygens, Flavia; Faoagali, Joan; Rathnayake, Irani U; Hafner, Louise M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a biofilm-producing commensal organism found ubiquitously on human skin and mucous membranes, as well as on animals and in the environment. Biofilm formation enables this organism to evade the host immune system. Colonization of percutaneous devices or implanted medical devices allows bacteria access to the bloodstream. Isolation of this organism from blood cultures may represent either contamination during the blood collection procedure or true bacteremia. S. epidermidis bloodstream infections may be indolent compared with other bacteria. Isolation of S. epidermidis from a blood culture may present a management quandary for clinicians. Over-treatment may lead to patient harm and increases in healthcare costs. There are numerous reports indicating the difficulty of predicting clinical infection in patients with positive blood cultures with this organism. No reliable phenotypic or genotypic algorithms currently exist to predict the pathogenicity of a S. epidermidis bloodstream infection. This review will discuss the latest advances in identification methods, global population structure, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance and clinical significance of the detection of S. epidermidis in blood cultures. Previous studies that have attempted to discriminate between invasive and contaminating strains of S. epidermidis in blood cultures will be analyzed.

  1. Biofilm inhibitory and eradicating activity of wound care products against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in an in vitro chronic wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, G; De Meyer, L; Nelis, H J; Coenye, T

    2013-06-01

    Although several factors contribute to wound healing, bacterial infections and the presence of biofilm can significantly affect healing. Despite that this clearly indicates that therapies should address biofilm in wounds, only few wound care products have been evaluated for their antibiofilm effect. For this reason, we developed a rapid quantification approach to investigate the efficacy of wound care products on wounds infected with Staphylococcus spp. An in vitro chronic wound infection model was used in which a fluorescent Staph. aureus strain was used to allow the rapid quantification of the bacterial burden after treatment. A good correlation was observed between the fluorescence signal and the bacterial counts. When evaluated in this model, several commonly used wound dressings and wound care products inhibited biofilm formation resulting in a decrease between one and seven log CFU per biofilm compared with biofilm formed in the absence of products. In contrast, most dressings only moderately affected mature biofilms. Our model allowed the rapid quantification of the bacterial burden after treatment. However, the efficacy of treatment varied between the different types of dressings and/or wound care products. Our model can be used to compare the efficacy of wound care products to inhibit biofilm formation and/or eradicate mature biofilms. In addition, the results indicate that treatment of infected wounds should be started as soon as possible and that novel products with more potent antibiofilm activity are needed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Modulation of ENaC, CFTR, and iNOS expression in bronchial epithelial cells after stimulation with Staphylococcus epidermidis (94B080) and Staphylococcus aureus (90B083).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rashida; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Björkqvist, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria affect the respiratory epithelium, which is covered by airway surface liquid (ASL) and mucus. Ion concentrations in the ASL are determined by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). Neonatal sepsis is a major risk factor for subsequent pulmonary disease in preterm newborns. Predominating are coagulase-negative staphylococci (e.g., Staphylococccus epidermidis and Staphylococccus aureus). The aim of this study was to investigate modulation of CFTR, ENaC, mucins, proinflammatory cytokines, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in respiratory epithelial cells after S. epidermidis 94B080 and S. aureus 90B083 exposure. Bronchial epithelial cells were incubated with S. epidermidis 94B080 and S. aureus 90B083 (neonatal blood isolates) for 1-36 h. Expression of CFTR, ENaC, iNOS, and mucins was analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Release of cytokines was analyzed by ELISA, and production of NO by the Griess assay. Expression of CFTR significantly decreased after 36 h incubation with S. epidermidis and more prominently with S. aureus, whereas S. epidermidis caused a significant increase in the expression of β- and γ-ENaC. Expression of iNOS increased, but NO was not detected. Both staphylococci caused a decrease in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. S. aureus induced increased secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and transforming nuclear factor (TNF)-α in a time-dependent manner as compared with S. epidermidis. In conclusion, expression of ENaC, CFTR, and iNOS is modulated by exposure to S. aureus 90B083 and S. epidermidis 94B080. S. aureus is more potent in causing release of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α by bronchial epithelial cells as compared with S. epidermidis. The mRNA expression for the mucus proteins MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B could not be measured, neither in the presence nor in the absence of bacteria. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. comparative efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin on staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    INTRODUCTION taphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) Neisseria gonorrhoea treptococcus Pneumonia. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci staphylococcus aureus staphylococcus albus. S. aureus. S. aureus. Germs or pathogens occur mostly as either.

  4. Determinación de la cinética, pruebas de crecimiento y efecto de inhibición in vitro de Lactobacillus casei en Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae y Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry Jurado-Gámez; Manuel Gúzman-Insuasty

    2015-01-01

      Se determinó cinética, pruebas de crecimiento y efecto de inhibición in vitro de L. casei sobre S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. agalactiae y E. coli. Se usaron cepas comerciales y cepas aisladas de muestras de leche con mastitis...

  5. Determinación de la cinética, pruebas de crecimiento y efecto de inhibición in vitro de Lactobacillus lactis en Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae y Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry Jurado-Gámez; Manuel Gúzman-Insuasty; Verónica Jarrín-Jarrín

    2015-01-01

      Se determinó la cinética, pruebas de crecimiento y efecto de inhibición in vitro de L. lactis sobre S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. agalactiae y E. coli. Los análisis se realizaron en el laboratorio...

  6. Clinical significance of the isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from bone biopsy in diabetic foot osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aragón-Sánchez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci are considered as microorganisms with little virulence and usually as contaminants. In order to establish the role of Staphylococcus epidermidis as a pathogen in diabetic foot osteomyelitis, in addition to the isolation of the sole bacterium from the bone it will be necessary to demonstrate the histopathological changes caused by the infection. Methods: A consecutive series of 222 diabetic patients with foot osteomyelitis treated surgically in the Diabetic Foot Unit at La Paloma Hospital (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain between 1 October 2002 and 31 October 2008. From the entire series including 213 bone cultures with 241 isolated organisms, we have analyzed only the 139 cases where Staphylococci were found. We analyzed several variables between the two groups: Staphylococcus aureus versus Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results: Of the 134 patients included in this study, Staphlylococcus epidermidis was found as the sole bacterium isolated in 11 cases and accompanied by other bacteria in 12 cases. Staphlylococcus aureus was found as the sole bacterium isolated in 72 cases and accompanied by other bacteria in 39 cases. Histopathological changes were found in the cases of osteomyelitis where Staphylococcus epidermidis was the sole bacterium isolated. Acute osteomyelitis was found to a lesser extent when Staphylococcus epidermidis was the sole bacterium isolated but without significant differences with the cases where Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacterium isolated. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis should be considered as a real pathogen, not only a contaminant, in diabetic patients with foot osteomyelitis when the bacterium is isolated from the bone. No differences in the outcomes of surgical treatment have been found with cases which Staphlylococcus aureus was isolated.

  7. Genotype and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate from ready to eat meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkowik, Magdalena; Seo, Keun Seok; Schubert, Justyna; Tolo, Isaiah; Robinson, D Ashley; Bania, Jacek; Bystroń, Jarosław

    2016-07-16

    We have previously shown that potentially pathogenic isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis occur at high incidence in ready-to-eat food. Now, within 164 samples of ready-to-eat meat products we identified 32 S. epidermidis isolates. In 8 isolates we detected the genes encoding for staphylococcal enterotoxins, but in 7 S. epidermidis isolates these genes were not stable over passages. One isolate designated 4S was shown to stably harbour sec and sel genes. In the genome sequence of S. epidermidis 4S we identified 21,426-bp region flanked by direct-repeats, encompassing sec and sel genes, corresponding to the previously described composite staphylococcal pathogenicity island (SePI) in S. epidermidis FRI909. Alignment of S. epidermidis 4S and S. epidermidis FRI909 SePIs revealed 6 nucleotide mismatches located in 5 of the total of 29 ORFs. Genomic location of S. epidermidis 4S SePI was the same as in FRI909. S. epidermidis 4S is a single locus variant of ST561, being genetically different from FRI909. SECepi was secreted by S. epidermidis 4S to BHI broth ranging from 14 to almost 36μg/mL, to milk ranging from 6 to 9ng/mL, to beef meat juice from 2 to 3μg/mL and to pork meat juice from 1 to 2μg/mL after 24 and 48h of cultivation, respectively. We provide the first evidence that S. epidermidis occurring in food bears an element encoding an orthologue to Staphylococcus aureus SEC, and that SECepi can be produced in microbial broth, milk and meat juices. Regarding that only enterotoxins produced by S. aureus are officially tracked in food in EU, the ability to produce enterotoxin by S. epidermidis pose real risk for food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotype and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate from ready to eat meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkowik, Magdalena; Seo, Keun Seok; Schubert, Justyna; Tolo, Isaiah; Robinson, D. Ashley; Bania, Jacek; Bystroń, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that potentially pathogenic isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis occur at high incidence in ready-to-eat food. Now, within 164 samples of ready-to-eat meat products we identified 32 S. epidermidis isolates. In 8 isolates we detected the genes encoding for staphylococcal enterotoxins, but in 7 S. epidermidis isolates these genes were not stable over passages. One isolate designated 4S was shown to stably harbour sec and sel genes.In the genome sequence of S. epidermidis 4S we identified 21,426-bp region flanked by direct-repeats, encompassing sec and sel genes, corresponding to the previously described composite staphylococcal pathogenicity island (SePI) in S. epidermidis FRI909. Alignment of S. epidermidis 4S and S. epidermidis FRI909 SePIs revealed 6 nucleotide mismatches located in 5 of the total of 29 ORFs. Genomic location of S. epidermidis 4S SePI was the same as in FRI909. S. epidermidis 4S is a single locus variant of ST561, being genetically different from FRI909. SECepi was secreted by S. epidermidis 4S to BHI broth ranging from 14 to almost 36 μg/mL, to milk ranging from 6-9 ng/mL, to beef meat juice from 2-3 μg/mL and to pork meat juice from 1-2 μg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of cultivation, respectively. We provide the first evidence that S. epidermidis occurring in food bears an element encoding an orthologue to S. aureus SEC, and that SECepi can be produced in microbial broth, milk and meat juices. Regarding that only enterotoxins produced by S. aureus are officially tracked in food in EU, the ability to produce enterotoxin by S. epidermidis pose real risk for food safety. PMID:27105039

  9. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  11. Toxin Mediates Sepsis Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial sepsis is a major killer in hospitalized patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS with the leading species Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent causes of nosocomial sepsis, with most infectious isolates being methicillin-resistant. However, which bacterial factors underlie the pathogenesis of CNS sepsis is unknown. While it has been commonly believed that invariant structures on the surface of CNS trigger sepsis by causing an over-reaction of the immune system, we show here that sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis is to a large extent mediated by the methicillin resistance island-encoded peptide toxin, PSM-mec. PSM-mec contributed to bacterial survival in whole human blood and resistance to neutrophil-mediated killing, and caused significantly increased mortality and cytokine expression in a mouse sepsis model. Furthermore, we show that the PSM-mec peptide itself, rather than the regulatory RNA in which its gene is embedded, is responsible for the observed virulence phenotype. This finding is of particular importance given the contrasting roles of the psm-mec locus that have been reported in S. aureus strains, inasmuch as our findings suggest that the psm-mec locus may exert effects in the background of S. aureus strains that differ from its original role in the CNS environment due to originally "unintended" interferences. Notably, while toxins have never been clearly implied in CNS infections, our tissue culture and mouse infection model data indicate that an important type of infection caused by the predominant CNS species is mediated to a large extent by a toxin. These findings suggest that CNS infections may be amenable to virulence-targeted drug development approaches.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collectio...

  13. Human upper airway epithelium produces nitric oxide in response to Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Lee, Robert J; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by sinonasal epithelial cells as part of the innate immune response against bacteria. We previously described bitter-taste-receptor-dependent and -independent NO responses to product(s) secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. We hypothesized that sinonasal epithelium would be able to detect the gram-positive, coagulase-negative bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and mount a similar NO response. Sinonasal air-liquid interface cultures were treated with conditioned medium (CM) from lab strains and clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and S aureus. NO production was quantified by fluorescence imaging. Bitter taste receptor signaling inhibitors were utilized to characterize the pathway responsible for NO production in response to S epidermidis CM. S epidermidis CM contains a low-molecular-weight, heat, and protease-stabile product that induces an NO synthase (NOS)-mediated NO production that is less robust than the response triggered by S aureus CM. The S epidermidis CM-stimulated NO response is not inhibited by antagonists of phospholipase C isoform β-2 nor the transient receptor potential melastatin isoform 5 ion channel, both critical to bitter taste signaling. This study identifies an NO-mediated innate defense response in sinonasal epithelium elicited by S epidermidis product(s). The active bacterial product is likely a small, nonpeptide molecule that stimulates a pathway independent of bitter taste receptors. Although the NO response to S epidermidis is less vigorous compared with S aureus, the product(s) share similar characteristics. Together, the responses to staphylococci species may help explain the pathophysiology of upper respiratory infections. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. MRT letter: Spatial distribution of vancomycin-induced damage in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm: an electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachna; Ray, Pallab; Das, Anindita; Sharma, Meera

    2010-07-01

    This study was planned to elucidate the efficacy of antibiotics on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biofilms of S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 and S. aureus ATCC 29213 were grown on black, polycarbonate membranes placed on tryptic soy agar plates for 48 h at 37 degrees C, and then exposed to vancomycin or amikacin or ciprofloxacin at clinically achievable levels for 24 h at 37 degrees C. The morphology of antibiotic-treated and untreated biofilms was elucidated by SEM. SEM analysis indicated a differential affection of S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 in the center and periphery of biofilm upon treatment with vancomycin. The center of biofilm revealed damaged cells with sparse distribution, smaller size, and irregular shape, whereas cells in the periphery were unaffected. This differential distribution of susceptibility within S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms was specific for vancomycin only and was not observed on exposure to amikacin or ciprofloxacin. No such response was found in S.aureus ATCC 29213 biofilms. Thus, our study suggests a spatial distribution of vancomycin-induced damage in S. epidermidis biofilms. To our knowledge, this is the first report that indicates a differential affection of S. epidermidis in the center and periphery of biofilm upon treatment with vancomycin. Studies on the factors controlling this differential distribution could provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in S. epidermidis biofilms. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Azoreductase in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2009-01-01

    Azoreductase(s) catalyze a NAD(P)H-dependent reaction in bacteria to metabolize azo dyes to colorless aromatic amines. Azoreductases from bacteria represent a novel family of enzymes with little similarity to other reductases. This unit will describe the current methods for measuring azoreductase from Staphylococcus aureus, which has been suggested to serve as a model strain to study the azo dye degradation by human skin microflora.

  16. Pathogenic Mechanisms and Host Interactions in Staphylococcus epidermidis Device-Related Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sabaté Brescó

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a permanent member of the normal human microbiota, commonly found on skin and mucous membranes. By adhering to tissue surface moieties of the host via specific adhesins, S. epidermidis is capable of establishing a lifelong commensal relationship with humans that begins early in life. In its role as a commensal organism, S. epidermidis is thought to provide benefits to human host, including out-competing more virulent pathogens. However, largely due to its capacity to form biofilm on implanted foreign bodies, S. epidermidis has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in patients receiving medical devices. S. epidermidis causes approximately 20% of all orthopedic device-related infections (ODRIs, increasing up to 50% in late-developing infections. Despite this prevalence, it remains underrepresented in the scientific literature, in particular lagging behind the study of the S. aureus. This review aims to provide an overview of the interactions of S. epidermidis with the human host, both as a commensal and as a pathogen. The mechanisms retained by S. epidermidis that enable colonization of human skin as well as invasive infection, will be described, with a particular focus upon biofilm formation. The host immune responses to these infections are also described, including how S. epidermidis seems to trigger low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high levels of interleukin-10, which may contribute to the sub-acute and persistent nature often associated with these infections. The adaptive immune response to S. epidermidis remains poorly described, and represents an area which may provide significant new discoveries in the coming years.

  17. Pathogenic Mechanisms and Host Interactions in Staphylococcus epidermidis Device-Related Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté Brescó, Marina; Harris, Llinos G.; Thompson, Keith; Stanic, Barbara; Morgenstern, Mario; O'Mahony, Liam; Richards, R. Geoff; Moriarty, T. Fintan

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a permanent member of the normal human microbiota, commonly found on skin and mucous membranes. By adhering to tissue surface moieties of the host via specific adhesins, S. epidermidis is capable of establishing a lifelong commensal relationship with humans that begins early in life. In its role as a commensal organism, S. epidermidis is thought to provide benefits to human host, including out-competing more virulent pathogens. However, largely due to its capacity to form biofilm on implanted foreign bodies, S. epidermidis has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in patients receiving medical devices. S. epidermidis causes approximately 20% of all orthopedic device-related infections (ODRIs), increasing up to 50% in late-developing infections. Despite this prevalence, it remains underrepresented in the scientific literature, in particular lagging behind the study of the S. aureus. This review aims to provide an overview of the interactions of S. epidermidis with the human host, both as a commensal and as a pathogen. The mechanisms retained by S. epidermidis that enable colonization of human skin as well as invasive infection, will be described, with a particular focus upon biofilm formation. The host immune responses to these infections are also described, including how S. epidermidis seems to trigger low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high levels of interleukin-10, which may contribute to the sub-acute and persistent nature often associated with these infections. The adaptive immune response to S. epidermidis remains poorly described, and represents an area which may provide significant new discoveries in the coming years. PMID:28824556

  18. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  19. Abiotrophia spp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis Endocarditis Treated with Daptomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bishburg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis due to Abiotrophia spp. occurs in about 5% of endocarditis cases. Most of the cases respond to a combination of penicillin and gentamicin, or vancomycin. We describe a case of Staphylococcus epidermidis (CONS and Abiotrophia spp. endocarditis that failed vancomycin treatment, but responded to daptomycin and rifampin.

  20. A cathelicidin-2-derived peptide effectively impairs Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.; Dijk, A. van; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Haagsman, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of nosocomial infections owing to its ability to form biofilms on the surface of medical devices. Biofilms are surface-adhered bacterial communities. In mature biofilms these communities are encased in an extracellular matrix composed of bacterial

  1. SCCmec-associated psm-mec mRNA promotes Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchang; Zhang, Xuemei; Huang, Wenfang; Yin, Yibing

    2016-10-01

    Biofilm formation is considered the major pathogenic mechanism of Staphylococcus epidermidis-associated nosocomial infections. Reports have shown that SCCmec-associated psm-mec regulated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence and biofilm formation. However, the role of psm-mec in S. epidermidis remains unclear. To this purpose, we analysed 165 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis to study the distribution, mutation and expression of psm-mec and the relationship between this gene and biofilm formation. Next, we constructed three psm-mec deletion mutants, one psm-mec transgene expression strain (p221) and two psm-mec point mutant strains (pM, pAG) to explore its effects on S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Then, the amount of biofilm formation, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the constructed strains was measured. Results of psm-mec deletion and transgene expression showed that the gene regulated S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Compared with the control strains, the ability to form biofilm, Triton X-100-induced autolysis and the amount of eDNA increased in the p221 strain and the two psm-mec mutants pM and pAG expressed psm-mec mRNA without its protein, whereas no differences were observed among the three constructed strains, illustrating that psm-mec mRNA promoted S. epidermidis biofilm formation through up-regulation of bacterial autolysis and the release of eDNA. Our results reveal that acquisition of psm-mec promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation.

  2. Recently introduced qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis do not increase chlorhexidine MIC/MBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Nielsen, Lene Nørby

    2013-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qac......A/B-encoded efflux pumps. Here, we evaluated if high-level exposure to chlorhexidine selects for tolerant colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis and we addressed the consequences of long-term exposure to chlorhexidine....

  3. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2008-01-01

    A broad variety of infections, ranging from minor infections of the skin to post-operative wound infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The adaptive power of S. aureus to antibiotics leaded, in the early 1960s, to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The cause of

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; de Oliveira, Adilson; Martins, Patrícia Yoshida Faccioli; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-09-14

    Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly producing the non-classical enterotoxins seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates.

  5. Immunoreactive pattern of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm against human whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Amado, Francisco; Cerveira, Frederico; Ferreira, Rita; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is essential to interact with microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the interest in saliva antimicrobial properties is on the rise. Here, we used an immunoproteomic approach, based on protein separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms by 2DE, followed by Western-blotting, to compare human serum and saliva reactivity profile. A total of 17 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Serum and saliva presented a distinct pattern of immunoreactive proteins. Our results suggest that saliva seems to have higher propensity to react against S. epidermidis proteins with oxidoreductase activity and proteins involved with L-serine metabolic processes. We show that saliva was a powerful tool for the identification of potential S. epidermidis biofilms proteins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hydrophobin coating prevents Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation on different surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, Marco; Cicatiello, Paola; Ricciardelli, Annarita; Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Dardano, Principia; Tilotta, Marco; Vrenna, Gianluca; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Giardina, Paola; Parrilli, Ermenegilda

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant nosocomial pathogen in predisposed hosts because of its capability of forming a biofilm on indwelling medical devices. The initial stage of biofilm formation has a key role in S. epidermidis abiotic surface colonization. Recently, many strategies have been developed to create new anti-biofilm surfaces able to control bacterial adhesion mechanisms. In this work, the self-assembled amphiphilic layers formed by two fungal hydrophobins (Vmh2 and Pac3) have proven to be able to reduce the biofilm formed by different strains of S. epidermidis on polystyrene surfaces. The reduction in the biofilm thickness on the coated surfaces and the preservation of cell vitality have been demonstrated through confocal laser scanning microscope analysis. Moreover, the anti-biofilm efficiency of the self-assembled layers on different medically relevant materials has also been demonstrated using a CDC biofilm reactor.

  7. D-Amino acids inhibit biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from ocular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón-Peréz, Miriam L; Diaz-Cedillo, Francisco; Ibarra, J Antonio; Torales-Cardeña, Azael; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    Biofilm formation on medical and surgical devices is a major virulence determinant for Staphylococcus epidermidis. The bacterium S. epidermidis is able to produce biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces and is the cause of ocular infection (OI). Recent studies have shown that d-amino acids inhibit and disrupt biofilm formation in the prototype strains Bacillus subtilis NCBI3610 and Staphylococcus aureus SCO1. The effect of d-amino acids on S. epidermidis biofilm formation has yet to be tested for clinical or commensal isolates. S. epidermidis strains isolated from healthy skin (n = 3), conjunctiva (n = 9) and OI (n = 19) were treated with d-Leu, d-Tyr, d-Pro, d-Phe, d-Met or d-Ala and tested for biofilm formation. The presence of d-amino acids during biofilm formation resulted in a variety of patterns. Some strains were sensitive to all amino acids tested, while others were sensitive to one or more, and one strain was resistant to all of them when added individually; in this way d-Met inhibited most of the strains (26/31), followed by d-Phe (21/31). Additionally, the use of d-Met inhibited biofilm formation on a contact lens. The use of l-isomers caused no defect in biofilm formation in all strains tested. In contrast, when biofilms were already formed d-Met, d-Phe and d-Pro were able to disrupt it. In summary, here we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of d-amino acids on biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. Moreover, we showed, for the first time, that S. epidermidis clinical strains have a different sensitivity to these compounds during biofilm formation. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Susceptibility to chlorhexidine amongst multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Karolin; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Abbott, Felicity; Milne, Kathleen; Al-Jabri, Zaaima J; Oggioni, Marco R; Gould, Ian M

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of Staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine is being increasingly reported. We present an update to a previous report showing the continuing efficacy of chlorhexidine-based infection control measures against Staphylococcus aureus over 6 years. In this study, qacA/B genes were screened in Staphylococcus isolates collected over another 6 years in the same intensive care unit in Scotland where chlorhexidine baths form an essential component of long-term control of nosocomial infections. Consistent with our previous study, we report minimal presence of qacA/B in S. aureus strains from screening samples and bacteraemia patients but the new finding of a high proportion of qacA/B carriage in Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine. S. epidermidis isolates positive for qacA/B were clonally diverse, although 65% of isolates belonged to the multidrug-resistant (MDR) clone ST2. These findings raise concerns in relation to the selection of MDR strains by chlorhexidine and are important in the context of recent evidence emphasising the benefits of targeting bloodstream infections associated with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeorg, Hiie; Huik, Kristi; Parm, Ülle; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates is increasingly reported to be associated with gut-colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis. We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of S. epidermidis colonizing the gut of neonates hospitalized in two neonatal intensive care units. S. epidermidis from rectal swabs were typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), randomly chosen isolates of predominant MLVA types additionally by multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of icaA, IS256, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), agr type, and SCCmec type were determined. Of 276 neonates (38.4%), 106 were colonized with S. epidermidis, yielding a total of 139 isolates (62 in one unit and 77 in another unit). Of the 55 MLVA types identified, the five predominant detected in both units corresponded to sequence type (ST) 2, ST5, and ST59 or its single locus variant ST81 and formed three major MLVA clonal complexes accounting for 74.8% of all isolates. Overall, the prevalence of mecA, icaA, IS256, and ACME was 91.4%, 28.1%, 64%, and 77%, respectively. Of the mecA-positive isolates (n = 127), 43.9% carried SCCmec type IV. Of eight episodes of LOS, four were caused by ST2 and two by ST5. Preventing gut colonization with nosocomial epidemic S. epidermidis in hospitalized neonates could contribute to the prevention of LOS. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. SarA is a negative regulator of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christer; Heinze, C.; Busch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation is essential for Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenicity in implant-associated infections. Nonetheless, large proportions of invasive S. epidermidis isolates fail to show accumulative biofilm growth in vitro. We here tested the hypothesis that this apparent paradox is related...

  11. Clinical characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh; Bastarahang, Sara; Abbasi, Niloufar; Ghehi, Ghazaleh Sheikhi; Farhadbakhtiarian, Sara; Arezi, Parastoo; Hosseini, Mahsa; Baravati, Sholeh Zaeemi; Jokar, Zahra; Chermahin, Sara Ganji

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococci are known as clustering Gram-positive cocci, nonmotile, non-spore forming facultatively anaerobic that classified in two main groups, coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative. Staphylococcus epidermidis with the highest percentage has the prominent role among coagulase-negative Staphylococci that is the most important reason of clinical infections. Due to various virulence factors and unique features, this microorganism is respected as a common cause of nosocomial infections. Because of potential ability in biofilm formation and colonization in different surfaces, also using of medical implant devices in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients the related infections have been increased. In recent decades the clinical importance and the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains have created many challenges in the treatment process. PMID:25285267

  12. Application of flow cytometry for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, N F; Jardim, T; Almeida, C; Cerqueira, L; Almeida, A J; Rodrigues, F; Keevil, C W; Vieira, M J

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered to be one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections, particularly in immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report the development and application of a novel peptide nucleic acid probe for the specific detection of S. epidermidis by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The theoretical estimates of probe matching specificity and sensitivity were 89 and 87%, respectively. More importantly, the probe was shown not to hybridize with closely related species such as Staphylococcus aureus. The method was subsequently successfully adapted for the detection of S. epidermidis in mixed-species blood cultures both by microscopy and flow cytometry.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus paplitimas hospitalizavimo laikotarpiu

    OpenAIRE

    Maželienė, Žaneta; Kaukėnienė, Renata; Antuševas, Aleksandras; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among hospitalized patients at the beginning of their hospitalization and during their treatment and the resistance of strains to antibiotics, and to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of these strains. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients treated at the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery were examined. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains was performed using plasmacoagulase and DNase ...

  14. Biofilm production among Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from healthy people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcus epidermidis is well documented as a nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm in patients and healthy people. The aim of this study was to analyze the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis strains isolated from healthy people during 2013-2014. Materials and methods: Totally 200 healthy people were selected and the sampling was carried out from arm, armpit and axillary area using sterile swaps. Swaps were transferred to thiogylcollate broth and then cultured on mannitol salt agar plates. Isolates were identified at the species level using biochemical tests. Potential of biofilm formation of strains was measured using congo red agar plate and microtiter plate tests. Genes involved in biofilm formation, icaA and icaD, were detected using PCR. Results: Totally 104 S. epidermidis strains were isolated from healthy people. Amongst these, 66 (63% and 38 (37% strains were positive and negative for biofilm formation, respectively. icaA and icaD genes were detected in 100% of strains. Discussion and conclusion: Prevalence of biofilm producing S. epidermidis isolates among healthy people indicating their colonization with hospital strains. Prevalence of such strains is  urgent for public health.

  15. Molecular Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Abdominal Skin of Females before Laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Jia; Xie, Cheng-Bin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Guo, Li-Juan; Dai, Min; Cheng, Xi; Ma, Yong-Xin

    2016-06-22

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, especially methicillin-resistant strains, may be the source of surgical site infections and may be a reservoir of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) for S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) on the abdominal skin of females before laparotomy and determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of these isolates. MRSE was found in 54 of 157 isolates based on mecA gene detection, and there was no difference in icaA gene carriage rate between MRSE and methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis (MSSE) isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the latest CLSI manuals. All MRSE isolates had unfavorable antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Twenty-three MRSE strains (42.6%) were multi-drug resistant. SCCmec typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing was performed. Thirty-nine (72.2%) had a single SCCmec type, whereas 1.9% had two types. Fourteen strains (25.9%) were non-typeable (NT). The most frequent MRSE genotype was SCCmec type IVa. High diversity with PFGE patterns was obtained for MRSE, and there were no isolates exhibiting identical pulsotype. The results confirm that methicillin-resistant strains are frequently present among S. epidermidis on the abdominal skin of females before laparotomy. Moreover, resistance profiles seem to have no association with the SCCmec types or PFGE types for most common antibiotics.

  16. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  17. Recently introduced qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis do not increase chlorhexidine MIC/MBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Skov, Robert Leo; Wong, Christian; Westh, Henrik; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qacA/B-encoded efflux pumps. Here, we evaluated if high-level exposure to chlorhexidine selects for tolerant colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis and we addressed the consequences of long-term exposure to chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine susceptibility and carriage of qacA/B was determined for colonizing S. epidermidis isolated from scrub nurses heavily exposed to chlorhexidine and were compared with isolates from non-users of chlorhexidine hand rubs. S. epidermidis blood isolates from the 1960s, before the wider introduction of chlorhexidine to the market, were also tested and compared with recently collected S. epidermidis blood isolates. There was no correlation between the use of chlorhexidine in scrub nurses and the presence of qacA/B genes in S. epidermidis isolates or increased MICs/MBCs of chlorhexidine for S. epidermidis isolates. While 55% of current blood isolates harboured the qacA/B genes, none of the 33 historical S. epidermidis isolates did, although their MICs and MBCs of chlorhexidine were comparable to those for current isolates. Chlorhexidine used as a hand rub does not select for S. epidermidis isolates with increased MICs or MBCs of chlorhexidine. However, the absence of qacA/B genes in S. epidermidis isolates obtained in the 1960s suggests that long-term use of biocides like chlorhexidine or related compounds may select for the presence of qacA/B genes.

  18. Skin-bacteria communication: Involvement of the neurohormone Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) in the regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’Diaye, Awa R.; Leclerc, Camille; Kentache, Takfarinas; Hardouin, Julie; Poc, Cecile Duclairoir; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci can sense Substance P (SP) in skin, but this molecule is generally released by nerve terminals along with another neuropeptide, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). In this study, we investigated the effects of αCGRP on Staphylococci. CGRP induced a strong stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence with a low threshold (Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to CGRP. We observed that CGRP-treated S. epidermidis induced interleukin 8 release by keratinocytes. This effect was associated with an increase in cathelicidin LL37 secretion. S. epidermidis displayed no change in virulence factors secretion but showed marked differences in surface properties. After exposure to CGRP, the adherence of S. epidermidis to keratinocytes increased, whereas its internalization and biofilm formation activity were reduced. These effects were correlated with an increase in surface hydrophobicity. The DnaK chaperone was identified as the S. epidermidis CGRP-binding protein. We further showed that the effects of CGRP were blocked by gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), an inhibitor of MscL mechanosensitive channels. In addition, GdCl3 inhibited the membrane translocation of EfTu, the Substance P sensor. This work reveals that through interaction with specific sensors S. epidermidis integrates different skin signals and consequently adapts its virulence. PMID:27739485

  19. Adhesive properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis probed by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of the surface properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis and of biofilm forming bacteria in general is a key to understand their functions, particularly their adhesive properties. To gain a comprehensive view of the structural and chemical properties of S. epidermidis, four different strains...... (biofilm positive and biofilm negative strains) were analyzed using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Force measurements performed using bare hydrophilic silicon nitride tips disclosed similar adhesive properties for each strain. However, use of hydrophobic tips showed that hydrophobic forces...... are not the driving forces for adhesion of the four strains. Rather, the observation of sawtooth force–distance patterns on the surface of biofilm positive strains documents the presence of modular proteins such as Aap that may mediate cell adhesion. Treatment of two biofilm positive strains with two chemical...

  20. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on icaA Expression and Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Iravati, Susi; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on medical devices, and novel approaches to prevent and kill S. epidermidis biofilms are desired. In this study, the effect of cinnamon oil on planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis isolates was evaluated.

  1. Pattern Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis via Droplet Evaporation on Micropillars Arrays at a Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey Arce, A.; Gomez Marin, Alvaro; Massey, A.; Oknianska, A.; Diaz-Fernandez, Y.; Hernandez Sanchez, J.F.; Griffiths, E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef; Raval, R.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of epoxy surface structuring on the evaporation of water droplets containing Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). During evaporation, droplets with S. epidermidis cells yield to complex wetting patterns such as the zipping-wetting1−3 and the coffee-stain effects.

  2. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prannda Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

  3. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis pyelonephritis in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Hiroaki; Sato, Hiroki; Takei, Yoshichika

    2014-12-09

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is currently the most frequent pathogen of opportunistic and nosocomial infections worldwide. Most cases of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections are associated with indwelling medical devices and/or immunocompromised conditions. Community-acquired urinary tract infections are rare, particularly among pediatric populations, and clinicians often do not consider Staphylococcus epidermidis as a uropathogen. A previously healthy Japanese boy developed pyelonephritis caused by Enterococcus faecalis at 10 months of age. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with severe bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (right side grade V, left side grade III), and was administered trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as the prophylaxis. At 18 months of age, he presented with fever. Gram staining of urine obtained through catheterization revealed gram-positive cocci. We suspected pyelonephritis caused by enterococci, and administered oral fluoroquinolone empirically. The fever promptly resolved, and eventually, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected at significant levels in the urine. Thus, our final diagnosis was pyelonephritis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Our case indicated that even immunocompetent children without a urinary catheter can develop Staphylococcus epidermidis pyelonephritis. Staphylococcus epidermidis can be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as sample contamination in community-acquired urinary tract infections. Therefore, when Gram staining of appropriately obtained urine samples reveals gram-positive cocci, clinicians should take into consideration not only the possibility of enterococci but also staphylococci, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, particularly in children with urinary abnormalities and/or those receiving continuous antibiotic prophylaxis.

  4. Merocyanine-540 mediated photodynamic effects on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, Maria Sonia; Di Poto, Antonella; Saino, Enrica; Visai, Livia; Minzioni, Paolo; Bragheri, Francesca; Cristiani, Ilaria

    2009-07-01

    Staphylococci are important causes of nosocomial and medical-device-related infections. Their virulence is attributed to the elaboration of biofilms that protect the organisms from immune system clearance and to increased resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Photodynamic treatment (PDT) has been proposed as an alternative approach for the inactivation of bacteria in biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of merocyanine 540 (MC 540), a photosensitizing dye that is used for purging malignant cells from autologous bone marrow grafts, against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. We evaluated the effect of the combined photodynamic action of MC 540 and 532 nm laser on the viability and structure of biofilms of two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Significant inactivation of cells was observed in the biofilms treated with MC-540 and then exposed to laser radiation. Furthermore we found that the PDT effect, on both types of cells, was significantly dependent on both the light-dose and on the impinging lightintensity. Disruption of PDT-treated biofilm was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Structure-Function Analyses of a Staphylococcus epidermidis Autoinducing Peptide Reveals Motifs Critical for AgrC-type Receptor Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Tal-Gan, Yftah; Paharik, Alexandra E; Horswill, Alexander R; Blackwell, Helen E

    2016-07-15

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is frequently implicated in human infections associated with indwelling medical devices due to its ubiquity in the skin flora and formation of robust biofilms. The accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system plays a prominent role in the establishment of biofilms and infection by this bacterium. Agr activation is mediated by the binding of a peptide signal (or autoinducing peptide, AIP) to its cognate AgrC receptor. Many questions remain about the role of QS in S. epidermidis infections, as well as in mixed-microbial populations on a host, and chemical modulators of its agr system could provide novel insights into this signaling network. The AIP ligand provides an initial scaffold for the development of such probes; however, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) for activation of S. epidermidis AgrC receptors by AIPs are largely unknown. Herein, we report the first SAR analyses of an S. epidermidis AIP by performing systematic alanine and d-amino acid scans of the S. epidermidis AIP-I. On the basis of these results, we designed and identified potent, pan-group inhibitors of the AgrC receptors in the three S. epidermidis agr groups, as well as a set of AIP-I analogs capable of selective AgrC inhibition in either specific S. epidermidis agr groups or in another common staphylococcal species, S. aureus. In addition, we uncovered a non-native peptide agonist of AgrC-I that can strongly inhibit S. epidermidis biofilm growth. Together, these synthetic analogs represent new and readily accessible probes for investigating the roles of QS in S. epidermidis colonization and infections.

  6. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  7. MicroDSC study of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Vlad T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A microcalorimetric study was carried out using a Staphylococcus epidermidis population to determine the reproducibility of bacterial growth and the variability of the results within certain experimental parameters (temperature, bacterial concentration, sample thermal history. Reproducibility tests were performed as series of experiments within the same conditions using either freshly prepared populations or samples kept in cold storage. In both cases, the samples were obtained by serial dilution from a concentrated TSB bacterial inoculum incubated overnight. Results The results show that experiments are fairly reproducible and that specimens can be preserved at low temperatures (1 - 2°C at least 4 days. The thermal signal variations at different temperatures and initial bacterial concentrations obey a set of rules that we identified. Conclusion Our study adds to the accumulating data and confirms available results of isothermal microcalorimetry applications in microbiology and can be used to standardize this method for either research or clinical setting.

  8. MicroDSC study of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Dragos C; Iancu, Cezar; Steriade, Alexandru T; Muntean, Alexandru A; Balint, Octavian; Popa, Vlad T; Popa, Mircea I; Bogdan, Miron A

    2010-12-17

    A microcalorimetric study was carried out using a Staphylococcus epidermidis population to determine the reproducibility of bacterial growth and the variability of the results within certain experimental parameters (temperature, bacterial concentration, sample thermal history). Reproducibility tests were performed as series of experiments within the same conditions using either freshly prepared populations or samples kept in cold storage. In both cases, the samples were obtained by serial dilution from a concentrated TSB bacterial inoculum incubated overnight. The results show that experiments are fairly reproducible and that specimens can be preserved at low temperatures (1 - 2°C) at least 4 days. The thermal signal variations at different temperatures and initial bacterial concentrations obey a set of rules that we identified. Our study adds to the accumulating data and confirms available results of isothermal microcalorimetry applications in microbiology and can be used to standardize this method for either research or clinical setting.

  9. Evaluation of new agglutination test for identification of oxacillin-susceptible and oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tveten, Y

    1995-01-01

    A new agglutination test (Monostaph +; Bionor, Skien, Norway) has been developed. This new agglutination test has been compared with two other agglutination tests for the identification of 128 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 82 coagulase-negative staphylococci. The sensitivities of both Monostaph + and Pastorex Staph-Plus were excellent (98.7 and 97.4%, respectively) in detection of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The specificity was 96.4% (two Staphylococcus epidermidis isol...

  10. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  11. In vitro Assays of Staphylococcus epidermidis Characteristics and Outcome in an Endocarditis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Herndon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to indwelling polymers is important in prosthetic valve endocarditis. Earlier studies have related streptococcal endocarditis to isolates with high levels of cell-associated hexoses. The objective of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between an S epidermidis isolate assay score and production/severity of experimental endocarditis.

  12. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the SesC protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahrooei, M.; Hira, V.; Stijlemans, B.; Merckx, R.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Eldere, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several well-studied proteins with defined roles in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation are LPXTG motif-containing proteins. Here, we investigate the possible use of the LPXTG motif-containing protein SesC (S. epidermidis surface protein C; accession no. NP_765787) as a target for

  13. Ica-expression and gentamicin susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on orthopedic implant biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Aman, Abu T.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Ica-expression by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slime production depends on environmental conditions such as implant material and presence of antibiotics. Here, we evaluate biofilm formation and ica-expression of S. epidermidis strains on biomaterials involved in total hip-and knee arthroplasty

  14. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  15. Regulation of biofilm formation by sigma B is a common mechanism in Staphylococcus epidermidis and is not mediated by transcriptional regulation of sarA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Jonas, Beate; Pfanzelt, Dorothea; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich; Knobloch, Johannes K-M

    2009-09-01

    Biofilm formation is a major pathogenetic factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In S. epidermidis the alternative sigma factor sigma B was identified to regulate biofilm formation in S. epidermidis 1457. In S. aureus sigma B dependent regulation plays a minor role, whereas sarA (Staphylococcus accessory regulator) is an essential regulator. Therefore, we investigated the impact of sigma B on sarA transcription and biofilm formation in three independent S. epidermidis isolates. Mutants with dysfunctional sigma B displayed a strongly reduced biofilm formation, whereas in mutants with constitutive sigma B activity biofilm formation was increased. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaA transcription was down-regulated in all sigma B negative mutants while icaR transcription was up-regulated. However, transcriptional differences varied between individual strains, indicating that additional sigma B-dependent regulators are involved in biofilm expression. Interestingly, despite the presence of a sigma B promoter beside two sigma A promoters no differences, or only minor ones, were observed in sarA transcription, indicating that sigma B-dependent sarA transcript has no influence on the phenotypic changes. The data observed in independent clinical S. epidermidis isolates suggests that, in contrast to S. aureus, regulation of biofilm formation by sigma B is a general feature in S. epidermidis. Additionally, we were able to demonstrate that the sarA- dependent regulation is not involved in this regulatory pathway.

  16. Residence time dependent desorption of Staphylococcus epidermidis from hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Kaper, H.J.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion and desorption are simultaneous events during bacterial adhesion to surfaces. although desorption is far less studied than adhesion. Here, desorption of Staphylococcus epidermidis from substratum surfaces is demonstrated to be residence time dependent. Initial desorption rate coefficients

  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A

    2014-06-01

    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  18. Do Staphylococcus epidermidis Genetic Clusters Predict Isolation Sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolo, Isaiah; Thomas, Jonathan C; Fischer, Rebecca S B; Brown, Eric L; Gray, Barry M; Robinson, D Ashley

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a ubiquitous colonizer of human skin and a common cause of medical device-associated infections. The extent to which the population genetic structure of S. epidermidis distinguishes commensal from pathogenic isolates is unclear. Previously, Bayesian clustering of 437 multilocus sequence types (STs) in the international database revealed a population structure of six genetic clusters (GCs) that may reflect the species' ecology. Here, we first verified the presence of six GCs, including two (GC3 and GC5) with significant admixture, in an updated database of 578 STs. Next, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was developed that accurately assigned 545 (94%) of 578 STs to GCs. Finally, the hypothesis that GCs could distinguish isolation sources was tested by SNP typing and GC assignment of 154 isolates from hospital patients with bacteremia and those with blood culture contaminants and from nonhospital carriage. GC5 was isolated almost exclusively from hospital sources. GC1 and GC6 were isolated from all sources but were overrepresented in isolates from nonhospital and infection sources, respectively. GC2, GC3, and GC4 were relatively rare in this collection. No association was detected between fdh-positive isolates (GC2 and GC4) and nonhospital sources. Using a machine learning algorithm, GCs predicted hospital and nonhospital sources with 80% accuracy and predicted infection and contaminant sources with 45% accuracy, which was comparable to the results seen with a combination of five genetic markers (icaA, IS256, sesD [bhp], mecA, and arginine catabolic mobile element [ACME]). Thus, analysis of population structure with subgenomic data shows the distinction of hospital and nonhospital sources and the near-inseparability of sources within a hospital. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. The Possible Role of Staphylococcus epidermidis LPxTG Surface Protein SesC in Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Laleh; Khodaparast, Ladan; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Stijlemans, Benoit; Merckx, Rita; Baatsen, Pieter; O'Gara, James P; Waters, Elaine; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Van Eldere, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common cause of device-associated infections. It has been shown that active and passive immunization in an animal model against protein SesC significantly reduces S. epidermidis biofilm-associated infections. In order to elucidate its role, knock-out of sesC or isolation of S. epidermidis sesC-negative mutants were attempted, however, without success. As an alternative strategy, sesC was introduced into Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 and its isogenic icaADBC and srtA mutants, into the clinical methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate MSSA4 and the MRSA S. aureus isolate BH1CC, which all lack sesC. Transformation of these strains with sesC i) changed the biofilm phenotype of strains 8325-4 and MSSA4 from PIA-dependent to proteinaceous even though PIA synthesis was not affected, ii) converted the non-biofilm-forming strain 8325-4 ica::tet to a proteinaceous biofilm-forming strain, iii) impaired PIA-dependent biofilm formation by 8325-4 srtA::tet, iv) had no impact on protein-mediated biofilm formation of BH1CC and v) increased in vivo catheter and organ colonization by strain 8325-4. Furthermore, treatment with anti-SesC antibodies significantly reduced in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization by these transformants expressing sesC. These findings strongly suggest that SesC is involved in S. epidermidis attachment to and subsequent biofilm formation on a substrate.

  20. Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from breast milk of women suffering infectious mastitis: potential virulence traits and resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; Arroyo, Rebeca; Jiménez, Esther; Marín, Maria L; del Campo, Rosa; Fernández, Leonides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2009-05-07

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is considered the main etiological agent of infectious mastitis, recent studies have suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) may also play an important role in such infections. The aims of this work were to isolate staphylococci from milk of women with lactational mastitis, to select and characterize the CNS isolates, and to compare such properties with those displayed by CNS strains isolated from milk of healthy women. The milk of 30 women was collected and bacterial growth was noted in 27 of them, of which Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from 26 patients and S. aureus from 8. Among the 270 staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of women with mastitis, 200 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis by phenotypic assays, species-specific PCR and PCR sequencing. They were typified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping. The PFGE profiles of the S. epidermidis strains were compared with those of 105 isolates from milk of healthy women. A representative of the 76 different PFGE profiles was selected to study the incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The number of strains that contained the biofilm-related icaD gene and that showed resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and mupirocin was significantly higher among the strains isolated from mastitic milk. S. epidermidis may be a frequent but largely underrated cause of infectious mastitis in lactating women. The resistance to diverse antibiotics and a higher ability to form biofilms found among the strains isolated from milk of women suffering mastitis may explain the chronic and/or recurrent nature of this infectious condition.

  1. Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from breast milk of women suffering infectious mastitis: potential virulence traits and resistance to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Staphylococcus aureus is considered the main etiological agent of infectious mastitis, recent studies have suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS may also play an important role in such infections. The aims of this work were to isolate staphylococci from milk of women with lactational mastitis, to select and characterize the CNS isolates, and to compare such properties with those displayed by CNS strains isolated from milk of healthy women. Results The milk of 30 women was collected and bacterial growth was noted in 27 of them, of which Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from 26 patients and S. aureus from 8. Among the 270 staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of women with mastitis, 200 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis by phenotypic assays, species-specific PCR and PCR sequencing. They were typified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE genotyping. The PFGE profiles of the S. epidermidis strains were compared with those of 105 isolates from milk of healthy women. A representative of the 76 different PFGE profiles was selected to study the incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The number of strains that contained the biofilm-related icaD gene and that showed resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and mupirocin was significantly higher among the strains isolated from mastitic milk. Conclusion S. epidermidis may be a frequent but largely underrated cause of infectious mastitis in lactating women. The resistance to diverse antibiotics and a higher ability to form biofilms found among the strains isolated from milk of women suffering mastitis may explain the chronic and/or recurrent nature of this infectious condition.

  2. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Bahrinajafi, Rahim; Nahavandi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin′s normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effec...

  3. Type I signal peptidase and protein secretion in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael E; Smith, Peter A; Roberts, Tucker C; Fowler, Bruce J; King, Charles C; Trauger, Sunia A; Siuzdak, Gary; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial protein secretion is a highly orchestrated process that is essential for infection and virulence. Despite extensive efforts to predict or experimentally detect proteins that are secreted, the characterization of the bacterial secretome has remained challenging. A central event in protein secretion is the type I signal peptidase (SPase)-mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide that targets a protein for secretion via the general secretory pathway, and the arylomycins are a class of natural products that inhibit SPase, suggesting that they may be useful chemical biology tools for characterizing the secretome. Here, using an arylomycin derivative, along with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identify 11 proteins whose secretion from stationary-phase Staphylococcus epidermidis is dependent on SPase activity, 9 of which are predicted to be translated with canonical N-terminal signal peptides. In addition, we find that the presence of extracellular domains of lipoteichoic acid synthase (LtaS) and the β-lactam response sensor BlaR1 in the medium is dependent on SPase activity, suggesting that they are cleaved at noncanonical sites within the protein. In all, the data define the proteins whose stationary-phase secretion depends on SPase and also suggest that the arylomycins should be valuable chemical biology tools for the study of protein secretion in a wide variety of different bacteria.

  4. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  5. (allium sativum) on staphylococcus aureus conjunctivites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Bacterial conjunctivitis is common usually self-limiting. The most common causative organisms are staphylococcus epidermis and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Bacterial conjunctivitis is rarely sight threatening. However, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment at the primary level is important as it ...

  6. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  7. Nasal carriage of Meticillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemeda

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  8. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 11 (Number 1). June, 2013. 51 ... Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many ..... enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight catering employees. Journal of Food. Protection, 11, 1487–1491. Hill JE ...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Honey and Beebread of Different Origin Against S. aureus and S. epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Baltrušaitytė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at the evaluation of antimicrobial properties of honey and beebread products of different origin. The inhibitory action of 34 honey and 4 beebread samples was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by the agar well diffusion method. Total antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the clear zone around the well, and expressed in phenol concentration possessing equivalent activity. Honey samples were tested after dilution to 50, 25 and 10 % (by mass per volume. The solutions containing 10 % (by mass per volume of honey did not have any effect on the growth of bacteria; some honey samples had no inhibitory activity on any of the concentrations used. The contribution of catalase and neutralization to the antimicrobial activity of honey was also assessed. It was found that the antibacterial activity of the tested honey samples was dependent on hydrogen peroxide formation, while such dependence was not observed for the beebread samples. Floral source of honey and bacterial culture were other two factors related to the antibacterial activity. However, the possible contribution of phytochemicals, which may be transferred to honey, should be assessed by using other methods.

  10. ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SHEEP RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    G. Giacinti; Amatiste, S.; A. Tammaro; D. Sagrafoli; G. Giangolini; R. Rosati

    2011-01-01

    A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%). The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%). Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC) was recorded in 6 (60%) and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in 4 (40%) staphylococcal isolates. Raw m...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of both community and hospital acquired bacterial infection. There is strong correlation between S aureus nasal carriage and disease progress. Nasal carriage is high among health care workers. Inappropriate usage of antibiotic may

  12. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus transmission : clinical and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, A.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in nosocomial infections. Up to 30% of UCI related infections are caused by S. aureus. In this thesis we explore both clinical and molecular aspects of patient-to-patient transmission of S. aureus. We performed a European ICU study exploring infection

  14. Vancomycin Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA), resistant to all antibiotics including Vancomycin, has been reported in Japan, USA, Canada and Brazil. Hence, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of Vancomycin resistant or intermediate S.aureus in Karachi. A total of 850 ...

  15. Multi drug resistance in strong biofilm forming clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal, Gulcan; Bilkay, Isil Seyis

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis which exists in healthy human skin as a commensal inhabitant is also an important pathogen forming biofilms on many surfaces and recently, increased resistance traits were suggested to be acquired in biofilm environments. In this study; clinical Prevalences, antibiotic resistances and biofilm formations of S. epidermidis strains were determined and comparison of all these findings with each other was carried out in order to take precautions against them and figure out if high biofilm forming S. epidermidis strains display multi drug resistance. According to our results; samples of wound and blood were the most S. epidermidis isolated clinical materials (40%; 35%) and cardiothoracic surgery was the most S. epidermidis observed service unit. All of these strains were sensitive to vancomycin, however 65% of them showed resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics (Penicillin, Oxacillin, Amoxicilin/Clavulonic acid), used in this study and 60% of all S. epidermidis strains were found as multi drug resistant. When the results of strong biofilm forming S. epidermidis strains are examined; they were isolated from sample of blood and service unit of cardiovascular surgery in highest frequency and 80% of them were β-lactam resistant whereas 100% of them were multi drug resistant. One of these multi drug resistant strains which was resistant to maximum amount of different antimicrobial classes, was also observed as maximum biofilm forming strain among all the other S. epidermidis isolates. Multi drug resistance in strong biofilm forming strains shows that; biofilms play a role in antimicrobial resistance traits of S. epidermidis.

  16. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-11-09

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  17. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms: Functional Molecules, Relation to Virulence, and Vaccine Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Dietrich; Davies, Angharad P.; Harris, Llinos G.; Knobloch, Johannes K. M.; Rohde, Holger

    Medical device-associated infections, most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are of increasing importance in modern medicine. The formation of adherent, multilayered bacterial biofilms is crucial in the pathogenesis of these infections. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan of β-1,6-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosyl residues, of which about 15% are non-N-acetylated, is central to biofilm accumulation in staphylococci. It transpires that polysaccharides - structurally very similar to PIA - are also key to biofilm formation in a number of other organisms including the important human pathogens Escherichia coli, Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Yersinia pestis, and Bordetella spp. Apparently, synthesis of PIA and related polysaccharides is a general feature important for biofilm formation in diverse bacterial genera. Current knowledge about the structure and biosynthesis of PIA and related polysaccharides is reviewed. Additionally, information on their role in pathogenesis of biomaterial-related and other type of infections and the potential use of PIA and related compounds for prevention of infection is evaluated.

  19. Biofilm extracellular DNA enhances mixed species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Versalovic, James

    2013-11-14

    Polymicrobial infections are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans are the most frequent combination of organisms isolated from polymicrobial infections. Vascular indwelling catheters are sites for mixed species biofilm formation and pose a significant risk for polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that enhancement of biofilms in a mixed species environment increases patient mortality and morbidity. Mixed species biofilms of S. epidermidis and C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in a subcutaneous catheter infection model in vivo. Mixed species biofilms were enhanced compared to single species biofilms of either S. epidermidis or C. albicans. A mixed species environment increased catheter infection and increased dissemination of S. epidermidis in mice. Microarrays were used to explore differential gene expression of S. epidermidis in the mixed species biofilms. In mixed species biofilms, compared to single species S. epidermidis biofilms, 2.7% of S. epidermidis genes were upregulated and 6% were down regulated. Staphylococcal autolysis repressors lrgA and lrgB were down regulated 36-fold and 27-fold respectively. The role of biofilm extracellular DNA was investigated by quantitation and by evaluating the effects of DNAse in a concentration and time dependent manner. S. epidermidis specific eDNA was increased in mixed species biofilms and further confirmed by degradation with DNAse. Mixed-species biofilms are enhanced and associated with increased S. epidermidis-specific eDNA in vitro and greater systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis in vivo. Down regulation of the lrg operon, a repressor of autolysis, associated with increased eDNA suggests a possible role for bacterial autolysis in mixed species biofilms. Enhancement and systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis may explain adverse outcomes after clinical polymicrobial infections of S. epidermidis and C. albicans.

  20. Biofilm extracellular DNA enhances mixed species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Polymicrobial infections are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans are the most frequent combination of organisms isolated from polymicrobial infections. Vascular indwelling catheters are sites for mixed species biofilm formation and pose a significant risk for polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that enhancement of biofilms in a mixed species environment increases patient mortality and morbidity. Results Mixed species biofilms of S. epidermidis and C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in a subcutaneous catheter infection model in vivo. Mixed species biofilms were enhanced compared to single species biofilms of either S. epidermidis or C. albicans. A mixed species environment increased catheter infection and increased dissemination of S. epidermidis in mice. Microarrays were used to explore differential gene expression of S. epidermidis in the mixed species biofilms. In mixed species biofilms, compared to single species S. epidermidis biofilms, 2.7% of S. epidermidis genes were upregulated and 6% were down regulated. Staphylococcal autolysis repressors lrgA and lrgB were down regulated 36-fold and 27-fold respectively. The role of biofilm extracellular DNA was investigated by quantitation and by evaluating the effects of DNAse in a concentration and time dependent manner. S. epidermidis specific eDNA was increased in mixed species biofilms and further confirmed by degradation with DNAse. Conclusions Mixed-species biofilms are enhanced and associated with increased S. epidermidis-specific eDNA in vitro and greater systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis in vivo. Down regulation of the lrg operon, a repressor of autolysis, associated with increased eDNA suggests a possible role for bacterial autolysis in mixed species biofilms. Enhancement and systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis may explain adverse outcomes after clinical polymicrobial infections of S

  1. sesC as a genetic marker for easy identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis from other isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Van Ranst, Marc; Van Eldere, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the major concerns with respect to hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, a rapid and easy method to identify at species level S. epidermidis isolates out of a broad range of bacteria is necessary. Based on earlier studies, the sesC gene encoding a S. epidermidis surface protein revealed to be a highly conserved gene in this species. By means of an easy and inexpensive PCR assay, the presence of sesC was checked in 438 clinical staphylococcal isolates. Results showed that sesC is specifically present in all S. epidermidis. In conclusion, the sesC gene can be exploited as a genetic marker in order to distinguish S. epidermidis from other isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis: pathogenesis and implications for treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2012-12-01

    The insertion of medical devices, such as intraventricular shunts, is often complicated by infection leading to ventriculitis. Frequently, such infections result from colonisation and subsequent biofilm formation on the surfaces of the shunts by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The pathogenesis of neurosurgical shunt-related infection is complex with interactions between the pathogen, the device and the unique local immunological environment of the central nervous system (CNS). An ability to form biofilm, the main virulence determinant of Staphylococcus epidermidis, facilitates protection of the organism from the host defences while still initiating an immunological response. The presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the biofilm itself also complicates treatment, which presents many challenges when managing shunt infections. A greater understanding of the interplay between S. epidermidis and the CNS could potentially improve the diagnosis, treatment and management of such infections. This review describes the pathogenesis, treatment and implications of S. epidermidis ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections, concentrating on recent research and the implications for treatment.

  3. Sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinna; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Hua, Heyu; Xu, Chuanshan; Ip, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen causing biofilm-associated infections. To investigate sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic culture, a biofilm-producing strain Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) was incubated with hypocrellin B and then exposed to ultrasound at intensity (ISATA) of 1.56 W/cm(2) with a frequency of 1 MHz in continuous mode for 5 min. After sonodynamic treatment of hypocrellin B, the bacterial growth was measured using the colony counting method. Bacterial membrane integrity was investigated using a flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using a flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining. The results showed that sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B significantly induced survival reduction of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a hypocrellin B dose-dependent manner, and a 4-log reduction was observed after the combined treatment of hypcorellin B (40 μM) and ultrasound sonication with the intensity of 1.56 W/cm(2) for 5 min. Bacterial membrane integrity was notably damaged and the level of intracellular ROS level was remarkably increased after sonodynamic treatment. The findings demonstrated that sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B had significant antibacterial activity on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic condition probably through increasing intracellular ROS level to cause damage to bacterial membrane integrity.

  4. Raman spectroscopy for rapid discrimination of Staphylococcus epidermidis clones related to medical device-associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Telle, H. H.; Harris, L. G.; Bloomfield, M.; Mack, D.

    2008-06-01

    We report on the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for the fast typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) strains related to medical device-associated infections. In this study bacterial colonies were directly probed on culture plates and Raman spectra were recorded from volumes containing approximately 10 bacteria. The spectra contain information on the molecular composition of the whole bacteria, such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids, DNA as well as RNA. We demonstrate the potential to discriminate different S. epidermidis clones, even after only short Raman exposure/collection times.

  5. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  6. Synergy between antibiotics and natural agents results in increased antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Hani; Ahmed, Khalid; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2015-09-27

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. With the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), there is an urgent need to discover novel active agents against a range of Gram-positive pathogens. We screened the clinical isolates of S. epidermidis for susceptibility/resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Furthermore, we tested some natural agents alone and in combination with antibiotics to find possible synergistic antimicrobial effects. S. epidermidis clinical isolates were screened for susceptibility/resistance against vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, and gentamicin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The antimicrobial potential of Camellia sinensis, Juglans regia, and Hippophae rhamnoides alone and in combination with antibiotics were examined using the disk diffusion method, where the antimicrobial potential activity was measured in terms of formation of zones of inhibition. Most S. epidermidis isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. Gentamycin and ofloxacin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis isolates. Extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides, Juglans regia, and Camellia sinensis were found to be equally effective against S. epidermidis isolates. In combination with antibiotics, these extracts exhibited appreciable synergistic activity; the highest synergistic activity was observed with erythromycin and cephalexin. In the case of cephalexin, a reversion in resistance was observed. The plant extracts used in the study exhibited additive and synergistic antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, hence providing an effective alternative to deal with the problem of multidrug resistance.

  7. Operon structure of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke-Smits, Nicole J P; Pronk, Tessa E; Jongerius, Ilse; Bruning, Oskar; Wittink, Floyd R; Breit, Timo M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Fluit, Ad C; Boel, C H Edwin

    2010-06-01

    In bacteria, gene regulation is one of the fundamental characteristics of survival, colonization and pathogenesis. Operons play a key role in regulating expression of diverse genes involved in metabolism and virulence. However, operon structures in pathogenic bacteria have been determined only by in silico approaches that are dependent on factors such as intergenic distances and terminator/promoter sequences. Knowledge of operon structures is crucial to fully understand the pathophysiology of infections. Presently, transcriptome data obtained from growth curves in a defined medium were used to predict operons in Staphylococcus aureus. This unbiased approach and the use of five highly reproducible biological replicates resulted in 93.5% significantly regulated genes. These data, combined with Pearson's correlation coefficients of the transcriptional profiles, enabled us to accurately compile 93% of the genome in operon structures. A total of 1640 genes of different functional classes were identified in operons. Interestingly, we found several operons containing virulence genes and showed synergistic effects for two complement convertase inhibitors transcribed in one operon. This is the first experimental approach to fully identify operon structures in S. aureus. It forms the basis for further in vitro regulation studies that will profoundly advance the understanding of bacterial pathophysiology in vivo.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.

  9. Role of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system in Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysis and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Patrice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states.

  10. Role of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system in Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysis and biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS) influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction) by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold) and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA) critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states. PMID:21702925

  11. Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Expressing Vancomycin Resistance Early after Adhesion to a Metal Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Sakimura, Toshiyuki; Kajiyama, Shiro; Adachi, Shinji; Chiba, Ko; Yonekura, Akihiko; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Miyamoto, Takashi; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Osaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We investigated biofilm formation and time of vancomycin (VCM) resistance expression after adhesion to a metal surface in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis with a VCM MIC of 1 μg/mL was used. The bacteria were made to adhere to a stainless steel washer and treated with VCM at different times and concentrations. VCM was administered 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours after adhesion. The amount of biofilm formed was evaluated based on the biofilm coverage rates (BCRs) bef...

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Most staph germs are spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or ...

  13. Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Keizerweerd, Gabriella D.; de Gans, Jan; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    We present 9 patients with community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Foci of infection outside the central nervous system were present in 8 (89%) patients, mostly endocarditis and pneumonia. Cardiorespiratory complications occurred frequently and 6 patients died (67%). Identification and

  14. Impact of Staphylococcus epidermidis lysates on middle ear epithelial proinflammatory and mucogenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Stéphanie; Mubeen, Humaira; Tomney, Amarel; Chen, Saisai; Preciado, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) develops after sustained inflammation and is characterized by secretory middle ear epithelial metaplasia and effusion, most frequently mucoid. Staphylococcus epidermidis, typically considered a commensal organism, is very frequently recovered in chronic middle ear fluid and in middle ear biofilms. Although it has been shown to drive inflammation in sinonasal epithelium, the impact of S. epidermidis on COME is markedly understudied. The goal of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of S. epidermidis lysates on murine and human middle ear epithelial cells. Staphylococcus epidermidis lysates were generated and used to stimulate submerged and differentiated human and murine epithelial cells (MEECs) for 24 to 48 hours. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunocytochemistry techniques were performed to interrogate the mucin gene MUC5AC and MUC5B expression and protein production, chemokine response, as well as NF-κB activation. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to further evaluate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and query specific promoter responses after S. epidermidis exposure. Staphylococcus epidermidis induced a time- and dose-dependent MUC5AC and MUC5B overexpression along with a parallel overexpression of Cxcl2 in mouse MEEC and IL-8 in human MEEC. Further investigations in mMEEC showed a 1.3 to 1.5 induction of the MUC5AC and MUC5B promoters. As potential mechanisms for these responses, induction of an oxidative stress marker, along with early nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB, was found. Finally, chronic exposure induced marked epithelial thickening of cells differentiated at the air liquid interface. Staphylococcus epidermidis lysates activate a proinflammatory response in MEEC, including mucin gene expression and protein production. Although typically considered a nonpathogenic commensal organism in the ear, these

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P

  16. Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar medium to conventional media for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhart, Diane; Lema, Clara; Borek, Anita; Carroll, Karen C

    2004-08-01

    Screening for Staphylococcus aureus has become routine in certain patient populations. This study is the first clinical evaluation of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar (CSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, Md.) for detection of S. aureus in nasal surveillance cultures and in respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. S. aureus colonies appear mauve on CSA. Other organisms are inhibited or produce a distinctly different colony color. S. aureus was identified from all media by slide coagulase, exogenous DNase, and mannitol fermentation assays. Susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. A total of 679 samples were evaluated. All samples were inoculated onto CSA. Nasal surveillance cultures were inoculated onto sheep blood agar (SBA) (BD Diagnostics), and samples from CF patients were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar (MSA) (BD Diagnostics). Of the 679 samples cultured, 200 organisms produced a mauve color on CSA (suspicious for S. aureus) and 180 were positive for S. aureus on SBA or MSA. Of 200 CSA-positive samples 191 were identified as S. aureus. Nine mauve colonies were slide coagulase negative and were subsequently identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis (one), Staphylococcus epidermidis (three), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one), and Corynebacterium species (four). CSA improved the ability to detect S. aureus by recovering 12 S. aureus isolates missed by conventional media. Of the 192 S. aureus isolates recovered, 122 were methicillin susceptible and 70 were methicillin resistant. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in this study were 99.5 and 98%, respectively. There was no difference in the performance of the slide coagulase test or in susceptibility testing performed on S. aureus recovered from CSA compared to SBA or MSA. Our data support the use of CSA in place of standard culture media for detection of S. aureus in heavily contaminated respiratory samples.

  17. National surveillance of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from bloodstream infections in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplano, Ariane; Vandendriessche, Stien; Nonhoff, Claire; Dodémont, Magali; Roisin, Sandrine; Denis, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the species diversity of CoNS isolated from bloodstream infections collected during a national surveillance study; and (ii) to examine the antimicrobial resistance and genomic diversity among Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Eighty CoNS were identified by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial resistance determination, molecular characterization of resistance and virulence genes, and molecular typing were performed for S. epidermidis isolates. The majority (76%) of CoNS were identified as S. epidermidis. Among these S. epidermidis, 77% were resistant to methicillin [methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)] and showed multiresistance to other antimicrobials. Genes implicated in resistance were erm(C), erm(A) and msr(A) for erythromycin, aacA-aphD and aadC for aminoglycosides, tet(K) for tetracycline and mupA for high-level resistance to mupirocin. Molecular typing showed that 34/40 MRSE isolates (85%) belonged to clonal complex (CC) 2 that could be subdivided into CC2-I (ST2) and CC2-II (ST5, ST59 and ST88). In contrast, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis displayed high genomic diversity. The majority (70%) of S. epidermidis isolates contained an icaA or arcA gene. The icaA gene was found in the CC2-I subgroup, whereas arcA was more common in methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis. S. epidermidis was frequently recovered among CoNS isolated from bloodstream infections with a high proportion of MRSE being multiresistant. A large number of S. epidermidis belonged to CC2, a clone that is disseminated worldwide. More studies are needed to understand its clonal evolutionary success. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus have an important role in its dissemination. The colonization rates of S. aureus in anterior nose nares from 210 healthy volunteers (70 from the non-hospital adult personnel in the community, 68 from clinical students and 72 from healthcare workers “HCWs” in 6 hospitals) in the eastern ...

  19. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it is the main bacterial organism responsible for diseases caused by exotoxin production and direct invasion with systemic dissemination. In poultry, S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, ...

  20. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. Methods: a cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 ...

  1. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817716

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  3. Effects of human serum and apo-Transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Pengfei; Chen, Lihua; Qi, Yong; Xu, Huan; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yangxia; Luo, Zhen; Wu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis infections present clinically important features due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antibiotics. As a part of human innate immune system, serum shows different degrees of protection against systemic S. epidermidis infection. We investigated the ability of human serum as well as serum component to inhibit the formation of, and eradication of mature S. epidermidis biofilms. In addition, the synergistic effect of vancomycin combined with apo-Transferrin was checked. Human serum exhibited significant antibiofilm activities against S. epidermidis at the concentration without affecting planktonic cell growth. However, there was no effect of human serum on established biofilms. By component separation, we observed that antibiofilm effect of serum components mainly due to the proteins could be damaged by heat inactivation (e.g., complement) or heat-stable proteins ≥100 kDa. In addition, serum apo-Transferrin showed modest antibiofilm effect, but without influence on S. epidermidis initial adhesion. And there was a synergistic antibiofilm interaction between vancomycin and apo-Transferrin against S. epidermidis. Our results indicate that serum or its components (heat-inactivated components or heat-stable proteins ≥100 kDa) could inhibits S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Besides, apo-Transferrin could partially reduce the biofilm formation at the concentration that does not inhibit planktonic cell growth. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genomic investigation reveals evolution and lifestyle adaptation of endophytic Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Patil, Prabhu B

    2016-01-13

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major human associated bacterium and also an emerging nosocomial pathogen. There are reports of its association to rodents, sheep and plants. However, comparative and evolutionary studies of ecologically diverse strains of S. epidermidis are lacking. Here, we report the whole genome sequences of four S. epidermidis strains isolated from surface sterilized rice seeds along with genome sequence of type strain. Phylogenomic analysis of rice endophytic S. epidermidis (RESE) with "type strain" unequivocally established their species identity. Whole genome based tree of 93 strains of S. epidermidis revealed RESE as distinct sub-lineage which is more related to rodent sub-lineage than to majority of human lineage strains. Furthermore, comparative genomics revealed 20% variable gene-pool in S. epidermidis, suggesting that genomes of ecologically diverse strains are under flux. Interestingly, we were also able to map several genomic regions that are under flux and gave rise to RESE strains. The largest of these genomic regions encodes a cluster of genes unique to RESE that are known to be required for survival and stress tolerance, apart from those required for adaptation to plant habitat. The genomes and genes of RESE represent distinct ecological resource/sequences and provided first evolutionary insights into adaptation of S. epidermidis to plants.

  5. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and provides...

  7. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...

  8. Genomic characterization of two Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteriophages with anti-biofilm potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Diana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal bacterium but can colonize the hospital environment due to its ability to form biofilms favouring adhesion to host tissues, medical devices and increasing resistance to antibiotics. In this context, the use of phages to destroy biofilms is an interesting alternative. Results The complete genomes of two Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteriophages, vB_SepiS-phiIPLA5 and vB_SepiS-phiIPLA7, have been analyzed. Their genomes are 43,581 bp and 42,123 bp, and contain 67 and 59 orfs. Bioinformatic analyses enabled the assignment of putative functions to 36 and 29 gene products, respectively, including DNA packaging and morphogenetic proteins, lysis components, and proteins necessary for DNA recombination, regulation, modification and replication. A point mutation in vB_SepiS-phiIPLA5 lysogeny control-associated genes explained its strictly lytic behaviour. Comparative analysis of phi-IPLA5 and phi-IPLA7 genome structure resembled those of S. epidermidis ϕPH15 and ϕCNPH82 phages. A mosaic structure of S. epidermidis prophage genomes was revealed by PCR analysis of three marker genes (integrase, major head protein and holin. Using these genes, high prevalence (73% of phage DNA in a representative S. epidermidis strain collection consisting of 60 isolates from women with mastitis and healthy women was determined. Putative pectin lyase-like domains detected in virion-associated proteins of both phages could be involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS depolymerization, as evidenced by both the presence of a clear halo surrounding the phage lysis zone and the phage-mediated biofilm degradation. Conclusions Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteriophages, vB_SepiS-phiIPLA5 and vB_SepiS-phiIPLA7, have a mosaic structure similar to other widespread S. epidermidis prophages. Virions of these phages are provided of pectin lyase-like domains, which may be regarded as promising anti-biofilm tools.

  9. Activity of Natural Polyether Ionophores: Monensin and Salinomycin against Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Joann; Stępień, Karolina; Huczyński, Adam; Tyski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, is the most important pathogen responsible for chronic nosocomial infections. These bacteria produce extracellular slime and form biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces. Bacterial biofilms are very resistant to standard antimicrobial therapy and difficult to eradicate, so it is important to search for new more effective anti-biofilm agents, for example in the group of natural substances. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of two ionophores-salinomycin and monensin against clinical S. epidermidis strains, using MIC/MBC method and biofilm formation inhibition assay. Bacterial strains were tested also for slime production using Congo Red Agar. Both tested ionophore antibiotics showed the highest activity against planktonic bacteria of clinical as well as standard S. epidermidis strains and effectively inhibited the formation of bacterial biofilm.

  10. The potential of Raman spectroscopy for the identification of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Al-Marashi, J. F. M.; Telle, H. H.

    2010-05-01

    We report on an investigation into a common problem in microbiology laboratories, which is associated with the difficulty of distinguishing/recognising different strains of the genus Staphylococcus. We demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a rapid techniques allowing for the identification of different isolates for the detection of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. For this, the recorded spectra were interpreted using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA).

  11. Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rong; Khan, Burhan A.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Bach, Thanh-Huy L.; Jameson-Lee, Max; Kong, Kok-Fai; Queck, Shu Y.; Otto, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached agglomerations of microorganisms embedded in an extracellular matrix. Biofilm-associated infections are difficult to eradicate and represent a significant reservoir for disseminating and recurring serious infections. Infections involving biofilms frequently develop on indwelling medical devices in hospitalized patients, and Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading cause of infection in this setting. However, the molecular determinants of biofilm dissemination ar...

  12. Benzyl alcohol and ethanol can enhance the pathogenic potential of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milisavljevic, V.; Tran, L.P.; Batmalle, C.; Bootsma, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of health care-associated infections, particularly in neonates and patients with indwelling catheters. The pathogenesis of infections caused by this organism is associated with its ability to form biofilms. We hypothesized that

  13. Initial adhesion and surface growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on biomedical polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottenbos, B; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    The infection risk of biomaterials implants varies between different materials and is determined by an interplay of adhesion and surface growth of the infecting organisms. In this study, we compared initial adhesion and surface growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis HBH2 102 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  14. The typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a lectin-binding assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Hansen, J E; Rosdahl, V T

    1992-01-01

    A new typing method for Staphylococcus epidermidis was developed. Four biotinylated lectins--wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soy bean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA) and Concanavalin A (ConA)--were added to immobilised whole cells of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in microtitration...

  15. Multi drug resistance in strong biofilm forming clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Sahal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis which exists in healthy human skin as a commensal inhabitant is also an important pathogen forming biofilms on many surfaces and recently, increased resistance traits were suggested to be acquired in biofilm environments. In this study; clinical Prevalences, antibiotic resistances and biofilm formations of S. epidermidis strains were determined and comparison of all these findings with each other was carried out in order to take precautions against them and figure out if high biofilm forming S. epidermidis strains display multi drug resistance. According to our results; samples of wound and blood were the most S. epidermidis isolated clinical materials (40%; 35% and cardiothoracic surgery was the most S. epidermidis observed service unit. All of these strains were sensitive to vancomycin, however 65% of them showed resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics (Penicillin, Oxacillin, Amoxicilin / Clavulonic acid, used in this study and 60% of all S. epidermidis strains were found as multi drug resistant. When the results of strong biofilm forming S. epidermidis strains are examined; they were isolated from sample of blood and service unit of cardiovascular surgery in highest frequency and 80% of them were β-lactam resistant whereas 100% of them were multi drug resistant. One of these multi drug resistant strains which was resistant to maximum amount of different antimicrobial classes, was also observed as maximum biofilm forming strain among all the other S. epidermidis isolates. Multi drug resistance in strong biofilm forming strains shows that; biofilms play a role in antimicrobial resistance traits of S. epidermidis.

  16. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  17. ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SHEEP RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%. The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC was recorded in 6 (60% and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA in 4 (40% staphylococcal isolates. Raw milk products are vulnerable to contamination by S. aureus. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of S. aureus in bulk milk are of particular importance on farms where milk is used for raw milk products.

  18. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  19. Surface characterisation of two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis with different slime-production by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vilas, A.; Gallardo-Moreno, A. M.; González-Martín, M. L.; Calzado-Montero, R.; Nuevo, M. J.; Bruque, J. M.; Pérez-Giraldo, C.

    2004-11-01

    Slime-producer Staphylococcus epidermidis is one opportunistic bacteria directly related to biomaterial infections inside the human body. The characterisation of the bacterial surface is crucial when trying to control its adhesion process and prevent the biofilm formation. This work aims to analyse the microscopic and submicroscopic surface structure of two strains of S. epidermidis with different slime production, as well as mapping the surface interaction forces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that S. epidermidis ATCC35984 is covered by a granular-like film, highly compacted with the presence of repeated "holes". However, S. epidermidis ATCC35983 only shows a partial coverage by a less compacted granular-like film, mainly located in the inter-cellular zones. Both films are related to the slime of the two strains studied. As regards to the adhesion forces, results show a greater adhesion of the tip to the slime covering S. epidermidis ATCC35984, than that covering the surface of S. epidermidis ATCC35983. In addition, the adhesion to the free-slime zones of the last strain was higher than to the slime-covered parts.

  20. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin′s normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effects, but in comparison to mupirocin it was significantly less (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Nicotinamide stick was made and evaluated. This study showed that nicotinamide had anti-microbial effect on staphylococcus.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis extracellular serine protease Esp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengadesan, Krishnan; Macon, Kevin; Sugumoto, Shinya; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Iwase, Tadayuki; Narayana, Sthanam V L

    2013-01-01

    Esp, an extracellular serine protease from Staphylococcus epidermidis, has been shown to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. The full-length 27 kDa pro-Esp was purified and digested with thermolysin to obtain mature Esp. The mature Esp containing 216 residues crystallized in space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 61.2, c = 42.5 Å, β = 98.2° and one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 42%. A diffraction data set has been collected to 1.8 Å resolution on a rotating-anode home-source facility.

  2. The prevalence of genotypes that determine resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins B compared with spiramycin susceptibility among erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Marek; Chudzik-Rzad, Beata; Malm, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, can be regarded as potential reservoirs of resistance genes for pathogenic strains, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different resistance phenotypes to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramins B (MLSB) antibiotics among erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis, together with the evaluation of genes promoting the following different types of MLSB resistance:ermA, ermB, ermC,msrA, mphC, and linA/A'. Susceptibility to spiramycin was also examined. Among 75 erythromycin-resistantS. epidermidis isolates, the most frequent phenotypes were macrolides and streptogramins B (MSB) and constitutive MLSB (cMLSB). Moreover, all strains with the cMLSB phenotype and the majority of inducible MLSB (iMLSB) isolates were resistant to spiramycin, whereas strains with the MSB phenotype were sensitive to this antibiotic. The D-shape zone of inhibition around the clindamycin disc near the spiramycin disc was found for some spiramycin-resistant strains with the iMLSB phenotype, suggesting an induction of resistance to clindamycin by this 16-membered macrolide. The most frequently isolated gene was ermC, irrespective of the MLSB resistance phenotype, whereas the most often noted gene combination wasermC, mphC, linA/A'. The results obtained showed that the genes responsible for different mechanisms of MLSB resistance in S. epidermidis generally coexist, often without the phenotypic expression of each of them.

  3. Origin of the Putrescine-Producing Ability of the Coagulase-Negative Bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.

    A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was

  4. Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorberg, B. M.; Kuhn, I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and strain diversity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk in commercial dairy herds. A total of 341 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from cows' milk (317), farmers (17) and patients (7) were...... different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin...... characterized. Of these 105 isolates were from cows' milk in two farms, where also 17 isolates were sampled from farmers. The remaining 212 isolates from cows' milk were from 170 farms. All isolates were examined by antimicrobial susceptibility, whereas 202 were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...

  5. Antimicrobial activities of YycG histidine kinase inhibitors against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Z; Lee, Bao le ri; Yang, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a significant pathogen causing infections due to biofilm formation on surfaces of indwelling medical devices. Biofilm-associated bacteria exhibit enhanced resistance to many conventional antibiotics. It is therefore, important to design novel antimicrobial...... reagents targeting S. epidermidis biofilms. In a static chamber system, the bactericidal effect of two leading compounds active as YycG inhibitors was assessed on biofilm cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with viability staining. In young biofilms (6-h-old), the two compounds killed...... biofilm development at the M13C (8 mu g mL(-1)). Even at a high concentration (128 mu g mL(-1)), vancomycin exhibited poor killing on cells embedded in biofilms. The two compounds exhibited faster and more effective killing of S. epidermidis planktonic cells than vancomycin at the early stage of exposure...

  6. Methicillin resistance and virulence genes in invasive and nasal Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Vivian Carolina; Iorio, Natalia Lopes Pontes; Ferreira, Marcelle Cristina; Chamon, Raiane Cardoso; Dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2017-01-13

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity. Isolates from both groups showed no difference for biofilm production and ACME genes detection. However, BSI isolates harbored more frequently the sdrF and sesI genes (p epidermidis isolates from neonates, BSI isolates harbored more frequently the sdrF and sesI adhesin genes, while nasal isolates were very variable in SCCmec composition. These aspects could be advantageous to improve colonization in the host increasing its pathogenicity.

  7. Meticilīna rezistentais Staphylococcus epidermidis un tā izplatība veseliem cilvēkiem

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksone, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    Mūsdienās Staphylococcus epidermidis ir nozīmīgs oportūnistiskais patogēns. Tas ir viens no biežākajiem nozokomiālo infekciju izraisītājiem. Staphylococcus epidermidis celmu vidū plaši izplatīta ir rezistence pret antibakteriālajiem līdzekļiem. Maģistra darba mērķis bija izpētīt meticilīna rezistentā Staphylococcus epidermidis izplatību veseliem cilvēkiem. Meticilīna rezistentais Staphylococcus epidermidis netika konstatēts nevienā acs apakšējā plaksta konjunktīvā. Meticilīna rezistentais S...

  8. Cloning, expression and purification of extracellular serine protease Esp, a biofilm-degrading enzyme, from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, S; Iwase, T; Sato, F; Tajima, A; Shinji, H; Mizunoe, Y

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp, an extracellular serine protease, inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. To further expand the biotechnological applications of Esp, we developed a highly efficient and economic method for the purification of recombinant Esp based on a Brevibacillus choshinensis expression-secretion system. The esp gene was fused with the N-terminal Sec-dependent signal sequence of the B. choshinensis cell wall protein and a C-terminal hexa-histidine-tag gene. The recombinant Esp was expressed and secreted into the optimized medium as an immature form and subsequently activated by thermolysin. The mature Esp was easily purified by a single purification step using nickel affinity chromatography and showed proteolytic activity as well as Staph. aureus biofilm destruction activity. The purification yield of the developed extracellular production system was 5 mg recombinant mature Esp per 20-ml culture, which was much higher than that of an intracellular production system in Escherichia coli (3 mg recombinant Esp per 1-l culture). Our findings will be a powerful tool for the production and purification of recombinant Esp and also applicable to a large variety of recombinant proteins used for basic researches and biotechnological applications. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. An 18 kDa scaffold protein is critical for Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Decker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is crucially linked to formation of adherent biofilms on artificial surfaces. Biofilm assembly is significantly fostered by production of a bacteria derived extracellular matrix. However, the matrix composition, spatial organization, and relevance of specific molecular interactions for integration of bacterial cells into the multilayered biofilm community are not fully understood. Here we report on the function of novel 18 kDa Small basic protein (Sbp that was isolated from S. epidermidis biofilm matrix preparations by an affinity chromatographic approach. Sbp accumulates within the biofilm matrix, being preferentially deposited at the biofilm-substratum interface. Analysis of Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants demonstrated the importance of Sbp for sustained colonization of abiotic surfaces, but also epithelial cells. In addition, Sbp promotes assembly of S. epidermidis cell aggregates and establishment of multilayered biofilms by influencing polysaccharide intercellular-adhesin (PIA and accumulation associated protein (Aap mediated intercellular aggregation. While inactivation of Sbp indirectly resulted in reduced PIA-synthesis and biofilm formation, Sbp serves as an essential ligand during Aap domain-B mediated biofilm accumulation. Our data support the conclusion that Sbp serves as an S. epidermidis biofilm scaffold protein that significantly contributes to key steps of surface colonization. Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants showed no attenuated virulence in a mouse catheter infection model. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of sbp in commensal and invasive S. epidermidis populations suggests that Sbp plays a significant role as a co-factor during both multi-factorial commensal colonization and infection of artificial surfaces.

  10. An 18 kDa Scaffold Protein Is Critical for Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobiak, Melanie; Büttner, Henning; Franke, Gefion; Christner, Martin; Saß, Katharina; Zobiak, Bernd; Henke, Hanae A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Bischoff, Markus; Bur, Stephanie; Hartmann, Torsten; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Fey, Paul D.; Rohde, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Virulence of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is crucially linked to formation of adherent biofilms on artificial surfaces. Biofilm assembly is significantly fostered by production of a bacteria derived extracellular matrix. However, the matrix composition, spatial organization, and relevance of specific molecular interactions for integration of bacterial cells into the multilayered biofilm community are not fully understood. Here we report on the function of novel 18 kDa Small basic protein (Sbp) that was isolated from S. epidermidis biofilm matrix preparations by an affinity chromatographic approach. Sbp accumulates within the biofilm matrix, being preferentially deposited at the biofilm–substratum interface. Analysis of Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants demonstrated the importance of Sbp for sustained colonization of abiotic surfaces, but also epithelial cells. In addition, Sbp promotes assembly of S. epidermidis cell aggregates and establishment of multilayered biofilms by influencing polysaccharide intercellular-adhesin (PIA) and accumulation associated protein (Aap) mediated intercellular aggregation. While inactivation of Sbp indirectly resulted in reduced PIA-synthesis and biofilm formation, Sbp serves as an essential ligand during Aap domain-B mediated biofilm accumulation. Our data support the conclusion that Sbp serves as an S. epidermidis biofilm scaffold protein that significantly contributes to key steps of surface colonization. Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants showed no attenuated virulence in a mouse catheter infection model. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of sbp in commensal and invasive S. epidermidis populations suggests that Sbp plays a significant role as a co-factor during both multi-factorial commensal colonization and infection of artificial surfaces. PMID:25799153

  11. Ica-status of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains affects adhesion and aggregation: a thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major nosocomial pathogen associated with infections of indwelling medical devices. One important virulence factor of these organisms is their ability to adhere to devices and form biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the ica operon on cell surface hydrophobicity, thermodynamics of adhesion, and biofilm formation for seven S. epidermidis strains. The surface free energy parameters of the bacterial cell surface and the substratum were determined by contact angle measurement. Biofilm formation was assayed using crystal violet staining. Results showed that ica-positive strains demonstrated a higher hydrophobic characteristic than ica-negative strains, suggesting that the ica-operon seems to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of S. epidermidis. Interaction of ica-positive strains with a tissue-culture treated polystyrene surface was energetically favourable (ΔG Tot  ica-negative strains (ΔG Tot  > 0). The interfacial free energy of aggregation of S. epidermidis was lower for ica-positive than for ica-negative strains. Our study suggests that, in addition to biofilm formation, adhesion and aggregation of clinical S. epidermidis is stimulated in ica-positive strains by influencing the thermodynamics of interaction.

  12. Structural basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation: mechanisms and molecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Henning; Mack, Dietrich; Rohde, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a usually harmless commensal bacterium highly abundant on the human skin. Under defined predisposing conditions, most importantly implantation of a medical device, S. epidermidis, however, can switch from a colonizing to an invasive life style. The emergence of S. epidermidis as an opportunistic pathogen is closely linked to the biofilm forming capability of the species. During the past decades, tremendous advance regarding our understanding of molecular mechanisms contributing to surface colonization has been made, and detailed information is available for several factors active during the primary attachment, accumulative or dispersal phase of biofilm formation. A picture evolved in which distinct factors, though appearing to be redundantly organized, take over specific and exclusive functions during biofilm development. In this review, these mechanisms are described in molecular detail, with a highlight on recent insights into multi-functional S. epidermidis cell surface proteins contributing to surface adherence and intercellular adhesion. The integration of distinct biofilm-promoting factors into regulatory networks is summarized, with an emphasis on mechanism that could allow S. epidermidis to flexibly adapt to changing environmental conditions present during colonizing or invasive life-styles. PMID:25741476

  13. Effects of Total Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides on Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Guan, Cuiping; He, Yulong; Wang, Yujiong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xuezhang

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) is an opportunistic pathogen with low pathogenicity and a cause of the repeated outbreak of bovine mastitis in veterinary clinical settings. In this report, a biofilm model of S. epidermidis was generated and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sub-MIC (SMIC) on bacterial cultures were assessed for the following agents: total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides (TASA), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and erythromycin (ERY). The formation and characteristic parameters of biofilm were analyzed in terms of XTT assay, silver staining, and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Results showed that a sub-MIC of TASA could inhibit 50% biofilm of bacterial activity, while 250-fold MIC of CIP and ERY MICs only inhibited 50% and 47% of biofilm formation, respectively. All three agents could inhibit the biofilm formation at an early stage, but TASA showed a better inhibitory effect on the late stage of biofilm thickening. A morphological analysis using CLSM further confirmed the destruction of biofilm by these agents. These results thus suggest that TASA has an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation of clinic S. epidermidis, which may be a potential agent warranted for further study on the treatment prevention of infection related to S. epidermidis in veterinary clinic.

  14. Structural basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation: mechanisms and molecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Henning; Mack, Dietrich; Rohde, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a usually harmless commensal bacterium highly abundant on the human skin. Under defined predisposing conditions, most importantly implantation of a medical device, S. epidermidis, however, can switch from a colonizing to an invasive life style. The emergence of S. epidermidis as an opportunistic pathogen is closely linked to the biofilm forming capability of the species. During the past decades, tremendous advance regarding our understanding of molecular mechanisms contributing to surface colonization has been made, and detailed information is available for several factors active during the primary attachment, accumulative or dispersal phase of biofilm formation. A picture evolved in which distinct factors, though appearing to be redundantly organized, take over specific and exclusive functions during biofilm development. In this review, these mechanisms are described in molecular detail, with a highlight on recent insights into multi-functional S. epidermidis cell surface proteins contributing to surface adherence and intercellular adhesion. The integration of distinct biofilm-promoting factors into regulatory networks is summarized, with an emphasis on mechanism that could allow S. epidermidis to flexibly adapt to changing environmental conditions present during colonizing or invasive life-styles.

  15. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Bröker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research.

  16. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there was no bacterial growth after 48hrs incubation recorded for group one, only 5(13.9%) samples yielded growth of Staphylococcus aureus for group two with 31(86.1%) yielding no bacterial growth. All group three samples yielded profuse growth of which 11(36.7%) yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  18. Profiling the surfacome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; Hempel, Kristina; Buist, Girbe; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Doerte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide variety of life-threatening diseases. Especially for the colonization of human tissues and the development of invasiveness, surface-exposed proteins are of major importance. In the present studies, we optimized a

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a mainly acquired hospital infection is responsible for many suppurative lesions and has demonstrated the ability of developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents leading to life threatening infections and long hospital stay. Objective: To determined the prevalence and antibiotic ...

  2. Polyclonal antibodies production against Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... The main aim of this project is to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against the Staphylococcus aureus protein A and their use to appreciate bacteriological analysis of milk quality. In this context, an immunization produce was set up to test and detect in a batch of animals the convenient responder to.

  3. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  4. Tobramycin Adenylyltransferase: A New AminoglycosideInactivating Enzyme from Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Santanam, Partha; Kayser, Fritz H.

    2017-01-01

    Certain strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis resistant to the aminoglycoside antibiotics were shown to contain an enzyme that inactivates the kanamycins, neomycins, butirosins, paromomycin, gentamicin A, amikacin, and tobramycin by adenylylation. Tobramycin adenylyltransferase, as this enzyme is called, was found to be optimally active at pH 5.5. With paromomycin or neomycin Band C as substrates, however, two pH values (5.5 and 9.0) for optimal activity were observed. The enzyme requires Mg+...

  5. Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Expressing Vancomycin Resistance Early after Adhesion to a Metal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated biofilm formation and time of vancomycin (VCM resistance expression after adhesion to a metal surface in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis with a VCM MIC of 1 μg/mL was used. The bacteria were made to adhere to a stainless steel washer and treated with VCM at different times and concentrations. VCM was administered 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours after adhesion. The amount of biofilm formed was evaluated based on the biofilm coverage rates (BCRs before and after VCM administration, bacterial viability in biofilm was visually observed using the fluorescence staining method, and the viable bacterial count in biofilm was measured. The VCM concentration required to decrease BCR significantly compared with that of VCM-untreated bacteria was 4 μg/mL, even in the 0 hr group. In the 4 and 8 hr groups, VCM could not inhibit biofilm growth even at 1,024 μg/mL. In the 8 hr group, viable bacteria remained in biofilm at a count of 104 CFU even at a high VCM concentration (1,024 μg/mL. It was suggested that biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis expresses resistance to VCM early after adhesion to a metal surface. Resistance increased over time after adhesion as the biofilm formed, and strong resistance was expressed 4–8 hours after adhesion.

  6. Selective growth of Staphylococcus aureus from flushed dairy manure wastewater using acriflavine-supplemented mannitol salt agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Farrah, S R; Wilkie, A C

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the use of mannitol salt agar (MSA) supplemented with acriflavine for selective growth and quantification of Staphylococcus aureus from flushed dairy manure wastewater (FDMW). Minimal inhibitory concentrations of acriflavine in MSA were determined by comparing the growth of S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33591) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 155) in pure culture. Acriflavine concentrations of 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 mg l(-1) reduced CFU of S. epidermidis by 43%, 55% and 87%, respectively, while CFU of S. aureus subsp. aureus were only reduced by 15%, 20% and 26% at the respective concentrations of acriflavine. MSA supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) acriflavine was tested for selective growth of indigenous S. aureus from three grab samples of FDMW. Acriflavine concentrations of 1.5 mg l(-1) reduced background flora without significantly reducing (P < 0.05) indigenous S. aureus counts. Acriflavine-supplemented MSA provides an effective media for selective growth and quantification of indigenous S. aureus from FDMW in the presence of high levels of background microflora. S. aureus is implicated for mastitis infections in dairy cows. Therefore, a reliable means for monitoring and detecting the organism in FDMW provides a tool for measuring the effectiveness of treatment for reducing S. aureus levels and implementing flushwater recycling without affecting herd health.

  7. Antagonism between Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes and its genomic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gitte J M; Scholz, Christian F P; Enghild, Jan; Rohde, Holger; Kilian, Mogens; Thürmer, Andrea; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Lomholt, Hans B; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-02-29

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis live in close proximity on human skin, and both bacterial species can be isolated from normal and acne vulgaris-affected skin sites. The antagonistic interactions between the two species are poorly understood, as well as the potential significance of bacterial interferences for the skin microbiota. Here, we performed simultaneous antagonism assays to detect inhibitory activities between multiple isolates of the two species. Selected strains were sequenced to identify the genomic basis of their antimicrobial phenotypes. First, we screened 77 P. acnes strains isolated from healthy and acne-affected skin, and representing all known phylogenetic clades (I, II, and III), for their antimicrobial activities against 12 S. epidermidis isolates. One particular phylogroup (I-2) exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity than other P. acnes phylogroups. All genomes of type I-2 strains carry an island encoding the biosynthesis of a thiopeptide with possible antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis. Second, 20 S. epidermidis isolates were examined for inhibitory activity against 25 P. acnes strains. The majority of S. epidermidis strains were able to inhibit P. acnes. Genomes of S. epidermidis strains with strong, medium and no inhibitory activities against P. acnes were sequenced. Genome comparison underlined the diversity of S. epidermidis and detected multiple clade- or strain-specific mobile genetic elements encoding a variety of functions important in antibiotic and stress resistance, biofilm formation and interbacterial competition, including bacteriocins such as epidermin. One isolate with an extraordinary antimicrobial activity against P. acnes harbors a functional ESAT-6 secretion system that might be involved in the antimicrobial activity against P. acnes via the secretion of polymorphic toxins. Taken together, our study suggests that interspecies interactions could potentially jeopardize balances in the skin

  8. Comparative Epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Patients with Catheter-Related Bacteremia and from Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, B.; Deplano, A.; Nonhoff, C.; Denis, O.; Hallin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Recent studies suggested the existence of well-adapted, highly resistant, hospital-associated S. epidermidis clones. The molecular epidemiology of S. epidermidis in Belgian hospitals and the Belgian community has not been explored yet. We compared a set of 33 S. epidermidis isolates causing CRBSI in hospitalized patients with a set of 33 commensal S. epidermidis isolates. The factors analyzed included resistance to antibiotics and genetic diversity as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and SCCmec typing. Additionally, the presence of virulence-associated mobile genetic elements, the ica operon and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), was assessed and compared against clinical data. CRBSI S. epidermidis isolates were significantly resistant to more antibiotics than commensal S. epidermidis isolates. The two populations studied were very diverse and genetically distinct as only 23% of the 37 PFGE types observed were harbored by both CRBSI and commensal isolates. ACME was found in 76% of S. epidermidis strains, regardless of their origin, while the ica operon was significantly more prevalent in CRBSI isolates than in commensal isolates (P epidermidis isolates causing CRBSI were more resistant and more often ica positive than commensal S. epidermidis isolates, which were genetically heterogeneous and susceptible to the majority of antibiotics tested. Clinically severe CRBSIs were due to isolates belonging to two closely related MLST types, ST2 and ST54. PMID:23486718

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from pig farms in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Pigs are known to harbour a variety of staphylococcal bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, in the upper respiratory tract. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of S. epidermidis in healthy pigs, as well as to identify the potential role of pigs as a reservoir of zoonotic infection. The overall prevalence of S. epidermidis carriage was 28%, with approximately half of the pigs tested (13.5%) carrying methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE). Some isolates belonged to multilocus sequence types, associated with healthy human carriers or healthcare personnel (ST88, ST210) whereas others were related to animal or environmental strains (ST100, ST273). Most MRSE isolates carried SCCmec type IV, with SCCmec type V or a non-typeable SCCmec detected in the remaining isolates. Both MRSE and methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis isolates showed a degree of antimicrobial resistance, with most resistant to tetracycline and/or trimethoprim antimicrobial drugs. Isolates subjected to micro-array analysis carried the antimicrobial resistance genes tet(K), tet(M) and dfrS1, while half carried the arginine catabolic element (ACME) associated with colonisation. Some MRSE ST273 strains also carried the ica operon involved in biofilm formation. These research findings provide insight into the population structure and characteristics of S. epidermidis carried by healthy pigs, suggesting a role for these strains as a potential reservoir for antimicrobial and virulence genes and indicating that exchange of strains might occur between pigs and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Staphylococcus epidermidis agr quorum-sensing system: signal identification, cross talk, and importance in colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael E; Todd, Daniel A; Schaeffer, Carolyn R; Paharik, Alexandra E; Van Dyke, Michael J; Büttner, Henning; Dunman, Paul M; Rohde, Holger; Cech, Nadja B; Fey, Paul D; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of medical device infections. Global regulators like the agr quorum-sensing system in this pathogen have received a limited amount of attention, leaving important questions unanswered. There are three agr types in S. epidermidis strains, but only one of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) signals has been identified (AIP-I), and cross talk between agr systems has not been tested. We structurally characterized all three AIP types using mass spectrometry and discovered that the AIP-II and AIP-III signals are 12 residues in length, making them the largest staphylococcal AIPs identified to date. S. epidermidis agr reporter strains were developed for each system, and we determined that cross-inhibitory interactions occur between the agr type I and II systems and between the agr type I and III systems. In contrast, no cross talk was observed between the type II and III systems. To further understand the outputs of the S. epidermidis agr system, an RNAIII mutant was constructed, and microarray studies revealed that exoenzymes (Ecp protease and Geh lipase) and low-molecular-weight toxins were downregulated in the mutant. Follow-up analysis of Ecp confirmed the RNAIII is required to induce protease activity and that agr cross talk modulates Ecp activity in a manner that mirrors the agr reporter results. Finally, we demonstrated that the agr system enhances skin colonization by S. epidermidis using a porcine model. This work expands our knowledge of S. epidermidis agr system function and will aid future studies on cell-cell communication in this important opportunistic pathogen. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacteremia Induces Brain Injury in Neonatal Mice via Toll-like Receptor 2-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dan; Qiao, Lili; Bergelson, Ilana; Ek, C Joakim; Duan, Luqi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Albertsson, Anna-Maj; Pettengill, Matthew; Kronforst, Kenny; Ninkovic, Jana; Goldmann, Donald; Janzon, Anders; Hagberg, Henrik; Wang, Xiaoyang; Mallard, Carina; Levy, Ofer

    2015-11-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis causes late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Staphylococcus epidermidis activates host responses in part via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Epidemiologic studies link bacteremia and neonatal brain injury, but direct evidence is lacking. Wild-type and TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) mice were injected intravenously with S. epidermidis at postnatal day 1 prior to measuring plasma and brain cytokine and chemokine levels, bacterial clearance, brain caspase-3 activation, white/gray matter volume, and innate transcriptome. Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia spontaneously resolved over 24 hours without detectable bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TLR2-/- mice demonstrated delayed S. epidermidis clearance from blood, spleen, and liver. Staphylococcus epidermidis increased the white blood cell count in the CSF, increased interleukin 6, interleukin 12p40, CCL2, and CXCL1 concentrations in plasma; increased the CCL2 concentration in the brain; and caused rapid (within 6 hours) TLR2-dependent brain activation of caspase-3 and TLR2-independent white matter injury. Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia, in the absence of bacterial entry into the CSF, impairs neonatal brain development. Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia induced both TLR2-dependent and -independent brain injury, with the latter occurring in the absence of TLR2, a condition associated with an increased bacterial burden. Our study indicates that the consequences of transient bacteremia in early life may be more severe than commonly appreciated, and our findings may inform novel approaches to reduce bacteremia-associated brain injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype.

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis: metabolic adaptation and biofilm formation in response to different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Alvarez, Cristina; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Peña, Antonio; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a major health hazard. It is necessary to study its metabolism and hopefully uncover therapeutic targets. Cultivating S. epidermidis at increasing oxygen concentration [O2] enhanced growth, while inhibiting biofilm formation. Respiratory oxidoreductases were differentially expressed, probably to prevent reactive oxygen species formation. Under aerobiosis, S. epidermidis expressed high oxidoreductase activities, including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, as well as cytochromes bo and aa3; while little tendency to form biofilms was observed. Under microaerobiosis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase decreased while glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase nearly disappeared; cytochrome bo was present; anaerobic nitrate reductase activity was observed; biofilm formation increased slightly. Under anaerobiosis, biofilms grew; low ethanol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bo were still present; nitrate dehydrogenase was the main terminal electron acceptor. KCN inhibited the aerobic respiratory chain and increased biofilm formation. In contrast, methylamine inhibited both nitrate reductase and biofilm formation. The correlation between the expression and/or activity or redox enzymes and biofilm-formation activities suggests that these are possible therapeutic targets to erradicate S. epidermidis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Characterization of Teicoplanin Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates Belonging Predominantly to ST267.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cailin; Zhang, Fushan; Chen, Chunguang; Feng, Xianju; Xu, Min; Guo, Xiaobing; Sun, Jingjing; Li, Guanli; Zhu, Pengfei; Zeng, Li; Xu, Hui; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Xiaogai; Ming, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the main cause of bacteremia and infections of indwelling catheters, glycopeptide antibiotics are often considered as the choice of empirical drugs for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. In the present study, 12 teicoplanin nonsusceptible S. epidermidis isolates were collected between January and October 2013. All strains carried the mecA gene, displayed multiple drug resistance, and showed heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin using the population analysis profiling/area under the curve method. Multilocus sequence typing revealed four different sequence types among these isolates; eight isolates belonged to the same ST type (ST267). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI endonuclease showed four distinct pulsotypes. Six isolates that belonged to ST267 shared the same PFGE bands, indicating that they were clonally related. In addition, cell wall thickening and decreased autolysis were found in these isolates. Our study demonstrated that ST267 was the most epidemic clone among teicoplanin nonsusceptible S. epidermidis and identified a potential endemic clone in this region, which was believed to be the first report that the ST267 clone has spread in China. Our findings revealed that strengthened monitoring of S. epidermidis for drug resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics is urgently needed, and heightened measures should be taken to control the further spread of the ST267 clone.

  15. Two-Component Signal Transduction System SaeRS Positively Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  16. The Surface Protein SdrF Mediates Staphylococcus epidermidis Adherence to Keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Sheetal; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Herman-Bausier, Philippe; Sullivan, Sean B; Sowash, Madeleine G; Flores, Elizabeth Y; Khan, Sabrina D; Dufrêne, Yves F; Lowy, Franklin D

    2017-06-15

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major component of skin flora, is an opportunist, often causing prosthetic device infections. A family of structurally related proteins mediates staphylococcal attachment to host tissues, contributing to the success of S. epidermidis as a pathogen. We examined the ability of the surface protein SdrF to adhere to keratin, a major molecule expressed on the skin surface. A heterologous Lactococcus lactis expression system was used to express SdrF and its ligand-binding domains. Adherence to keratin types 1 and 10, human foreskin keratinocytes, and nasal epithelial cells was examined. SdrF bound human keratins 1 and 10 and adhered to keratinocytes and epithelial cells. Binding involved both the A and B domains. Anti-SdrF antibodies reduced adherence of S. epidermidis to keratin and keratinocytes. RNA interference reduced keratin synthesis in keratinocytes and, as a result, SdrF adherence. Direct force measurements using atomic force microscopy showed that SdrF mediates bacterial adhesion to keratin 10 through strong and weak bonds involving the A and B regions; strong adhesion was primarily mediated by the A region. These studies demonstrate that SdrF mediates adherence to human keratin and suggest that SdrF may facilitate S. epidermidis colonization of the skin.

  17. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms grown in glucose-enriched medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Virginia; França, Angela; Pier, Gerald B; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important nosocomial agent among carriers of indwelling medical devices, due to its strong ability to form biofilms on inert surfaces. Contrary to some advances made in the transcriptomic field, proteome characterization of S. epidermidis biofilms is less developed. To highlight the relation between transcripts and proteins of S. epidermidis biofilms, we analyzed the proteomic profile obtained by two mechanical lysis methods (sonication and bead beating), associated with two distinct detergent extraction buffers, namely SDS and CHAPS. Based on gel electrophoresis-LC-MS/MS, we identified a total of 453 proteins. While lysis with glass beads provided greater amounts of protein, CHAPS extraction buffer allowed identification of a higher number of proteins compared to SDS. Our data shows the impact of different protein isolation methods in the characterization of the S. epidermidis biofilm proteome. Furthermore, the correlation between proteomic and transcriptomic profiles was evaluated. The results confirmed that proteomic and transcriptomic data should be analyzed simultaneously in order to have a comprehensive understanding of a specific microbiological condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biofilm formation of ica operon-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, Maria Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Information on the prevalence of biofilm-related factors (PIA, Bhp, Aap, Embp) in Staphylococcus epidermidis of animal origin is scarce. In this study, 263 S. epidermidis isolates of diverse origin (animal, farmers, patients, and laboratory staff) were investigated for the presence of the ica operon (icaRADBC). The icaRADBC-positive isolates were further characterized by means of biofilm formation, presence of other biofilm-related genes, antimicrobial resistance, and population structure. Of all isolates, 28.5% (n = 75) were icaRADBC-positive, including 16.5% of animal origin, 29.1% farmer isolates, and 44.6% hospital-associated isolates (including patients and laboratory staff isolates). Most icaRADBC-positive isolates carried embp (n = 73), aap (n = 57), bhp (n = 22), and IS256 (n = 29). Statistical differences were found between animal and patient isolates for the presence of icaRADBC, bhp, and aap. No statistically significant relation was found between the presence of one or more genes and the level of biofilm formation. Most icaRADBC-positive isolates belonged to the clonal complex 5 (formerly 2) and most sequence types corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. Although the prevalence of S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity of bovines and poultry is low, some isolates belong to STs related to ica-positive clinical strains. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS), composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of 20-kDaPS inhibits

  20. Different sensitivity levels to norspermidine on biofilm formation in clinical and commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón-Peréz, Miriam L; Díaz-Cedillo, Francisco; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Peralta, Humberto; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino Diaz, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation on medical and surgical devices is the main virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. A recent study has shown that norspermidine inhibits and disassembles the biofilm in the wild-type Bacillus subtilis NCBI3610 strain. In this study, the effect of norspermidine on S. epidermidis biofilm formation of clinical or commensal strains was tested. Biofilm producing strains of S. epidermidis were isolated from healthy skin (HS; n = 3), healthy conjunctiva (HC; n = 9) and ocular infection (OI; n = 19). All strains were treated with different concentrations of norspermidine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μM), and the biofilm formation was tested on microtiter plate. Besides, cell-free supernatants of S. epidermidis growth at 4 h and 40 h were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect norspermidine. Results showed that norspermidine at 25 μM and 100 μM prevented the biofilm formation in 45.16% (14/31) and 16.13% (5/31), respectively; only in one isolate from OI, norspermidine did not have effect. Other polyamines as spermidine, putrescine and cadaverine did not have effect on the biofilm formation of the strains tested. Norspermidine was also capable to disassemble a biofilm already formed. Norspermidine was detected in the 40 h cell-free supernatant of S. epidermidis by GC-MS. Norspermidine inhibited the biofilm development of S. epidermidis on the surface of contact lens. In this work, it was demonstrated that S. epidermidis produces and releases norspermidine causing an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. Moreover, this is the first time showing that clinical S. epidermidis strains have different sensitivity to norspermidine, which suggest that the composition and structure of the biofilms is varied. We propose that norspermidine could potentially be used in the pre-treating of medical and surgical devices to inhibit the biofilm formation. Copyright

  1. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the anterior nares of healthy pupils and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. 116 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were biochemically characterized as coagulase positive S. aureus. Susceptibility profile of the isolates revealed that 15(14.85%) ...

  2. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  3. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of Gentamicin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Three clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides have been examined for antibiotic modifying enzymes. The strains contain a number of these enzymes, most of them similar to those commonly found in aminoglycoside-resistant gram-negative strains. All three strains (and a transductant derived from one of them) contain two enzymes mediating gentamicin resistance, an aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase and a novel enzyme, gentamicin phosphotransferase. PMID:836013

  5. Differing lifestyles of Staphylococcus epidermidis as revealed through Bayesian clustering of multilocus sequence types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan C; Zhang, Liangfen; Robinson, D Ashley

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and a leading cause of infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Previous phylogenetic analyses of subgenomic data have been unable to distinguish between S. epidermidis strains with nosocomial or commensal lifestyles, despite the identification of specific phenotypes and accessory genes that may contribute to such lifestyles. To attempt to better define the population structure of this species, the international S. epidermidis multilocus sequence typing database was analyzed with the Bayesian clustering programs STRUCTURE and BAPS. A total of six genetic clusters (GCs) were identified. A local population of S. epidermidis from clinical specimens was classified according to these six GCs, and further characterized for antibiotic susceptibilities, biofilm, and various genetic markers. GC5 was abundant and significantly enriched for isolates that were resistant to four classes of antibiotics, high biofilm production, and positive for the virulence markers icaA, IS256, and sesD/bhp, indicating its potential clinical relevance. In contrast, GC2 was rare and contained the only isolates positive for the putative commensal marker, fdh. GC1 and GC6 were abundant but not significantly associated with any of the examined characteristics, except for sesF/aap and GC6. GC3 was rare and identified as a potential genetic sink that received, but did not donate, core genetic material from other GCs. In conclusion, population genetics analyses were essential for identifying clusters of strains that may differ in their adaptation to nosocomial or commensal lifestyles. These results provide a new, population genetics framework for studying S. epidermidis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Sara; Forsberg, Magnus; Hulander, Mats; Vazirisani, Forugh; Palmquist, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth gold and the nanostructured gold displayed a different adhesion pattern and a more rapid oxidative burst than those cultured on polystyrene upon stimulation. We conclude that S. epidermidis decreased its viability initially when adhering to nanostructured surfaces compared with smooth gold surfaces, especially in the bacterial cell layers closest to the surface. In contrast, material surface properties neither strongly

  7. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  8. Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Virulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Silkworm hemolymph inhibits hemolysin production by Staphylococcus aureus. We purified a factor in the silkworm hemolymph responsible for this inhibitory activity. The final fraction with the greatest specific activity contained 220- and 74-kDa proteins. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the 220- and 74-kDa proteins were apolipophorin I and apolipophorin II, respectively, indicating that the factor was apolipophorin (ApoLp). The purified ApoLp fraction showed decreased expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin, hlb encoding β-hemolysin, saeRS, and RNAIII, which activate the expression of these hemolysin genes. Injection of an anti-ApoLp antibody into the hemolymph increased the sensitivity of silkworms to the lethal effect of S. aureus. Hog gastric mucin, a mammalian homologue of ApoLp, decreased the expression of S. aureus hla and hlb. These findings suggest that ApoLp in the silkworm hemolymph inhibits S. aureus virulence and contributes to defense against S. aureus infection and that its activity is conserved in mammalian mucin. PMID:21937431

  9. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis in diverse host environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Divya; Harper, Lamia; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an eminent human pathogen that can colonize the human host and cause severe life-threatening illnesses. This bacterium can reside in and infect a wide range of host tissues, ranging from superficial surfaces like the skin to deeper tissues such as in the gastrointestinal tract, heart and bones. Due to its multifaceted lifestyle, S. aureus uses complex regulatory networks to sense diverse signals that enable it to adapt to different environments and modulate virulence. In this minireview, we explore well-characterized environmental and host cues that S. aureus responds to and describe how this pathogen modulates virulence in response to these signals. Lastly, we highlight therapeutic approaches undertaken by several groups to inhibit both signaling and the cognate regulators that sense and transmit these signals downstream. PMID:28104617

  11. Molecular Analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains Isolated from Community and Hospital Environments in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Li, Tianming; Luo, Tao; Sun, Gang; Yang, Chongguang; Cao, Cuiming; Lu, Yuan; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This study analyzed the differences in genetic endowment and clonal lineages with pathogenesis and resistance traits of S. epidermidis isolates collected from community and hospital environments (patients and healthcare staff) of the same ecological niche, time period, and geographical location in China. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular epidemiology and population analysis showed that nasal colonization rates of S. epidermidis in the community of Shanghai area of China and in healthcare personnel were 44.8% (methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, MRSE: 17.2%) and 61.3% (MRSE: 30.0%), respectively. 86.7% of clinical isolates were MRSE. Among the strains studied, 44 sequence types (STs) were identified with 91.7% belonging to clonal complex 2 (CC2). Only 40.8% isolates from patients were also found in healthy individuals. MRSE-ST2-SCCmecIII was the predominant clone in clinical isolates, almost resistant to all antibiotics tested. Biofilm-related genes IS256 and icaA were detected in majority of the predominant clinical MRSE-ST2 clone with a 40.5% biofilm-positive rate. No ST2 isolate was found in community setting. We found a high prevalence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) (74.1%). The prevalence of ACME-arc and ACME-opp3 clusters was 71.6% and 32.4%, respectively. Methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis (MSSE) isolates harbored more ACME (83.3%) than MRSE isolates (67.7%), and there was no association between ACME and SCCmec types. An association was found between low-level ACME presence and invasive infections. Conclusions/Significance We observed a high level of diversity within S. epidermidis in this study, with CC2 as the dominant clonal complex in both community and hospital settings. Only 40.8% of the isolates from patients were also found in healthy individuals. Contrary to that biofilm formation and multiple antibiotic resistance were associated

  12. Molecular analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from community and hospital environments in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This study analyzed the differences in genetic endowment and clonal lineages with pathogenesis and resistance traits of S. epidermidis isolates collected from community and hospital environments (patients and healthcare staff of the same ecological niche, time period, and geographical location in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular epidemiology and population analysis showed that nasal colonization rates of S. epidermidis in the community of Shanghai area of China and in healthcare personnel were 44.8% (methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, MRSE: 17.2% and 61.3% (MRSE: 30.0%, respectively. 86.7% of clinical isolates were MRSE. Among the strains studied, 44 sequence types (STs were identified with 91.7% belonging to clonal complex 2 (CC2. Only 40.8% isolates from patients were also found in healthy individuals. MRSE-ST2-SCCmecIII was the predominant clone in clinical isolates, almost resistant to all antibiotics tested. Biofilm-related genes IS256 and icaA were detected in majority of the predominant clinical MRSE-ST2 clone with a 40.5% biofilm-positive rate. No ST2 isolate was found in community setting. We found a high prevalence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME (74.1%. The prevalence of ACME-arc and ACME-opp3 clusters was 71.6% and 32.4%, respectively. Methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis (MSSE isolates harbored more ACME (83.3% than MRSE isolates (67.7%, and there was no association between ACME and SCCmec types. An association was found between low-level ACME presence and invasive infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a high level of diversity within S. epidermidis in this study, with CC2 as the dominant clonal complex in both community and hospital settings. Only 40.8% of the isolates from patients were also found in healthy individuals. Contrary to that biofilm formation and multiple antibiotic resistance were

  13. Role of the luxS Quorum-Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Li, Hualin; Vuong, Cuong; Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Wang, Jianping; Yao, Yufeng; Otto, Michael; Gao, Qian

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. Quorum-sensing regulation plays a major role in the biofilm development of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe luxS, a quorum-sensing system in staphylococci that has a significant impact on biofilm development and virulence. We constructed an isogenic ΔluxS mutant strain of a biofilm-forming clinical isolate of S. epidermidis and demonstrated that luxS signa...

  14. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  15. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  16. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  17. Antibacterial activity of Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis by disruption of cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonwannasit, Sirilak; Nantapong, Nawarat; Kumkrai, Pakarang; Luecha, Prathan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-08-20

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte has been traditionally used in Thailand for treatment of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and skin diseases for a long time. The main objectives of this study were to examine antibacterial activity of the Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis and its underlying mechanism. The antioxidant activity and acute toxicity were studied as well. Antioxidant activities were examined by FRAP, ABTS and DPPH scavenging methods. Antibacterial activity was conducted using disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by dilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was reported as the lowest concentration producing no growth of microbes in the subcultures. Morphological changes of the microbe were observed by scanning electron microscopy, while an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation was evaluated by phase contrast microscopic analysis. Bacterial cell wall integrity was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Acute toxicity was conducted in accordance with the OECD for Testing of Chemicals (2001) guidelines. The extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. Staphylococcus epidermidis was susceptible to the extract with the MIC and MBC of 6 and 12 mg/ml, respectively. The extract caused swelling and distortion of bacterial cells and inhibited bacterial biofilm formation. Rupture of bacterial cell wall occurred after treated with the extract for 24 h. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no sign of toxicity or death at the doses of 2,000 and 15,000 mg/kg body weight. The aqueous extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves possesses an in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, with no sign of acute oral toxicity in mice, probably by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and inhibiting biofilm formation.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis serine--aspartate repeat protein G (SdrG) binds to osteoblast integrin alpha V beta 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, T; Kavanagh, N; Foster, T J; O'Brien, F J; Kerrigan, S W

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading etiologic agent of orthopaedic implant infection. Contamination of the implanted device during insertion allows bacteria gain entry into the sterile bone environment leading to condition known as osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is characterised by weakened bones associated with progressive bone loss. The mechanism through which S. epidermidis interacts with bone cells to cause osteomyelitis is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis can bind to osteoblasts in the absence of matrix proteins. S. epidermidis strains lacking the cell wall protein SdrG had a significantly reduced ability to bind to osteoblasts. Consistent with this, expression of SdrG in Lactococcus lactis resulted in significantly increased binding to the osteoblasts. Protein analysis identified that SdrG contains a potential integrin recognition motif. αVβ3 is a major integrin expressed on osteoblasts and typically recognises RGD motifs in its ligands. Our results demonstrate that S. epidermidis binds to recombinant purified αVβ3, and that a mutant lacking SdrG failed to bind. Blocking αVβ3 on osteoblasts significantly reduced binding to S. epidermidis. These studies are the first to identify a mechanism through which S. epidermidis binds to osteoblasts and potentially offers a mechanism through which implant infection caused by S. epidermidis leads to osteomyelitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Canovas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing peptides (AIPs sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to better understand the interaction between staphylococci and S. aureus, and show that this interaction may eventually lead to the identification of new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus agr. The dog pathogen, Staphylococcus schleiferi, expressed the most potent inhibitory activity and was active against all four agr classes found in S. aureus. By employing a S. aureus strain encoding a constitutively active AIP receptor we show that the activity is mediated via agr. Subsequent cloning and heterologous expression of the S. schleiferi AIP in S. aureus demonstrated that this molecule was likely responsible for the inhibitory activity, and further proof was provided when pure synthetic S. schleiferi AIP was able to completely abolish agr induction of an S. aureus reporter strain. To assess impact on S. aureus virulence, we co-inoculated S. aureus and S. schleiferi in vivo in the Galleria mellonella wax moth larva, and found that expression of key S. aureus virulence factors was abrogated. Our data show that the S. aureus agr locus is highly responsive to other staphylococcal species suggesting that agr is an inter-species communication system. Based on these results we speculate that interactions between S. aureus and other colonizing staphylococci

  20. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, Jaime; Baldry, Mara; Bojer, Martin S.; Andersen, Paal S.; Gless, Bengt H.; Grzeskowiak, Piotr K.; Stegger, Marc; Damborg, Peter; Olsen, Christian A.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing peptides (AIPs) sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to better understand the interaction between staphylococci and S. aureus, and show that this interaction may eventually lead to the identification of new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus agr. The dog pathogen, Staphylococcus schleiferi, expressed the most potent inhibitory activity and was active against all four agr classes found in S. aureus. By employing a S. aureus strain encoding a constitutively active AIP receptor we show that the activity is mediated via agr. Subsequent cloning and heterologous expression of the S. schleiferi AIP in S. aureus demonstrated that this molecule was likely responsible for the inhibitory activity, and further proof was provided when pure synthetic S. schleiferi AIP was able to completely abolish agr induction of an S. aureus reporter strain. To assess impact on S. aureus virulence, we co-inoculated S. aureus and S. schleiferi in vivo in the Galleria mellonella wax moth larva, and found that expression of key S. aureus virulence factors was abrogated. Our data show that the S. aureus agr locus is highly responsive to other staphylococcal species suggesting that agr is an inter-species communication system. Based on these results we speculate that interactions between S. aureus and other colonizing staphylococci will significantly

  1. Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Khan, Burhan A; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Bach, Thanh-Huy L; Jameson-Lee, Max; Kong, Kok-Fai; Queck, Shu Y; Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached agglomerations of microorganisms embedded in an extracellular matrix. Biofilm-associated infections are difficult to eradicate and represent a significant reservoir for disseminating and recurring serious infections. Infections involving biofilms frequently develop on indwelling medical devices in hospitalized patients, and Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading cause of infection in this setting. However, the molecular determinants of biofilm dissemination are unknown. Here we have demonstrated that specific secreted, surfactant-like S. epidermidis peptides--the β subclass of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs)--promote S. epidermidis biofilm structuring and detachment in vitro and dissemination from colonized catheters in a mouse model of device-related infection. Our study establishes in vivo significance of biofilm detachment mechanisms for the systemic spread of biofilm-associated infection and identifies the effectors of biofilm maturation and detachment in a premier biofilm-forming pathogen. Furthermore, by demonstrating that antibodies against PSMβ peptides inhibited bacterial spread from indwelling medical devices, we have provided proof of principle that interfering with biofilm detachment mechanisms may prevent dissemination of biofilm-associated infection.

  2. Biofilm characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates associated with device-related meningitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm causes device-related meningitis in neurosurgical patients. This study assessed the contribution of polysaccharide and protein to the development of a strong biofilm-positive phenotype in four S. epidermidis isolates associated with probable device-related meningitis, under varying environmental conditions. RT-PCR analysis of the intercellular adhesion operon (icaADBC) and assessment of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production indicated a correlation between increased icaA transcription and PIA production in ica(+) isolates grown in medium with 4 % ethanol and 4 % NaCl. Treatment of biofilm with sodium metaperiodate caused dispersion of adhered cells (P <0.0001), indicating involvement of PIA. Transcriptional levels of protein factors revealed that atlE transcription levels were similar in all isolates, whilst aap levels were variable, with induction being seen in two isolates following growth in the presence of alcohol or salt. Transcription of agr did not influence protein expression and RNAIII transcription varied among the strains. Although aap transcription was induced, the treatment of biofilm with proteinase K did not always disperse the biofilm. Our data suggest that, among the three ica(+) S. epidermidis isolates clinically associated with meningitis that were studied, PIA contributed to the strong biofilm-positive phenotype, whereas protein factors appeared to have a secondary role.

  3. Inefficacy of vancomycin and teicoplanin in eradicating and killing Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, J; Roriz, M; Merckx, R; Baatsen, P; Van Mellaert, L; Van Eldere, J

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm-associated bacteria display a decreased susceptibility towards antibiotics. Routine assessment of antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic bacteria therefore offers an insufficient prediction of the biofilm response. In this study, in vitro biofilms of eight clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were subjected to treatment with vancomycin, teicoplanin, oxacillin, rifampicin and gentamicin. In addition, the biofilms were subjected to combinations of an antibiotic with rifampicin. The effects on the biofilms were assessed by crystal violet staining to determine the total biofilm biomass, staining with XTT to determine bacterial cell viability, and microscopy. Combining these methods showed that treatment of S. epidermidis biofilms with glycopeptides increased the total biofilm biomass and that these antibiotics were not effective in killing bacteria embedded in biofilms. The decreased killing efficacy was more pronounced in biofilms produced by strains that were classified as 'strong' biofilm producers. Rifampicin, oxacillin and gentamicin effectively killed biofilm-associated bacteria of all tested strains. Combining antibiotics with rifampicin increased the killing efficacy without influencing the total biofilm biomass. When vancomycin or teicoplanin were combined with rifampicin, the increase in biofilm biomass was neutralised and also the killing efficacy was influenced in a positive way. We conclude that the combined methodology used in this study showed that glycopeptides were not effective in eradicating S. epidermidis biofilms but that combination with rifampicin improved the killing efficacy in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis graft infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Ali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the in vivo efficacy of local and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of Staphylococcus (S. epidermidis graft infection in a rat model and to evaluate the bacterial adherence to frequently used prosthetic graft materials. Methods Graft infections were established in the subcutaneous tissue of 120 male Wistar rats by implantation of Dacron/ePTFE grafts followed by topical inoculation with 2 × 107 CFUs of clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis. Each of the graft series included a control group, one contaminated group that did not receive any antibiotic prophylaxis, two contaminated groups that received systemic prophylaxis with teicoplanin or levofloxacin and two contaminated groups that received teicoplanin-soaked or levofloxacin-soaked grafts. The grafts were removed 7 days after implantation and evaluated by quantitative culture. Results There was significant bacterial growth inhibition in the groups given systemic or local prophylaxis (P S. epidermidis had greater affinity to Dacron graft when compared with ePTFE graft in the untreated contaminated groups (P Conclusion The study demonstrated that the usage of systemic or local prophylaxis and preference of ePTFE graft can be useful in reducing the risk of vascular graft infections caused by staphylococcal strains with high levels of resistance.

  5. sarA negatively regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by modulating expression of 1 MDa extracellular matrix binding protein and autolysis‐dependent release of eDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christner, Martin; Heinze, Constanze; Busch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation is essential for Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenicity in implant‐associated infections. Nonetheless, large proportions of invasive Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates fail to form a biofilm in vitro. We here tested the hypothesis that this apparent paradox is related to the ...

  6. Comparison of RNA extraction methods from biofilm samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic resistance and tolerance to the immune system. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Obtaining high quality mRNA from biofilms is crucial to validate the transcriptional measurements associated with the switching to the biofilm mode of growth. Therefore, we selected three commercially available RNA extraction kits with distinct characteristics, including those using silica membrane or organic extraction methods, and enzymatic or mechanical cell lysis, and evaluated the RNA quality obtained from two distinct S. epidermidis bacterial biofilms. Results RNA extracted using the different kits was evaluated for quantity, purity, integrity, and functionally. All kits were able to extract intact and functional total RNA from the biofilms generated from each S. epidermidis strain. The results demonstrated that the kit based on mechanical lysis and organic extraction (FastRNA® Pro Blue was the only one that was able to isolate pure and large quantities of RNA. Normalized expression of the icaA virulence gene showed that RNA extracted with PureLink™ had a significant lower concentration of icaA mRNA transcripts than the other kits tested. Conclusions When working with complex samples, such as biofilms, that contain a high content extracellular polysaccharide and proteins, special care should be taken when selecting the appropriate RNA extraction system, in order to obtain accurate, reproducible, and biologically significant results. Among the RNA extraction kits tested, FastRNA® Pro Blue was the best option for both S. epidermidis biofilms used.

  7. Biofilm Morphotypes and Population Structure among Staphylococcus epidermidis from Commensal and Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llinos G Harris

    Full Text Available Bacterial species comprise related genotypes that can display divergent phenotypes with important clinical implications. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of nosocomial infections and, critical to its pathogenesis, is its ability to adhere and form biofilms on surfaces, thereby moderating the effect of the host's immune response and antibiotics. Commensal S. epidermidis populations are thought to differ from those associated with disease in factors involved in adhesion and biofilm accumulation. We quantified the differences in biofilm formation in 98 S. epidermidis isolates from various sources, and investigated population structure based on ribosomal multilocus typing (rMLST and the presence/absence of genes involved in adhesion and biofilm formation. All isolates were able to adhere and form biofilms in in vitro growth assays and confocal microscopy allowed classification into 5 biofilm morphotypes based on their thickness, biovolume and roughness. Phylogenetic reconstruction grouped isolates into three separate clades, with the isolates in the main disease associated clade displaying diversity in morphotype. Of the biofilm morphology characteristics, only biofilm thickness had a significant association with clade distribution. The distribution of some known adhesion-associated genes (aap and sesE among isolates showed a significant association with the species clonal frame. These data challenge the assumption that biofilm-associated genes, such as those on the ica operon, are genetic markers for less invasive S. epidermidis isolates, and suggest that phenotypic characteristics, such as adhesion and biofilm formation, are not fixed by clonal descent but are influenced by the presence of various genes that are mobile among lineages.

  8. Methicillin resistance and biofilm production of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from infectious and normal flora conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, Norma; Samudio, Margarita; Carpinelli, Letizia; Nentwich, Martin M; de Kaspar, Herminia Mino

    2017-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci have been reported to be the most frequent cause of bacterial postoperative endophthalmitis. Biofilm formation is the major virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis and is often associated with methicillin resistance. This study aims at evaluating the presence of biofilm-producing and methicillin resistance genes (mecA) in S. epidermidis. S. epidermidis isolated from clinically infected sites (group 1) and from normal human conjunctiva (group 2) were studied. All the isolates were tested for their ability to produce biofilm by the conventional Christensen´s method and the presence of mecA by PCR using the 22-mer oligonucleotides as primers. In total 20 isolates from group 1 and 22 from group 2 were studied. Biofilm and mecA were detected in 15 (75 %) and in 14 (70 %) in group 1 as compared to 8 (36.3 %) and 4 (18.2 %) in group 2 (p = 0.016). Simultaneously, biofilm production and presence of mecA genes were observed in 13/20 (65.0 %) in group 1, and 4/22 (18.2 %) in group 2 (p = 0.002). Multi-resistance was observed in 55 % in group 1 and 9 % in group 2 (p = 0.002); 57 % of the biofilm-producing strains was multi-resistant in contrast to none of the non-producing strains. In all multi-resistant strains, biofilm production was seen. Biofilm formation capacity was widely distributed, particularly among mecA (+) S. epidermidis strains, which also displayed a high diversity of antibiotic resistance profiles.

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from industrial cleanrooms under regular routine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribič, U; Klančnik, A; Jeršek, B

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 57 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from cleanroom environments, based on their biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Biofilm formation was investigated using real-time PCR (icaA, aap, bhp genes), the Congo red agar method and the crystal violet assay. The majority of the strains (59·7%; 34/57) did not form biofilms according to the crystal violet assay, although the biofilm-associated genes were present in 94·7% (54/57) of the strains. Of the biofilm formers (40·4%; 23/57), 39·1% (9/23) have been identified as strong biofilm formers (>4× crystal violet absorbance cut-off). Resistance to a commercial disinfectant and its quaternary ammonium active component, didecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (DDAC), was determined according to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the presence of the qac (quaternary ammonium compound) genes. More than 95% (55/57) of the Staph. epidermidis strains had the qacA/B and qacC genes, but not the other qac genes. The MICs for the disinfectant and DDAC varied among the Staph. epidermidis strains, although none were resistant. Although 59·6% of the Staph. epidermidis strains did not form biofilms and none were resistant to DDAC, more than 94% had the genetic basis for development of resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, and among them at least 14·0% (8/57) might represent a high risk to cleanroom hygiene as strong biofim formers with qacA/B and qacC genes. To assure controlled cleanroom environments, bacterial strains isolated from cleanroom environments need to be characterized regularly using several investigative methods. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Subacute Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Endocarditis Complicated by Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Elegino-Steffens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 75-year-old man with a history significant for hypertension and congestive heart failure who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement secondary to acute onset of aortic insufficiency. Cultures of the native valve were positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to nafcillin and intravenous cefazolin was initiated. On postoperative day 24, he developed acute decompensated heart failure. A transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated a structurally abnormal mitral valve with severe regurgitation, anterior and posterior leaflet vegetations, and scallop prolapse. There was also evidence of a mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa pseudoaneurysm (P-MAIF with systolic expansion and flow within the aneurysm. Antibiotic treatment was changed from cefazolin to vancomycin for presumed development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. He subsequently underwent a bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and has restoration of health without sequella. This case highlights the development of a P-MAIF as a rare complication of both aortic or mitral valve replacement and infective endocarditis.

  11. Expression of an organic solvent stable lipase from Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Kamarudin, Nor Hafizah Ahmad; Yunus, Jalimah; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2010-09-13

    An organic solvent tolerant lipase gene from Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2 was successfully cloned and expressed with pTrcHis2 in E. coli TOP10. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,933 bp in length which coded for a polypeptide of 643 amino acid residues. The polypeptide comprised of a signal peptide (37 amino acids), pro-peptide and a mature protein of 390 amino acids. Expression of AT2 lipase resulted in an 18-fold increase in activity, upon the induction of 0.6 mM IPTG after a 10 h incubation period. Interestingly, this lipase was stable in various organic solvents (25% (v/v), mainly toluene, octanol, p-xylene and n-hexane). Literature shows that most of the organic solvent stable bacterial lipases were produced by Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp., but very few from Staphylococcus sp. This lipase demonstrates great potential to be employed in various industrial applications.

  12. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  14. Characterizing the in vitro biofilm phenotype of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Marian; Hotterbeekx, An; Lanckacker, Ellen; Moons, Pieter; Lammens, Christine; Kerstens, Monique; Ieven, Margareta; Delputte, Peter; Jorens, Philippe G; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Goossens, Herman; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are commonly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis that is able to form a biofilm on the catheter surface. Many studies involving biofilm formation by Staphylococcus have been published each adopting an own in vitro model. Since the capacity to form a biofilm depends on multiple environmental factors, direct comparison of results obtained in different studies remains challenging. This study characterized the phenotype (strong versus weak biofilm-producers) of S. epidermidis from CVCs in four different in vitro biofilm models, covering differences in material type (glass versus polymer) and nutrient presentation (static versus continuous flow). A good correlation in phenotype was obtained between glass and polymeric surfaces independent of nutrient flow, with 85% correspondence under static growth conditions and 80% under dynamic conditions. A 80% correspondence between static and dynamic conditions on polymeric surfaces could be demonstrated as well. Incubation time had a significant influence on the biofilm phenotype with only 55% correspondence between the dynamic models at different incubation times (48h versus 17h). Screening for the presence of biofilm-related genes only revealed that ica A was correlated with biofilm formation under static but not under dynamic conditions. In conclusion, this study highlights that a high level of standardization is necessary to interpret and compare results of different in vitro biofilm models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2012-01-01

    decisions with regard to harmonisation of typing methods. A stratified, three-level organisation of testing laboratories was proposed: local; regional; and national. The functions of, and testing methodology used by, each laboratory were defined. The group consensus was to recommend spa and staphylococcal......This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  16. Crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Ran, F. Ann; Zetsche, Bernd; Li, Yinqing; Kurabayashi, Arisa; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets with a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and complementarity to the guide RNA. Recently, we harnessed Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), which is significantly smaller than Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), to facilitate efficient in vivo genome editing. Here, we report the crystal structures of SaCas9 in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) and its double-stranded DNA targets, containing the 5′-TTGAAT-3′ PAM and...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in children: a formidable foe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most common causes of bacteraemia in children. In order to evade and overcome the immune responses of its host and any antimicrobial therapies aimed at destroying it, this organism, through various mechanisms, continues to evolve. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a ...

  18. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in apparently healthy ... Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Nasal swabs, Multidrug resistance, Rational chemotherapy .... Figure 2: Antibiotic resistance profile of the MRSA isolates. Key: AM-amoxicillin ...

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Slini, Theodora; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in plaque and tongue samples from systemically healthy subjects with periodontal health, gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 systemically healthy participants were ultimately enrolled in the current study. Subgingival samples were taken from the first molars and the tongue and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus and MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. In addition, samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. Statistical analysis was performed by applying non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis for clinical parameters, and z-test with Bonferroni corrections for distributions of assessed parameters). All comparisons were set at the 0.05 significance level. S. aureus was detected in 18% of all participants and in 10% of the samples tested. No significant differences were found in its distribution among the three investigated groups (z-test for proportions with Bonferroni corrections, p>0.05). The mecA gene was not present in any of the S. aureus found. S. aureus can be found in the oral environment regardless of the periodontal conditions and therefore should be considered as a member of the transient flora not participating in periodontal pathology. Subgingival sites and tongue surfaces seem to be an unusual habitat of MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to polymethyl methacrylate and acrysof intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, A; Zanetti, S; Sechi, L A; Usai, D; Falchi, M P; Carta, F

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the adherence of one clinically relevant ocular isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Acrysof (Alcon Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) intraocular lenses (IOLs). Experimental study. The authors examined the in vitro adherence of one clinically relevant ocular isolate of S. epidermidis. Adherence was tested on 12 PMMA IOLs and 12 Acrysof IOLs. Six IOLs (three of each type) were placed in different test tubes containing bacterial suspension (10(8) cfu/ml) and incubated at 37 degrees C. At different times (3 minutes, 30 minutes, and 90 minutes), each IOL type was removed from the test tube, rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline, and transferred into sterile brain-heart infusion broth. The broth with the IOL was sonicated on low power for 3 minutes to remove adhered bacteria. Two serial 10-fold dilutions of the broth containing the dislodged bacteria were plated on mannitol agar plates. The plates were incubated overnight at 37 degrees C and then bacterial colonies were counted. All assays were performed in triplicate. Additional lenses (three of each type) were incubated with S. epidermidis for different times (3 minutes, 30 minutes, and 90 minutes) and then examined with scanning electron microscopy. The number of adhered bacteria per area (mm ) of IOL optic was calculated. Statistical analysis included calculation of arithmetic means and 95% confidence intervals (t test). Direct counting of viable adherent bacteria released by sonication showed that the amount of adhered bacteria per area of IOL optic after 3, 30, and 90 minutes' incubation in S. epidermidis suspension was 0.1 x 10(2)/mm2, 3.6 x 10(2)/mm2, and 11 x 10(2)/mm2 (PMMA IOLs), and 4.4 x 10(2)/mm2, 3.1 x 10(2)/mm2, and 2.3 x 10(2)/mm2 (Acrysof IOLs). Direct counting of adherent bacteria in scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed that the total amount of adhered bacteria per area of IOL optic after 3, 30, and 90 minutes' incubation in S

  1. Compounds in a particular production lot of tryptic soy broth inhibit Staphylococcus aureus cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus Newman strain and several methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates were grown on agar plates prepared with conventional lots of tryptic soy broth (TSB). Cell growth of these strains was inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of a particular product lot (lot A), whereas the cell growth of S. aureus RN4220 strain and several other MRSA clinical isolates was not inhibited. The cell growth of a strain of S. epidermidis was also inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of lot A, whereas the cell growth of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli was not inhibited. Although cell growth of the Newman strain was inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of lot A that was autoclaved in stainless steel or glass containers, cell growth inhibition was not observed when the medium was autoclaved in polypropylene containers. Compounds that inhibited the cell growth of the Newman strain were extracted from a polypropylene tube that was preincubated with liquid medium prepared from TSB of lot A. These findings suggest that polypropylene-binding compounds in TSB of lot A inhibited the cell growth of S. aureus Newman strain, some MRSA clinical isolates, and S. epidermidis.

  2. Detection of Intracellular Adhesion (ica and Biofilm Formation Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Rezaie Keikhaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nosocomial infections that result in the formation of biofilms on the surfaces of biomedical implants are a leading cause of sepsis and are often associated with colonization of the implants by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm formation is thought to require two sequential steps: adhesion of cells to a solid substrate followed by cell-cell adhesion, creating multiple layers of cells. Intercellular adhesion requires the polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA, which is composed of linear β-1, 6-linked glucosaminylglycans and can be synthesized in vitro from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by products of the intercellular adhesion (ica locus. We have investigated a variety of Staphylococcus aureus strains and find that all strains tested contain the ica locus and that several can form biofilms in vitro. Material and Method: A total of 31 clinical S. aureus isolates were collected from Zabol, Iran. In vitro biofilm formation ability was determined by microliter tissue culture plates. All clinical isolates were examined for determination the ica locus by using PCR method. Result: The results of this study showed that 40 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 12 strains carrying the gene Cocos icaA (30% and 8 strains carrying the gene icaD (20% and the number of five strains (12.5% containing both genes ica A and has been ica D. Conclusions:  S. aureus clinical isolates have different ability to form biofilm. This may be caused by the differences in the expression of biofilm related genes, genetic make-up and physiological conditions.

  3. Galectin-3 Is a Target for Proteases Involved in the Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmwall, Jonas; Kwiecinski, Jakub; Na, Manli; Ali, Abukar Ahmed; Osla, Veronica; Shaw, Lindsey N; Wang, Wanzhong; Sävman, Karin; Josefsson, Elisabet; Bylund, Johan; Jin, Tao; Welin, Amanda; Karlsson, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infection. The bacterium expresses four major proteases that are emerging as virulence factors: aureolysin (Aur), V8 protease (SspA), staphopain A (ScpA), and staphopain B (SspB). We hypothesized that human galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in immune regulation and antimicrobial defense, is a target for these proteases and that proteolysis of galectin-3 is a novel immune evasion mechanism. Indeed, supernatants from laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. aureus caused galectin-3 degradation. Similar proteolytic capacities were found in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates but not in Staphylococcus saprophyticus Galectin-3-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase was abrogated by bacterium-derived proteolysis of galectin-3, and SspB was identified as the major protease responsible. The impact of galectin-3 and protease expression on S. aureus virulence was studied in a murine skin infection model. In galectin-3+/+ mice, SspB-expressing S. aureus caused larger lesions and resulted in higher bacterial loads than protease-lacking bacteria. No such difference in bacterial load or lesion size was detected in galectin-3-/- mice, which overall showed smaller lesion sizes than the galectin-3+/+ animals. In conclusion, the staphylococcal protease SspB inactivates galectin-3, abrogating its stimulation of oxygen radical production in human neutrophils and increasing tissue damage during skin infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements.

  5. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 ear and nasal swab samples collected from 35 persons, 16-hospital population and 19 non-hospital population was examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Eighty percent of the population studied were found to be carriers of S. aureus. Of the 28 positive cases, 35.7% were carriers of S. aureus. in ...

  6. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2008-10-30

    Oct 30, 2008 ... Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We investigated the frequency of nasal S. aureus carriage in patients with perennial ...

  7. The electrophoretic softness of the surface of Staphylococcus epidermidis cells grown in a liquid medium and on a solid agar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, PJM; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    Many Staphylococcus epidermidis strains possess capsule or slime layers and consequently the staphylococcal cell surface should be regarded as a soft, polyelectrolyte layer allowing electrophoretic fluid flow through a layer of fixed charges. The presence of such a soft layer decreases the energy

  8. Characterization of CRISPR-Cas system in clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains revealed its potential association with bacterial infection sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiuchun; Xie, Xiaolei; Yin, Kequan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered as a major cause of nosocomial infections, bringing an immense burden to healthcare systems. Virulent phages have been confirmed to be efficient in combating the pathogen, but the prensence of CRISPR-Cas system, which is a bacterial immune system eliminating...

  9. Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen highly evolved as both a component of the commensal flora and as a major cause of invasive infection. Severe respiratory infection due to staphylococci has been increasing due to the prevalence of more virulent USA300 CA-MRSA strains in the general population. The ability of S. aureus to adapt to the milieu of the respiratory tract has facilitated its emergence as a respiratory pathogen. Its metabolic versatility, the ability to scavenge iron, coordinate gene expression, and the horizontal acquisition of useful genetic elements have all contributed to its success as a component of the respiratory flora, in hospitalized patients, as a complication of influenza and in normal hosts. The expression of surface adhesins facilitates its persistence in the airways. In addition, the highly sophisticated interactions of the multiple S. aureus virulence factors, particularly the α-hemolysin and protein A, with diverse immune effectors in the lung such as ADAM10, TNFR1, EGFR, immunoglobulin, and complement all contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:22037948

  10. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  11. Erythromycin resistance features and biofilm formation affected by subinhibitory erythromycin in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jing; Sun, Feng-Jun; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yao; Xiong, Li-Rong; Xia, Pei-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Subminimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of antibiotics can modify the phenotype of biofilm formation in bacteria. However, the relationship between resistance phenotypes, genotypes, and the biofilm formation phenotype in response to sub-MIC antibiotics remains unclear. Here, we collected 96 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and investigated the erythromycin (ERY) susceptibility, the biofilm formation in respond to sub-MIC ERY, the presence and transcription expression of erm genes. Serial passage of induction resistance was used against ERY-susceptible isolates and biofilm formation in response to their new sub-MIC ERY was determined. The incidence of biofilm phenotype modification in ERY-resistant isolates was significantly higher than that of ERY-susceptible isolates [27/85 (31.8%) vs. 0/11 (0%), p = 0.031]. Yet, ERY-susceptible isolates displayed the phenomenon of biofilm phenotype modification (7/11), after induction of resistance to ERY. The ermC gene was absolutely dominant among the three macrolide resistant genes including erm (A, B, C) [6/96 (6.2%), 6/96 (6.2%), and 91/96 (94.8%), respectively]. With statistic stratification analysis, a linear and positive correlation was identified between the two factors in the biofilm-enhanced strains, a linear and negative correlation in biofilm-inhibited strains, and a weakly positive correlation in biofilm-unaffected strains (R(2) = 0.4992, 0.3686, and 0.0512, respectively). The results suggest that the ERY resistance phenotype and the transcription expression of ermC gene could be considered as important signs to estimate whether the biofilm formation phenotype in S. epidermidis clinical isolates can be easily affected by sub-MIC ERY. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effect of chlorhexidine on oral airway biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünase Büyükkoçak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biofilm formation of microorganisms on the surface of airways may lead to supraglottic colonization that may cause lower respiratuar tract infections. Studies searching the efficiency of local disinfectants on biofilm formation are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine coated airways on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: Culture and electron microscopy methods were used for biofilm assessment. Airways were divided into two groups to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine on number of bacteria attached to the airway and biofilm formation. Group 1(control: naive material, S. epidermidis, Group 2: chlorhexidine coated material, S. epidermidis. No process was applied in Group 1. Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% was sprayed on the surface of naive material for four seconds and then left to dry in air, in Group to. Number of bacteria attached to the airway were counted by microbiological methods and biofilm formation was shown by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Mann-Whitney u test was performed for statistical analyses. Results: In Group 2, bacteria numbers were 1x102-8x102 cfu/ml, whereas they were 3x103-1x104 cfu/ml in Group 1. Chlorhexidine decreased number of microorganisms attached to the airways with statistical significance (p=0.04. The results of the electron microscopic evaluation were in accordance with the acteriological findings. Conclusion: This study has shown that chlorhexidine coating can successfully reduce the number of adhered bacteria and biofilm formation on airways. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 162-166

  13. Prevalence, clonality, and pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in newborn feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill Malfertheiner, S; Wendt, S; Layer, F; Weigl, M; Seelbach-Göbel, B; König, W; König, B

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most prevalent pathogens causing late-onset sepsis in neonates. The question is whether neonates acquire endemic hospital-adapted clones or incidentally occurring CoNS strains after birth during their hospital stay. Therefore, a prospective study was performed on the prevalence of CoNS in the stool of babies (born vaginally or by cesarean section) during their first days of life. Their clonal relatedness and potential to induce invasive disease were characterized. CoNS were analyzed from the stool samples of newborns with a load of CoNS above 103 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The identification of CoNS was performed phenotypically and genotypically. For typing, repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing were used. Resistance profiles, biofilm production, the presence of icaAD and of IS256 were determined as well. From a total of 207 stool samples (56 newborns), CoNS were detected in 41% of the newborns, mostly on day 3 for the first time (62.5%). Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in 85.7% of cases, harbored no IS256 element, and mostly expressed no biofilm. The isolates were separated into four main clusters by repetitive sequence-based PCR. 24% of the strains showed no antimicrobial resistance. 20% were resistant against four antibiotics of two different antibiotic classes. The remaining strains were resistant only against one antimicrobial substance class. Thus, it can be concluded that newborns do not acquire hospital-adapted endemic, multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis isolates during their first days of life. Yet, the results support the thesis that, during hospital stay, environmental parameters may convert sensible/noninvasive S. epidermidis strains into multidrug-resistant strains with characteristics of invasiveness.

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility among Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections, with focus on doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Tarza; Hellmark, Bengt; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa; Söderquist, Bo

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, coagulase-negative staphylococci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis have gained importance as nosocomial pathogens, especially in immunocompromised patients and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). These infections are often long lasting and difficult to treat due to the production of bacterial biofilm and the transformation of the bacteria into a stationary growth phase. Rifampicin is able to penetrate the biofilm, but to reduce the risk of development of rifampicin resistance it should be used in combination with an additional antibiotic. In this study we used Etest to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 134 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis obtained from PJIs to six oral antibiotics: doxycycline, rifampicin, linezolid, fusidic acid, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin. We also performed synergy testing on doxycycline in combination with each of the remaining antibiotics. Ninety-three (69%) of the 134 isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, 94/134 (70%) to rifampicin, 56/134 (42%) to clindamycin, 25/134 (19%) to ciprofloxacin, 81/134 (60%) to fusidic acid, and 100% to linezolid. Thirty-two (80%) of the 40 isolates not fully susceptible to rifampicin were susceptible to doxycycline. Doxycycline in combination with each of the other investigated antibiotics exerted an additive effect on nearly half of the isolates, with the exception of clindamycin, which displayed an even higher percentage of additive effect (69%). To conclude, as the majority of the S. epidermidis isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, this antimicrobial agent may provide a potential alternative for combination therapy together with rifampicin. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Skovgaard

    Full Text Available Since its introduction to the market in the 1970s, the synthetic biocide triclosan has had widespread use in household and medical products. Although decreased triclosan susceptibility has been observed for several bacterial species, when exposed under laboratory settings, no in vivo studies have associated triclosan use with decreased triclosan susceptibility or cross-resistance to antibiotics. One major challenge of such studies is the lack of strains that with certainty have not been exposed to triclosan. Here we have overcome this challenge by comparing current isolates of the human opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged in the laboratory in the presence of triclosan, old and current susceptible isolates could be adapted to the same triclosan MIC level as found in current tolerant isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that laboratory-adapted strains carried mutations in fabI encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase isoform, FabI, that is the target of triclosan, and the expression of fabI was also increased. However, the majority of the tolerant current isolates carried no mutations in fabI or the putative promoter region. Thus, this study indicates that the widespread use of triclosan has resulted in the occurrence of S. epidermidis with tolerance towards triclosan and that the adaptation involves FabI as well as other factors. We suggest increased caution in the general application of triclosan as triclosan has not shown efficacy in reducing infections and is toxic to aquatic organisms.

  16. The Staphylococcus epidermidis gdpS regulates biofilm formation independently of its protein-coding function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Zhao, Yanfeng; Wu, Yang; Qu, Di

    2017-04-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP) plays an important role in controlling the switch between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. The synthesis of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by di-guanylate cyclases (DGCs) and the enzymes are characterized by the presence of a conserved GGDEF domain. In the sequenced staphylococcal genomes, gdpS is the only gene encoding a GGDEF domain-containing protein. Previous studies have shown that gdpS contributes to staphylococcal biofilm formation, but its effect remains under debate. In the present study, we deleted gdpS in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain RP62A. Disruption of gdpS in this strain impaired biofilm formation under both static and dynamic flow conditions, suggesting that gdpS act as a positive regulator of biofilm development in this high-biofilm-forming isolate. The predicted translational start site of gdpS in S. epidermidis differs between the Refseq database and the Genbank database. By using site-directed mutagenesis and Western blot analysis, we determined GdpS is translated from the start codon annotated in the Refseq database. In addition, mutation in the GGDEF domain did not affect the ability of gdpS to complement the biofilm defect of the gdpS mutant. Heterologous di-guanylate cyclases expressed in trans failed to complement the gdpS mutant. These results confirmed that gdpS modulates staphylococcal biofilm independently of c-di-GMP signaling pathway. Furthermore, mutations of the start codon did not abolish the capacity of gdpS to enhance biofilm formation. Taken together, these findings indicated that the S. epidermidis gdpS regulates biofilm formation independently of its protein-coding function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis and biofilm-associated neutrophils in chronic rhinosinusitis. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Stręk, Paweł; Strus, Magdalena; Głowacki, Roman; Ciszek-Lenda, Marta; Zagórska-Świeży, Katarzyna; Gawda, Anna; Tomusiak, Anna

    2015-12-01

    A key role of bacterial biofilm in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is commonly accepted. However, the impact of some bacterial species isolated from inflamed sinus mucosa on biofilm formation is unclear. In particular, the role of Staphylococcus epidermidis as aetiological agents of CRS is controversial. Moreover, the effect of biofilm formation on neutrophil infiltration and activity in CRSwNP calls for explanation. In this study, biofilms were found in three of 10 patients (mean age = 46 ± 14) with CRS undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery by means of scanning electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, S. epidermidis was the primary isolated bacteria and was also found to be present in all biofilm-positive mucosa specimens, indicating its pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe chronic infections associated with biofilm formation. We have also measured the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), the most abundant neutrophil enzyme, to demonstrate the presence of neutrophils in the samples tested. Our present results show that the level of MPO in CRS associated with biofilm is lower than that without biofilm. It may suggest either a low number of neutrophils or the presence of a type of neutrophils with compromised antimicrobial activity, described as biofilm-associated neutrophils (BAN). Finally, we conclude that further studies with a large number of CRS cases should be performed to establish the association between S. epidermidis and other frequently isolated bacterial species from paranasal sinuses, with the severity of CRS, biofilm formation and the infiltration of BAN. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  18. Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Nau, Amy C.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to measure the impact of bacterial biofilms on diffusion of an ocular therapeutic through silicone hydrogel bandage lenses in vitro. Methods An assay was designed to study the passage of a commonly used steroid dexamethasone through the silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Diffused dexamethasone was measured using a spectrophotometer over a period of 18 hours and quantified using a standard curve. This assay was performed with control and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm-coated contact lenses composed of lotrafilcon A and methafilcon. Biofilms were formed in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with D-glucose. Results The presented data validate a simple in vitro model that can be used to measure penetration of a topical therapeutic through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Using this model we measured a reduction of dexamethasone diffusion by up to 88% through S. epidermidis biofilm-coated silicon hydrogel lenses compared to control lenses. Conclusions The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that bacterial biofilms impede dexamethasone diffusion through silicon hydrogel contact lenses, and warrant future studies regarding the clinical benefit of using ocular therapeutics in the setting of bandage contact lens use for corneal epithelial defects. PMID:25090165

  19. Staphylococcus epidermidis is involved in a mechanism for female reproduction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Ono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Both external and internal surfaces of organs (e.g., skin, mouth, gut, and intestine are covered with bacteria, which often contribute to physiological events in host animals. Despite externally opened organs, the presence of bacteria in the mammalian female reproductive tract is uncertain. Here we assessed this problem using wild-type strains of mice, C57BL/6N and ICR. We first demonstrated that bacterial colonies were formed from the oviductal fluid in the C57BL/6N mice with birth experience (“parous”, but not in the mice without birth experience (“non-parous”. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA revealed that Staphylococcus epidermidis existed in the oviductal fluid of the parous mice, confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, extinction of bacterial population with intraperitoneal injection of antibiotics, penicillin G and streptomycin, disturbed the regularly implanted pattern of embryos in ICR mice. Our results indicate that symbiotic S. epidermidis plays a role in interaction between embryo and uterus upon implantation in mice.

  20. Antibacterial activity of fresh pomegranate juice against clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Betanzos-Cabrera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyphenols have received a great deal of attention due to their biological functions. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is a polyphenol-rich fruit. In the past decade, studies testing the antimicrobial activity of pomegranates almost exclusively used solvent extracts instead of fresh pomegranate juice (FPJ. The use of FPJ instead of solvent extracts would reduce toxicity issues while increasing patient acceptance. We established a model to test FPJ as a natural antimicrobial agent. Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of FPJ on clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Design: Sixty strains of S. epidermidis isolated from ocular infections were grown in the presence of FPJ, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by broth and agar dilution methods. Results: FPJ at 20% had a MIC equal to 100% (MIC100% on all 60 strains tested. This inhibition of FPJ was confirmed by the growth kinetics of a multidrug-resistant strain exposed to different concentrations of FPJ. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of FPJ was compared against commercial beverages containing pomegranate: Ocean Spray® had a MIC100% at 20%, followed by Del Valle® with a MIC15% at 20% concentration only. The beverages Jumex® and Sonrisa® did not have any antimicrobial activity. FPJ had the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Conclusions: Overall, FPJ had antimicrobial activity, which might be attributed to its high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity.

  1. A Commensal Strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis Overexpresses Membrane Proteins Associated with Pathogenesis When Grown in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila-Arcos, S; Ding, S; Aloria, K; Arizmendi, J M; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E; Goñi, F M; Alkorta, I

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The most important factor in the pathogenesis of these infections is the formation of bacterial biofilms. Bacteria grown in biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and to the immune defence system than planktonic bacteria. In these infections, the antimicrobial therapy usually fails and the removal of the biofilm-coated implanted device is the only effective solution. In this study, three proteomic approaches were performed to investigate membrane proteins associated to biofilm formation: (i) sample fractionation by gel electrophoresis, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis, (ii) in-solution sample preparation, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis and (iii) in-solution sample preparation and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis. We found that the commensal strain S. epidermidis CECT 231 grown in biofilms expressed higher levels of five membrane and membrane-associated proteins involved in pathogenesis: accumulation-associated protein, staphylococcal secretory antigen, signal transduction protein TRAP, ribonuclease Y and phenol soluble modulin beta 1 when compared with bacteria grown under planktonic conditions. These results indicate that a commensal strain can acquire a pathogenic phenotype depending on the mode of growth.

  2. Biogenic gold nanoparticles enhance methylene blue-induced phototoxic effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Irena; Leśniewska, Agata; Olesiak-Bańska, Joanna; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Samoć, Marek

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable current interest in photodynamic inactivation (PDI) as potential antimicrobial therapy. This study reports successful implementation of PDI of Staphylococcus epidermidis using methylene blue (MB) in combination with biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNP). Monodispersed colloidal GNP were synthesized by reduction of Au+3 in the presence of cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma koningii and were characterized by a number of techniques including UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to be 12 ± 3 nm spherical gold particles coated with proteins. Studies on the role of the cell-free filtrate proteins in the synthesis of the GNP indicate that the process is nonenzymatic but involves interactions of various amino acids with gold ions. A Xe lamp (550-780 nm) or a He-Ne laser (632 nm) was used as light sources to study the effect of MB alone, the GNP alone, and the MB-GNP mixture on the viability of bacterial cells. Lethal photosensitization of S. epidermidis with the MB-GNP mixture was achieved after 5 and 10 min exposure to laser or Xe lamp, respectively. It has been found that the MB-GNP mixture exhibits a significant antibacterial activity already in the absence of any light source and gives an enhanced antimicrobial response when using either a laser or a Xe lamp source for photosensitization.

  3. Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kimberly M; Nau, Amy C; Romanowski, Eric G; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to measure the impact of bacterial biofilms on diffusion of an ocular therapeutic through silicone hydrogel bandage lenses in vitro. An assay was designed to study the passage of a commonly used steroid, dexamethasone, through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Diffused dexamethasone was measured using a spectrophotometer over a period of 18 hours and quantified using a standard curve. This assay was performed with control and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm-coated contact lenses comprised of lotrafilcon A and methafilcon. Biofilms were formed in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with D-glucose. The presented data validate a simple in vitro model that can be used to measure the penetration of a topical therapeutic through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Using this model, we measured a reduction in dexamethasone diffusion up to 88% through S. epidermidis biofilm-coated silicone hydrogel lenses compared with control lenses. The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that bacterial biofilms impede dexamethasone diffusion through silicone hydrogel contact lenses and warrant future studies regarding the clinical benefit of using ocular therapeutics in the setting of bandage contact lens use for corneal epithelial defects.

  4. Antibacterial activity of fresh pomegranate juice against clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Montes-Rubio, Perla Y.; Fabela-Illescas, Héctor E.; Belefant-Miller, Helen; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polyphenols have received a great deal of attention due to their biological functions. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit. In the past decade, studies testing the antimicrobial activity of pomegranates almost exclusively used solvent extracts instead of fresh pomegranate juice (FPJ). The use of FPJ instead of solvent extracts would reduce toxicity issues while increasing patient acceptance. We established a model to test FPJ as a natural antimicrobial agent. Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of FPJ on clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Design Sixty strains of S. epidermidis isolated from ocular infections were grown in the presence of FPJ, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth and agar dilution methods. Results FPJ at 20% had a MIC equal to 100% (MIC100%) on all 60 strains tested. This inhibition of FPJ was confirmed by the growth kinetics of a multidrug-resistant strain exposed to different concentrations of FPJ. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of FPJ was compared against commercial beverages containing pomegranate: Ocean Spray® had a MIC100% at 20%, followed by Del Valle® with a MIC15% at 20% concentration only. The beverages Jumex® and Sonrisa® did not have any antimicrobial activity. FPJ had the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Overall, FPJ had antimicrobial activity, which might be attributed to its high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25999265

  5. Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on implant material is reduced by a covalently linked thiophenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamdal Scheie, Anne; Chamgordani, Elahe Jafari; Naemi, Ali-Oddin; Hansen, Finn Knut; Benneche, Tore

    2016-08-01

    The present aims were firstly to coat metal implant material with a quorum sensing inhibitory thiophenone molecule, and secondly to assess the inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm accumulation on thiophenone-coated coupons. Thiophenone- and control-coated metal coupons were prepared by silane hydrolysis and dip coating. The linking of thiophenone to the surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Biofilm by Staph. epidermidis, a frequent cause of implant-associated infections, was allowed to form under flowing conditions for 48 h. The biofilm accumulations were significantly reduced on the thiophenone-coated coupons. This was confirmed by confocal scanning microscopy. This study showed for the first time how a synthetic thiophenone may be covalently linked to a stainless steel surface, and that biofilm accumulations on such surfaces are significantly reduced. Functionalizing surfaces by covalent linking of thiophenones might open a wide array of applications. Thiophenone coating of medical implants represents a novel and promising approach to prevent implant-associated infections. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  8. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

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    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  9. Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT SAN ANTONIO Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic...Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MSSA Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus OD Optical density PBS Phosphate-buffered saline SEM... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm model that mimics wound-like conditions and employ this model to evaluate the anti-biofilm activity of four enzymatic compounds

  10. The Two-Component Signal Transduction System ArlRS Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation in an ica-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Jingran; Yu, Wenqi; Lou, Qiang; Zhu, Tao; He, Nianan; Ben, Haijing; Hu, Jian; Götz, Friedrich; Qu, Di

    2012-01-01

    Due to its ability to form biofilms on medical devices, Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of the two-component signal transduction system ArlRS in regulating S. epidermidis biofilm formation. An ArlRS-deficient mutant, WW06, was constructed using S. epidermidis strain 1457 as a parental strain. Although the growth curve of WW06 was similar to that of SE1457, the mutant strain was unable to form biofilms in vitro. In a rabbit subcutaneous infection model, sterile disks made of polymeric materials were implanted subcutaneously followed with inoculation of WW06 or SE1457. The viable bacteria cells of WW06 recovered from biofilms on the embedded disks were much lower than that of SE1457. Complementation of arlRS genes expression from plasmid in WW06 restored biofilm-forming phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. WW06 maintained the ability to undergo initial attachment. Transcription levels of several genes involved in biofilm formation, including icaADBC, sigB, and sarA, were decreased in WW06, compared to SE1457; and icaR expression was increased in WW06, detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The biofilm-forming phenotype was restored by overexpressing icaADBC in WW06 but not by overexpressing sigB, indicating that ArlRS regulates biofilm formation through the regulation of icaADBC. Gel shift assay showed that ArlR can bind to the promoter region of the ica operon. In conclusion, ArlRS regulates S. epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner, distinct from its role in S. aureus. PMID:22848368

  11. Detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Nucleic Acid Biosensor Array Using Au Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

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    Weiling Fu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a critical pathogen of nosocomial blood infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM nucleic acid biosensor array using Au nanoparticle signal amplification was developed to rapidly detect S. epidermidis in clinical samples. The synthesized thiolated probes specific targeting S. epidermidis 16S rRNA gene were immobilized on the surface of QCM nucleic acid biosensor arrays. Hybridization was induced by exposing the immobilized probes to the PCR amplified fragments of S. epidermidis, resulting in a mass change and a consequent frequency shift of the QCM biosensor. To further enhance frequency shift results from above described hybridizations, streptavidin coated Au nanoparticles were conjugated to the PCR amplified fragments. The results showed that the lowest detection limit of current QCM system was 1.3×103 CFU/mL. A linear correlation was found when the concentration of S. epidermidis varied from 1.3×103 to 1.3×107 CFU/mL. In addition, 55 clinical samples were detected with both current QCM biosensor system and conventional clinical microbiological method, and the sensitivity and specificity of current QCM biosensor system were 97.14% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the current QCM system is a rapid, low-cost and sensitive method that can be used to identify infection of S. epidermidis in clinical samples.

  12. Daptomycin for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis native-valve endocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duah Marylene

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS have been increasing in importance as a cause of native valve endocarditis (NVE. Most cases of NVE caused by CoNS are attributable to Staphylococcus epidermidis. NVE caused by CoNS acquired in a nosocomial setting may differ from cases acquired in the community in several ways. It may be associated with hemodialysis, the presence of a long-term indwelling central catheter or pacemaker, or a recent invasive procedure; nosocomial cases may have a higher rate of methicillin resistance among CoNS isolates, and so be more likely to be treated with vancomycin. Unfortunately, NVE caused by methicillin-resistant CoNS has been associated with significantly higher rates of persistent bacteremia and in-hospital mortality than methicillin-susceptible isolates. The poor outcomes in these cases point to the need for alternative therapies with potent activity against methicillin-resistant CoNS. In our medical center, a 76-year-old man presented with native-valve endocarditis and positive blood cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE. During each of three 6-week courses of treatment with vancomycin, blood cultures were negative, but they once again became positive for MRSE when vancomycin was discontinued. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the MRSE isolates for vancomycin remained stable at 2 μg/mL. Eventually, treatment with daptomycin was initiated (500 mg [7 mg/kg] 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Over the following year, no positive cultures for MRSE were detected.

  13. The synergy and mode of action of quercetin plus amoxicillin against amoxicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwong, Supatcharee; Teethaisong, Yothin; Thumanu, Kanjana; Dunkhunthod, Benjawan; Eumkeb, Griangsak

    2016-08-04

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most multiple resistances to antibiotics in the recent years. Therefore, practically-prescribed antibiotics in the treatment of these strains are not effective. Plant-derived antibacterial is one of the most interesting sources of new therapeutics. The present study was to investigate antibacterial, synergy and modes of action of quercetin and amoxicillin against amoxicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (ARSE). The MICs, checkerboard assay, viability curves, cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability, enzyme assay, transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and FT-IR microspectroscopy measurement was performed. The MICs of amoxicillin, penicillin, quercetin and kaempferol against all ARSE strains were 16, 200, 256-384 and >1024 μg/mL respectively. Synergistic effects were exhibited on amoxicillin plus quercetin and penicillin plus kaempferol against these strains at FIC index 0.50 and <0.38 respectively. The synergistic activity of quercetin plus amoxicillin was confirmed by the viable count. This combination increased CM permeability, caused marked morphological, peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane damage, increased protein amide I and II, but decreased fatty acid in bacterial cells. The quercetin had an inhibitory activity against β-lactamase. So, these findings are the first report that quercetin has the synergistic effect with amoxicillin against ARSE via four modes of actions, inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis and β-lactamases activity, increase CM permeability and protein amide I and II but decrease fatty acid in bacterial cells. Of course, this flavonol has the dominant potential to develop a brand-new collateral phytochemical agent plus amoxicillin to treat ARSE. Future work should focus on the bioavailability, efficacy and toxicity in animal and human studies, as well as, the synergistic effect on blood and tissue should be evaluated and achieved.

  14. Aderência in vitro do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes em lentes intra-oculares In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to intraocular lenses

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    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar e comparar a aderência in vitro das bactérias Staphylococcus epidermidis e Pseudomonas alcaligenes em diferentes tipos de lentes intra-oculares (LIOs. MÉTODOS: Quatorze lentes intra-oculares foram usadas no experimento. Quatro de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA, quatro de silicone, quatro de hidrogel e duas de acrílico. Oito lentes intra-oculares foram colocadas em oito tubos de ensaio contendo 4 ml de suspensão de Pseudomonas alcaligenes, e seis lentes intra-oculares foram colocadas em seis tubos de ensaio contendo 4 ml de suspensão de Staphylococcus epidermidis. A concentração do caldo utilizada para o teste de aderência foi de 10(8 unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro (CFU/mL que corresponde a 0,5 na escala de McFarland. As lentes foram incubadas a 37° por duas horas. Após, foram removidas dos caldos e enxaguadas em água destilada estéril por duas vezes. As lentes foram cultivadas em placas de ágar-sangue a 35-37° e evaliadas a cada 24h por um período de 72h. Nas amostras que tiveram crescimento bacteriano, foram contadas as colônias utilizando os métodos convencionais de laboratório. Todos os ensaios foram executados em duplicata. RESULTADOS: A aderência do Staphylococcus epidermidis nas lentes de PMMA foi menor se comparada com as de silicone e de hidrogel. A aderência daPseudomonas alcaligenes nas lentes de hidrogel foi menor se comparada com as de silicone, PMMA e acrílico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a aderência do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes nas lentes intra-oculares é influenciada pelo tipo de material da lente e pela espécie do microorganismo. A aderência bacteriana pode ter papel importante na patogenicidade da endoftalmite pós-cirurgia de catarata.PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to different intraocular lenses (IOLs. METHODS: Fourteen intraocular lenses were

  15. Chlorhexidine Antiseptic Irrigation Eradicates Staphylococcus epidermidis From Biofilm: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kenneth; Estes, Chris; McLaren, Alex; Spangehl, Mark J

    2018-03-01

    Antiseptic and antibacterial solutions used for intraoperative irrigation are intended to kill bacteria and thereby decrease the incidence of surgical site infections. It is unknown if the concentrations and exposure times of irrigation solutions commonly used for prophylaxis in clean cases (povidone-iodine 0.35% for 3 minutes) are effective against bacteria in biofilm that are present in implant infections. Currently, povidone-iodine (0.35%), chlorhexidine (0.05%), sodium hypochlorite (0.125%), and triple antibacterial solution are all being used off-label for wound irrigation after surgical débridement for orthopaedic infections. Do commonly used antibacterials and antiseptics kill bacteria in established biofilm at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times? Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC#35984) biofilms were exposed to chlorhexidine (0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1%), povidone-iodine (0.35%, 1.0%, 3.5%, and 10%), sodium hypochlorite (0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5%,), and triple antibacterial solution (bacitracin 50,000 U/L, gentamicin 80 mg/L, and polymyxin 500,000 U/L) for 1, 5, and 10 minutes in triplicate. Surviving bacteria were detected by 21-day subculture. Failure to eradicate all bacteria in any of the three replicates was considered to be "not effective" for that respective solution, concentration, and exposure time. Chlorhexidine 0.05% and 0.1% at all three exposure times, povidone-iodine 10% at all three exposure times, and povidone-iodine 3.5% at 10 minutes only were effective at eradicating S epidermidis from biofilm. All concentrations and all exposure times of sodium hypochlorite and triple antibacterial solution were not effective. Chlorhexidine is capable of eradicating S epidermidis from biofilm in vitro in clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Povidone-iodine at commonly used concentrations and exposure times, sodium hypochlorite, and triple antibacterial solutions are not. This in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine may be

  16. Identification, characterization, and recombinant expression of epidermicin NI01, a novel unmodified bacteriocin produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis that displays potent activity against Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Stephanie; Upton, Mathew

    2012-03-01

    We describe the discovery, purification, characterization, and expression of an antimicrobial peptide, epidermicin NI01, which is an unmodified bacteriocin produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 224. It is a highly cationic, hydrophobic, plasmid-encoded peptide that exhibits potent antimicrobial activity toward a wide range of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), enterococci, and biofilm-forming S. epidermidis strains. Purification of the peptide was achieved using a combination of hydrophobic interaction, cation exchange, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis yielded a molecular mass of 6,074 Da, and partial sequence data of the peptide were elucidated using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and de novo sequencing. The draft genome sequence of the producing strain was obtained using 454 pyrosequencing technology, thus enabling the identification of the structural gene using the de novo peptide sequence data previously obtained. Epidermicin NI01 contains 51 residues with four tryptophan and nine lysine residues, and the sequence showed approximately 50% identity to peptides lacticin Z, lacticin Q, and aureocin A53, all of which belong to a new family of unmodified type II-like bacteriocins. The peptide is active in the nanomolar range against S. epidermidis, MRSA isolates, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Other unique features displayed by epidermicin include a high degree of protease stability and the ability to retain antimicrobial activity over a pH range of 2 to 10, and exposure to the peptide does not result in development of resistance in susceptible isolates. In this study we also show the structural gene alone can be cloned into Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), and expression yields active peptide.

  17. Color of Cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Determined by Spectral Reflectance Colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1966-01-01

    Brown, Richard W. (National Animal Disease Laboratory, Ames, Iowa). Color of cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis determined by spectral reflectance colorimetry. J. Bacteriol. 91:911–918. 1966.—A colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to study pigment production by Staphylococcus epidermidis strains grown on a medium containing Trypticase Soy Agar (BBL) and cream. The color of each culture was first characterized by reflectance colorimetry for dominant wavelength, purity, and luminous reflectance (Y) and was then classified visually into 1 of 10 color grades. There was not complete agreement in grading colors by the two methods, inasmuch as cultures that were considered more pigmented in relation to other cultures by the reflectance method were sometimes graded visually as less pigmented, and vice versa. Nevertheless, when the cultures were visually graded as being more pigmented, there was a concomitant increase in the average values of dominant wavelength and purity with a decrease in Y for the cultures in each higher grade. Thus, the nonpigmented cultures had the lowest dominant wavelength and purity values but the highest Y (brightness) values, whereas the most pigmented cultures had the highest dominant wavelength and purity values, but the lowest Y values. These results indicated that the cultures did not produce pigments of different hues (greenish-yellow, yellow, yellowish-orange) each with high, medium, and low degrees of purity and brightness. The value (1 − z), where the chromaticity coordinate z = Z/(X + Y + Z), was found to be proportional to the purity value. An inverse relationship between the tristimulus Z and purity values was also demonstrated. All cultures tested by the reflectance method were also classified according to the type of spectral absorption curve obtained with pigments extracted from the cultures with methanol. A comparison of these methods indicated that determining the type of spectral absorption curve would be

  18. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

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    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  20. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Su-Hyun Mun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600 of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD and sodium azide (NaN3 were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0–125 μg/mL gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 μg/mL; however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was

  1. Cytoplasmic peptidoglycan intermediate levels in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Harika; Ayon, Navid J; Gutheil, William G

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular cytoplasmic peptidoglycan (PG) intermediate levels were determined in Staphylococcus aureus during log-phase growth in enriched media. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates were quantitatively determined using ion pairing LC-MS/MS in negative mode, and amine intermediates were quantitatively determined stereospecifically as their Marfey's reagent derivatives in positive mode. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates in S. aureus varied from 1.4 μM for UDP-GlcNAc-Enolpyruvyate to 1200 μM for UDP-MurNAc. Levels of amine intermediates (L-Ala, D-Ala, D-Ala-D-Ala, L-Glu, D-Glu, and L-Lys) varied over a range of from 860 μM for D-Ala-D-Ala to 30-260 mM for the others. Total PG was determined from the D-Glu content of isolated PG, and used to estimate the rate of PG synthesis (in terms of cytoplasmic metabolite flux) as 690 μM/min. The total UDP-linked intermediates pool (2490 μM) is therefore sufficient to sustain growth for 3.6 min. Comparison of UDP-linked metabolite levels with published pathway enzyme characteristics demonstrates that enzymes on the UDP-branch range from >80% saturation for MurA, Z, and C, to <5% saturation for MurB. Metabolite levels were compared with literature values for Escherichia coli, with the major difference in UDP-intermediates being the level of UDP-MurNAc, which was high in S. aureus (1200 μM) and low in E. coli (45 μM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of antibodies on Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silicone elastomer in experimental biomaterial-associated infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, C.A.N.; Boer, L.; Schipper, K.; Jones, C.E.; Quadir, S.; Feldman, R.G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Zaat, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infection (BAI) is a major problem in modern medicine, and is often caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. We aimed to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against major surface protein antigens of S. epidermidis, and to assess their possible protective activity in experimental

  3. recA mediated spontaneous deletions of the icaADBC operon of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates : a new mechanism of phenotypic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis involving the slime related ica operon results in heterogeneity in surface characteristics of individual bacteria in axenic cultures. Five clinical S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated phenotypic variation, i.e. both black and red colonies on Congo

  4. Expression of an Organic Solvent Stable Lipase from Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An organic solvent tolerant lipase gene from Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2 was successfully cloned and expressed with pTrcHis2 in E. coli TOP10. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF of 1,933 bp in length which coded for a polypeptide of 643 amino acid residues. The polypeptide comprised of a signal peptide (37 amino acids, pro-peptide and a mature protein of 390 amino acids. Expression of AT2 lipase resulted in an 18-fold increase in activity, upon the induction of 0.6 mM IPTG after a 10 h incubation period. Interestingly, this lipase was stable in various organic solvents (25% (v/v, mainly toluene, octanol, p-xylene and n-hexane. Literature shows that most of the organic solvent stable bacterial lipases were produced by Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp., but very few from Staphylococcus sp. This lipase demonstrates great potential to be employed in various industrial applications.

  5. Analysis of early mesothelial cell responses to Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from patients with peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda L; Mulroney, Kieran T; Carson, Christine F; Ram, Ramesh; Morahan, Grant; Chakera, Aron

    2017-01-01

    The major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the development of peritonitis, an infection within the abdominal cavity, primarily caused by bacteria. PD peritonitis is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequently isolated cause of PD-associated peritonitis. Mesothelial cells are integral to the host response to peritonitis, and subsequent clinical outcomes, yet the effects of infection on mesothelial cells are not well characterised. We systematically investigated the early mesothelial cell response to clinical and reference isolates of S. epidermidis using primary mesothelial cells and the mesothelial cell line Met-5A. Using an unbiased whole genome microarray, followed by a targeted panel of genes known to be involved in the human antibacterial response, we identified 38 differentially regulated genes (adj. p-value peritonitis. This study provides new insights into early mesothelial cell responses to infection with S. epidermidis, and confirms the importance of validating findings in primary mesothelial cells.

  6. Two-component signal transduction system SaeRS is involved in competence and penicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiang; Ma, Yuanfang; Qu, Di

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, the S. epidermidis SaeRS was identified to negatively regulate the expression of genes involved in competence (comF, murF), cytolysis (lrgA), and autolysis (lytS) by DNA microarray or real-time RT-PCR analysis. In addition, saeRS mutant showed increased competence and higher susceptibility to antibiotics such as penicillin and oxacillin than the wild-type strain. The study will be helpful for understanding the characterization of the SaeRS in S. epidermidis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with long-term, repeated linezolid use in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Takaya, Akiko; Kimura, Asahi; Watanabe, Masaharu; Hino, Moeko; Ochiai, Hidemasa; Matsui, Mari; Shibayama, Keigo; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2016-03-01

    We report an 8-year-old patient with catheter-related bacteremia caused by linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis that was isolated after the long-term, repeated use of linezolid. Three S. epidermidis strains isolated from this patient were bacteriologically analyzed. While the strain isolated prior to linezolid initiation was susceptible to linezolid, two strains after linezolid therapy displayed low-level linezolid susceptibility (MIC, 4 mg/L) and linezolid resistance (MIC, 16 mg/L). T2500A mutation in two copies and G2575T mutations in three copies of 23S rRNA were detected in the low-susceptible strain and the resistant strain, respectively. Linezolid-resistant S. epidermidis infection is rare, but may occur with the long-term administration of linezolid. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Pre - Eminence of Staphylococcus Aureus as The Causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specimens were collected for culture and sensitivity before commencement of antibiotic therapy. The major isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris Proteus rettgerri, Alkaligenes faecalis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ...

  9. A Closer Look at the Transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of genes upon changing environments is important in establishing and maintaining infections by pathogens. In Staphylococcus aureus, gene expression and particularly controlled expression of various groups of genes dependent on growth and environmental conditions is essential for

  10. Multilocus sequence typing of Staphylococcus aureus with DNA array technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. Jay (Corinne); S.V. Snijders (Susan); N. Durin (Nathalia); B. Lacroix (Bruno); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Enright (Mark); A. Troesch (Alain); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA newly developed oligonucleotide array suited for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus strains was analyzed with two strain collections in a two-center study. MLST allele identification for the first strain collection fully agreed with

  11. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de staphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Mohamed Lemine Ould Salem, Sidi Mohamed Ghaber, Sidi El Wafi Ould Baba, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Maouloud ...

  12. Host- and tissue-specific pathogenic traits of Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); D.C. Melles (Damian); A. Alaidan (Alwaleed); M. Al-Ahdal (Mohammed); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); S.V. Snijders (Susan); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E. van Duijkeren (Engeline); J.K. Peeters (Justine); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R.F.J. Gorkink (Raymond); G. Simons (Guus); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractComparative genomics were used to assess genetic differences between Staphylococcus aureus strains derived from infected animals versus colonized or infected humans. A total of 77 veterinary isolates were genetically characterized by high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism

  13. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  14. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-05

    Sep 5, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: Nasal samples were taken from anterior nares ..... 3599 preoperative nasal cultures for a year and found 16.6% .... methicillin‑resistant and methicillin‑susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in nursing.

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Amoxycillin and vancomycin were 92.4% .... Kirmany N, Tuazon CV, Alling D. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients receiving allergy injections. Ann allergy. 1980;.

  17. Interleukin-8 production by human peritoneal mesothelial cells in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and medium conditioned by macrophages cocultured with Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betjes, M. G.; Tuk, C. W.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.; Hart, M.; Beelen, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) may suffer from recurrent peritonitis episodes caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Early recruitment of granulocytes from the peripheral blood is important for the peritoneal antibacterial defense of CAPD patients. In this

  18. Limitations of Murine Models for Assessment of Antibody-Mediated Therapies or Vaccine Candidates against Staphylococcus epidermidis Bloodstream Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrong; Kesselly, Augustus; Lam, Hubert; Kleanthous, Harry; Yethon, Jeremy A.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is normally a commensal colonizer of human skin and mucus membranes, but, due to its ability to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices, it has emerged as a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Bacteremia or bloodstream infection is a frequent and costly complication resulting from biofilm fouling of medical devices. Our goal was to develop a murine model of S. epidermidis infection to identify potential vaccine targets for the prevention of S. epidermidis bacteremia. However, assessing the contribution of adaptive immunity to protection against S. epidermidis challenge was complicated by a highly efficacious innate immune response in mice. Naive mice rapidly cleared S. epidermidis infections from blood and solid organs, even when the animals were immunocompromised. Cyclophosphamide-mediated leukopenia reduced the size of the bacterial challenge dose required to cause lethality but did not impair clearance after a nonlethal challenge. Nonspecific innate immune stimulation, such as treatment with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, enhanced bacterial clearance. TLR2 signaling was confirmed to accelerate the clearance of S. epidermidis bacteremia, but TLR2−/− mice could still resolve a bloodstream infection. Furthermore, TLR2 signaling played no role in the clearance of bacteria from the spleen. In conclusion, these data suggest that S. epidermidis bloodstream infection is cleared in a highly efficient manner that is mediated by both TLR2-dependent and -independent innate immune mechanisms. The inability to establish a persistent infection in mice, even in immunocompromised animals, rendered these murine models unsuitable for meaningful assessment of antibody-mediated therapies or vaccine candidates. PMID:26857577

  19. Prevalence of nasal portal of Staphylococcus aureus in disabled children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Molin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonization of the nasal mucosa by Staphylococcus aureus set a carrier state. Which is recognized as a potential source of infection and a high risk factor for subsequent invasive infections. The prevalence of nasal carriage of this germ in disabled children in Paraguay is not known, thus contributing to the knowledge of their frequency and evaluate the profile of sensitivity to common antimicrobials was conducted this study, from May to July 2015.  Objective: to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and profile of antimicrobial resistance in disabled children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 80 nasal swabs of children, who attended the service laboratory of SENADIS (Secretaria Nacional por los Derechos Humanos de las Personas con Discapacidad. The identification and sensitivity of germ was accomplished by conventional testing.  Results: 80 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 34 girls. 18 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained, corresponding to a prevalence of 22,5%. Susceptibility testing indicated that 14 strains were MSSA (Methicillin – Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and 4 RMSA ( Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in a population with its own characteristics provides valuable data for the epidemiology, reflecting the need for continued vigilance and take steps to reduce associated infections. The detection of RMAR evidences their progress; it is important to evaluate the empirical treatment to primary care.

  20. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2014-03-22

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Clinical samples were cultured and Staphylococcus aureus was identified using standard microbiological methods recommended by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. Inducible clindamycin resistance was identified using D-zone test. From the processed samples, 306 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were recovered. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Methicillin resistance was observed in 43.1% of isolates while inducible clindamycin resistance in 12.4% of the isolates. The results of our study reveals that rates of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates is high. In particular, rate of methicillin resistance is alarming, prompting concern on the rational use of antibiotics and vigilant laboratory-based surveillance of resistance rates in Nepal.

  1. Formulasi Gel Pacar Air (Impatiens balsamina Linn. terhadap Propionibacterium acnes dan Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ismarani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acnes vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of sebaceous follicles caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.The antibacterial activity of Impatiens balsamina L. has been studied for many years. The aims of this study were to find out the antiacne effect from methanolic extract of stems and leaves of Impatiens balsamina L. that were formulated in gel. Simplicia were extracted using soxhlet technique using methanol as solvent. Extracts were then formulated in gel in three variations of HPMC 4000 and Carbopol 934 as gel base with ratio of 70:30 (F1, 50:50 (F2 and 30:70 (F3. The determination of antiacne effect was done using disc diffusion method. Evaluation of physical and chemical properties of those gels includes organoleptic examination, spreadability testing, adhesion testing and pH testing. Data were analyzed using R version 2.14.1 package R-commander. Determination results showed the diameter of inhibition zone from FI, FII and FIII for P.acnes were 6.46 ±0.15 mm; 12.16 ± 0.35 mm; 16.13 ± 0.35mm and for S.epidermidis were 14.5 ± 0.47 mm; 16.56 ± 0.651 mm; 17.13 ± 0.44mm. Analysis results showed that gel of FIII gave optimal antiacne effect, but significantly different from positive control (p<0,05. The evaluation of gel showed that they have homogeny texture, good spreadability and adhesion, as well as the pH compliance.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect EPS biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn(2+-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5 were generated. MAb(18B6 inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9 enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb(18B6, which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9. Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections.

  3. Origin of the Putrescine-Producing Ability of the Coagulase-Negative Bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this strain, the odc gene was detected on plasmid DNA, suggesting that the ability to form putrescine is carried by a mobile element, which explains the fact that the trait is strain dependent within the S. epidermidis species. A 6,292-bp nucleotide sequence harboring the putative odc gene was determined. S. epidermidis ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) showed 60 to 65% sequence identity with known ODCs of Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria. Downstream of the odc gene, a gene encoding a putative amino acid transporter was found that shared 59% sequence identity with the ornithine/putrescine exchanger (PotE) of Escherichia coli. Cloning and expression of the potE gene of S. epidermis 2015B in Lactococcus lactis demonstrated that the gene product transported ornithine and putrescine into the cells and efficiently exchanged putrescine for ornithine. Analysis of the flanking regions showed high identity levels with different S. epidermidis plasmid sequences, which would confirm the plasmidic location of the odc operon. It follows that the odc and potE gene pair encodes a putrescine-producing pathway in S. epidermis 2015B that was acquired through horizontal gene transfer. PMID:20581187

  4. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis on peritoneal dialysis catheters and the effects of extracellular products from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Maria; Arvidsson, Anna; Skepö, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a cause of infections related to peritoneal dialysis (PD). We have used a PD catheter flow-cell model in combination with confocal scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy to study biofilm formation by S. epidermidis. Adherence...... to serum-coated catheters was four times greater than to uncoated ones, suggesting that S. epidermidis binds to serum proteins on the catheter surface. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm supernatant interfered with the formation of a serum protein coat thereby reducing the capacity for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis....... Supernatants from ΔpelA, ΔpslBCD and ΔrhlAB strains of P. aeruginosa showed no differences from the wild-type supernatant indicating that the effect on serum coat formation was not due to rhamnolipids or the PelA and PslBCD polysaccharides. Supernatant from P. aeruginosa also dispersed established S. epidermidis...

  5. Beta Lactamase production by Staphylococcus aureus from children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from children aged 5 years and below with sporadic diarrhoea were tested for their ability to produce beta-lactamase enzyme. Of the 95 isolates tested 79 (83.2%) were beta-lactamase-producing strains. The study confirms that majority of clinical isolates of S. aureus from diarrhoeic ...

  6. Intercenter reproducibility of binary typing for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Snoeijers, Sandor; van der Werken-Libregts, Christel; Tuip, Anita; van der Zee, Anneke; Egberink, Diane; de Proost, Monique; Bik, Elisabeth; Lunter, Bjorn; Kluytmans, Jan; Gits, Etty; van Duyn, Inge; Heck, Max; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Wannet, Wim; Noordhoek, Gerda T.; Mulder, Sije; Renders, Nicole; Boers, Miranda; Zaat, Sebastiaan; van der Riet, Daniëlle; Kooistra, Mirjam; Talens, Adriaan; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; van der Reyden, Tanny; Veenendaal, Dick; Bakker, Nancy; Cookson, Barry; Lynch, Alisson; Witte, Wolfgang; Cuny, Christa; Blanc, Dominique; Vernez, Isabelle; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fiett, Janusz; Struelens, Marc; Deplano, Ariane; Landegent, Jim; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Belkum, Alex

    2002-01-01

    The reproducibility of the binary typing (BT) protocol developed for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed in a biphasic multicenter study. In a Dutch multicenter pilot study, 10 genetically unique isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were characterized by the BT

  7. Heterogeneity of the humoral immune response following Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); M. Tavakol (Mehri); L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExpanding knowledge on the humoral immune response in Staphylococcus aureus-infected patients is a mandatory step in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. Here, we present novel insights into the antibody responses following S. aureus bacteremia. Fifteen bacteremic patients

  8. Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathogens that can cause mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus is probably the most lethal agent because it causes chronic and deep infection in the mammary glands that is extremely difficult to be cured. The present study was to detect some of the virulence factors in the S. aureus isolated from 360 mastitis milk samples in ...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kock, Robin

    Objectives: This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Methods: Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus.

  10. Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an African adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains an important cause of mortality, in the community and health care set-ups. S. aureus strains with genes encoding lethal toxins and culture negative sepsis augment the diagnostic challenge in resource limited settings. With a growing rate of resistance to the causative bacteria and atypical ...

  11. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  12. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes foodborne diseases if consumed in contaminated milk products. Rapid detection and characterization of foodborne pathogen S. aureus is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. It is still a challenge to detect and identify bacterial pathogens quickly and ...

  13. Toxins and adhesion factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of acute and infectious diarrhoea. In Africa, there is no sufficient information on the virulence and the degree of factors produced by its diarrhoea-isolated strains. Clinical features and virulence factors produced by S. aureus isolated from diarrhoeal-patients admitted at the ...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  15. Pneumonia and new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnier, Fabien; Tristan, Anne; François, Bruno; Etienne, Jerome; Delage-Corre, Manuella; Martin, Christian; Liassine, Nadia; Wannet, Wim; Denis, François; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2006-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the Panton-Valentin leukocidin gene is a newly described disease entity. We report a new fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. An S. aureus strain with an agr1 allele and of a new sequence type 377 was recovered, representing a

  16. Nasal carriage of methicilli-resistant staphylococcus aureus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from anterior nares of fifty healthy adults in Zaria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns determined. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while 20% were methicillin-susceptible. The isolates were generally resistant to multiple ...

  17. Prevalence of Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes different community and hospital-acquired infections. Over time, strains of S. aureus have become resistant to different antibiotics including penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Having data on the local antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of this pathogen is ...

  18. Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... present study was to detect some of the virulence factors in the S. aureus isolated from 360 mastitis milk samples in ... Key words: Bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, virulence factors, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Iran. INTRODUCTION ..... staphylococcal hemolysins. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A.

  19. Virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Buruli ulcer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W.

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic crossbreed cows and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and its associated risk factors in Addis Ababa City,. Ethiopia ... and wide spread livestock diseases (Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2004). Mastitis .... Legesse Garedew et al.,. Table 2: Risk factors associated with the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic cows. Risk factor. Total animals S. aureus positives. X2 p-value.

  1. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus on armpits of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus on armpits and factors affecting it was carried out on 50 students from Community Secondary School, Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt and 50 University of Port Harcourt students. Samples were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar plates and coagulate positive S. aureus isolates were ...

  2. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys conducted in Senegal have shown a strong association of staphylococci with subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. This study aimed to characterise Staphylococcus aureus strains identified in the dairy farms in Dakar. Of a total of 244 Staphylococcus spp isolates col ected from 135 lactating cows with subclinical ...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissa Diawara; Khadija Bekhti; Driss Elhabchi; Rachid Saile; Naima Elmdaghri; Mohammed Timinouni; Mohamed Elazhari

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Patients and Methods Nasal swab specim...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL ANTI ACNE GEL AND ITS EVALUATION AGAINST ACNE CAUSING BACTERIA PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

    OpenAIRE

    Daud Farhat S.; Wankhede Shubhangi; Joshi Mamta; Pande Gauri

    2013-01-01

    Acne by definition is multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered as the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. Although acne does not pose serious threat to general health, it is one of the most socially distressing conditions especially for adolescents. The objective of this study was to design a product to treat Acne with purely herbal actives as an effective and safe alternative to...

  5. Study on the Structure of Candida Albicans-Staphylococcus Epidermidis Mixed Species Biofilm on Polyvinyl Chloride Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhao, Guang-Qiang; Lei, Yu-Jie; Ye, Lian-Hua; Huang, Qiu-Bo; Duan, Wan-Shi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to establish an in vitro model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus epidermidis mixed species biofilm (BF) on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material, and to investigate the formation and the structure of mixed species BF formation using a combined approach of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 3D image reconstruction technique. Mixed species BF is achieved by co-incubating Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria (ATCC35984) and Candida albicans fungal (ATCC10231) with PVC pieces in Tris-buffered saline. BF formation was examined at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of co-culture. Thickness of these BFs and the number, and percentage of viable cells in BFs were measured. CT scan images of BFs were obtained using CLSM and SEM and reconstructed 3D images of mixed species BF were acquired, in an effort to examine structure of the BF. Staphylococcus epidermidis attached to various forms of candida albicans (spores, pseudohyphae, and hyphae), formed complex and dense mesh arrays. The BF is constituted of a large number of viable and dead pathogens, the surface of mixed species BF is uneven, with living pathogens predominating protrusive portions and dead pathogens aggregating in concaves. Mixed species BF formation on the surface of PVC material was found to be a dynamic process, with rapid growth being at 24 h of co-culture, maximal thickness peaked at 48 h. These mixed species BF matured at 48-72 h. Significant differences were observed in the proportion of viable cells between interior, middle, and outer layers of BFs (p Staphylococcus epidermidis is sophisticated in structure. The combined approach involving CLSM, SEM, and 3D image reconstruction technique is ideal for the investigation of mixed species BF on PVC material.

  6. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  7. [Dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Aline; Nguyen, Ngan; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2009-02-02

    Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is an important cause of hospital-acquired infections, and nasal carriage of Sa is common among health care workers. This study was designed to measure the airborne dispersal of Sa and other bacteria from such carriers and to investigate whether the use of cap, gown, gloves, and mask could reduce this dispersal. A total of 13 nasal Sa carriers were identified among 63 persons screened for Sa nasal carriage. The volunteers were studied for airborne dispersal of Sa in four different situations: quiet breathing, movements of the arms, whispering and loud talking. These activities were performed with and without gown, gloves, mask and cap upon street clothes. The study showed that the highest number of Sa and bacteria in total was dispersed into the air when the volunteers were moving and wearing only their street clothes. The dispersal of Sa into the air was reduced into a minimum by wearing cap, gown and gloves, and no further significant decrease was achieved by wearing a mask. This applied for all volunteers except for one, who had to wear a mask in order to reduce his dispersal of Sa to a minimum. The total dispersal of bacteria was significantly reduced by wearing cap, gown and gloves; however, to reduce this dispersal to a minimum, volunteers also had to wear a mask. Our study supports the rational basis that gown, cap, gloves and mask should be used not only in the operating theatre, but also while e.g. inserting central venous catheters.

  8. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  9. Development of An Impedimetric Aptasensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Reich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, aptamer-based biosensors are a powerful tool for fast analytical devices. Herein, we present an impedimetric aptasensor for the detection of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The used aptamer targets protein A, a surface bound virulence factor of S. aureus. The thiol-modified protein A-binding aptamer was co-immobilized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol onto gold electrodes by self-assembly. Optimization of the ratio of aptamer to 6-mercapto-1-hexanol resulted in an average density of 1.01 ± 0.44 × 1013 aptamer molecules per cm2. As shown with quartz crystal microbalance experiments, the immobilized aptamer retained its functionality to bind recombinant protein A. Our impedimetric biosensor is based on the principle that binding of target molecules to the immobilized aptamer decreases the electron transfer between electrode and ferri-/ferrocyanide in solution, which is measured as an increase of impedance. Microscale thermophoresis measurements showed that addition of the redox probe ferri-/ferrocyanide has no influence on the binding of aptamer and its target. We demonstrated that upon incubation with various concentrations of S. aureus, the charge-transfer resistance increased proportionally. The developed biosensor showed a limit of detection of 10 CFU·mL−1 and results were available within 10 minutes. The biosensor is highly selective, distinguishing non-target bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. This work highlights the immense potential of impedimetric aptasensors for future biosensing applications.

  10. Marinopyrrole Derivatives as Potential Antibiotic Agents against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshi Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA continues to be a major problem, causing severe and intractable infections worldwide. MRSA is resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics, and alternative treatments are limited. A very limited number of new antibiotics have been discovered over the last half-century, novel agents for the treatment of MRSA infections are urgently needed. Marinopyrrole A was reported to show antibiotic activity against MRSA in 2008. After we reported the first total synthesis of (±-marinopyrrole A, we designed and synthesized a series of marinopyrrole derivatives. Our structure activity relationship (SAR studies of these novel derivatives against a panel of Gram-positive pathogens in antibacterial assays have revealed that a para-trifluoromethyl analog (33 of marinopyrrole A is ≥63-, 8-, and 4-fold more potent than vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively. The results provide valuable information in the search for new-generation antibiotics.

  11. Evaluation of a PCR method to determine the clinical significance of blood cultures with Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Erik; Bäckman, Anders; Persson, Lennart; Mölling, Paula; Tidefelt, Ulf; Söderquist, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the detection and quantification of Staphylococcus epidermidis DNA in blood could distinguish S. epidermidis blood stream infections (BSIs) from blood culture contaminations in patients with hematological malignancies. The hld gene was chosen to identify S. epidermidis DNA and DNA in blood samples was detected by real-time PCR. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously with blood cultures positive for S. epidermidis (n = 30), during blood culture-negative episodes (n = 10) and episodes of bacteremia with other bacteria than S. epidermidis (n = 4) and from healthy blood donors (n = 10). In addition, DNA from S. epidermidis and a selection of other bacterial species were analyzed. Three different sets of criteria were used to classify episodes with positive blood cultures with S. epidermidis as BSIs or contaminations. All DNA preparations from S. epidermidis (n = 48) were hld-positive, but other bacterial species (n = 13) were negative. Sixteen (53%) of 30 blood samples from patients with blood cultures positive for S. epidermidis were hld-positive, but none of the controls. There was no clear association between a positive hld PCR and episodes interpreted as BSIs. In conclusion, hld PCR failed to distinguish S. epidermidis BSIs from blood culture contaminations in patients with hematological malignancies. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: detection of biofilm genes and biofilm formation in blood culture isolates from patients in a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Oliveira, Adilson de; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    2016-09-01

    Infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci are often related to biofilm formation. This study aimed to detect biofilm formation and biofilm-associated genes in blood culture isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. Half (50.6%) of the 85 S. epidermidis isolates carried the icaAD genes and 15.3% the bhp gene, while these numbers were 42.9% and 0 for S. haemolyticus, respectively. According to the plate test, 30 S. epidermidis isolates were biofilm producers and 40% of them were strongly adherent, while only one (6%) of the 17 S. haemolyticus biofilm-producing isolates exhibited a strongly adherent biofilm. The concomitant presence of icaA and icaD was significantly associated with the plate and tube test results (P ≤ 0.0004). The higher frequency of icaA in S. epidermidis and of icaD in S. haemolyticus is correlated with the higher biofilm-producing capacity of the former since, in contrast to IcaD, IcaA activity is sufficient to produce small amounts of polysaccharide. Although this study emphasizes the importance of icaAD and bhp for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis, other mechanisms seem to be involved in S. haemolyticus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong slime production is a marker of clinical significance in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from intravascular catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, M; Maestre, J R; Aguilar, L; Giménez, M J; Granizo, J J; Prieto, J

    2008-04-01

    Biofilm production was assessed in 52 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from the catheters of 52 patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) and compared with 14 isolates from the skin of healthy volunteers by spectrophotometry. The isolates were classified as non- (G1), weak- (G2) or strong- (G3) slime producers based on optical density, and as producers and non-producers based on the results of the Congo red agar test. Differences (p = 0.012) in the proportion of G1, G2 and G3 among the isolates were found between catheter and healthy skin strains: there was a higher percentage of G1 types among the healthy skin strains (35.7 vs. 11.5%; p = 0.046) and a higher percentage of G3 types among the catheter isolates (44.2 vs. 0%; p = 0.001). No significant differences were found with the Congo red agar test. G3 is a phenotypic marker for CR-BSI.

  14. Inhibition of Biofilm By Allicin in Staphylococcus epidermidis: The Distance Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Villalón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Biofilm inhibition in Staphylococcus epidermidis by an allicin solution in close but not direct contact with bacterial cultures was studied. A similar inhibition effect was observed when bacteria were replaced by papain, an enzyme with a sulfhydryl active center. Objectives To explain these effects, a parallel assay was made with papain, a sulfhydryl enzyme, and allicin was placed in a separate well. After 1 hour of exposition time, a substrate was added to the papain solution and proteolytic activity was measured at regular time intervals to study possible enzymatic inhibition by allicin vapors. Materials and Methods Growth and biofilm formation were measured according to established methods. These values were then averaged for the wells equidistant to a 3 mM allicin solution, and were related to the distance from the allicin well. Similar assays were performed with a solution of papain. After exposition to allicin vapors, a substrate was added and enzymatic activity was measured. Results An inhibition effect was observed both in the bacterial cultures and the enzymatic solutions, and the extent of inhibition depended on the distance from the central well that contained the allicin solution. Conclusions Allicin vapor, or some decomposition product of allicin, causes inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. Parallel enzymatic studies confirmed this inhibitory effect and suggest that sulfhydryl enzymes are involved in biofilm formation in the strain studied.

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on surface-treated open-cell Ti6Al4V foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkan, Uğur; Güden, Mustafa; Sudağıdan, Mert

    2016-06-01

    The effect of alkali and nitric acid surface treatments on the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to the surface of 60% porous open-cell Ti6Al4V foam was investigated. The resultant surface roughness of foam particles was determined from the ground flat surfaces of thin foam specimens. Alkali treatment formed a porous, rough Na2Ti5O11 surface layer on Ti6Al4V particles, while nitric acid treatment increased the number of undulations on foam flat and particle surfaces, leading to the development of finer surface topographical features. Both surface treatments increased the nanometric-scale surface roughness of particles and the number of bacteria adhering to the surface, while the adhesion was found to be significantly higher in alkali-treated foam sample. The significant increase in the number of bacterial attachment on the alkali-treated sample was attributed to the formation of a highly porous and nanorough Na2Ti5O11 surface layer.

  16. Primary processing of CRISPR RNA by the endonuclease Cas6 in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Noelle; Rajan, Rakhi; Sontheimer, Erik J

    2015-10-07

    In many bacteria and archaea, an adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas) provides immunity against foreign genetic elements. This system uses CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) derived from the CRISPR array, along with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, to target foreign nucleic acids. In most CRISPR systems, endonucleolytic processing of crRNA precursors (pre-crRNAs) is essential for the pathway. Here we study the Cas6 endonuclease responsible for crRNA processing in the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system from Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a, a model for Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems, and define substrate requirements for SeCas6 activity. We find that SeCas6 is necessary and sufficient for full-length crRNA biogenesis in vitro, and that it relies on both sequence and stem-loop structure in the 3' half of the CRISPR repeat for recognition and processing. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples.

  18. Synergy of ambroxol with vancomycin in elimination of catheter-related Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhui; Fu, Yakun; Yu, Jialin; Ai, Qing; Li, Junshuai; Peng, Ningning; Song, Sijie; He, Yu; Wang, Zhengli

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters are widely used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) nowadays. The commonest cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) is coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ambroxol, an active metabolite of bromhexine, exhibits antimicrobial activity against strains producing biofilm and enhances the bactericidal effect of some antibiotic by breaking the structure of biofilm. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of ambroxol with vancomycin on the biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, the biofilm of S. epidermidis was assessed by XTT reduction assay and analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In the in vivo study, a rabbit model of CRBSIs was created by intravenous intubation with a tube covered with S. epidermidis biofilm. The rabbits received one of the following four treatments by means of antibiotic lock therapy: normal heparin, ambroxol, vancomycin, or vancomycin plus ambroxol each for 3 days. The microstructure of the biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of bacterial colonies in the organs (liver, heart, and kidney) and on the intravenous tubes was measured on agar plates. Pathological changes in the organs (liver, heart, and kidney) were observed with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The ambroxol exhibits significant efficacy to potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on S. epidermidis biofilm both in vitro and in vivo. The antibiotic lock therapy using a combination of ambroxol and vancomycin reveals a high ability to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms in vivo. These results provide the basis of a useful anti-infection strategy for the treatment of CRBSIs. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Slime layer formation and the prevalence of mecA and aap genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Abdossamadi, Zahra; Salari, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2011-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strains are frequently associated with catheter-related infection, acute bacteremia, and hospital-acquired infection. Some isolates produce an extracellular matrix called slime that may make them more resistant to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns, the prevalence of slime production, and the distribution of genes (mecA and aap, respectively) associated with these phenotypes in S. epidermidis nasal isolates from health-care personnel. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 163 nasal swabs from health-care staff (one swab per subject). S. epidermidis isolates were tested for slime production on congo red agar and antibiotic resistance. PCR-based screening for mecA and aap genes was performed upon the extracted DNA of S. epidermidis isolates. A total of 99 S. epidermidis strains were cultured from 58.9% of the study participants (n = 96). Of these strains, 34 (34.3%) isolates produced slime. A significant relation between slime production and resistance to penicillin 32(94%) , oxacillin 30(88%), tetracycline 20(59%), erythromycin 27(79%), and clindamycin 26(77%) was found. Respectively, 95.8% and 94.8% of all isolates were PCR-positive for mecA and aap, but only 59.8% of mecA+ strains were oxacillin-resistant and 37.3% of aap+ strains were slime producers. The surveillance of nasal colonization with slime-forming oxacillin-resistant S. epidermidis in health-care workers might be helpful in breaking the epidemiological chain of hospital-acquired infections.

  20. Sub-inhibitory tigecycline concentrations induce extracellular matrix binding protein Embp dependent Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Julian; Henke, Hanae A; Hector, Nina; Both, Anna; Christner, Martin; Büttner, Henning; Kaplan, Jeffery B; Rohde, Holger

    2016-09-01

    Biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis implant infections are notoriously reluctant to antibiotic treatment. Here we studied the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tigecycline on S. epidermidis 1585 biofilm formation, expression of extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) and potential implications for S. epidermidis - macrophage interactions. Penicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid had no biofilm augmenting effect at any of the concentrations tested. In contrast, at sub-inhibitory concentrations tigecycline and oxacillin exhibited significant biofilm inducing activity. In S. epidermidis 1585, SarA is a negative regulator of giant 1 MDa Embp, and down regulation of sarA induces Embp-dependent assembly of a multi-layered biofilm architecture. Dot blot immune assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and qPCR showed that under biofilm inducing conditions, tigecycline augmented embp expression compared to the control grown without antibiotics. Conversely, expression of regulator sarA was suppressed, suggesting that tigecycline exerts its effects on embp expression through SarA. Tigecycline failed to induce biofilm formation in embp transposon mutant 1585-M135, proving that under these conditions Embp up-regulation is necessary for biofilm accumulation. As a functional consequence, tigecycline induced biofilm formation significantly impaired the up-take of S. epidermidis by mouse macrophage-like cell line J774A.1. Our data provide novel evidence for the molecular basis of antibiotic induced biofilm formation, a phenotype associated with inherently increased antimicrobial tolerance. While this could explain failure of antimicrobial therapies, persistence of S. epidermidis infections in the presence of sub-inhibitory antimicrobials is additionally propelled by biofilm-related impairment of macrophage-mediated pathogen eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  1. Inhibitory efficacy of geraniol on biofilm formation and development of adaptive resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Arunachalam; Sivaranjani, Murugesan; Srinivasan, Ramanathan; Rathna, Janarthanam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2017-10-01

    The current study has been designed to delineate the efficacy of geraniol (GE) on biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of GE on the development of adaptive resistance. Biofilm biomass quantification assay was performed to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of GE against S. epidermidis. Microscopic observation of biofilms and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), slime and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) production were also studied to support the antibiofilm potential of GE. In addition, S. epidermidis was examined for its adaptive resistance development upon continuous exposure of GE at its subinhibitory concentrations.Results/Key findings. The MIC of GE against S. epidermidis was 512 µg ml(-1). Without hampering the growth of the pathogen, GE at its sub-MICs (50, 100, 150 and 200 µg ml(-1)) exhibited a dose-dependent increase in antibiofilm activity. The minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of GE was found to be 200 µg ml(-1) with a maximum biofilm inhibition of 85 %. Disintegrated biofilm architecture, reduced EPS, slime and CSH production validated the antibiofilm efficacy of GE. Although the action of GE on preformed biofilm is limited, a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and live/dead cell staining method revealed reduction in the viability (47 %) of biofilm inhabitants at 2×MIC concentration. Sequential exposure of S. epidermidis to the sub-MICs of GE resulted in poor development of adaptive resistance with diminished biofilm formation. The present study highlights the potential of GE as a suitable candidate for the control of biofilm-mediated S. epidermidis infections.

  2. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  3. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    . aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398......Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  4. Short communication: Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Joaquim, S F; Richini-Pereira, V B; Langoni, H

    2017-01-01

    Cows are probably the main source of contamination of raw milk with Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary glands with subclinical mastitis can shed large numbers of Staph. aureus in milk. Because of the risk of this pathogen to human health as well as animal health, the aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staph. aureus (OS-MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) on a dairy farm. Milk samples were obtained from all quarters, showing an elevated somatic cell count by the California Mastitis Test. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 53% (61/115) of the milk samples, with 60 isolates identified as Staph. aureus (98.4%) and 1 isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.6%). The presence of the mecA gene was verified in 48.3% of Staph. aureus isolates. Of the Staph. aureus isolates, 23.3% were MRSA and 25.0% were OS-MRSA. The total of mastitis cases infected with MRSA was 12.2%. The detection of this large percentage of mastitis cases caused by MRSA and OS-MRSA is of great concern for the animals' health, because β-lactams are still the most important antimicrobials used to treat mastitis. In addition, Staph. aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis represent a public health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioimmunoassays for protein A of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langone, J.J.; Das, C.; Bennett, D.; Terman, D.S. (Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine)

    1983-10-14

    Radioimmunoassays have been developed that can detect nanogram amounts of protein A (SpA), a product generated by Staphylococcus aureus that binds selectively to the Fc region of IgG from most mammalian species. Competition assays for fluid phase SpA utilize antibodies produced in chickens, /sup 125/I-labeled SpA as the tracer molecule, and either F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments of rabbit IgG anti-chicken IgG or 40% ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent to separate antigen-antibody complexes from free antigen. The double antibody assay could be carried out in serum from species that form only soluble complexes with SpA (e.g., rabbit), that react poorly with SpA (e.g., rat) or under appropriate conditions in serum from species (e.g., dog) that show high reactivity with SpA and form precipitating complexes. Chicken antibodies prepared by affinity chromatography on SpA-Sepharose and labeled with /sup 125/I were used in a direct binding assay for SpA present either on the cell wall of Cowan strain I or Wood 46 bacteria, in insoluble complexes prepared from SpA and whole serum or purified IgG, or in C1q binding complexes that were formed by passage of serum from normal or tumor bearing humans or dogs over SpA-collodion charcoal. Since both types of assays could detect SpA even in the presence of serum or IgG, they offer advantages over other techniques in which the SpA-Fc interaction may interfere.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described sister species Staphylococcus simiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing of Danish Staphylococcus argenteus Reveals a Genetically Diverse Collection with Clear Separation from Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas A.; Bartels, Mette D.; Hogh, Silje V.; Dons, Lone E.; Pedersen, Michael; Jensen, Thoger G.; Kemp, Michael; Skov, Marianne N.; Gumpert, Heidi; Worning, Peder; Westh, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus (S. argenteus) is a newly identified Staphylococcus species that has been misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and is clinically relevant. We identified 25 S. argenteus genomes in our collection of whole genome sequenced S. aureus. These genomes were compared to publicly available genomes and a phylogeny revealed seven clusters corresponding to seven clonal complexes. The genome of S. argenteus was found to be different from the genome of S. aureus and a...

  8. Pathogenic factors and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with nosocomial infections occurring in intensive care units Fatores de patogenicidade e resistência a antimicrobianos em Staphylococcus epidermidis associados a infecções nosocomiais em unidades de terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Michelim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections constitute an important problem in hospitals, intensive care units (ICU having the highest incidence of this type of infection. Staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are among the most important microorganisms associated with nosocomial infections. S. epidermidis is a common skin resident, and can be introduced into the clinical environment by patients and hospital staff. The situation in hospitals is aggravated by the emergence of multiresistant strains. We evaluated 98 hospital S. epidermidis isolates collected at neonatal, pediatric and adult ICUs and 20 S. epidermidis control skin resident isolates from healthy volunteers, for resistance to ten antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, and other pathogenicity factors. A high frequency (76.5% of multiresistance was detected in clinical isolates, whereas community isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin only. The frequency of multiresistant strains was 67.7% in the neonatal ICU, 66.6% in the pediatric ICU and 60.8% in the adult ICU, the lower frequency of multiresistant isolates in the adult ICU indicates a higher incidence of community strains in this unit. There were significantly higher frequencies of hemolytic, proteolytic and biofilm-forming isolates in the clinical isolates than the community isolates, indicating a higher incidence of strains with pathogenic potential in the hospital environment. Except for slight correlation with hemolytic activity there was no correlation between antibiotic multiresistance and pathogenicity factors.As infecções nosocomiais constituem um importante problema em hospitais, sendo que as unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI apresentam a maior incidência deste tipo de infecções. Os estafilococos, especialmente S. epidermidis e S. aureus, estão entre os microrganismos mais importantes associados às infecções nosocomiais. S. epidermidis é uma espécie colonizante da pele, sendo

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy cows and genetic diversity of resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results i...

  10. Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental

  11. Magnetic nanoparticle targeted hyperthermia of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho; Yamayoshi, Itsukyo; Mathew, Steven; Liln, Hubert; Nayfach, Joseph; Simon, Scott I.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of wound infections that do not adequately respond to standard-of-care antimicrobial treatment has been increasing. To address this challenge, a novel antimicrobial magnetic thermotherapy platform has been developed in which a high-amplitude, high-frequency, alternating magnetic field (AMF) is used to rapidly heat magnetic nanoparticles that are bound to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antimicrobial efficacy of this platform was evaluated in the treatment of both an in vitro culture model of S. aureus biofilm and a mouse model of cutaneous S. aureus infection. We demonstrated that an antibody-targeted magnetic nanoparticle bound to S. aureus was effective at thermally inactivating S. aureus and achieving accelerated wound healing without causing tissue injury. PMID:23149904

  12. Antimicrobial activity of gentamicin palmitate against high concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittinger, Clemens; Marth, Egon; Windhager, Reinhard; Weinberg, Annelie M; Zarfel, Gernot; Baumert, Rita; Felisch, Susanne; Kuehn, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-06-01

    The reduction of implant related infections plays a pivotal role in orthopaedic surgery as an increasing number of people require implants (up to 200,000 per year in the United States (source: Joint Implant Surgery & Research Foundation 2010)). The aim of the current study is to prevent and thus decrease the number of bacterial infections. Both pre and post operative systemic antibiotic treatment and gentamicin containing bone cements (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) are commonly used strategies to overcome infections. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of gentamicin sulfate loaded bone cement was compared with titan discs coated with a new form of gentamicin, gentamicin palmitate. Adherence prevention, killing rates and killing kinetics were compared in an in vitro model, using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which together with Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) represents 60% of bacteria found responsible for hip implant infections (An and Friedman, 1996, J Hosp Infect 33(2):93-108). In our experiments gentamicin, which was applied as gentamicin palmitate on the surface of the implants, showed a high efficacy in eliminating bacteria. In contrast to gentamicin sulfate containing bone cements, gentamicin palmitate is released over a shorter period of time thus not inducing antibiotic resistance. Another benefit for clinical application is that it achieves high local levels of active ingredient which fight early infections and minimize toxic side effects. Furthermore, the short term hydrophobic effect of gentamicin palmitate can successfully impede biofilm formation. Thus, the use of self-adhesive antibiotic fatty acid complexes like gentamicin palmitate represents a new option for the anti-infective coating of cementless titan implants.

  13. Efficacy of a synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetic versus vancomycin in a Staphylococcus epidermidis device-related murine peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline; Granslo, Hildegunn Norbakken; Fredheim, Elizabeth Aarag

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prevalent cause of peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis. We compared the efficacy of a synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetic (Ltx21) versus vancomycin in a murine model mimicking a device-related peritonitis. Methods Silicone implants......, pre-colonized with an S. epidermidis biofilm, were inserted into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. Three groups (36 mice in each) with pre-colonized implants received intraperitoneal treatment with Ltx21, vancomycin or placebo. Mice were euthanized on day 3 (n = 12), day 6 (n = 12) or day 8 (n...... = 12) post-implantation. Controls were mice with sterile implants (n = 18) and mice without surgery (n = 6). Bacterial reductions in cfu were analysed from implants and peritoneal fluid (PF). Inflammatory responses in serum and PF were measured. Results Vancomycin resulted in a stronger reduction...

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis pan-genome sequence analysis reveals diversity of skin commensal and hospital infection-associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Sean; Mijares, Lilia A; Becker, Jesse; Blakesley, Robert W; Bouffard, Gerard G; Brooks, Shelise; Coleman, Holly; Gupta, Jyoti; Gurson, Natalie; Park, Morgan; Schmidt, Brian; Thomas, Pamela J; Otto, Michael; Kong, Heidi H; Murray, Patrick R; Segre, Julia A

    2012-07-25

    While Staphylococcus epidermidis is commonly isolated from healthy human skin, it is also the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections on indwelling medical devices. Despite its importance, few genome sequences existed and the most frequent hospital-associated lineage, ST2, had not been fully sequenced. We cultivated 71 commensal S. epidermidis isolates from 15 skin sites and compared them with 28 nosocomial isolates from venous catheters and blood cultures. We produced 21 commensal and 9 nosocomial draft genomes, and annotated and compared their gene content, phylogenetic relatedness and biochemical functions. The commensal strains had an open pan-genome with 80% core genes and 20% variable genes. The variable genome was characterized by an overabundance of transposable elements, transcription factors and transporters. Biochemical diversity, as assayed by antibiotic resistance and in vitro biofilm formation, demonstrated the varied phenotypic consequences of this genomic diversity. The nosocomial isolates exhibited both large-scale rearrangements and single-nucleotide variation. We showed that S. epidermidis genomes separate into two phylogenetic groups, one consisting only of commensals. The formate dehydrogenase gene, present only in commensals, is a discriminatory marker between the two groups. Commensal skin S. epidermidis have an open pan-genome and show considerable diversity between isolates, even when derived from a single individual or body site. For ST2, the most common nosocomial lineage, we detect variation between three independent isolates sequenced. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed a previously unrecognized group of S. epidermidis strains characterized by reduced virulence and formate dehydrogenase, which we propose as a clinical molecular marker.

  15. In vitro activity of alpha-mangostin in killing and eradicating Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjani, Murugesan; Prakash, Manivannan; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Rathna, Janarthanam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2017-04-01

    Alpha-mangostin (α-MG) has been reported to be an effective antibacterial agent against planktonic cells of many Gram-positive bacteria. However, the antibiofilm potency of α-MG remains unexplored till date. In this study, the antibiofilm and mature biofilm eradication ability of α-MG against Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (ATCC 35984) biofilms were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of α-MG against S. epidermidis RP62A were found to be 1.25 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. α-MG exhibited a phenomenal concentration dependent rapid bactericidal activity (>4-log reduction within 5 min). In a multi-passage resistance analysis using S. epidermidis, no development of resistance to α-MG as well as antibiotics was observed in its habituation. α-MG at its 1/2 MIC effectively inhibited the initial biofilm formation of S. epidermidis, which was further confirmed through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis that portrayed a lucid reduction in the aggregation and the spread of biofilm. The crystal violet staining and viable cell quantification results confirmed the eradication of preformed immature and mature biofilms of S. epidermidis by α-MG in a concentration dependent manner. Besides, the biofilm eradication ability was also confirmed through SEM and live/dead BacLight staining using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, the present study exemplifies that α-MG could plausibly assist to eliminate biofilm infections associated with multidrug-resistance staphylococci.

  16. Activity of Tedizolid in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Experimental Foreign Body-Associated Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Schuetz, Audrey N; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2017-02-01

    We developed a rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) foreign body-associated osteomyelitis and used it to compare tedizolid alone and in combination with rifampin against rifampin alone, vancomycin plus rifampin, and vancomycin alone. A clinical strain of MRSE was inoculated into the proximal tibia, and a stainless steel wire with a precolonized MRSE biofilm was implanted. Following a 1-week infection period, 92 rats received either no treatment (n = 17) or 14 days of intraperitoneal tedizolid (n = 15), tedizolid plus rifampin (n = 15), rifampin (n = 15), vancomycin plus rifampin (n = 15), or vancomycin (n = 15). Quantitative bone and wire cultures were performed after treatment completion and also 1 week after infection in a separate group of five rats. The median quantity of staphylococci in bone after the 1-week infection period was 4.89 log10 CFU/g bone (interquartile range, 3.83 to 5.33 log10 CFU/g bone); staphylococci were recovered from all associated wires. A median quantity of staphylococci of 3.70 log10 CFU/g bone was detected in bones of untreated control rats after 3 weeks. Quantities of staphylococci in bones of all treatment groups except the group receiving vancomycin alone (2.78 log10 CFU/g) were significantly lower than those for untreated controls, with no staphylococci being detected in the groups receiving rifampin monotherapy, tedizolid-plus-rifampin combination therapy, and vancomycin-plus-rifampin combination therapy. Quantities of staphylococci on wires from all treatment groups that included rifampin were significantly lower than those for untreated controls. No resistance to rifampin, tedizolid, or vancomycin was detected. Tedizolid combined with rifampin was active in a rat model of MRSE foreign body-associated osteomyelitis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, Jason W.; Kenney, Daniel G.; Slavić, Durda; Weese, J Scott

    2012-01-01

    A 6-hour-old alpaca was presented for evaluation of respiratory difficulty. As part of routine surveillance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified from a nasal swab taken upon admission to the hospital. No signs of MRSA infection were noted. The MRSA strain recovered was a human epidemic clone that has been associated with horses. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization can occur in camelids, and the potential animal and public health risks require consideration.

  19. Piperine, a Phytochemical Potentiator of Ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inshad Ali; Mirza, Zahid Mehmood; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Vijeshwar; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2006-01-01

    Piperine, a trans-trans isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine, in combination with ciprofloxacin markedly reduced the MICs and mutation prevention concentration of ciprofloxacin for Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The enhanced accumulation and decreased efflux of ethidium bromide in the wild-type and mutant (CIPr-1) strains in the presence of piperine suggest its involvement in the inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16436753

  20. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Methods: Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 °C. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, a...

  1. Glucose Augments Killing Efficiency of Daptomycin Challenged Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    OpenAIRE

    Prax, Marcel; Mechler, Lukas; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in stationary growth phase with high doses of the antibiotic daptomycin (DAP) eradicates the vast majority of the culture and leaves persister cells behind. Despite resting in a drug-tolerant and dormant state, persister cells exhibit metabolic activity which might be exploited for their elimination. We here report that the addition of glucose to S. aureus persisters treated with DAP increased killing by up to five-fold within one hour. This glucose-DAP effe...

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Redirects Central Metabolism to Increase Iron Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Pishchany, Gleb; Whitwell, Corbin W; Torres, Victor J; Skaar, Eric P; Friedman, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein ...

  3. Molecular dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Hajj pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, P O; Gautret, P; Haddar, C H; Benkouiten, S; Gagnaire, J; Belhouchat, K; Grattard, F; Charrel, R; Pozzetto, B; Drali, T; Lucht, F; Brouqui, P; Memish, Z A; Berthelot, P; Botelho-Nevers, E

    2015-07-01

    During the 2012 Hajj season, the risk of acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a cohort of French pilgrims was 22.8%, and was statistically associated with the acquisition of viral respiratory pathogens (p 0.03). The carriage of S. aureus belonging to the emerging clonal complex 398 significantly increased following the pilgrimage (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection by multiplex PCR of Staphylococcus aureus , S. intermedius and S. hyicus in artificially contaminated milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Avila Gandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research aimed to detect coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS directly in samples of artificially contaminated milk, using multiplex PCR (mPCR. Standard and isolated bacterial strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli species were used, evaluating the specificity and detection limit of mPCR, for artificially contaminated UHT milk. Primers specific for the nuc gene (NUC1-NUC2 were used for S. aureus, NUC3-NUC4 for S. hyicus and NUC5-NUC6 for S. intermedius. It was possible to detect the three target species by mPCR, directly from bovine whole milk, with adequate specificity and acceptable detention limit for identification of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS in foods. The specificity was determined by the amplification of species-specific fragments, and the detection limit was assessed by the detection thresholds obtained for the three species (103 CFU mL-1. From these results, the mPCR described, with the proposed set of primers, has the potential for use in precise identification and differentiation between CPSs in milk samples.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus effect of different factors on mammary gland infection with staphylococcus aureus bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurčevič Alen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our investigation was to determine how certain factors (the environment, treatment, prevention, animal affect udder infection with Staphylococcus aureurs (S. aureus bacteria. A questionnaire investigated the effect of different factors on the frequency of infection with S. aureus bacteria. We established that prevention, treatment on the basis of results of bacteriological examinations and antibiograms, and the elimination of the negative influence of the environment, form a basis for reducing the frequency of udder infections. We verified the questionannire results with the variant analysis method and established that the effect of the environment significantly digresses from the other factors (prevention treatment and diagnosis, animal. Our results show that the breeder, with good prevention and good treatment of mastitis, often disregards the effects of the barn and the environment in which the cows are maintained. Poor barn conditions have a negative effect on cow resistance and at the same time enable the existence and multiplication of pathogenic species of bacteria. In addition to the maintenance conditions, one must not forget prevention and therapy of mammary gland inflammation, either. On the grounds of our previous investigations (Pengov et al., 2000, we recommend for the therapy of mammary gland inflammation the use of a combination of amoxicillin and clavulonic acid, and as prevention of mammary gland inflammation the use of an udder ointment.

  6. Stilbenes reduce Staphylococcus aureus hemolysis, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ryu, Shi Yong; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-09-01

    Stilbenoids have a broad range of beneficial health effects. On the other hand, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus presents a worldwide problem that requires new antibiotics or nonantibiotic strategies. S. aureus produces α-hemolysin (a pore-forming cytotoxin) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and pneumonia. Furthermore, the biofilms formed by S. aureus constitute a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we investigated the hemolytic and antibiofilm activities of 10 stilbene-related compounds against S. aureus. trans-Stilbene and resveratrol at 10 μg/mL were found to markedly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus, and trans-stilbene also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation without affecting its bacterial growth. Furthermore, trans-stilbene and resveratrol attenuated S. aureus virulence in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is normally killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analysis showed that trans-stilbene repressed the α-hemolysin hla gene and the intercellular adhesion locus (icaA and icaD) in S. aureus, and this finding was in line with observed reductions in virulence and biofilm formation. In addition, vitisin B, a stilbenoid tetramer, at 1 μg/mL was observed to significantly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus.

  7. Comparison of five tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luijendijk (Ad); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFive different laboratory tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus were compared. Analyses of 271 presumptive S. aureus strains, supplemented with 59 well-defined methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, were performed. Only the

  8. Relative prevalence of methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our region, although methicillin resistance increased in S. aureus strains, because of the unavailability and the high cost of alternative antibiotics, gentamycin is still suggested as an alternative for treatment of S. aureus infections. These results however indicate that vancomycin seemed to be the only antimicrobial agent ...

  9. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population. Clinical isolates of S. aureus strains were collected from Medical Microbiology Unit of University College Hospital, Ibadan between May and October, 2012. The isolates were confirmed through growth on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and tube coagulase test.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a finger felon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B; Johnstone, F; Gerlinger, T; Puttler, E

    2000-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasingly prevalent nosocomial pathogen that presents therapeutic challenges. We report an incidence of methicillin-resistant S aureus in a felon. The biochemical and clinical characteristics of methicillin-resistant S aureus are reviewed. The alarming increase of this organism in various types of infections demands the attention of all surgeons and emphasizes the importance of early surgical drainage and culture of pus in all cases of infection. (J Hand Surg 2000; 25A:173-175. Copyright 2000 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.).

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...... colonization? Our study of 46 monozygotic and 43 dizygotic twin pairs revealed that nasal microbiota is an environmentally derived trait, but the host's sex and genetics significantly influence nasal bacterial density. Although specific taxa, including lactic acid bacteria, can determine S. aureus colonization...

  12. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  13. TSST-1, enterotoxin and bacteriocin-like substance production by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins and bacteriocin-like substances was evaluated in 95 strains of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from raw bovine milk (n=31 and from food samples involved in staphylococcal food poisoning (n=64. Enterotoxigenicity tests with the membrane over agar associated to optimal sensibility plate assays were performed and showed that 96.77% of strains recovered from milk and 95.31% from food samples produced enterotoxins A, B, C, D or TSST-1. Reference strains S. epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus casei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacteroides fragilis were used as indicator bacteria in the antagonistic assays, the first five being sensitive to antagonistic substances. Brain heart infusion agar, in pH values ranging from 5.0 to 7.0 in aerobic atmosphere showed to be the optimum condition for antagonistic activity as evaluated with the best producer strains against the most sensitive indicator bacterium, L. monocytogenes. Sensitivity to enzymes confirmed the proteinaceous nature of these substances. Neither bacteriophage activity nor fatty acids were detected and the antagonistic activity was not due to residual chloroform. Results did not establish a positive correlation between the bacteriocinogenic profile and toxigenicity in the tested S. aureus strains.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus: nuevos y antiguos antimicrobianos Staphylococcus aureus: new and old antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Perazzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la sensibilidad a antiguos y nuevos antimicrobianos de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la oxacilina, de origen hospitalario (SAOR-H y adquiridos en la comunidad (SAOR-AC, y también en aislamientos sensibles a la oxacilina (SAOS. Se estudió en forma prospectiva la concentración inhibitoria mínima a diversos antimicrobianos en 118 aislamientos consecutivos por dilución seriada en agar según las indicaciones del CLSI. En los aislamientos de SAOR sin resistencia acompañante se determinó la presencia de los genes mec A, leucocidina de Panton Valentine (LPV y γ-hemolisina por PCR, y del cassette SCC mec por PCR múltiple. De los 118 aislamientos estudiados, 44 fueron SAOR-H, 16 SAOR-AC y 58 SAOS. Los aislamientos de SAOR-H presentaron resistencia simultánea a eritromicina, clindamicina, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, levofloxacina y moxifloxacina, y todos fueron sensibles a tigeciclina (TIG, vancomicina, teicoplanina y linezolid (LZD. Los aislamientos de SAOR-AC fueron resistentes solamente a OXA y sensibles a todos los antimicrobianos ensayados. En todos ellos se detectaron los genes mec A, LPV, γ-hemolisina y el cassette SCC mec IV. En SAOS y en SAOR-AC todos los antimicrobianos no ß-lactámicos ensayados presentaron excelente actividad in vitro, mientras que en SAOR-H sólo los antiguos antimicrobianos como glucopéptidos, doxiciclina, rifampicina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol presentaron buena actividad in vitro, al igual que LZD y TIG entre los nuevos antimicrobianos. El fenotipo de SAOR sin resistencia acompañante fue altamente predictivo de SAOR-AC, ya que fue confirmado por presentar el cassette SCC mec IV.The objective of the study was to evaluate the susceptibility to old and new antimicrobial agents against hospital-acquired oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-ORSA, community-acquired oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-ORSA, and oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (OSSA

  15. Staphylococcus aureus vs. Osteoblast: Relationship and Consequences in Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Jérôme; Velard, Frédéric; Gangloff, Sophie C.

    2015-01-01

    Bone cells, namely osteoblasts and osteoclasts work in concert and are responsible for bone extracellular matrix formation and resorption. This homeostasis is, in part, altered during infections by Staphylococcus aureus through the induction of various responses from the osteoblasts. This includes the over-production of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors, thus suggesting a role for these cells in both innate and adaptive immunity. S. aureus decreases the activity and viability of osteoblasts, by induction of apoptosis-dependent and independent mechanisms. The tight relationship between osteoclasts and osteoblasts is also modulated by S. aureus infection. The present review provides a survey of the relevant literature discussing the important aspects of S. aureus and osteoblast interaction as well as the ability for antimicrobial peptides to kill intra-osteoblastic S. aureus, hence emphasizing the necessity for new anti-infectious therapeutics. PMID:26636047

  16. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M.; Freire, Marcelo O.; Gabrilska, Rebecca A.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Lemon, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe–microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  18. Genetically divergent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and sec-dependent mastitis of dairy goats in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chishih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread in the environment, Staphylococcus spp. infect animals and humans as normal flora or pathogens. By extending our recent report of multi-drug resistant (MDR S. aureus in dairy goats, this study investigated the staphylococcal infection and characterized the MDR-S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates collected from goats in 2008 to elucidate the appearance of MRSA in goats and the mastitis associated staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE types. A total of 555 samples were collected from six goat parts and three environmental sources among four dairy goat farms in southern Taiwan. Coagulase-positive and negative Staphylococcus spp. (CPS and CNS, respectively were also identified. Furthermore, predominant SE genes of nine enterotoxin genes sea through sej along with antimicrobial resistance and genetic variations were determined. Results In total, 137 staphylococcal strains were identified and found predominantly in milk, and in the vagina, anus, and nasal cavity. The most prevalent species was S. lentus, followed by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. xylosus. Enterotoxin genes were not identified in any CNS isolates, however sec and see were identified only in S. aureus associated with mastitis in goat. In compared to the isolates from 2006 to 2007, 27 S. aureus isolates from 2008 were found to be more resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, and tetracycline. Eleven MRSA isolates were identified and belonged to SCCmec type III (nine isolates as the major type and SCCmec type II (two isolates. These MRSA isolates revealed pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE pattern A (five isolates, C (one isolate, and D (one isolate of human isolates. The other two isolates without pulsotypes belonged to ST59. Conclusion The prevalence and infection sites of CNS differed from those of CPS. Genetic analyses indicated that genetic divergence, possible zoonotic transfer of MRSA, and

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products inhibit staphylococcal growth, and disrupt established biofilms produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liang; Qu, Di

    2009-01-01

    in overnight cultures had no effect on established P. aeruginosa biofilms and planktonic growth. These findings reveal that P. aeruginosa extracellular products are important microbial competition factors that overcome competition with S. epidermidis, and the results may provide clues for the development...... and planktonic cultures were challenged with P. aeruginosa supernatant cultures overnight. Results indicated that quorum-sensing-controlled factors from P. aeruginosa supernatant inhibited S. epidermidis growth in planktonic cultures. We also found that P. aeruginosa extracellular products, mainly...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  1. Plasmid profile of multi antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmid profile of multi antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus isolated from diabetic wounds from patients at Nsukka, South-eastern, Nigeria. ... not susceptible to current antibiotics. This could suggest an imminent change in resistant pattern as observed, particularly in an area already reported as high antibiotic use.

  2. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in Kayseri Training and ...

  3. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-30

    Dec 30, 2014 ... Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in ...

  4. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among food handlers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food handlers have been recognized to play a major role in the transmission of food borne diseases; contributing significantly to the global incidence and burden of the diseases. This study therefore, assesses the nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus among food handlers and restaurant workers in Ekpoma, Edo State, ...

  5. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  6. Monitoring of abdominal Staphylococcus aureus infection using magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromrey, M L; Göhler, A; Friedrich, N

    2017-01-01

    To establish a routine workflow for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of mice infected with bacterial biosafety level 2 pathogens and to generate a mouse model for systemic infection with Staphylococcus aureus suitable for monitoring by MRI. A self-contained acrylic glass animal bed...

  7. Validation of binary typing for Staphylococcus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Leeuwen; M. Heck; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); J. van der Velden (Jos)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractMost of the DNA-based methods for genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains generate complex banding patterns. Therefore, we have developed a binary typing procedure involving strain-differentiating DNA probes which were generated on the basis of

  8. The prevalence and resistivity pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly, microbial resistance was higher for Ampicillin than Methicillin, while Tetracycline, among other antibiotics, was the most effective to both ear and nose isolates. Thus, the treatment for Staphylococcus aureus with Methicillin and other related antibiotics should be limited or controlled by susceptibility test results.

  9. Survival of Esherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survival or inhibition of foodborne pathogens in different fermented products are well documented. This prompted the study to evaluate survival of Esherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella spp. in two Ethiopian traditional fermented low-alcohol beverages, Shamita and Borde.

  10. Incidence of staphylococcus aureus in locally produced fresh milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the incidence of the bacterial organism Staphylococcus, aureus in locally produced fresh milk (nono). The fresh milk was obtained from the Damaturu main market, Yobe state of Nigeria. Petri dishes were washed and allowed to dry. They were then sterilized in hot air oven at 130°C for two hours and ...

  11. spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, Marie; Friedrich, Alexander W; Struelens, Marc J; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2009-01-01

    The spa typing method is based on sequencing of the polymorphic X region of the protein A gene (spa), present in all strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The X region is constituted of a variable number of 24-bp repeats flanked by well-conserved regions. This single-locus sequence-based typing method

  12. Can mupirocin prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn a retrospective study, Dr Muller and colleagues have assessed the efficacy of mupirocin nasal ointment alongside hygienic measures in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Their findings, which suggest that

  13. Low efficacy of tobramycin in experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C. J.; Christophersen, L. J.; Trøstrup, H.

    2015-01-01

    The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin...

  14. [Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant community acquired neonatal orbital cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M Guadalupe; Castro, Graciela; Mansilla, Celeste; Kaldzielski, Carina; Salas, Gisela; Rosanova, María Teresa; Berberian, Griselda

    2013-04-01

    Orbital cellulitis typically occurs in older children, but it can occasionally affect infants and neonates. Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen isolated. Outcome depends on an adequate initial approach. We report three neonates with orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated MRSA.

  15. Binding of Staphylococcus aureus onto bovine intestinal mucin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucins act as protection for the gastrointestinal tract against various invading organisms. They are also crucial in developing drugs against these organisms as well as other therapeutic purposes. This study was carried out to investigate the binding of Staphylococcus aureus onto bovine intestinal mucin in vitro. The isolate ...

  16. Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J. M.; Cox, P.; Schukken, Y. H.; Lam, T. J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial

  17. Pyrazole Based Inhibitors against Enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Vijayakuma, Vinodhkumar; Palayam, Malathy

    2015-01-01

    agents. The current study focuses on molecular docking and dynamics studies of pyrazole derivatives against Nucleosidase and DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking and dynamics studies reveal that some of these derivatives show better binding abilities than some of the current drugs...

  18. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  19. Genetic variation and relationship in Staphylococcus aureus isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic characterization of 18 different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) was carried out. Out of one hundred primers tested, ten showed polymorphism. The amplification reactions with the 10 primers generated 88 bands, 51 of which is polymorphic with band size ...

  20. Multiple drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated in foods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: StaphylococcuS. aureus is the most important agent, which is known to cause a wide range of diseases in both human and animals. Extended use and misuse of antibiotics in agriculture, stock farming and in the treatment of human diseases, has contributed to the rapid increase of the number of bacteria that ...

  1. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  2. Microstructures as IR-sensors with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikova, T. V.; Danilov, P. A.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Yermachenko, V. M.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmelnitskii, R. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Nguyen, T. T. H.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Svistunova, T. S.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Using a micro-hole grating in a supported silver film as a laser-fabricated novel optical platform for surface-enhanced IR absoprtion/reflection spectroscopy, characteristic absorption bands of Staphylococcus aureus, especially - its buried carotenoid fragments - were detected in FT-IR spectra with 10-fold analytical enhancement, paving the way to spectral express-identification of the pathogenic microorganisms.

  3. Natural Population Dynamics and Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Melles (Damian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide range of infections, from relatively mild skin infections such as folliculitis and furunculosis to life-threatening conditions, including sepsis, deep abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis

  4. Global initiative for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (GLIMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliberti, Stefano; Reyes, Luis F; Faverio, Paola

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem and pathogens such as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become of particular concern in the management of lower respiratory tract infections. However, few data are available on the worldwide prevalence and ris...

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbarth, Stephan; Huyghe, Antoine; Renzi, Gesuele; Bento, Manuela; Gervaix, Alain; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains different from those of an endemic healthcare-associated clone was conducted over 13 years in Geneva, Switzerland. We demonstrated strain diversity, including clones rarely found in Europe. Local epidemiology of community-associated MRSA is diverse and is evolving by importation and transmission of new strains. PMID:18258126

  6. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a persistent nosocomial and community acquired pathogen has become a global health concern. It has a remarkable capability of evolving different mechanisms of resistance to most antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study is to establish the incidence of ...

  7. Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at Jos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective surveillance of Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was carried out at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, over a one year period. This study highlights the continuos importance of MRSA in causing both hospital and to a less extent community acquired infections. Out of the 180 ...

  8. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wound colonization by microorganisms is most frequently polymicrobial and incidences of high level resistance among bacterial isolates from wounds have been reported. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extendedspectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram-negative bacteria both constitute ...

  9. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus : a review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Despite the volume of knowledge, enhanced surveillance and infection control measures adopted by health care institutions to address the endemicity and frequent disease outbreaks by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals and health care facilities worldwide, infections due to ...

  10. Pitfalls in the routine diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus | Bello ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred isolates of Presumed Staphylococcus aureus from routine clinical specimens, collected from two government hospitals in Abha, Saudi Arabia, had their identity verified. We used the tube coagulase test as our gold standard. Twenty (10%) of the isolates were mis-identified. Reliance by the two laboratories on ...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-05

    Sep 5, 2015 ... Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus may cause serious skin and soft tissue infections, the bacteria can also infect any tissue of the body, causing other serious or life‑threating diseases, such as deep abscesses, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and sepsis.[1] Emergence and spread of antimicrobial.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic crossbreed cows and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of bovine mastitis associated with Staphylococcus aureus varied significantly (p<0.05) between breed, lactation stage, parity and age. It was higher (n= 49, 56.9%) in Zebu-Jersey than Zebu-Holstein Frisian (n= 25, 37.3%) crossbred cows. Staphyloccocal mastitis is a major health problem in dairy farm of ...

  13. Surveillance van meticilline resistente Staphylococcus aureus in Nederland in 1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenay HME; van Leeuwen WJ; van Klingeren B; Rost JA; Schot CS

    1991-01-01

    Follow-up studies on the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Dutch hospitals were continued in 1990. The number of MRSA-isolates in 1990 compared to 1989 is approximately the same. Phage-type pattern and antibiogram were determined for 168 MRSA-isolates from 42

  14. In vitro activities of arylomycin natural-product antibiotics against Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A; Powers, Michael E; Roberts, Tucker C; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2011-03-01

    The arylomycins are a class of natural-product antibiotics that act via the inhibition of type I signal peptidase (SPase), and we have found in diverse bacteria that their activity is limited by the presence of a resistance-conferring Pro residue in SPase that reduces inhibitor binding. We have also demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis, which lacks this Pro residue, is extremely susceptible to the arylomycins. Here, to further explore the potential utility of the arylomycins, we report an analysis of the activity of a synthetic arylomycin derivative, arylomycin C₁₆, against clinical isolates of S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from distinct geographical locations. Against many important species of CoNS, including S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, and S. hominis, we find that arylomycin C₁₆ exhibits activity equal to or greater than that of vancomycin, the antibiotic most commonly used to treat CoNS infections. While the susceptibility was generally correlated with the absence of the previously identified Pro residue, several cases were identified where additional factors also appear to contribute.

  15. Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Pinheiro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to correlate the presence of ica genes, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in 107 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures. The isolates were analysed to determine their methicillin resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type, ica genes and biofilm formation and the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was measured for isolates and subpopulations growing on vancomycin screen agar. The mecA gene was detected in 81.3% of the S. epidermidis isolated and 48.2% carried SCCmec type III. The complete icaADBC operon was observed in 38.3% of the isolates; of these, 58.5% produced a biofilm. Furthermore, 47.7% of the isolates grew on vancomycin screen agar, with an increase in the MIC in 75.9% of the isolates. Determination of the MIC of subpopulations revealed that 64.7% had an MIC ≥ 4 μg mL-1, including 15.7% with an MIC of 8 μg mL-1 and 2% with an MIC of 16 μg mL-1. The presence of the icaADBC operon, biofilm production and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were associated with methicillin resistance. This study reveals a high level of methicillin resistance, biofilm formation and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in subpopulations of S. epidermidis. These findings may explain the selection of multidrug-resistant isolates in hospital settings and the consequent failure of antimicrobial treatment.

  16. Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin induces IL-8 expression in human astrocytes via a mechanism involving TLR2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic biofilm-forming pathogen associated with neurosurgical device-related meningitis. Expression of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) on its surface promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Here we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of PIA against primary and transformed human astrocytes. PIA induced IL-8 expression in a dose- and\\/or time-dependent manner from U373 MG cells and primary normal human astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by depletion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine polymer from the PIA preparation with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin or sodium meta-periodate. Expression of dominant-negative versions of the TLR2 and TLR4 adaptor proteins MyD88 and Mal in U373 MG cells inhibited PIA-induced IL-8 production. Blocking IL-1 had no effect. PIA failed to induce IL-8 production from HEK293 cells stably expressing TLR4. However, in U373 MG cells which express TLR2, neutralization of TLR2 impaired PIA-induced IL-8 production. In addition to IL-8, PIA also induced expression of other cytokines from U373 MG cells including IL-6 and MCP-1. These data implicate PIA as an important immunogenic component of the S. epidermidis biofilm that can regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production from human astrocytes, in part, via TLR2.

  17. Functional analysis of the first complete genome sequence of a multidrug resistant sequence type 2 Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jean Y. H.; Monk, Ian R.; Pidot, Sacha J.; Singh, Siddarth; Chua, Kyra Y. L.; Seemann, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant opportunistic pathogen of humans. The ST2 lineage is frequently multidrug-resistant and accounts for most of the clinical disease worldwide. However, there are no publically available, closed ST2 genomes and pathogenesis studies have not focused on these strains. We report the complete genome and methylome of BPH0662, a multidrug-resistant, hospital-adapted, ST2 S. epidermidis, and describe the correlation between resistome and phenotype, as well as demonstrate its relationship to publically available, international ST2 isolates. Furthermore, we delineate the methylome determined by the two type I restriction modification systems present in BPH0662 through heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, allowing the assignment of each system to its corresponding target recognition motif. As the first, to our knowledge, complete ST2 S. epidermidis genome, BPH0662 provides a valuable reference for future genomic studies of this clinically relevant lineage. Defining the methylome and the construction of these E. coli hosts provides the foundation for the development of molecular tools to bypass restriction modification systems in this lineage that has hitherto proven intractable. PMID:28785416

  18. Correlation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Breakpoints and Methicillin Resistance Gene Carriage in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Eftekhar,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of coagulase negative staphylococci responsible for community and hospital acquired infections. Most clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are resistant to methicillin making these infections difficult to treat. In this study, correlation of methicillin resistance phenotype was compared with methicillin resistance (mecA gene carriage in 55 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis. Susceptibility was measured by disc diffusion using methicillin discs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were measured using broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance gene (MecA gene carriage was detected by specific primers and PCR. Disc susceptibility results showed 90.9% resistance to methicillin. Considering a MIC of 4 µg/ml, 78.1% of the isolates were methicillin resistant, 76.36% of which carried the mecA gene. On the other hand, when a breakpoint of 0.5 µg/ml was used, 89.09% were methicillin resistant, of which 93.75% were mecA positive. There was a better correlation between MIC of 0.5 µg/ml with disc diffusion results and mecA gene carriage. The findings suggest that despite the usefulness of molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of virulence genes, gene carriage does not necessarily account for virulence phenotype. Ultimately, gene expression, which is controlled by the environment, would determine the outcome

  19. Biofilm production in Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, isolated from the skin of hospitalized patients: genetic and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calà, Cinzia; Amodio, Emanuele; Di Carlo, Enza; Virruso, Roberta; Fasciana, Teresa; Giammanco, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A major virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis is its ability to form biofilms, permitting it to adhere to a surface and, in turn, to form a mucoid layer on polymer surfaces. Multiple factors have been found to influence bacterial attachment. Currently, this bacterium is commonly associated with hospital infections as a consequence of its ability to colonize, albeit accidentally, medical devices. This study investigated the genetic and phenotypic formation of biofilm in 105 S. epidermidis strains isolated from the skin of hospitalized patients. Fifty-eight of these patients were positive for the mecA gene (MRSE) and 47 were found to be negative (MSSE). Genetic characterizations were performed for the detection of the mecA, icaADBC, atlE, aap, bhp, IS256 and agr groups by PCR. Biofilm production was examined by culturing the strains in TBS medium and TBS with 0.5 and 1% respectively of glucose, and a semiquantitative assay on tissue culture plates was used. Although a molecular analysis estimate of detailed biofilm formation is costly in terms of time and complexity, a semiquantitative assay can be proposed as a rapid and cheap diagnostic method for initial screening to discover virulent strains. We confirmed a close correlation between genetic and phenotypic characteristics, highlighting the fact that, when S. epidermidis isolates were cultured in TSB with 1% of glucose, an increase in biofilm production was observed, as confirmed by positivity for the ica locus by molecular analysis.

  20. Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 ...

  1. RsbU-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation Is Mediated via the Alternative Sigma Factor σB by Repression of the Negative Regulator Gene icaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Jäger, Sebastian; Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of rsbU leads to a biofilm-negative phenotype in Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, the pathway of this regulatory mechanism was unknown. To investigate the role of RsbU in the regulation of the alternative sigma factor σB and biofilm formation, we generated different mutants of the σB operon in S. epidermidis strains 1457 and 8400. The genes rsbU, rsbV, rsbW, and sigB, as well as the regulatory cascade rsbUVW and the entire σB operon, were deleted. Transcriptional analysis of sarA and the σB-dependent gene asp23 revealed the functions of RsbU and RsbV as positive regulators and of RsbW as a negative regulator of σB activity, indicating regulation of σB activity similar to that characterized for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants revealed that the dramatic decrease of biofilm formation in rsbU mutants is mediated via σB, indicating a crucial role for σB in S. epidermidis pathogenesis. However, biofilm formation in mutants defective in σB or its function could be restored in the presence of subinhibitory ethanol concentrations. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaR is up-regulated in mutants lacking σB function but that icaA transcription is down-regulated in these mutants, indicating a σB-dependent regulatory intermediate negatively regulating IcaR. Supplementation of growth media with ethanol decreased icaR transcription, leading to increased icaA transcription and a biofilm-positive phenotype, indicating that the ethanol-dependent induction of biofilm formation is mediated by IcaR. This icaR-dependent regulation under ethanol induction is mediated in a σB-independent manner, suggesting at least one additional regulatory intermediate in the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. PMID:15213125

  2. RsbU-dependent regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation is mediated via the alternative sigma factor sigmaB by repression of the negative regulator gene icaR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Johannes K-M; Jäger, Sebastian; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-07-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of rsbU leads to a biofilm-negative phenotype in Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, the pathway of this regulatory mechanism was unknown. To investigate the role of RsbU in the regulation of the alternative sigma factor sigma(B) and biofilm formation, we generated different mutants of the sigma(B) operon in S. epidermidis strains 1457 and 8400. The genes rsbU, rsbV, rsbW, and sigB, as well as the regulatory cascade rsbUVW and the entire sigma(B) operon, were deleted. Transcriptional analysis of sarA and the sigma(B)-dependent gene asp23 revealed the functions of RsbU and RsbV as positive regulators and of RsbW as a negative regulator of sigma(B) activity, indicating regulation of sigma(B) activity similar to that characterized for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants revealed that the dramatic decrease of biofilm formation in rsbU mutants is mediated via sigma(B), indicating a crucial role for sigma(B) in S. epidermidis pathogenesis. However, biofilm formation in mutants defective in sigma(B) or its function could be restored in the presence of subinhibitory ethanol concentrations. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaR is up-regulated in mutants lacking sigma(B) function but that icaA transcription is down-regulated in these mutants, indicating a sigma(B)-dependent regulatory intermediate negatively regulating IcaR. Supplementation of growth media with ethanol decreased icaR transcription, leading to increased icaA transcription and a biofilm-positive phenotype, indicating that the ethanol-dependent induction of biofilm formation is mediated by IcaR. This icaR-dependent regulation under ethanol induction is mediated in a sigma(B)-independent manner, suggesting at least one additional regulatory intermediate in the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis.

  3. [FUNCTION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION A, FIBRINOGEN BINDING PROTEIN, AND ACCUMULATION-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN GENES IN FORMATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS-CANDIDA ALBICANS MIXED SPECIES BIOFILMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Youquan; Zhao, Guangqiang; Ye, Lianhua; Lei, Yujie; Tang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of intercellular adhesion A (icaA), fibrinogen binding protein (fbe), and accumulation-associated protein (aap) genes in formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans mixed species biofilms. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: single culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC35984 (S. epidermidis group) or Candida albicans ATCC10231 (C. albicans group), and co-culture of two strains (mixed group) to build in vitro biofilm model. Biofilm mass was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after incubation. XTT assay was performed to determine the growth kinetics in the same time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the ultrastructure of the biofilms after 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The expressions of icaA, fbe, and aap genes were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay showed that the biofilms thickened at 12 hours in the S. epidermidis and mixed groups; after co-cultured for 72 hours the thickness of biofilm in mixed group was more than that in the S. epidermidis group, and there was significant difference between 2 groups at the other time (P 0.05). In C. albicans group, the biofilm started to grow at 12 hours of cultivation, but the thickness of the biofilm was significantly lower than that in the mixed group in all the time points (P epidermidis group at 48 hours; there was no significant difference in the growth speed between the mixed groups and the S. epidermidis group in the other time points (P > 0.05) except at 12 hours (P epidermidis group at 2 and 4 hours, but no significant difference was shown (P > 0.05); the A value of mixed group was significantly higher than that of the C. albicans group after 6 hours (P epidermidis group (P Staphylococcus epidermidis or Candida albicans, which is related to increased expressions of the icaA, fbe, and aap genes of Staphylococcus

  4. Characterization of CRISPR-Cas system in clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains revealed its potential association with bacterial infection sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuchun; Xie, Xiaolei; Yin, Kequan; Tang, Yueyuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Chen, Yun; Xia, Jie; Hu, Yachen; Ingmer, Hanne; Li, Yang; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered as a major cause of nosocomial infections, bringing an immense burden to healthcare systems. Virulent phages have been confirmed to be efficient in combating the pathogen, but the prensence of CRISPR-Cas system, which is a bacterial immune system eliminating phages was reported in few S. epidermidis strains. In this study, the CRISPR-Cas system was detected in 12 from almost 300 published genomes in GenBank and by PCR of cas6 gene in 18 strains out of 130 clinical isolates obtained in Copenhagen. Four strains isolated in 1965-1966 harboured CRISPR elements confirming that this immunity system was not recently acquired by S. epidermidis. In these CRISPR-positive strains, 44 and 12 spacers were found to belong to CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 elements, respectively. However, only 15 spacers displayed homology to reported phages and plasmids DNA. Interestingly, 5 different spacers located in the CRISPR1 locus with homolgy to virulent phage 6ec DNA sequences, and 19 strains each carrying 2 or 3 different spacers recognizing this phage, implied that the CRISPR-Cas immunity could be abrogated by nucleotide mismatch between the spacer and its target phage sequence, while new spacers obtained from the evolved phage could recover the CRISPR interference. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the 29 CRISPR-positive isolates divided them into four lineages, with 81% human blood isolates as a distinct sub-lineage, suggesting that the CRISPR difference is closely related to diverse habitats. Knowledge of CRISPR and its prevalence may ultimately be applied in the understanding of origin and evolution of CRISPR-positive S. epidermidis strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Linezolid resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from German hospitals and characterization of two cfr-carrying plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jennifer; Strommenger, Birgit; Steglich, Matthias; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Fenner, Ines; Lensing, Carmen; Dagwadordsch, Urantschimeg; Kekulé, Alexander S; Werner, Guido; Layer, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    This study was a detailed investigation of Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates exhibiting linezolid resistance. Thirty-six linezolid-resistant S. epidermidis from eight German hospitals, including isolates from suspected hospital-associated outbreaks between January 2012 and April 2013, were analysed with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes. Relatedness of isolates was estimated by MLST and SmaI macrorestriction analysis. Characterization of cfr plasmids was carried out by means of Illumina sequencing. The MICs of linezolid varied substantially between the isolates. No apparent correlation was detected between the level of resistance, the presence of cfr and ribosomal target site mutations. S. epidermidis isolates from two hospitals were confirmed as clonally related, indicating the spread of the respective clone over a period of 1 year. Next-generation sequencing revealed two different categories of cfr-expressing plasmids, both of them varying in genetic arrangement and composition from previously published cfr plasmids: p12-00322-like plasmids showed incorporation of cfr into a pGO1-like backbone and displayed capabilities for intra- and inter-species conjugational transfer. To date, linezolid-resistant S. epidermidis have rarely been isolated from human clinical sources in Germany. Here, we describe the emergence and outbreaks of these strains. We detected previously described and novel point mutations in the 23S ribosomal genes. The cfr gene was only present in six isolates. However, this is the first known description of cfr incorporation into conjugative vectors; under selective pressure, these vectors could give reasonable cause for concern. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Biofilm formation increases treatment failure in Staphylococcus epidermidis device-related osteomyelitis of the lower extremity in human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Mario; Post, Virginia; Erichsen, Christoph; Hungerer, Sven; Bühren, Volker; Militz, Matthias; Richards, R Geoff; Moriarty, T Fintan

    2016-11-01

    The ability to form biofilm on the surface of implanted devices is often considered the most critical virulence factor possessed by Staphylococcus epidermidis in its role as an opportunistic pathogen in orthopaedic device-related infection (ODRI). Despite this recognition, there is a lack of clinical evidence linking outcome with biofilm forming ability for S. epidermidis ODRIs. We prospectively collected S. epidermidis isolates cultured from patients presenting with ODRI. Antibiotic resistance patterns and biofilm-forming ability was assessed. Patient information was collected and treatment outcome measures were determined after a mean follow-up period of 26 months. The primary outcome measure was cure at follow-up. Univariate logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance on treatment outcome. A total of 124 patients were included in the study, a majority of whom (n = 90) involved infections of the lower extremity. A clear trend emerged in the lower extremity cohort whereby cure rates decreased as the biofilm-forming ability of the isolates increased (84% cure rate for infections caused by non-biofilm formers, 76% cure rate for weak biofilm-formers, and 60% cure rate for the most marked biofilm formers, p = 0.076). Antibiotic resistance did not influence treatment cure rate. Chronic immunosuppression was associated with a statistically significant decrease in cure rate (p = 0.044). The trend of increasing biofilm-forming ability resulting in lower cure rates for S. epidermidis ODRI indicates biofilm-forming ability of infecting pathogens does influence treatment outcome of infections of the lower extremity. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1905-1913, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Novel bioactive from Lactobacillus brevis DSM17250 to stimulate the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, C; Benning, J; Schaudt, M; Heilmann, A; Schultchen, J; Goelling, D; Lang, C

    2017-02-07

    Commensal skin microbiota plays an important role in both influencing the immune response of the skin and acting as a barrier against colonisation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a key constituent of the normal microbiota on human skin. It balances the inflammatory response after skin injury and produces antimicrobial molecules that selectively inhibit skin pathogens. Here we describe Lactobacillus brevis DSM17250 that was identified among hundreds of Lactobacillus strains to exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in human keratinocytes in vitro and specific stimulatory impact on the growth of S. epidermidis. The aqueous cell-free extract of L. brevis DSM17250 was used in an ointment formulation and tested in a randomized placebo-controlled double blinded human pilot study. Healthy volunteers with diagnosed dry skin were treated for four weeks. The study data shows that L. brevis DSM17250 extract induces re-colonisation of the skin by protective commensal microorganisms as judged from selective bacterial cultivation of surface-associated skin microorganism of the lower leg. Furthermore, the 4 week administration of the L. brevis DSM17250 extract significantly improved the transepidermal water loss value (TEWL), reduced the xerosis cutis symptoms and stinging. The data shows that daily application of L. brevis DSM17250 extract in a topical product significantly improves the microbial skin microbiota by promoting the growth of species which possess beneficial regulatory and protective properties such as S. epidermidis. Restoring the natural skin microbiota leads to significantly improved skin barrier function (as transepidermal water loss) and decrease of xeroderma (xerosis cutis) symptoms (as measured by dry skin area and severity index, DASI). We propose that improving and stabilizing the natural skin microbiota by specifically stimulating the growth of S. epidermidis is an important and

  8. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chong Seng; Yin, Chow Suet; Bakar, Afra Abu; Sakewi, Zamberi; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Jamal, Farida; Othman, Norlijah

    2006-12-01

    Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Malaysia. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. A cross-sectional study involving 346 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of S. aureus. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 23.4%. The findings also revealed that ex-smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-6.32, p=0.033) and oral contraceptive users (95% CI 1.12-21.67, p=0.035) were more likely to harbor S. aureus. One person was colonized with MRSA, which was different from the hospital strain. MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment. Smokers and oral contraceptive users have high nasal carrier rates.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus strategies to evade the host acquired immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Oliver; Medina, Eva

    2017-09-15

    Staphylococcus aureus poses a significant public-health problem. Infection caused by S. aureus can manifest as acute or long-lasting persistent diseases that are often refractory to antibiotic and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To develop more effective strategies for preventing or treating these infections, it is crucial to understand why the immune response is incapable to eradicate the bacterium. When S. aureus first infect the host, there is a robust activation of the host innate immune responses. Generally, S. aureus can survive this initial interaction due to the expression of a wide array of virulence factors that interfere with the host innate immune defenses. After this initial interaction the acquired immune response is the arm of the host defenses that will try to clear the pathogen. However, S. aureus is capable of maintaining infection in the host even in the presence of a robust antigen-specific immune response. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying the ability of S. aureus to escape immune surveillance by the acquired immune response will help uncover potentially important targets for the development of immune-based adjunctive therapies and more efficient vaccines. There are several lines of evidence that lead us to believe that S. aureus can directly or indirectly disable the acquired immune response. This review will discuss the different immune evasion strategies used by S. aureus to modulate the different components of the acquired immune defenses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  11. Maternal-neonatal outcome with Staphylococcus aureus rectovaginal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Nibal; Alchyib, Omrou; Morrish, Donald; Tompkins, David; Julliard, Kell; Visconti, Ernest; Hoskins, Iffath A

    2011-01-01

    To estimate prevalence of rectovaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among pregnant women with group B streptococcus (GBS) screening results and its association with maternal and infant outcomes. Cultures that detected both group B streptococcus (GBS) and S. aureus were obtained at > or = 35 weeks of gestation. Computerized database search and chart review determined invasive neonatal infection and maternal outcomes at the time of delivery through 6 months postpartum. A total of 6,626 GBS screening cultures met study criteria, and 769 (11.6%) GBS isolates and 67 (1.0%) S. aureus were identified. No maternal S. aureus-related outcomes were found. The rate of maternal methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization was 0.1% (7 in 6,626). GBS-positive patients were twice as likely to be colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus than GBS-negative patients. GBS-positive culture rates differed significantly by primary language: Spanish 10.0%, English 13.7%, Russian 26.9%, Cantonese 13.2%, Mandarin 11.5%, Arabic 15.9%, and other 17.8%. In our population, S. aureus colonization percentage (1.0%) was lower than the 7.5-8.2% reported by other medical centers, as was overall GBS carriage rate. S. aureus did not predispose to maternal or infant morbidity or mortality up to 6 months postpartum.

  12. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  13. The inhibition the Tet(K) efflux pump of tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis by essential oils from three Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanová, R; Mezovská, J; Vaverková, Š; Mikulášová, M

    2015-07-01

    The inhibition of efflux pumps is an attractive and powerful response to the emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Essential oils (EOs) from Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea reduce the minimal inhibition concentration of tetracycline, decrease efflux of antibiotic and decrease the expression of tet(K) gene in tetracycline resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In all the cases S. fruticosa was the best one. By using checkerboard and time-killing methods, we found synergistic interactions of EOs with tetracycline. Our data from molecular and functional analyses of inhibitory effect of Salvia's essential oils, namely from S. fruticosa, on Tet(K) pump of Staphylococcus epidermidis and from modulatory studies may be the starting point for consecutive study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and their perspective use in combination therapy. Combination of antibiotic with efflux pump inhibitor would be expected to re-establish susceptibility of the bacteria to antibiotics that became no longer effective due to bacterial resistance through the efflux pumps. The inhibition of an efflux pump can potentially improve the clinical efficacy of an antibiotic and simultaneously decrease the selection of resistant mutants. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrousseaux, Camille; Cueff, Régis; Aumeran, Claire; Garrait, Ghislain; Mailhot-Jensen, Bénédicte; Traoré, Ousmane; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  15. A Single B-Repeat of Staphylococcus epidermidis Accumulation-Associated Protein Induces Protective Immune Responses in an Experimental Biomaterial-Associated Infection Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Hongyan; Chiu, David

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, resulting in 2 million infections and ∼100,000 deaths each year. More than 60% of these infections are associated with some type of biomedical device. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal bacterium of the human skin and is the most common nosocomial pathogen infecting implanted medical devices, especially those in the cardiovasculature. S. epidermidis antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation on inert surfaces make these infections hard to treat. Accumulation-associated protein (Aap), a cell wall-anchored protein of S. epidermidis, is considered one of the most important proteins involved in the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm. A small recombinant protein vaccine comprising a single B-repeat domain (Brpt1.0) of S. epidermidis RP62A Aap was developed, and the vaccine's efficacy was evaluated in vitro with a biofilm inhibition assay and in vivo in a murine model of biomaterial-associated infection. A high IgG antibody response against S. epidermidis RP62A was detected in the sera of the mice after two subcutaneous immunizations with Brpt1.0 coadministered with Freund's adjuvant. Sera from Brpt1.0-immunized mice inhibited in vitro S. epidermidis RP62A biofilm formation in a dose-dependent pattern. After receiving two immunizations, each mouse was surgically implanted with a porous scaffold disk containing 5 × 106 CFU of S. epidermidis RP62A. Weight changes, inflammatory markers, and histological assay results after challenge with S. epidermidis indicated that the mice immunized with Brpt1.0 exhibited significantly higher resistance to S. epidermidis RP62A implant infection than the control mice. Day 8 postchallenge, there was a significantly lower number of bacteria in scaffold sections and surrounding tissues and a lower residual inflammatory response to the infected scaffold disks for the Brpt1.0-immunized mice than for of the ovalbumin (Ova

  16. Staphylococcus epidermidis Uses Distinct Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation To Interfere with Phagocytosis and Activation of Mouse Macrophage-Like Cells 774A.1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Nina N.; Christner, Martin; Hentschke, Moritz; Ruckdeschel, Klaus; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Rohde, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Assembly of adherent biofilms is the key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. Aside from polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), the accumulation-associated protein Aap and the extracellular matrix binding protein Embp act as intercellular adhesins, mediating S. epidermidis cell aggregation and biofilm accumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate structural features of PIA-, Aap-, and Embp-mediated S. epidermidis biofilms in more detail and to evaluate their specific contributions to biofilm-related S. epidermidis immune escape. PIA-, Embp-, and Aap-mediated biofilms exhibited substantial morphological differences. Basically, PIA synthesis induced formation of macroscopically visible, rough cell clusters, whereas Aap- and Embp-dependent biofilms preferentially displayed a smooth layer of aggregated bacteria. On the microscopic level, PIA was found to form a string-like organized extracellular matrix connecting the bacteria, while Embp produced small deposits of intercellular matrix and Aap was strictly localized to the bacterial surface. Despite marked differences, S. epidermidis strains using PIA, Aap, or Embp for biofilm formation were protected from uptake by J774A.1 macrophages, with similarly efficiencies. In addition, compared to biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains, isogenic biofilm-forming S. epidermidis induced only a diminished inflammatory J774A.1 macrophage response, leading to significantly (88.2 to 88.7%) reduced NF-κB activation and 68.8 to 83% reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Mechanical biofilm dispersal partially restored induction of NF-κB activation, although bacterial cell surfaces remained decorated with the respective intercellular adhesins. Our results demonstrate that distinct S. epidermidis biofilm morphotypes are similarly effective at protecting S. epidermidis from phagocytic uptake and at counteracting macrophage activation, providing novel insights

  17. Differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species by real-time PCR including detection of methicillin resistants in comparison to conventional microbiology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschik, Sven; Lehmann, Lutz E; Steinhagen, Folkert; Book, Malte; Molitor, Ernst; Hoeft, Andreas; Stueber, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognized as a major pathogen. Methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant strains of S. epidermidis (MRSE) are among the most prevalent multiresistant pathogens worldwide, frequently causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In the present pilot study, we tested a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to quickly differentiate Staphylococci and identify the mecA gene in a clinical setting. Compared to the conventional microbiology testing the real-time PCR assay had a higher detection rate for both S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS; 55 vs. 32 for S. aureus and 63 vs. 24 for CoNS). Hands-on time preparing DNA, carrying out the PCR, and evaluating results was less than 5 h. The assay is largely automated, easy to adapt, and has been shown to be rapid and reliable. Fast detection and differentiation of S. aureus, CoNS, and the mecA gene by means of this real-time PCR protocol may help expedite therapeutic decision-making and enable earlier adequate antibiotic treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Synergistic Photothermal and Antibiotic Killing of Biofilm-AssociatedStaphylococcus aureusUsing Targeted Antibiotic-Loaded Gold Nanoconstructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Daniel G; Jenkins, Samir V; Miller, Emily K; Beenken, Karen E; Loughran, Allister J; Powless, Amy; Muldoon, Timothy J; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Zharov, Vladimir P; Smeltzer, Mark S; Chen, Jingyi

    2016-04-08

    Resistance to conventional antibiotics is a growing public health concern that is quickly outpacing the development of new antibiotics. This has led the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) to designate Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species as "ESKAPE pathogens" on the basis of the rapidly decreasing availability of useful antibiotics. This emphasizes the urgent need for alternative therapeutic strategies to combat infections caused by these and other bacterial pathogens. In this study, we used Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) as a proof-of-principle ESKAPE pathogen to demonstrate that an appropriate antibiotic (daptomycin) can be incorporated into polydopamine-coated gold nanocages (AuNC@PDA) and that daptomycin-loaded AuNC@PDA can be conjugated to antibodies targeting a species-specific surface protein (staphylococcal protein A; Spa) as a means of achieving selective delivery of the nanoconstructs directly to the bacterial cell surface. Targeting specificity was confirmed by demonstrating a lack of binding to mammalian cells, reduced photothermal and antibiotic killing of the Spa-negative species Staphylococcus epidermidis , and reduced killing of S. aureus in the presence of unconjugated anti-Spa antibodies. We demonstrate that laser irradiation at levels within the current safety standard for use in humans can be used to achieve both a lethal photothermal effect and controlled release of the antibiotic, thus resulting in a degree of therapeutic synergy capable of eradicating viable S. aureus cells. The system was validated using planktonic bacterial cultures of both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains and subsequently shown to be effective in the context of an established biofilm, thus indicating that this approach could be used to facilitate the effective treatment of intrinsically resistant biofilm infections.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Abraham, Alison G.; Larsen, Lisbeth A.; Christensen, Kaare; Stegger, Marc; Skov, Robert; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota—the host or the environment—and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus colonization? Our study of 46 monozygotic and 43 dizygotic twin pairs revealed that nasal microbiota is an environmentally derived trait, but the host’s sex and genetics significantly influence nasal bacterial density. Although specific taxa, including lactic acid bacteria, can determine S. aureus colonization, their negative interactions depend on thresholds of absolute abundance. These findings demonstrate that nasal microbiota is not fixed by host genetics and opens the possibility that nasal microbiota may be manipulated to prevent or eliminate S. aureus colonization. PMID:26601194

  20. Truncated Autoinducing Peptide Conjugates Selectively Recognize and Kill Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchikama, Kyoji; Shimamoto, Yasuhiro; Anami, Yasuaki

    2017-06-09

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus coordinates various pathogenic events and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for virulence control. S. aureus utilizes autoinducing peptides (AIPs), cyclic-peptide signaling molecules, to mediate the agr system. Despite the high potency of synthetic AIP analogues in agr inhibition, the potential of AIP molecules as a delivery vehicle for antibacterial agents remains unexplored. Herein, we report that truncated AIP scaffolds can be fused with fluorophore and cytotoxic photosensitizer molecules without compromising their high agr inhibitory activity, binding affinity to the receptor AgrC, or cell specificity. Strikingly, a photosensitizer-AIP conjugate exhibited 16-fold greater efficacy in a S. aureus cell-killing assay than a nontargeting analogue. These findings highlight the potential of truncated AIP conjugates as useful chemical tools for in-depth biological studies and as effective anti-S. aureus agents.

  1. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, J.; Cohn, M. T.; Petersen, A.

    2016-01-01

    culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical...... and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give...... an accurate estimate of cellular numbers in liquid cultures of S. aureus regardless of the aggregation level of the given strain. We further show that the sonication procedure is applicable for accurate determination of cell numbers using agar plate counting of aggregating strains....

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus adaptation to human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Grace; Paulino, Franklin; Wachtel, Sarah; Parker, Dane; Wickersham, Matthew; Zhang, Dongni; Brown, Armand; Lauren, Christine; Dowd, Margaret; West, Emily; Horst, Basil; Planet, Paul; Prince, Alice

    2015-04-21

    Skin is the most common site of Staphylococcus aureus infection. While most of these infections are self-limited, recurrent infections are common. Keratinocytes and recruited immune cells participate in skin defense against infection. We postulated that S. aureus is able to adapt to the milieu within human keratinocytes to avoid keratinocyte-mediated clearance. From a collection of S. aureus isolated from chronically infected patients with atopic dermatitis, we noted 22% had an agr mutant-like phenotype. Using several models of human skin infection, we demonstrate that toxin-deficient, agr mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 are able to persist within keratinocytes by stimulating autophagy and evading caspase-1 and inflammasome activation. MRSA infection induced keratinocyte autophagy, as evidenced by galectin-8 and LC3 accumulation. Autophagy promoted the degradation of inflammasome components and facilitated staphylococcal survival. The recovery of more than 58% agr or RNAIII mutants (P Soong et al.

  3. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D B; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  4. The (95)(Δ)G mutation in the 5'untranslated region of the norA gene increases efflux activity in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; Jaso-Vera, Marcos E; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A; Alcántar-Curiel, María D; Zenteno, Juan C; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Peralta, Humberto; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Díaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C

    2017-02-01

    In the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 strain, the flqB mutation in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) of the norA gene causes increased norA mRNA expression and high efflux activity (HEA). The involvement of the norA gene 5'UTR in HEA has not been explored in S. epidermidis; therefore, we examined the function of this region in S. epidermidis clinical isolates. The selection of isolates with HEA was performed based on ethidium bromide (EtBr) MIC values and efflux efficiency (EF) using the semi-automated fluorometric method. The function of the 5'UTR was studied by quantifying the levels of norA expression (RT-qPCR) and by identifying 5'UTR mutations by sequence analysis. Only 10 isolates from a total of 165 (6.1%) had HEA (EtBr MIC = 300 μg/ml and EF ranged from 48.4 to 97.2%). Eight of 10 isolates with HEA had the 5'UTR (95)(Δ)G mutation. Isolates carrying the (95)(Δ)G mutation had higher levels of norA expression compared with those that did not. To corroborate that the (95)(Δ)G mutation is involved in HEA, a strain adapted to EtBr was obtained in vitro. This strain also presented the (95)(Δ)G mutation and had a high level of norA expression and EF, indicating that the (95)(Δ)G mutation is important for the HEA phenotype. The (95)(Δ)G mutation produces a different structure in the Shine-Dalgarno region, which may promote better translation of norA mRNA. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the participation of the 5'UTR (95)(Δ)G mutation of the norA gene in the HEA phenotype of S. epidermidis isolates. Here, we propose that the efflux of EtBr is caused by an increment in the transcription and/or translation of the norA gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected ...

  6. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples collected from patients in Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance to quinolones by the agar disk diffusion susceptibility test and the agar ...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus infections; Lead by the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn overview and the latest insights regarding S. aureus nasal carriage, associated risks of developing infections and possible preventive measures, will be given in Chapter 2. Since mupirocin efficacy studies in preventing nosocomial infections have only been performed in surgical and

  8. A cohort study of the Copenhagen CF Centre eradication strategy against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with CF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Christina Schjellerup; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed.......Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed....

  9. Anti-biofilm properties of the antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb and its ability, in combination with EDTA, to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on silicone catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bombardelli, Silvia; Medici, Chiara; Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    In search of new antimicrobials with anti-biofilm potential, in the present study activity of the frog-skin derived antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb (TB) against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms was investigated. A striking ability of TB to kill both forming and mature S. epidermidis biofilms was observed, especially when the peptide was combined with cysteine or EDTA, respectively. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the combination TB/EDTA was active against mature biofilms already after 2-4-h exposure. A double 4-h exposure of biofilms to TB/EDTA further increased the therapeutic potential of the same combination. Of note, TB/EDTA was able to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms formed in vitro on silicone catheters. At eradicating concentrations, TB/EDTA did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The results shed light on the anti-biofilm properties of TB and suggest a possible application of the peptide in the lock therapy of catheters infected with S. epidermidis.

  10. Significance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Health Care-Associated Infections, from Contaminant to Clinically Relevant Pathogen: This Is a Wake-Up Call!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström, Micael

    2016-07-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, have been recognized as an important cause of health care-associated infections. Concurrently, S. epidermidis is a common contaminant in clinical cultures, which poses a diagnostic challenge. An article in this issue of Journal of Clinical Microbiology (I. Tolo, J. C. Thomas, R. S. B. Fischer, E. L. Brown, B. M. Gray, and D. A. Robinson, J Clin Microbiol 54:1711-1719, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03345-15) describes a rapid single nucleotide polymorphism-based assay for distinguishing between S. epidermidis isolates from hospital and nonhospital sources, which represents an important contribution to the characterization and understanding of S. epidermidis health care-associated infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Ceftriaxone and tetracycline effect on biofilm-formation strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Sidashenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 122 strains of staphylococci were identified. Among the examined 122 clinical strains of staphylococci, 67 strains belonged to coagulase-positive, and 55 strains to the coagulase-negative ones. According to the study of physiological and biochemical properties, it was found that 37 strains (30.3% belonged to S. epidermidis species. One of the biological properties of many bacteria is the ability to film formation and these strains attract special attention, since it is known that the film antibiotic resistance is higher than in planktonic cultures. It was determined that 20 strains of those under study were film-forming, 17 strains – non-biofilm forming ones. The film was formed during three days, and settled to the bottom of the plate holes. The clinical (Cl strain of S. epidermidis was sensitive to ceftriaxone and tetracicline. The control (C strains of S. epidermidis were sensitive to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and sizomicine. The study of biofilm growth for 2, 3 and 4 days of incubation was carried out. The maximum rate of biofilm S. epidermidis C was observed during 2–3 days; there is the most intense increase of cells number from 5.2 × 108 CFU/ml, for S. epidermidis Cl to 5.6 × 108 CFU/ml. The effect of ceftriaxone and tetracycline on biofilm formation by 2 investigation strains of S. epidermidis was found. We determined differences in minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for planktonic cultures and biofilm of strains under study. It was established that MIC antibiotics inhibited the growth of planktonic cultures on average 2 times lower compared to the MIC which inhibited the biofilm formation. MIC for planktonic culture of S. epidermidis Cl defined for ceftriaxone was equal to 10 mg/ml, and for tetracycline – 1 mg/ml. MIC of ceftriaxone for the control strain was equal to 12 mg/ml, MIC of tetracycline – 0.7 mg/ml. MIC values for dynamics biofilm formation of S. epidermidis Cl strain on the plater were as follows: to

  12. Staphylococcus aureus infections following knee and hip prosthesis insertion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Jean Marie; Kaye, Keith S; Reed, Shelby D; Peter, Senaka A; Sexton, Daniel J; Chen, Luke F; Hardy, N Chantelle; Tong, Steven Yc; Smugar, Steven S; Fowler, Vance G; Anderson, Deverick J

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common and most important pathogen following knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. Understanding the epidemiology of invasive S. aureus infections is important to quantify this serious complication. This nested retrospective cohort analysis included adult patients who had undergone insertion of knee or hip prostheses with clean or clean-contaminated wound class at 11 hospitals between 2003-2006. Invasive S. aureus infections, non-superficial incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) and blood stream infections (BSIs), were prospectively identified following each procedure. Prevalence rates, per 100 procedures, were estimated. 13,719 prosthetic knee (62%) and hip (38%) insertion procedures were performed. Of 92 invasive S. aureus infections identified, SSIs were more common (80%) than SSI and BSI (10%) or BSI alone (10%). The rate of invasive S. aureus infection/100 procedures was 0.57 [95% CI: 0.43-0.73] for knee insertion and 0.83 [95% CI: 0.61-1.08] for hip insertion. More than half (53%) were methicillin-resistant. Median time-to-onset of infection was 34 and 26 days for knee and hip insertion, respectively. Infection was associated with higher National Healthcare Safety Network risk index (p ≤ 0.0001). Post-operative invasive S. aureus infections were rare, but difficult-to-treat methicillin-resistant infections were relatively common. Optimizing preventative efforts may greatly reduce the healthcare burden associated with S. aureus infections.

  13. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin E. Guerra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions.

  14. Silver nanoparticles for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Ortiz-Gila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un gran ecosistema microbiano en la cavidad oral donde Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus se puede encontrar, causando patologías orales tales como quelitis angular, las paperas y la mucositis estafilocócica. Estas enfermedades producidas por S. aureus en la cavidad oral son consecuencia de los factores de virulencia, toxinas y multiresistencia a los antibióticos, lo que contribuye a la infección. La colonización en la cavidad oral por S. aureus en pacientes sanos es de 24% a 36%. Sin embargo, la incidencia aumenta a 48% en pacientes con prótesis debido a la formación de biofilms en la superficie de las dentaduras postizas. Actualmente, no existe ningún tratamiento para infecciones orales sin el uso de antibióticos. Investigaciones recientes indican que las nanopartículas de plata (AgNPs son un material o estrategia para eliminar S. aureus debido a su efecto antibacteriano. Sin embargo, el mecanismo del efecto inhibidor de los iones de Ag sobre S. aureus es sólo parcialmente conocida y muy poco se ha informado. Por lo tanto, el propósito de la presente revisión sistemática es determinar las estrategias y retos de la utilización de biomateriales antimicrobianos con AgNPs frente a las infecciones orales de S. aureus.

  15. [Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in carrier patients undergoing joint arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero Allende, José M; Romanyk Cabrera, Juan; Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Vallés Purroy, Alfonso; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Agudo López, Rosa; Gete García, Luis; López Álvarez, Joaquín

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication with serious repercussions and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether decolonization of S.aureus carriers helps to reduce the incidence of PJI by S.aureus. An S.aureus screening test was performed on nasal carriers in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty between January and December 2011. Patients with a positive test were treated with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine soap 5 days. The incidence of PJI was compared with patients undergoing the same surgery between January and December 2010. A total of 393 joint replacements were performed in 391 patients from the control group, with 416 joint replacements being performed in the intervention group. Colonization study was performed in 382 patients (91.8%), of which 102 were positive (26.7%) and treated. There was 2 PJI due S.aureus compared with 9 in the control group (0.5% vs 2.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 2.3, P=.04). In our study, the detection of colonization and eradication of S.aureus carriers achieved a significant decrease in PJI due to S.aureus compared to a historical group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, K.B.; Lyytikäinen, O.; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  17. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fermin E.; Borgogna, Timothy R.; Patel, Delisha M.; Sward, Eli W.; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions. PMID:28713774

  18. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated the occu...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought.......The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from tonsillectomized adult patients with recurrent tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkowska, Marta; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Stromkowski, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains from 118 tonsillectomized adults due to recurrent tonsillitis (RT). The study included strains isolated from the tonsillar surface prior to tonsillectomy, recovered from the tonsillar core at the time of surgery, and from the posterior throat 2-4 weeks after the procedure. Susceptibility of isolates to 19 antibiotics was tested in line with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Irrespective of the stage, the most commonly isolated bacteria were gram-positive cocci, and among them S. aureus. The tonsillar core was the most common site of S. aureus isolation (30.5%), followed by the tonsillar surface (10.8%) and the posterior pharynx (5.9%). This difference turned out to be statistically significant (p Staphylococcus aureus seems to be the most common pathogen isolated from patients tonsillectomized due to RT. Staphylococcal isolates associated with RT are present mostly within the tonsillar core and susceptible to most antibiotics. They are typically isolated from patients between 21 and 30 years of age. Tonsillectomy results in less frequent isolation of S. aureus strains. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of a Vancomycin-Intermediate Heteroresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Outbreak in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jasmine; Quach, Caroline; Blanchard, Ana C; Poliquin, Philippe Guillaume; Golding, George R; Laferrière, Céline; Lévesque, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become the leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in intensive care units (ICUs), particularly in premature neonates. Vancomycin-intermediate heteroresistant CoNS (hVICoNS) have been identified as sources of BSIs worldwide, and their potential to emerge as significant pathogens in the neonatal ICU (NICU) remains uncertain. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of vancomycin-heteroresistant (hV) Staphylococcus epidermidis central-line-associated BSI (CLABSI) in a single tertiary care NICU and compares it to a second tertiary care NICU that had not been associated with an outbreak. Between November 2009 and April 2014, 119 S. epidermidis CLABSIs were identified in two tertiary care NICUs in Quebec, Canada. Decreased vancomycin susceptibility was identified in about 88% of all collected strains using Etest methods. However, discrepancies were found according to the Etest and population analysis profiling-area under the concentration-time curve (PAP-AUC) methods used. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, and a few isolates were nonsusceptible to daptomycin. Great genetic diversity was observed within the collection, with 31 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns identified. The outbreak strains were all determined to be heteroresistant to vancomycin and were polyclonal. The study identified two major clones, PFGE patterns E and G, which were found in both NICUs across the 5-year study period. This suggests the persistence of highly successful clones that are well adapted to the hospital environment. hV S. epidermidis seems more common than currently realized in the NICU, and certain hV S. epidermidis clones can become endemic to the NICU. The reservoirs for these clones remain unknown at this time, and identification of the reservoirs is needed to better understand the impact of hV S. epidermidis in the NICU and to inform infection prevention strategies. In addition, there is

  1. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  2. Beta-Hemolysin Promotes Skin Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Yuki; Baba, Tadashi; Sekine, Miwa; Fukuda, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is a characteristic feature of several inflammatory skin diseases and is often followed by epidermal damage and invasive infection. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of skin colonization by a virulent community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain, MW2, using a murine ear colonization model. MW2 does not produce a hemolytic toxin, beta-hemolysin (Hlb), due to integration of a prophage, ϕSa3mw, inside the toxin gene (hlb). H...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus still colonizes the untreated neonatal umbilicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, M; Dyas, A

    1992-06-01

    Two different neonatal umbilical cord treatment regimens were studied prospectively. Although a greater proportion of cords had separated by the seventh day in those babies not treated with topical antiseptics (47% vs. 26%), there was a significant excess (53% vs. 30%) of umbilical colonization by Staphylococcus aureus compared to those neonates whose cords were treated with alcohol wipes and hexachlorophane powder. The main purpose of treating cords is to prevent significant S. aureus colonization, and therefore current proposals to stop antiseptic treatment of umbilical cords should be disregarded.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus CcpA affects biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, K.; Goerke, C; Wolz, C; Mack, D; Berger-Bächi, B; Bischoff, M

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus under in vitro growth conditions is generally promoted by high concentrations of sugar and/or salts. The addition of glucose to routinely used complex growth media triggered biofilm formation in S. aureus strain SA113. Deletion of ccpA, coding for the catabolite control protein A (CcpA), which regulates gene expression in response to the carbon source, abolished the capacity of SA113 to form a biofilm under static and flow conditions, while still all...

  5. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  6. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...

  7. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  8. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sofie Dragland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of low viscosity chitosan on S. epidermidis growth and biofilm formation. Methods and Results. The antibacterial and antibiofilm properties were investigated, during both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. This was performed using different concentrations in media and by coating on polystyrene surfaces. In addition, the bactericidal effect was investigated using a modified direct contact test. The results showed that low viscosity chitosan in media had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis in a concentration dependent manner. Polystyrene discs coated with chitosan reduced both early biofilm formation (6 h and late biofilm formation (18 h, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The modified direct contact test showed a bactericidal effect. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that low viscosity chitosan has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis and that the activity is dependent on the amount of chitosan added. In addition, low viscosity chitosan reduced biofilm formation both when added to media and when coated on polystyrene surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study. Low viscosity chitosan could be a contribution to new treatment approaches of biofilm-related infections of S. epidermidis.

  9. Cinnamon Oil and Chitosan Coating on Orthopaedic Implant Surface for Prevention of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Magetsari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available S. Epidermidis is among the most frequently isolated microorganisms found in -infection related to implanted devices and the formation of biofilm will be more resistantcompared to the planktonic form. This study was carried out determine the effect of coating on stainless steel orthopaedic implants surfaces with cinnamon oil and chitosan as bioadhesive to prevent biofilms formation of S. Epidermidis.The rod shaped stainless steel 316 L orthopaedic implant with 5 mm diameters was coated 2 times using a mixture of cinnamon oil and chitosan 3% and 2% respectively with serial concentration of cinnamon from 0.125% to 2%. The coated implants were then put into tubes that contained bacterial suspension and incubated. Subsequently, the implants were washed with PBS solution followed by MTT soulution and isopropanol acid solution that related to biofilm formation. The results were expressed in numbers which represents the absorbance level at ELISA readings on 575 nm (A575 wavelength.The stainless steel implant coated with chitosan and cinnamon oil 2% and 1% has lower absorbance level compared with the absorbance level of S.Epidermidis biofilm only. This study showed that mixture of cinnamon oil and chitosan coated on the surface of stainless steel orthopaedic implant has an effect against S.Epidermidis biofilm formation with minimum cinnamon oil concentration of 1%.

  10. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at the physiologic glucose concentration depends on the S. aureus lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Sander; Deurenberg, Ruud H; Boumans, Marie-Louise L; Beisser, Patrick S; Neef, Cees; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since bacteria embedded in biofilms are far more difficult to eradicate than planktonic infections, it would be useful to know whether certain Staphylococcus aureus lineages are especially involved in strong biofilm formation. For this reason, in vitro biofilm formation of 228 clinical

  12. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients : model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304842362; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the

  13. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manipal...... using disc diffusion test by cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) disc, further confirmation was done by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ResultsOut of 400 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 139 (34.75%) were found to be MRSA. Among the MRSA isolates, 74 (53.2%) were from inpatient departments, 58 (41...... Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A total of 400 isolates were collected from various clinical specimens including hospital units (operation theaters and intensive care units). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Primary screening for MRSA was performed...

  14. Neutrophil evasion strategies by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Megan L; Surewaard, Bas G J

    2017-12-05

    Humans are well equipped to defend themselves against bacteria. The innate immune system employs diverse mechanisms to recognize, control and initiate a response that can destroy millions of different microbes. Microbes that evade the sophisticated innate immune system are able to escape detection and could become pathogens. The pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are particularly successful due to the development of a wide variety of virulence strategies for bacterial pathogenesis and they invest significant efforts towards mechanisms that allow for neutrophil evasion. Neutrophils are a primary cellular defense and can rapidly kill invading microbes, which is an indispensable function for maintaining host health. This review compares the key features of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in epidemiology, with a specific focus on virulence mechanisms utilized to evade neutrophils in bacterial pathogenesis. It is important to understand the complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria and neutrophils so that we can disrupt the ability of pathogens to cause disease.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  16. Concentrations of Staphylococcus species in indoor air as associated with other bacteria, season, relative humidity, air change rate, and S. aureus-positive occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Islam, Md Zohorul; Frankel, Mika; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Margit W

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge about concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), and other Staphylococcus species in indoor air in Greater Copenhagen and about factors affecting the concentrations. The effects of season, temperature, relative humidity, air change rate (ACR), other bacterial genera, area per occupant, and presence of S. aureus-positive occupants were studied. In samples from 67 living rooms, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, and S. capitis were found in 13-25%; S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, and S. pasteuri in 5-10%; and S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. caprae, S. equorum, S. kloosii, S. pettenkoferi, S. simulans, and S. xylosus in less than 3%. Staphylococcus aureus were found in two of 67 living rooms: spa type t034 (an MRSA) was recovered from a farmhouse, while spa type t509 was found in an urban home. Two species, S. equorum and S. kloosii, were found only in the farmhouse. Staphylococcus was significantly associated with season with lowest concentration and richness in winter. Genera composition was associated with ACR with smaller fractions of Staphylococcus at higher ACR, while richness was significantly and negatively associated with area per occupant. Concentration of Staphylococcus correlated positively with the total concentration of bacteria, but negatively with the total concentration of other bacteria. The concentration of Staphylococcus was not significantly associated with concentrations of the other abundant genera Bacillus, Kocuria, and Micrococcus. In offices with S. aureus-positive occupants, airborne S. aureus was not found. In conclusion, Staphylococcus species constitute a considerable proportion of the airborne bacteria in the studied homes and offices. However, both S. aureus and MRSA had very low prevalence during all seasons. Thus, transmission of S. aureus and MRSA through the air in living rooms in Copenhagen is expected to be limited. The negative associations

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebs, Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasingly prevalent pathogen, both in the community and in hospitalized patients. The virulence of MRSA, coupled with its resistance to many frequently prescribed antibiotics, requires increased vigilance in the assessment and diagnosis of skin and soft tissue infections. This article reviews the epidemiology of MRSA and focuses on treatment of MRSA when it is diagnosed during pregnancy.

  18. A Rare Presentation of Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Docekal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic abscess is a rarely described condition and is commonly caused by gram-negative organisms such as enterobacteria. However, as the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA increases in the community, unusual infections due to this organism have been recently published. In this report, we describe a patient with diabetes mellitus type 2, who presents with diabetic ketoacidosis—later found to be due to a prostatic abscess from which MRSA was cultured.

  19. Assessment of Ibicella lutea for antibacterial agent front Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Martins Volcão; Tatiane Silveira Coelho; Alváro Vàsquez; Maria Pia Cerdeiras; Pedro Eduardo Almeida da Silva; Flávio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior; Daniela Fernandes Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Justificative and Objectives: the study aimed the assessment of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and fractions of Ibicella lutea, front Staphylococcus aureus, thecombination of these compounds and cytotoxic activity. Methods: was used for antibacterial activity the Microdilution Test Broth, and performed the Checkerboard Test. The extracts showed antibacterial activity were submitted to the citotoxicity test, with macrophages cell and determination of the Selectivity Index (SI). R...

  20. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  1. Involvement of multiple genetic loci in Staphylococcus aureus teicoplanin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Markus; Roos, Martin; Putnik, Jasmina; Wada, Akihito; Glanzmann, Philipp; Giachino, Philipp; Vaudaux, Pierre; Berger-Bächi, B.

    2017-01-01

    Teicoplanin resistance was transformed from a teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into the susceptible strain BB255 to give strain BB938. The cell wall composition, amidation of the iD-glutamate, and peptide crosslinking were identical in BB938 as in BB255 except for a 60% increased length of the glycan chain. Transductional crosses revealed that at least two distinct loci contributed in a cumulative fashion to teicoplanin resistance. One of these loci correlated with a mutation inact...

  2. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiu-jun; Fang, Yong; Yao, Min

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common multidrug resistant bacteria both in hospitals and in the community. In the last two decades, there has been growing concern about the increasing resistance to MRSA of the most potent antibiotic glycopeptides. MRSA infection poses a serious problem for physicians and their patients. Photosensitizer-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears to be a promising and innovative approach for treatin...

  3. Activity of bone cement loaded with daptomycin alone or in combination with gentamicin or PEG600 against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalba Arias, Patricio; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Vogt, Sebastian; Trampuz, Andrej; Borens, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Daptomycin is a promising candidate for local treatment of bone infection due to its activity against multi-resistant staphylococci. We investigated the activity of antibiotic-loaded PMMA against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms using an ultra-sensitive method bacterial heat detection method (microcalorimetry). PMMA cylinders loaded with daptomycin alone or in combination with gentamicin or PEG600, vancomycin and gentamicin were incubated with S. epidermidis-RP62A in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 72 h. Cylinders were thereafter washed and transferred in microcalorimetry ampoules pre-filled with TSB. Bacterial heat production, proportional to the quantity of biofilm on the PMMA, was measured by isothermal microcalorimetry at 37 °C. Heat detection time was considered time to reach 20 μW. Experiments were performed in duplicate. The heat detection time was 5.7-7.0 h for PMMA without antibiotics. When loaded with 5% of daptomycin, vancomycin or gentamicin, detection times were 5.6-16.4 h, 16.8-35.7 h and 4.7-6.2 h, respectively. No heat was detected when 5% gentamicin or 0.5% PEG600 was added to the daptomycin-loaded PMMA. The study showed that vancomycin was superior to daptomycin and gentamicin in inhbiting staphylococcal adherence in vitro. However, PMMA loaded with daptomycin combined with gentamicin or PEG600 completely inhibited S. epidermidis-biofilm formation. PMMA loaded with these combinations may represent effective strategies for local treatment in the presence of multi-resistant staphylococci. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus phage types and their correlation to antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most devastating human pathogen. The organism has a differential ability to spread and cause outbreak of infections. Characterization of these strains is important to control the spread of infection in the hospitals as well as in the community. Aim: To identify the currently existing phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus, their prevalence and resistance to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Study was undertaken on 252 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples. Strains were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined following standard microbiological procedures. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test was used to compare the antibiotic susceptibility between methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strains. Results: Prevalence of MRSA and MSSA strains was found to be 29.36% and 70.65% respectively. Of these 17.56% of MRSA and 40.44% of MSSA strains were community acquired. All the MSSA strains belonging to phage type 81 from the community were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested including clindamycin and were resistant to penicillin. Forty five percent strains of phage group III and 39% of non-typable MRSA strains from the hospital were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Conclusion: The study revealed that predominant phage group amongst MRSA strains was phage group III and amongst MSSA from the community was phage group NA (phage type 81. MSSA strains isolated from the community differed significantly from hospital strains in their phage type and antibiotic susceptibility. A good correlation was observed between community acquired strains of phage type 81 and sensitivity to gentamycin and clindamycin.

  5. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523

  6. [Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. A severity factor of erysipelas?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P; Risse, L; Mounier, M; Bonnetblanc, J M

    1996-01-01

    Occasional superinfection or co-infection with Staphylococcus aureus led us to search for S. aureus carriage prospectively in patients with non-necrotizing bacterial dermophypodermitis, in particular erysipelas. This prospective study included immunocompetent patients with bacterial dermophypodermitis without signs of toxicity or local manifestations suggesting necrotizing fasciitis. Bacteriology tests included: 1) direct immunofluorescence for streptococcus (groups A, C, G) on skin biopsies taken on day 0, 2) samples from the nasal orifices, the intergluteal fold, and potential skin portals for bacteriology culture, and 3) assay of antistreptolysine O and antistreptodornase B on day 0 and 15. The study group included 42 patients (23 females, 19 males, mean age 64 +/- 3.5 yr). In 39 cases (93%) bacterial dermohypodermitis was located on the lower limb with a potential skin portal in 36 cases (86%). Sample culture, direct immunofluorescence or serology findings demonstrated presence of streptococci in 33 cases (79%). Nasal, intergluteal or potential portal were identified in 19 patients (45%) including 16 with demonstrated presence of streptococci. The rate of cure after oral pristinamycin did not vary significantly between carriers (79%) an non-carriers (91%) of Staphylococcus aureus. Drainage of a localized abscess was successful in 5 of 6 patients after initial failure of antibiotic treatment; 4 of them were carriers of S. aureus. This prospective study demonstrated that cutaneous-mucosal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is frequent in patients with non-necrotizing dermohypodermitis. This carriage is not a factor of over-morbidity as shown in this group of infections largely dominated by erysipelas.

  7. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963, some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963 were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6. mecC-MRSA (n = 8 were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation.

  8. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation.

  9. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdali, Anna M; Anna, Bogdali M; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga; Aleksander, Obtulowicz; Anna, Bialecka; Andrzej, Kasprowicz; Zofia, Magnowska; Krystyna, Obtulowicz

    2016-01-01

    The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus in atopic dermatitis. Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy volunteers without nickel allergy. The elevated secretion of IL-2 under nickel sulfate stimulation in vitro was exclusively found in atopic patients with nickel allergy infected by S. aureus. Our data suggest that nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus are linked in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. "Gesundheit!" sneezing, common colds, allergies, and Staphylococcus aureus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Werner E; Wallis, Michelle L; Tucker, Brian K; Reboussin, Beth A; Pfaller, Michael A; Hayden, Frederick G; Sherertz, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important pathogens in today's hospital setting. The effects of sneezing on the airborne dispersal of S. aureus and other bacteria were assessed in 11 healthy nasal S. aureus carriers with experimentally induced rhinovirus colds. Airborne dispersal was studied by volumetric air sampling in 2 chamber sessions with and without histamine-induced sneezing. After 2 days of preexposure measurements, volunteers were inoculated with a rhinovirus and monitored for 14 days. Daily quantitative nasal- and skin-culture samples for bacteria and nasal-culture samples for rhinovirus were obtained, cold symptoms were assessed, and volunteer activities were recorded during sessions. All participants developed a cold. Sneezing caused a 4.7-fold increase in the airborne dispersal of S. aureus, a 1.4-fold increase in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and a 3.9-fold increase in other bacteria (P Rhinovirus exposure did not change the frequency of sneezing or airborne dispersal. Having respiratory allergies increased the spread of S. aureus by 3.8-fold during sneezing sessions (P effect of dispersing S. aureus.

  11. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia S.; Junqueira, Elisabete; Palma, Cláudia; Viveiros, Miguel; Melo-Cristino, José; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide information on approaches useful to the assessment and characterization of efflux activity, as well as contributing to our understanding of the role of efflux to phenotypes of antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance in S. aureus clinical isolates. The results described show that efflux is an important contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in S. aureus and suggest it as a major mechanism in the early stages of resistance development. We also show that efflux plays an important role on the reduced susceptibility to biocides in S. aureus, strengthening the importance of this long neglected resistance mechanism to the persistence and proliferation of antibiotic/biocide-resistant S. aureus in the hospital environment. PMID:27029294

  12. Antibiotic Combinations with Daptomycin for Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nadrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with a unique mechanism of action on Gram-positive bacteria. It is approved for treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections with Gram-positive bacteria, bacteraemia and right-sided infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Diminishing susceptibility of S. aureus to daptomycin during treatment of complicated infections and clinical failure have been described. Combinations of daptomycin with other antibiotics including gentamicin, rifampin, beta-lactams, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX, or clarithromycin present a new approach for therapy. In vitro and animal studies have shown that such combinations may, in some cases, be superior to daptomycin monotherapy. In this paper we focus on the antibiotic combinations for complicated S. aureus infections.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  14. Biochemical Characterization of Lysine Auxotrophs of Staphylococcus aureus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Isabel J.; Bondi, Amedeo; Moat, Albert G.

    1969-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus has been studied by use of a series of lysine auxotrophs. The strains were isolated after chemical mutagenesis. The majority of these mutant strains were classified according to the enzymatic step found to be deficient. Specific enzyme assays as well as nutritional tests were used to group the organisms. The enzymes included were dihydrodipicolinate synthetase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, diaminopimelate epimerase, and diaminopimelate decarboxylase. The accumulation of diaminopimelate in certain mutants and the demonstration of dihydrodipicolinate synthetase and reductase provide the first detailed evidence that S. aureus utilizes the diaminopimelate pathway for lysine biosynthesis. A cell-free system was used to study the regulation of these enzymes with the exception of diaminopimelate epimerase. Lysine repressed all of the enzymes tested. The repression appeared to be coordinate in nature. The data presented provide suggestive evidence that the lysine biosynthetic region in S. aureus constitutes an operon. PMID:5802602

  15. Observation of antibacterial effect of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm using FE-SEM with an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chisato; Ogawa, Noriko; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2015-06-01

    We successfully visualized the antibacterial behavior of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) on a biofilm formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), was applied for observation using FE-SEM. The differences in adherence and penetration behavior of three types of NPs were revealed using this method and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biodegradable poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method. In this study, we treated the biofilm with three PLGA NPs: unmodified PLGA, PLGA modified with chitosan (CS) and clarithromycin (CAM)-loaded + CS-modified PLGA. The viability of S. epidermidis cells treated with PLGA NPs was estimated using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit to understand the antibacterial ability of each NP sample in a quantitative way. The results confirmed that CAM-loaded + CS-modified PLGA had high antibacterial ability on the biofilm. This novel observation technique would be useful in the development of drug formations and medical agents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of surface features on the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Ag-TiCN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isabel; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, João Carlos; Filipa Almeida Alves, Cristiana; Piedade, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The initial adhesion of these organisms to the surface of biomaterials is assumed to be an important stage in their colonization. The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of surface features on the adhesion of S. epidermidis to Ag-TiCN coatings deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural results obtained by x-ray diffraction show that the coatings crystallize in a B1-NaCl crystal structure typical of TiC0.3N0.7. The increase of Ag content promoted the formation of Ag crystalline phases. According to the results obtained with atomic force microscopy, a decrease on the surface roughness of the films from 39 to 7 nm is observed as the Ag content increases from 0 to 15 at.%. Surface energy results show that the increase of Ag promotes an increase in hydrophobicity. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on coatings were assessed by the enumeration of the number of viable cells. The results showed that the surface with lower roughness and higher hydrophobicity leads to greater bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, highlighting that surface morphology and hydrophobicity rule the colonization of materials.

  17. The effect of various topical peri-implantitis antiseptics on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Witecy, Corinna; Hahnel, Sebastian; Gosau, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Although peri-implantitis has presented an ever increasing problem in modern dentistry, satisfying therapeutic strategies or scientifically based treatment recommendations are still not available. The main object of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of six different topical antiseptics on three test microorganisms attached to titanium implant specimens. For biofilm formation, plane titan specimens were incubated either in Candida albicans, Streptococcus sanguinis, or Staphylococcus epidermidis for 2h. The specimens were then treated with different topical antiseptics for 60s (sodium hypochlorite 1.0%, hydrogen peroxide 3.0%, chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, citric acid 40.0%, Plax, or Listerine) and with sterile saline as control. Remaining vital fungi were quantified by means of a bioluminometric assay and the bacterial load and the viability of adhering S. epidermidis and S. sanguinis by live or dead cell labelling in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Sodium hypochlorite was effective against all three species, whereas hydrogen peroxide was solely effective against C. albicans. CHX and Listerine showed antimicrobial activity against S. sanguinis and C. albicans and citric acid and Plax against both tested bacteria. None of the tested antimicrobial agents, except for sodium hypochlorite, showed a significant in vitro effect on all three test microbes. Considering the possible toxicity of sodium hypochlorite, none of the tested - and so far widely used - antiseptics showed any broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect and could therefore not be recommended for the topical disinfection and detoxification of infected implant surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability of the cargo regions of the cfr-carrying, multiresistance plasmid pSP01 from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenciani, Andrea; Morroni, Gianluca; Mingoia, Marina; Varaldo, Pietro E; Giovanetti, Eleonora

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the stability or instability - i.e. the ability or inability to undergo excision in circular form - of the four cargo regions (cr1 to cr4) of the novel cfr-carrying, multiresistance plasmid pSP01, arboured by a clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate. Only cr4 proved unstable. The stability of cr1 and cr2 was substantially expected. Insertion sequences (ISs) played an important role in the stability of cr3 (the cfr gene context) and in the instability of cr4. Whereas the stability of cfr genetic contexts is associated with the presence of a single IS copy (istAS-istBS in cr3), their instability is associated with two identical, flanking ISs with the same orientation. cr4 is bracketed between two identical IS257 elements, and appears to behave as a composite transposon. Its instability is of interest because of the existence of a closely related cfr plasmid from S. epidermidis (pSP01.1) that differs from pSP01 only by the lack of cr4. An integration/recombination mechanism is suggested to explain how cr4 may have moved to pSP01.1 to form pSP01. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from Trinidad & Tobago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that high rates of methicillin- and mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exist in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive S. aureus. Beyond these studies, limited typing data have been published. In order to obtain insight into the population structure not only of MRSA but also of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 294 clinical isolates collected in 2012/2013 were typed by microarray hybridisation. A total of 15.31% of the tested isolates were MRSA and 50.00% were PVL-positive. The most common MSSA strains were PVL-positive CC8-MSSA (20.41% of all isolates tested, PVL-positive CC152-MSSA (9.52% and PVL-positive CC30-MSSA (8.84% while the most common MRSA were ST239-MRSA-III&SCCmer (9.18% and ST8-MRSA-IV, "USA300" (5.78%. 2.38% of characterised isolates belonged to distinct strains likely to be related to "Staphylococcus argenteus" lineages. The population structure of S. aureus isolates suggests an importation of strains from Africa, endemicity of PVL-positive MSSA (mainly CC8 and of ST239-MRSA-III, and a recent emergence of the PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain "USA300".

  20. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from Trinidad & Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Stieber, Bettina; Roberts, Rashida; Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that high rates of methicillin- and mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exist in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive S. aureus. Beyond these studies, limited typing data have been published. In order to obtain insight into the population structure not only of MRSA but also of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 294 clinical isolates collected in 2012/2013 were typed by microarray hybridisation. A total of 15.31% of the tested isolates were MRSA and 50.00% were PVL-positive. The most common MSSA strains were PVL-positive CC8-MSSA (20.41% of all isolates tested), PVL-positive CC152-MSSA (9.52%) and PVL-positive CC30-MSSA (8.84%) while the most common MRSA were ST239-MRSA-III&SCCmer (9.18%) and ST8-MRSA-IV, "USA300" (5.78%). 2.38% of characterised isolates belonged to distinct strains likely to be related to "Staphylococcus argenteus" lineages. The population structure of S. aureus isolates suggests an importation of strains from Africa, endemicity of PVL-positive MSSA (mainly CC8) and of ST239-MRSA-III, and a recent emergence of the PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain "USA300".