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Sample records for aureus staphylococcus epidermidis

  1. Common R-plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis during a nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M. L.; Wong, E. S.; Falkow, S

    1982-01-01

    During a 7-month period in 1978 to 1979, 31 patients and personnel at a Kentucky hospital were colonized or infected with a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, penicillin, and tetracycline. S. epidermidis with similar antibiotic resistance patterns had been isolated in this hospital in the year before the S. aureus outbreak. A 32-megadalton R-plasmid, pUW3626, mediating resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, was present in these isol...

  2. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence: Implication for Skin Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Awa; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Diaz, Suraya; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Percoco, Giuseppe; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lefeuvre, Luc; Harmer, Nicholas J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  3. PREVALENCIA DE Staphylococcus epidermidis Y Staphylococcus aureus EN PACIENTES CON CONJUNTIVITIS

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    P. Hernández-Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, se evaluaron clínica y bacteriológicamente 131 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de conjuntivitis. A cada participante se le tomó muestra de secreción ocular, para la coloración de Gram y cultivo; además, se probó la susceptibilidad de los aislamientos frente a Oxacilina (Ox, Gentamicina (GM, Vancomicina (Va, Trimetoprim Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetraciclina (Te, Cefalothin (CF, Ceftriaxone (CRO y Ciprofloxacina (CIP. El 53% de los cultivos bacteriológicos fueron positivos, donde el 87% de los aislamientos correspondieron a Gram positivos, siendo los más frecuentes Staphylococcus epidermidis (43%, Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Streptococcus sp. (15%, Enterococcus (7%, Corynebacterium sp. 5%. Se observó multirresistencia frente a 3 ó más antibióticos en S. epidermidis (44% y S.aureus (42%. La alta frecuencia de estos microorganismos y la multirresistencia encontrada en este estudio, determinan la importancia que tienen, como posibles patógenos oculares, y la necesidad de implementar las pruebas de susceptibilidad bacteriana en el ámbito oftalmológico. Este es el primer estudio publicado en Colombia sobre la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, el cual seguramente originará la iniciación de posteriores investigaciones, encaminadas a determinar el verdadero papel de estos microorganismos, en el proceso infeccioso ocular.

  4. Differential Roles of Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Surface Polysaccharide and Extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms▿

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    Era A Izano; Amarante, Matthew A.; Kher, William B.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are major human pathogens of increasing importance due to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains. Evidence suggests that the ability to form matrix-encased biofilms contributes to the pathogenesis of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In this study, we investigated the functions of two staphylococcal biofilm matrix polymers: poly-N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide (PNAG) and extracellular DNA (ecDNA). We measured the ability o...

  5. In vitro activities of oxazolidinone compounds U100592 and U100766 against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G W; Seo, S M

    1996-01-01

    The new oxazolidinone antimicrobial agents U100592 and U100766 demonstrated good in vitro inhibitory activity against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis regardless of methicillin susceptibility. Both agents appeared bacteriostatic by time-kill analysis. Stable resistance to low multiples of the MIC of either drug could be produced only in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants.

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    Daniela Chessa

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to nanohydroxyapatite in the presence of model proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial infections can have adverse effects on the efficacy, lifetime, and safety of an implanted device. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial adhesion of several strains, namely S. aureus and S. epidermidis, on two distinct types of nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA), sintered at 725 °C and 1000 °C. A comparison was also made with nanohydroxyapatite having adsorbed fetal bovine serum (FBS), human fibronectin (FN) and human serum albumin (HSA). Adhered bacterial cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy and quantified as colony forming units after being released by sonication. The wettability of the sample surface with and without adsorbed protein was assessed by contact-angle measurements. NanoHA sintered at 1000 °C showed lower bacterial adhesion than this heat-treated at 725 °C. Adsorption of FBS onto the nanoHA surface caused a decrease in the adhesion of all strains on both materials. The bacterial adhesion patterns in the presence of FN were different for both nanoHA substrates; the adherence of the bacterial strains, except for the clinical strain of S. epidermidis, was significantly higher on nanoHA 1000 in comparison to nanoHA 1000 without protein and the bacterial adhesion on the FN-coated nanoHA 725 was lower in comparison to the bare nanoHA 725. The effect of HSA on bacterial adhesion was concentration and bacterial strain dependent. (paper)

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of milk somatic cells in mastitis resistant and susceptible sheep upon challenge with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

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    Tasca Christian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of a genetic basis for host responses to bacterial intramammary infections has been widely documented, but the underlying mechanisms and the genes are still largely unknown. Previously, two divergent lines of sheep selected for high/low milk somatic cell scores have been shown to be respectively susceptible and resistant to intramammary infections by Staphylococcus spp. Transcriptional profiling with an 15K ovine-specific microarray of the milk somatic cells of susceptible and resistant sheep infected successively by S. epidermidis and S. aureus was performed in order to enhance our understanding of the molecular and cellular events associated with mastitis resistance. Results The bacteriological titre was lower in the resistant than in the susceptible animals in the 48 hours following inoculation, although milk somatic cell concentration was similar. Gene expression was analysed in milk somatic cells, mainly represented by neutrophils, collected 12 hours post-challenge. A high number of differentially expressed genes between the two challenges indicated that more T cells are recruited upon inoculation by S. aureus than S. epidermidis. A total of 52 genes were significantly differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible animals. Further Gene Ontology analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, leukocyte adhesion, cell migration, and signal transduction. Close biological relationships could be established between most genes using gene network analysis. Furthermore, gene expression suggests that the cell turn-over, as a consequence of apoptosis/granulopoiesis, may be enhanced in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible line. Conclusions Gene profiling in resistant and susceptible lines has provided good candidates for mapping the biological pathways and genes underlying genetically determined resistance and susceptibility

  9. The Experimental Study on the continuous Anti-bacterial Potency of Coptidis rhizoma extract on Cultivation of Staphylococcus species(S. aureus, S. epidermidis)

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyeong-Sik

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This experimental study was performed to investigate the continuous anti-bacterial potency of Coptidis rhizoma extract on cultivation of Staphylococcus species(S. aureus, S. epidermidis) that induce eye disease. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was measured by dropping to 50ul diluted Coptidis rhizoma extract(100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) on S. aureus, S. epidermidis that were cultivated from 2 to 6 days. Anti-bacterial potency was measured by the size of inhibition zone with c...

  10. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on the hands of health-care workers using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, P; Schouenborg, P Øland; Brandslund, I

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay intended as a tool for monitoring hand hygiene in hospital wards. METHODS: The hands of 20 health-care workers were sampled for 10 days using real-time PCR for quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and S....... aureus and 211% for S. epidermidis. In an intervention study aimed at better hand hygiene in a ward with n participants, the difference before and after intervention is significant at CDI/sqrt[n] per cent. CONCLUSIONS: The PCR assay can be used to detect change in a group mean of S. aureus and S....... epidermidis in a hospital ward, i.e. before and after an intervention to improve hand hygiene. For the individual, the change in bacteria levels needed for significance is compromised by high intra-individual variation....

  11. Insights on Evolution of Virulence and Resistance from the Complete Genome Analysis of an Early Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain and a Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain†

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Steven R.; Derrick E Fouts; Archer, Gordon L.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; DeBoy, Robert T; Ravel, Jacques; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolonay, James F.; Brinkac, Lauren; Beanan, Mauren; Robert J Dodson; Sean C Daugherty; Madupu, Ramana; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Durkin, A. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the major causative agent of numerous hospital- and community-acquired infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a causative agent of infections often associated with implanted medical devices. We have sequenced the ∼2.8-Mb genome of S. aureus COL, an early methicillin-resistant isolate, and the ∼2.6-Mb genome of S. epidermidis RP62a, a methicillin-resistant biofilm isolate. Comparative analysis of these and other staphylococc...

  12. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990. Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils.

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    Gordon Y C Cheung

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSMδ, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS. These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus.

  14. In Vitro Activities of Telavancin and Vancomycin against Biofilm-Producing Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    LaPlante, Kerry L.; Mermel, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the activities of telavancin and vancomycin against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. At clinically attainable concentrations, telavancin was active against bacteria embedded in biofilm (minimal biofilm eradication concentration [MBEC], 0.125 to 2 μg/ml) and inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations below the MIC. Vancomycin did not demonstrate the same activity (MBEC, ≥512 μg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Telavancin ...

  15. Reduced Triclosan Susceptibility in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Molly B.; Kaplan, Nachum

    2004-01-01

    Triclosan MIC determination showed that recent Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (n = 100) were highly susceptible to triclosan, with a 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 0.12 μg/ml and a MIC90 of 0.25 μg/ml. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (n = 96) were less susceptible, with a MIC50 of 0.12 μg/ml and a MIC90 of 8 μg/ml. Decreased susceptibility to triclosan was more prevalent among methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis than among methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis is...

  16. Enzymatic Detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Ragunath, Chandran; Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Fine, Daniel H.; Ramasubbu, Narayanan

    2004-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common cause of infections associated with catheters and other indwelling medical devices. S. epidermidis produces an extracellular slime that enables it to form adherent biofilms on plastic surfaces. We found that a biofilm-releasing enzyme produced by the gram-negative periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans rapidly and efficiently removed S. epidermidis biofilms from plastic surfaces. The enzyme worked by ...

  17. 1Molecular basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci and one of the most abundant colonizers of human skin. While for a long time regarded as innocuous, it has been identified as the most frequent cause of device-related infections occurring in the hospital setting and is therefore now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. S. epidermidis produces a series of molecules that provide protection from host defenses. Specifically, many protein...

  18. Recovery of a catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain in blood and urine cultures from a patient with pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallstrom, George; Chang, Tom; Albertson, Marc; Morilla, Daniel; Fisher, Mark A; Eberly, Bardwell

    2011-11-01

    This report describes a 60-year-old patient with bilateral nephrolithiasis. A catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was recovered from both urine and blood cultures. Although rare, isolates of catalase-negative Staphylococcus spp., including Staphylococcus aureus, have been reported. Here, we describe the first report of a catalase-negative S. epidermidis strain. PMID:21900516

  19. Recovery of a Catalase-Negative Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain in Blood and Urine Cultures from a Patient with Pyelonephritis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallstrom, George; Chang, Tom; Albertson, Marc; Morilla, Daniel; Fisher, Mark A.; Eberly, Bardwell

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a 60-year-old patient with bilateral nephrolithiasis. A catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was recovered from both urine and blood cultures. Although rare, isolates of catalase-negative Staphylococcus spp., including Staphylococcus aureus, have been reported. Here, we describe the first report of a catalase-negative S. epidermidis strain. PMID:21900516

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  1. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  2. AI-2-dependent gene regulation in Staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Sturdevant Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoinducer 2 (AI-2, a widespread by-product of the LuxS-catalyzed S-ribosylhomocysteine cleavage reaction in the activated methyl cycle, has been suggested to serve as an intra- and interspecies signaling molecule, but in many bacteria AI-2 control of gene expression is not completely understood. Particularly, we have a lack of knowledge about AI-2 signaling in the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Results To determine the role of LuxS and AI-2 in S. epidermidis, we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in an S. epidermidis luxS mutant and after addition of AI-2 synthesized by over-expressed S. epidermidis Pfs and LuxS enzymes. Genes under AI-2 control included mostly genes involved in sugar, nucleotide, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism, but also virulence-associated genes coding for lipase and bacterial apoptosis proteins. In addition, we demonstrate by liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry of culture filtrates that the pro-inflammatory phenol-soluble modulin (PSM peptides, key virulence factors of S. epidermidis, are under luxS/AI-2 control. Conclusion Our results provide a detailed molecular basis for the role of LuxS in S. epidermidis virulence and suggest a signaling function for AI-2 in this bacterium.

  3. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0-50 mu M) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitativ

  4. Penetration of Rifampin through Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhilan; Philip S. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rifampin penetrated biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis but failed to effectively kill the bacteria. Penetration was demonstrated by a simple diffusion cell bioassay and by transmission electron microscopic observation of antibiotic-affected cells at the distal edge of the biofilm.

  5. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G. MacKay (William); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTen samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Sample

  6. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    2007-01-01

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  7. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, P G; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colo...

  8. Efficacy of ultraviolet C light at sublethal dose in combination with antistaphylococcal antibiotics to disinfect catheter biofilms of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Azizi M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed El-Azizi,1 Nancy Khardori2 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, New Cairo City, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Background: Biofilm formation inside inserted medical devices leads to their failure and acts as a source of refractory infections. The ultraviolet C (UVC light is a potential therapy that can be used against the biofilm of bacterial pathogens. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of sublethal dose of UVC light with anti-staphylococcal antibiotics against biofilms made from 30 isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis on vascular catheters. Materials and methods: A novel biofilm device was used to assess the combined approach. The biofilms on the catheters were irradiated with the UVC light at 254 nm and irradiance of 6.4 mW followed by treatment with vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin at twice their minimum bactericidal concentrations or with linezolid at 64 µg/mL for 24 hours. The catheters were cut into segments and sonicated, and the number of the sessile cells was determined ­colorimetrically using XTT viable cells assay. The effect of UVC radiation followed by treatment with an ­antistaphylococcal antibiotic on the viability of the bacteria in the biofilm was visualized using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability stain and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Exposure of the bacterial biofilms to the UVC light or each of the antibiotics alone was ineffective in killing the bacteria. Treatment of the biofilms with the antibiotics following their exposure to UVC light significantly (P<0.001 reduced the number of viable cells within the biofilms but did not completely eradicate them. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this combinatorial approach has not been

  9. Penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-hu; HE Lei; GAO Jie; LIU Yun-xi; SUO Ji-jiang; XING Yu-bin; JIA Ning

    2013-01-01

    Background The catheter related infection caused by Staphylococcus epiderrnidis biofilm is increasing and difficult to treat by antimicrobial chemotherapy.The properties of biofilms that give rise to antibiotic resistance are only partially understood.This study aimed to elucidate the penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.Methods The penetration ratio of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and wild isolate S68 was detected by biofilm penetration model at different time points according to the standard regression curve.The RNNDNA ratio and the cell density within the biofilms were observed by confocal laser microscope and transmission electromicroscope,respectively.Results The penetration ratios of erythromycin through the biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and S68 after cultivation for 36 hours were 0.93,0.55 and 0.4,respectively.The erythromycin penetration ratio through 1457 biofilm (0.58 after 8 hours)was higher than that through the other two (0.499 and 0.31 after 24 hours).Lower growth rate of the cells in biofilm was shown,with reduction of RNA/DNA proportion observed by confocal laser microscope through acridine orange stain.Compared with the control group observed by transmission electrmicroscope,the cell density of biofilm air face was lower than that of agar face,with more cell debris.Conclusions Erythromycin could penetrate to the Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm,but could not kill the cells thoroughly.The lower growth rate of the cells within biofilm could help decreasing the erythromycin susceptibility.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon agai...

  11. Genotype and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate from ready to eat meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkowik, Magdalena; Seo, Keun Seok; Schubert, Justyna; Tolo, Isaiah; Robinson, D Ashley; Bania, Jacek; Bystroń, Jarosław

    2016-07-16

    We have previously shown that potentially pathogenic isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis occur at high incidence in ready-to-eat food. Now, within 164 samples of ready-to-eat meat products we identified 32 S. epidermidis isolates. In 8 isolates we detected the genes encoding for staphylococcal enterotoxins, but in 7 S. epidermidis isolates these genes were not stable over passages. One isolate designated 4S was shown to stably harbour sec and sel genes. In the genome sequence of S. epidermidis 4S we identified 21,426-bp region flanked by direct-repeats, encompassing sec and sel genes, corresponding to the previously described composite staphylococcal pathogenicity island (SePI) in S. epidermidis FRI909. Alignment of S. epidermidis 4S and S. epidermidis FRI909 SePIs revealed 6 nucleotide mismatches located in 5 of the total of 29 ORFs. Genomic location of S. epidermidis 4S SePI was the same as in FRI909. S. epidermidis 4S is a single locus variant of ST561, being genetically different from FRI909. SECepi was secreted by S. epidermidis 4S to BHI broth ranging from 14 to almost 36μg/mL, to milk ranging from 6 to 9ng/mL, to beef meat juice from 2 to 3μg/mL and to pork meat juice from 1 to 2μg/mL after 24 and 48h of cultivation, respectively. We provide the first evidence that S. epidermidis occurring in food bears an element encoding an orthologue to Staphylococcus aureus SEC, and that SECepi can be produced in microbial broth, milk and meat juices. Regarding that only enterotoxins produced by S. aureus are officially tracked in food in EU, the ability to produce enterotoxin by S. epidermidis pose real risk for food safety. PMID:27105039

  12. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo; Regina Célia Sales Santos Veríssimo; Valter Alvino; Maria Gabriella Silva Araujo; Raíssa Fernanda Evangelista Pires dos Santos; Max Denisson Maurício Viana; Maria Lysete de Assis Bastos; Magna Suzana Alexandre-Moreira; João Xavier de Araújo-Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus...

  13. Activity of sparfloxacin on Staphylococcus epidermidis attached to plastic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, A; García, I; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1995-08-01

    The activity of sparfloxacin on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. Sparfloxacin showed high bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis biofilms on Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. The combination of sparfloxacin with amikacin or rifampicin significantly increased its activity against bacterial biofilms on polyurethane and Teflon catheters. PMID:8522473

  14. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  15. Detection and characterization of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, D A; Zarins, L T; Schaberg, D R; Bradley, S. F.; Terpenning, M S; Kauffman, C A

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated over 18 months; 12 exhibited low-level resistance, while two showed high-level resistance. Highly mupirocin-resistant strains contained a large plasmid which transferred mupirocin resistance to other S. aureus strains and to Staphylococcus epidermidis. This plasmid and pAM899-1, a self-transferable gentamicin resistance plasmid, have molecular and biologic similarities.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection...... of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...... antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination...

  18. Regulation of slime production in Staphylococcus epidermidis by iron limitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, M.; Borland, R

    1993-01-01

    Slime production by most strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis was enhanced by conditions of iron limitation produced by the addition of ethylenediamine-di-o-hydroxyphenol acetic acid to the growth medium. The density of the biofilm which formed on the base of microtiter plates was dependent on the degree of iron limitation, the stage of the growth cycle, and the nutritional state of the initial inoculum. One repeatedly slime-negative S. epidermidis strain, passaged in tryptic soya broth cont...

  19. Interference with granulocyte function by Staphylococcus epidermidis slime.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, G M; Lee, D A; Regelmann, W E; Gray, E. D.; Peters, G; Quie, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of Staphylococcus epidermidis slime with human neutrophils (PMN) was examined by using isolated slime and allowing bacteria to elaborate slime and other extracellular products in situ. S. epidermidis slime was found to contain a chemoattractant. Incubation of PMN with 50 micrograms or more of slime per ml inhibited subsequent chemotaxis of the PMN to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine by 27% and to zymosan-activated serum by 44 to 67% with increasing slime concentrations....

  20. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  1. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance in...... S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  2. Daptomycin Rapidly Penetrates a Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip S.; Davison, William M.; Steenbergen, Judith N.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescently tagged daptomycin accessed the interior of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm cell clusters within minutes. The diffusion coefficient of daptomycin in the biofilm was 28% of its value in pure water. Daptomycin activity against staphylococci embedded in biofilms is unlikely to be limited by penetration of the antibiotic into the biofilm.

  3. Adhesive properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis probed by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong;

    2011-01-01

    (biofilm positive and biofilm negative strains) were analyzed using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Force measurements performed using bare hydrophilic silicon nitride tips disclosed similar adhesive properties for each strain. However, use of hydrophobic tips showed that hydrophobic forces are not......Mapping of the surface properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis and of biofilm forming bacteria in general is a key to understand their functions, particularly their adhesive properties. To gain a comprehensive view of the structural and chemical properties of S. epidermidis, four different strains...

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%, seg (64.5% and sei (67.5%. The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02, and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly producing the non-classical enterotoxins seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates.

  5. Lack of Association between fbe Gene with Adherence and Biofilm Forrr:ation in Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华林; 高谦; 瞿涤; 闻玉梅

    2004-01-01

    Biofilm formation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). It has been suggested that protein encoded by the foe (fibrinogen binding protein) gene of S. epidermidis enhances bacterial adherence to medical devices and biofilm formation by binding to host fibrinogen (Fg). In this study, a 1.7 kbfoe gene fragment was amplified in 111 of 115 strains of S. epidermidis chnical isolates using PCR. Contrary to expectations, only 14 strains showed marginally increased adherence to Fg-coated polystyrene wells compared with BSA coated wells. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed no statistically significant difference in Fbe expression between Fg binding strains and Fg non-binding strains. Fttahermore, in the presence of soluble Fg, S. epidermdis biofilm formation decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) strain Cowan I and other 5 S. aureus clinical isolates showed a substantial increase in both adherence and biofilm formation in the presence of Fg. The resuits suggest that in S. epidermidis the foe gene may not be associated with bacterial adherence and biofilm formation.

  6. Role of Monocytes and Bacteria in Staphylococcus epidermidis Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.; Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Thompson, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The endocardial vegetation which is formed in the course of bacterial endocarditis (BE) contains tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity. Earlier studies showed that monocytes are the main source of TF in the vegetations. The TF activity (TFA) of vegetations isolated from Streptococcus sanguis-infected rabbits depended on the numbers of bacteria as well as monocytes in the vegetation. In this study, we investigated whether for Staphylococcus epidermidis, a frequent pathogen in BE, ...

  7. The effects of ultraviolet B beams on programmed cell death activities in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Payam Behzadi; Elham Behzadi; Reza Ranjbar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bacterial skin diseases caused by drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis are known as a big problem in the field of treating management of infectious diseases. Progression of resistant strains has led to use phototherapy in parallel with pharmacotherapy. In this short survey, we tried to obtain a logic Ultraviolet Radiation protocol to induce the process of programmed cell death in irradiated Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: The samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis were...

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis in orthopedic device infections: the role of bacterial internalization in human osteoblasts and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Valour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis orthopedic device infections are caused by direct inoculation of commensal flora during surgery and remain rare, although S. epidermidis carriage is likely universal. We wondered whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains might constitute a sub-population of commensal isolates with specific virulence ability. Biofilm formation and invasion of osteoblasts by S. aureus contribute to bone and joint infection recurrence by protecting bacteria from the host-immune system and most antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection isolates could be distinguished from commensal strains by their ability to invade osteoblasts and form biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orthopedic device infection S. epidermidis strains (n = 15 were compared to nasal carriage isolates (n = 22. Osteoblast invasion was evaluated in an ex vivo infection model using MG63 osteoblastic cells co-cultured for 2 hours with bacteria. Adhesion of S. epidermidis to osteoblasts was explored by a flow cytometric approach, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating cell lysates after selective killing of extra-cellular bacteria with gentamicin. Early and mature biofilm formations were evaluated by a crystal violet microtitration plate assay and the Biofilm Ring Test method. RESULTS: No difference was observed between commensal and infective strains in their ability to invade osteoblasts (internalization rate 308+/-631 and 347+/-431 CFU/well, respectively. This low internalization rate correlated with a low ability to adhere to osteoblasts. No difference was observed for biofilm formation between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation levels failed to distinguish S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains from commensal isolates. This study provides the first assessment of the interaction between S. epidermidis strains isolated from orthopedic

  9. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on icaA Expression and Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Iravati, Susi; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on medical devices, and novel approaches to prevent and kill S. epidermidis biofilms are desired. In this study, the effect of cinnamon oil on planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis isolates was evaluated. Initiall

  10. Staphylococcus aureus triggered reactive arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siam, A R; M. Hammoudeh

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report two patients who developed reactive arthritis in association with Staphylococcus aureus infection. METHODS--A review of the case notes of two patients. RESULTS--Two adult female patients have developed sterile arthritis in association with Staph aureus infection. The first patient has had two episodes of arthritis; the first followed olecranon bursitis, the second followed infection of a central venous catheter used for dialysis. The second patient developed sterile arth...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and sore nipples.

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, V. H.; Willis, C. E.; Berkowitz, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinical symptoms and signs of sore nipples with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the probability of mothers having S aureus-infected nipples when these local symptoms and signs are found. DESIGN: Two cohorts of consecutive patients were enrolled regardless of presenting complaint. A questionnaire was administered to determine the presence and severity of sore nipples. Objective findings on breast examination were documented. A nipple swab was tak...

  12. Discrimination between contaminating and commensal strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (Search for phenotypic virulence criteria in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Žileviča

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis strains are diverse in their pathogenicity. Some are invasive virulent strains causing serious nosocomial infections; some are skin commensals with a low virulence. The discrimination of them is of great clinical significance. To analyze the implication of different factors in virulence, phenotypical methods were applied. Comparative assessment of the enzymatic activity of nosocomial and commensal strains of S. epidermidis was performed: alkaline phosphatase (PHA, beta-glucosidase (LAC , arginine dehydrolase (ARG, urease (URE, maltosidase (PAM, N-acetylglutamic acid hydrolase (FPY, N-acetylglucosaminehydrolase (FGA were studied. Differences were found in the urease activity, i.e. 93% and 77% of commensal and nosocomial strains, respectively, were positive.In sheep blood agar, the difference was more significant - only 16.7% of commensal strains demonstrated the haemolytic activity, but 52.4% of nosocomial strains occurred to be haemolytic.

  13. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prannda Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

  14. Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, R G; Shlaes, D M

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous application of the lysostaphin sensitivity test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the deoxycholate test for the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae was evaluated for reliability in rapid identification (1 h) of these organisms from blood cultures by using BACTEC 6B and 7C bottles. The procedure was applied to 127 cultures, 74 lysostaphin tests and 53 deoxycholate tests. Lysostaphin-tested organisms included 23 S. aureus, 40 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 1 Liste...

  15. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  16. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  18. Effectiveness of Cinnamon Oil Coating on K-wire as an Antimicrobial Agent against Staphylococcus Epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Magetsari, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic osteomyelitis remains one of the common problems with the use of orthopaedic implants. Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices and is one of the most frequent pathogenic agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Cinnamon oil has been proven to be an effective antimicrobial agent against several bacteria, including S. epidermidis. The eradication of S. epidermidis and prevention of biofilm formation on medical devices ...

  19. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the SesC protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahrooei, M.; Hira, V.; Stijlemans, B.; Merckx, R.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Eldere, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several well-studied proteins with defined roles in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation are LPXTG motif-containing proteins. Here, we investigate the possible use of the LPXTG motif-containing protein SesC (S. epidermidis surface protein C; accession no. NP_765787) as a target for antibodie

  20. Ica-expression and gentamicin susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on orthopedic implant biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Aman, Abu T.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2011-01-01

    Ica-expression by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slime production depends on environmental conditions such as implant material and presence of antibiotics. Here, we evaluate biofilm formation and ica-expression of S. epidermidis strains on biomaterials involved in total hip-and knee arthroplasty [po

  1. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  3. Antimicrobial activities of YycG histidine kinase inhibitors against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Z; Lee, Bao le ri; Yang, Lei;

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a significant pathogen causing infections due to biofilm formation on surfaces of indwelling medical devices. Biofilm-associated bacteria exhibit enhanced resistance to many conventional antibiotics. It is therefore, important to design novel antimicrobial re...

  4. Collagen binding to Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staphylococcus aureus can bind soluble collagen in a specific, saturable manner. We have previously shown that some variability exists in the degree of collagen binding between different strains of heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed S. aureus which are commercially available as immunologic reagents. The present study demonstrates that live S. aureus of the Cowan 1 strain binds amounts of collagen per organism equivalent to those demonstrated previously in heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed bacteria but has an affinity over 100 times greater, with Kd values of 9.7 X 10(-11) M and 4.3 X 10(-8) M for live and heat-killed organisms, respectively. Studies were also carried out with S. aureus killed by ionizing radiation, since this method of killing the organism seemed less likely to alter the binding moieties on the surface than did heat killing. Bacteria killed by exposure to gamma radiation bound collagen in a manner essentially indistinguishable from that of live organisms. Binding of collagen to irradiated cells of the Cowan 1 strain was rapid, with equilibrium reached by 30 min at 22 degrees C, and was fully reversible. The binding was not inhibited by fibronectin, fibrinogen, C1q, or immunoglobulin G, suggesting a binding site for collagen distinct from those for these proteins. Collagen binding was virtually eliminated in trypsin-treated organisms, indicating that the binding site has a protein component. Of four strains examined, Cowan 1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 showed saturable, specific binding, while strains Woods and S4 showed a complete lack of binding. These results suggest that some strains of S. aureus contain high-affinity binding sites for collagen. While the number of binding sites per bacterium varied sixfold in the two collagen-binding strains, the apparent affinity was similar

  5. Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from breast milk of women suffering infectious mastitis: potential virulence traits and resistance to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Staphylococcus aureus is considered the main etiological agent of infectious mastitis, recent studies have suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS may also play an important role in such infections. The aims of this work were to isolate staphylococci from milk of women with lactational mastitis, to select and characterize the CNS isolates, and to compare such properties with those displayed by CNS strains isolated from milk of healthy women. Results The milk of 30 women was collected and bacterial growth was noted in 27 of them, of which Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from 26 patients and S. aureus from 8. Among the 270 staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of women with mastitis, 200 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis by phenotypic assays, species-specific PCR and PCR sequencing. They were typified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE genotyping. The PFGE profiles of the S. epidermidis strains were compared with those of 105 isolates from milk of healthy women. A representative of the 76 different PFGE profiles was selected to study the incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The number of strains that contained the biofilm-related icaD gene and that showed resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and mupirocin was significantly higher among the strains isolated from mastitic milk. Conclusion S. epidermidis may be a frequent but largely underrated cause of infectious mastitis in lactating women. The resistance to diverse antibiotics and a higher ability to form biofilms found among the strains isolated from milk of women suffering mastitis may explain the chronic and/or recurrent nature of this infectious condition.

  6. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Bahrinajafi, Rahim; Nahavandi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin's normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effec...

  7. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi; Rahim Bahrinajafi; Sima Nahavandi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin′s normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effec...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...

  9. Host-adaptive evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lowder, Bethan Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In addition, S. aureus is a major cause of animal diseases including skeletal infections of poultry and bovine and ovine mastitis, which are a large economic burden on the broiler chicken and dairy farming industries. The population structure of S. aureus associated with humans has been well studied. However, despite the prevalence of S. aureus infections in ...

  10. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu

    2011-07-01

    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed. PMID:21935792

  11. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  12. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis: pathogenesis and implications for treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2012-12-01

    The insertion of medical devices, such as intraventricular shunts, is often complicated by infection leading to ventriculitis. Frequently, such infections result from colonisation and subsequent biofilm formation on the surfaces of the shunts by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The pathogenesis of neurosurgical shunt-related infection is complex with interactions between the pathogen, the device and the unique local immunological environment of the central nervous system (CNS). An ability to form biofilm, the main virulence determinant of Staphylococcus epidermidis, facilitates protection of the organism from the host defences while still initiating an immunological response. The presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the biofilm itself also complicates treatment, which presents many challenges when managing shunt infections. A greater understanding of the interplay between S. epidermidis and the CNS could potentially improve the diagnosis, treatment and management of such infections. This review describes the pathogenesis, treatment and implications of S. epidermidis ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections, concentrating on recent research and the implications for treatment.

  14. Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Bisno, A L; Beachey, E H

    1982-01-01

    Slime production is not a generally recognized feature of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In a recent outbreak of S. epidermidis intravascular catheter-associated sepsis, we noted that 63% of clinically implicated strains grew as a slimy film coating the culture tube walls when propagated in tryptic soy broth. Only 37% of randomly collected blood culture contaminants and skin isolates demonstrated a similar phenomenon (p less than 0.05). Transmission electron micrographs of these coating bacteria...

  15. Role of the Staphylococcus epidermidis slime layer in experimental tunnel tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, C C; Plaunt, M R; Hetherington, S V; May, S M

    1992-01-01

    An experimental animal model was used to assess the slime layer of Staphylococcus epidermidis as a pathogenic factor in tunnel tract infections. Mice were inoculated with high-slime-producing or non-slime-producing strains of S. epidermidis, either along the length of a subcutaneous catheter or in the area where a catheter had been placed and immediately removed (controls). Among the catheter-bearing mice, the phenotypically distinct staphylococci produced similar, high frequencies of abscess...

  16. Posterior lens capsule abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis following extracapsular cataract extraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, R M; Canning, C R

    1991-01-01

    A case of posterior lens capsular abscess occurring many months after an extracapsular cataract extraction is presented. This was caused by a mixed infection involving Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The significance of Staph epidermidis after such a long postoperative period is uncertain, but the case shows features typical of secondary endophthalmitis due to P acnes, including a long delay in onset and a grumbling course not brought under control by medical treatment...

  17. The influence of lens material and lens wear on the removal and viability of staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lívia; Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Oliveira, Rosário; Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, Eva; Azeredo, Joana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of lens material and lens wear on the removal capability of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Assessment of viability of remaining adhered bacteria was another goal of this work. Four silicone hydrogel materials (galyfilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B) and one conventional hydrogel material (etafilcon A) were assayed. Methods: Detachment studies on S. epidermidis were carried out in a parallel plate flow chamber...

  18. Raman spectroscopy for rapid discrimination of Staphylococcus epidermidis clones related to medical device-associated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for the fast typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) strains related to medical device-associated infections. In this study bacterial colonies were directly probed on culture plates and Raman spectra were recorded from volumes containing approximately 10 bacteria. The spectra contain information on the molecular composition of the whole bacteria, such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids, DNA as well as RNA. We demonstrate the potential to discriminate different S. epidermidis clones, even after only short Raman exposure/collection times

  19. The cell surface proteome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a wide spread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of life-threatening diseases. To obtain a better understanding of the global mechanisms for pathogenesis and to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions, the S. aureus proteom

  20. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance again

  1. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance against rifampicin doubled to 68%. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is frequent in China. Two predominant S. aureus lineages, ST6 and ST943, were identified causing outbreaks of SFP in Southern China...

  2. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Peres, Adam G.; Andreea C. Damian; Joaquín Madrenas

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and d...

  3. Activity of glycopeptides in combination with amikacin or rifampin against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, A; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin (fourfold the MBC), alone and in combination with amikacin (16 mg/l) or rifampin (1 mg/l), against Staphylococcus epidermidis (slime-producing and non slime-producing strains) biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. The addition of amikacin or rifampin significantly increased the activity of glycopeptides against sessile bacteria. With the slime-producing strain, these combinations were able to sterilize the surface of Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. It is concluded that the in vitro activity of glycopeptides against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters can be increased by the addition of amikacin or rifampin. PMID:7957277

  4. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and...

  5. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  6. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  7. Comparison and Evaluation of Three Animal Models for Studying the Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华林; 王勇翔; 陈喆; 齐玲; 瞿涤; 闻玉梅

    2003-01-01

    In order to compare and evaluate three animal models for studying the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, three experimental animal models, namely, murine intra-venous LD50, mouse foreign body infection and rat central venous catheter (CVC) infection models were used to assess the relative virulence of two S. epidermidis strains, ATCC 12228 and 97-337. The results from three animal models were comparable, indicating S. epidermidis 97-337 was more virulent than strain ATCC 12228. The rat CVC infection model best mimicked the conditions of clinical patients with intmvenonscatheters, and more information could be obtained from this model. We conclude that different in vivo models serve for dif-ferent purposes, and the rat CVC infection model is most suitable for studying specific characteristics of catheter related infections caused by S. epidermidis stratus.

  8. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  9. Presence of mecA-positive multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in bovine milk samples in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Fernandes; Mendonça, Letícia Caldas; Reis, Daniele Ribeiro de Lima; Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Lange, Carla Christine; Ribeiro, João Batista; Machado, Marco Antonio; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are one of the major pathogens causing bovine mastitis. In recent decades, resistance of this genus to oxacillin (methicillin) has been a matter of concern due to the possibility of reducing the effectiveness of mastitis treatments and the transfer of resistance determinants to other bacteria. Oxacillin resistance was studied in 170 staphylococci from bovine milk samples, including 79 Staphylococcus aureus and 91 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The susceptibility profile of 10 antimicrobial agents used in veterinary practice was determined by the Etest method. In addition to the Etest, the phenotypic characterization of oxacillin resistance was tested using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test. All isolates were screened by PCR to detect the mecA gene in 2 different regions of the gene. The isolates with an oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.5 µg/mL or resistant to cefoxitin were identified by sequencing a 536-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. This group of isolates was also evaluated for the presence of blaZ and mecC genes. Molecular analysis of the mecA gene was carried out by typing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). The relatedness of the mecA-positive isolates was evaluated by macrorestriction of chromosomal DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. With the exception of penicillin and oxacillin, 86% of the isolates showed susceptibility to cephalothin, gentamicin, erythromycin, sulfonamide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to oxacillin, whereas 47% (n=43) of the CNS isolates were resistant. The CNS isolates showed a higher resistance to cephalothin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin in comparison with S. aureus. The mecA gene was only detected in 10 CNS isolates, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, and classified into 3 pulsotypes (A, B, and C) and 4 subtypes (A1, B1, B2, and B3). Among the isolates with

  10. Influence of papain in biofilm formed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Lara da Cruz Dinéas de Oliveira; Maria Emília de Castro Kling Fleming; Patrícia Vollu Silva; Geraldo Renato de Paula; Débora Omena Futuro; Guillermo Coca Velarde; Luciana Maria Ramires Esper; Lenise Arneiro Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MRSHa) are important coagulase-negative staphylococci. They are often isolated from bacteremia in humans mainly due to their ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of medical devices. Papain is a complex mixture of proteolytic enzymes and peroxidases extracted from the latex of Carica papaya and it is recognized by accelerating the healing process of wounds. This study aimed to eval...

  11. Activity of Natural Polyether Ionophores: Monensin and Salinomycin against Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Joann; Stępień, Karolina; Huczyński, Adam; Tyski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, is the most important pathogen responsible for chronic nosocomial infections. These bacteria produce extracellular slime and form biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces. Bacterial biofilms are very resistant to standard antimicrobial therapy and difficult to eradicate, so it is important to search for new more effective anti-biofilm agents, for example in the group of natural substances. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of two ionophores-salinomycin and monensin against clinical S. epidermidis strains, using MIC/MBC method and biofilm formation inhibition assay. Bacterial strains were tested also for slime production using Congo Red Agar. Both tested ionophore antibiotics showed the highest activity against planktonic bacteria of clinical as well as standard S. epidermidis strains and effectively inhibited the formation of bacterial biofilm. PMID:26638535

  12. Expression of slime interferes with in vitro detection of host protein receptors of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, L.; Donelli, G.; Gelosia, A; Simpson, A. W.; Christensen, G D

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesized that slime may mask bacterial molecules important in the attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis to inanimate surfaces. In support of this hypothesis, we found that slime-negative strains attached significantly better to fibrinogen or fibronectin than the parent strains and exhibited greater surface hydrophobicity. Comparable results were obtained with 53 clinical isolates.

  13. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  14. Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A. McGuinness

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils, are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions.

  15. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  16. Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadström, T

    1992-01-01

    Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA...

  17. The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, TIMOTHY JAMES

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or "superbugs." A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that...

  18. Transmissible mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Noble, W. C.; Cookson, B

    1989-01-01

    The spread of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus with high level resistance to mupirocin is described. The resistance proved to be easily transferred to other S. aureus strains by filter mating experiments and on the skin of mice. No plasmid band corresponding to the resistance could be demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis or by caesium chloride gradient centrifugation but cleavage of 'chromosomal' DNA from resistant recipients showed bright bands of DNA absent from sensitive controls.

  19. Triclosan Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Adnan K.; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G.; Boles, Blaise R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here...

  20. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin′s normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effects, but in comparison to mupirocin it was significantly less (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Nicotinamide stick was made and evaluated. This study showed that nicotinamide had anti-microbial effect on staphylococcus.

  1. Genotipificação de isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis provenientes de casos de mastite caprina Genotyping Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Moraes Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a dinâmica da resistência aos antimicrobianos em uma propriedade rural no município de Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE, foram avaliados 14 isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis de caprinos com mastite subclínica. O perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pelo teste de difusão em disco. A genotipificação foi realizada empregando o marcador REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic - PCR, utilizando o primer RW3A, enquanto os graus de similaridade e o fenograma de agrupamento foram estabelecidos por meio do coeficiente de Sorensen-Dice (SD do algoritmo UPGMA, programa NTSYS-pc, o qual permitiu a identificação de 4 padrões dos 14 isolados de S. epidermidis, sendo oito no perfil A, quatro no perfil B, um no perfil C e um no perfil D. Para todos os grupos, a resistência à penicilina foi observada, enquanto que, para os grupos A e C, esta foi associada à lincomicina, no grupo B, esta foi associada à tetraciclina.To verify the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in a property in Santa Maria da Boa Vista city - Pernambuco were evaluated 14 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from goats with subclinical mastitis. The profile of antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion test. The genotyping was performed using the marker REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic - PCR, using RW3A primer, where the degrees of similarity and clustering phenogram were established by means of the Sorensen-Dice coefficient (SD algorithm UPGMA, program NTSYS-pc, which allowed the identification of 4 patterns of 14 S. epidermidis isolates, being eight in the profile A, four in a profile B, one in profile C and one in profile D. For all groups to penicillin resistance was observed, while for groups A and C this was associated with lincomycin, for group B this was associated with tetracycline.

  2. Depression of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance by sarA disruption in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Hong Tao; Chang-Sheng Fan; Shan-E Gao; Hai-Jiao Wang; Guo-Xin Liang; Qing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of disruption of sarA gene on biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis ).METHODS: In order to disrupt sarA gene, the doublecrossover homologous recombination was applied in S. epidermidis RP62A, and tetracycline resistance gene (tet) was used as the selective marker which was amplified by PCR from the pBR322 and inserted into the locus between sarA upstream and downstream,resulting in pBT2△sarA. By electroporation, the plasmid pBT2△sarA was transformed into S. epidermidis.Gene transcription was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Determination of biofilm was performed in 96-well flat-bottomed culture plates, and antibiotic resistance was analyzed with test tube culture by spectrophotometry at 570 nm respectively.RESULTS: A sarA disrupted strain named S. epidermidis RP62A△sarA was constructed, which was completely defective in biofilm formation, while the sarA complement strain RP62A△sarA (pHPS9sarA) restored the biofilm formation phenotype. Additionally, the knockout of sarA resulted in decreased erythromycin and kanamycin resistance of S. epidermidis RP62A. Compared to the original strain, S. epidermidis RP62A△sarA had an increase of the sensitivity to erythromycin at 200-400 μg/mL and kanamycin at 200-800 μg/mL respectively.CONCLUSION: The knockout of sarA can result in the defect in biofilm formation and the decreased erythromycin and kanamycin resistance in S. epidermidis RP62A.

  3. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, wh...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus infections in psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, K; Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Godard, C; Haesebrouck, F

    2000-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from internal organs of 13 different psittacine birds submitted for necropsy over a period of 6 years. The birds all had lesions consistent with septicaemia. S. aureus isolates included three different phage types. In seven of the 13 birds, concurrent infections with Chlamydophila species, Enterococcus hirae, Candida species, unidentified streptococci and coagulasenegative staphylococci were detected. One bird also had lesions of lymphoid leucosis. Few indications were found that staphylococcosis associated problems may spread epidemically. The present studies suggest that S. aureus is pathogenic for psittacine birds, although it does not seem to be a frequent cause of disease. PMID:19184832

  5. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A- and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Karlsdóttir, Edda

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus are among the most common causes of food poisoning. Acting as superantigens they intoxicate the organism by causing a massive uncontrolled T cell activation that ultimately may lead to toxic shock and death. In contrast to our detailed knowledge regarding...

  7. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. M. Parnaby; G. O'Dwyer; H. A. Monsey; M. S. Shafi

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe point prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and -resistant) carriage by inpatients on acute elderly care wards was estimated. The relationship to body site and to previous admissions to hospital or other institutions was determined. Fifty-five patie

  8. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  9. Genotipificação de isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis provenientes de casos de mastite caprina Genotyping Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from mastitis in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Moraes Peixoto; Rodolfo de Moraes Peixoto; Kárita Cláudia Freitas Lidani; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Para verificar a dinâmica da resistência aos antimicrobianos em uma propriedade rural no município de Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE, foram avaliados 14 isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis de caprinos com mastite subclínica. O perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pelo teste de difusão em disco. A genotipificação foi realizada empregando o marcador REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic) - PCR, utilizando o primer RW3A, enquanto os graus de similaridade e o fenograma de a...

  10. The typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a lectin-binding assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Hansen, J E; Rosdahl, V T;

    1992-01-01

    A new typing method for Staphylococcus epidermidis was developed. Four biotinylated lectins--wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soy bean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA) and Concanavalin A (ConA)--were added to immobilised whole cells of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in microtitration...... plates. The amount of bound lectin was measured by peroxidase-conjugated avidin followed by a peroxidase reaction. The method was compared to antibiotic-resistance analysis, phage typing, plasmid DNA profiles and slime production. A total of 113 isolates of CNS from 21 patients was investigated and 71...... strains of CNS, including 64 strains of S. epidermidis, were detected if all typing methods were taken into consideration. If only one typing method was used the highest discriminatory power among the S. epidermidis isolates was obtained with the lectin-binding assay which allowed 49 different strains to...

  11. Meticilīna rezistentais Staphylococcus epidermidis un tā izplatība veseliem cilvēkiem

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksone, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    Mūsdienās Staphylococcus epidermidis ir nozīmīgs oportūnistiskais patogēns. Tas ir viens no biežākajiem nozokomiālo infekciju izraisītājiem. Staphylococcus epidermidis celmu vidū plaši izplatīta ir rezistence pret antibakteriālajiem līdzekļiem. Maģistra darba mērķis bija izpētīt meticilīna rezistentā Staphylococcus epidermidis izplatību veseliem cilvēkiem. Meticilīna rezistentais Staphylococcus epidermidis netika konstatēts nevienā acs apakšējā plaksta konjunktīvā. Meticilīna rezistentais S...

  12. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauff, Devin L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, which alleviates heme toxicity. Importantly, the inability to sense or respond to heme alters the virulence of S. aureus, highlighting the importance of heme sensing and detoxification to staphylococcal pathogenesis. Furthermore, potential orthologues of the Hss and Hrt systems are found in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, a possible indication that heme stress is a challenge faced by bacteria whose habitats include host tissues rich in heme. PMID:19494582

  13. The potential of Raman spectroscopy for the identification of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Al-Marashi, J.F.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2010), s. 378-383. ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08034 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) MEIF-CT-2006-041965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * Staphylococcus epidermidis * biofilm * principle component analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 6.010, year: 2010

  14. Virulence aspects of Staphylococcus epidermidis : biofilm formations and Poly-N-Acetyl-Glucosamine production

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno

    2006-01-01

    Tese Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Staphylococcus epidermidis and other Staphylococci are now well established as major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of indwelling medical devices. The major virulence factor of these organisms is their ability to adhere to devices and form biofilms. Biofilms are complex microbial communities wherein bacteria acquire different characteristics from their planktonic counterparts, like enhanced resistance to antibiotics and h...

  15. Involvement of Adherence and Adhesion Staphylococcus epidermidis Genes in Pacemaker Lead-Associated Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Klug, Didier; Wallet, Frédéric; Kacet, Salem; Courcol, René J.

    2003-01-01

    We explored three genes of attachment (fbe and atlE) and adhesion (ica) in 27 and 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains involved in pacemaker-related infections (PMI) and intravascular-catheter-related infections (IVCI), respectively, and in 25 saprophytic strains. The detection rates of fbe and atlE were identical in PMI and IVCI strains, but ica detection rates were identical in PMI and saprophytic strains.

  16. Influence of batch or fed-batch growth on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno; Pier, Gerald B.; Vilanova, Manuel; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To make a quantitative evaluation of the differences in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis using batch and fed-batch growth systems and to correlate this with production of the major biofilm polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). Methods and Results: Dry weight measurements of biofilms formed in batch and fed-batch conditions were compared with haemagglutination titres, which measure the amount of PNAG produced. Strains grown in batch systems devel...

  17. Experimental foreign body infections in mice challenged with slime-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Bisno, A L; Beachey, E H

    1983-01-01

    The virulence of two previously described Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was examined in an experimental model of foreign body infection in mice. Animals challenged with the slime-producing strain developed three times as many infections as animals challenged with the strain that did not produce slime (P less than 0.001). Bacterial isolates recovered from the infected sites retained the characteristics of the inoculated strain. Animals without foreign bodies but challenged in a similar ma...

  18. Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a mouse model: significance of extracellular slime.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, M. A.; Borland, R; Capstick, J A

    1996-01-01

    The ability to produce large quantities of biofilm on solid surfaces in vitro is believed to distinguish potentially pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis from commensals. Biofilm consists of staphylococcal cells encased in a matrix of extracellular polysaccharide (also referred to as slime), firmly adherent to each other and to the underlying surface structure. The association of slime with colonization of catheter surfaces in vivo has been examined extensively. Less attention has...

  19. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Sousa, Cláudia; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the adhesion capabilities of the most important etiologic agents of microbial ocular infection to the recently available silicone– hydrogel lenses with those to a conventional hydrogel lens. Methods. In vitro static adhesion assays of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10,145, Staphylococcus epidermidis 9142 (biofilm-positive), and 12,228 (biofilm-negative) to two extended-wear silicone– hydrogel lenses (balafilcon A and lotrafilcon A), a daily wear sil...

  20. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  1. High in vitro antimicrobial activity of β-peptoid-peptide hybrid oligomers against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Knapp, Kolja Michael; Yang, Liang;

    2013-01-01

    An array of β-peptoid-peptide hybrid oligomers displaying different amino acid/peptoid compositions and chain lengths was studied with respect to antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis both in planktonic and biofilm cultures, comparing the effects with those of the common antib...... killing of bacterial cells. This class of peptidomimetics may constitute promising antimicrobial alternatives for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis infections.......An array of β-peptoid-peptide hybrid oligomers displaying different amino acid/peptoid compositions and chain lengths was studied with respect to antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis both in planktonic and biofilm cultures, comparing the effects with those of the common...

  2. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  3. Genome sequence of type strain of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Yi, Hana; Chun, Jongsik; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes food poisoning and community-associated infection with antibiotic resistance. This species is an indigenous intestinal microbe found in infants and not found in adult intestine. The relatively small genome size and rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance genes in the species have been drawing an increasing attention in public health. To extend our understanding of the species and use the genome data for comparative genomic studies, w...

  4. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  5. Molecular characterization and LD(50) identify virulent isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from adult sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndona, B L; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, H; Dall, L

    2000-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays an important role in infections of patients with implanted prosthetic devices. The exact clinical significance of recovered S. epidermidis from clinical specimens is difficult to assess, as they are inhabitants of the normal skin. In this study, 11 adults with clinical sepsis and blood cultures that grew only S. epidermidis were the host population. Bacterial virulence in vivo was determined by using the mouse LD(50) assay where the intravenous lethality was determined for each patient isolate. Bacterial dose (CFU x 10(9)) that produced lethality in 50% of the animals at 12 h was the value used for comparison. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for identification of individual strains and their clonal organization. Confirmation of species assignment was done by RFLP analysis of 16S + 23S rRNA gene regions (ribotyping). Plasmid profile analysis was also conducted. Four of 11 blood isolates from adults with S. epidermidis sepsis had indistinguishable or closely related DNA patterns and were considered clone A. The same clone was previously seen to account for the majority of sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit. There were significant differences in virulence characteristics of the S. epidermidis isolates. Clone A isolates produced lethality by LD(50) in mice at a dose averaging 2.35; clone B isolate at a dose of 2.54, and the remaining isolates, representing six distinct clones, were lethal to mice at significantly larger doses (3.51-5.17, average 4.16). These data suggest that individual clones of S. epidermidis isolated from septic adults have detectable differences in virulence as defined by an animal bioassay, and the more virulent clone is widespread. PMID:10705046

  6. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Jeremić Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In many hospitals in the world and in our country, the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is so wide that nowdays vancomycin is recommended for empiric treatment of staphylococcal life threatening infections (sepsis, pneumonia instead of beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the production of beta-lactamases in hospital and community isolates of staphyloococus aureus, i. e. hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA, the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous type of methicillin resistance, and border-line resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA. The aim of this study was also to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between mechanisms of resistance in HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA. Methods. A total 216 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the General Hospital in the town of Cuprija and 186 ambulance Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the community were examined for the presence of methicillin-resistance using disk-diffusion test with penicillin disk (10 ij, oxacillin disk (1 μg and cefoxitin disk (30 μg. Betalactamases production was detected by nitrocefin disk and betalactamase tablets. Determination of oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentracion (MIC was done by agar-dilution method. Results. The prevalence of HA-MRSA was 57.4%, and CA-MRSA was 17.7% (p < 0.05. There was a higher rate of heterogeneous type of resistance among clinical MRSA isolates (11.1% compared with ambulance ones (3.8% (p < 0.05. The rates of beta-lactamases production were similar among hospital associated isolates (97.5%, as well as in the community associated isolates (95.5% (p > 0.05. There were 4.6 % of BORSA hospital isolates and 3.3 % of BORSA ambulance isolates (p > 0.05. Conclusion. The frequency of MRSA isolates in hospital was significantly higher than in community, as well as the heterogeneous type of resistance. The frequency of BORSA

  7. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Hyun Mun; Sung-Bae Kim; Ryong Kong; Jang-Gi Choi; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong-Won Shin; Ok-Hwa Kang; Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA ...

  8. Xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hwiesh, Abdulla K

    2007-11-01

    A 44-year old man with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presented with abdominal distention, left lumber pain, fever, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. He had been known to have diabetes mellitus type II for 20 years, and he was diagnosed to have a left renal stone three months prior to this presentation. The patient's urine and the left psous abscess grew staphylococcus aureus. PMID:17951953

  9. Xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 44-year-old man with xanthgranulomatous pyelonephritis presented with abdominal distention, left lumber pain, fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight. He had been known to have diabetes mellitus type II for 20 years and he was diagnosed to have a left renal stone three months prior to this presentation. The patient's urine and the left psous abscess grew staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The bactericidal properties of myristic acid and curcumin were revealed in a number of studies. However, whether curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions can be used to inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis, which causes nosocomial infections, has not been reported. Our aim was to develop curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions to inhibit S. epidermidis on the skin. The interfacial tension, size distribution, and viscosity data of the microemulsions were characterized to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the curcumin microemulsions. Curcumin distribution in neonate pig skin was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dermal curcumin accumulation (326 µg/g skin) and transdermal curcumin penetration (87 µg/cm(2)/d) were obtained with the microemulsions developed herein. Curcumin at the concentration of 0.86 µg/mL in the myristic acid microemulsion could inhibit 50% of the bacterial growth, which was 12 times more effective than curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cocktail combination of myristic acid and curcumin in the microemulsion carrier synergistically inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis. The results we obtained highlight the potential of using curcumin-loaded microemulsions as an alternative treatment for S. epidermidis-associated diseases and acne vulgaris. PMID:22976319

  11. [Raw milk-associated Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezendanner, N; Meyer, B; Gort, M; Müller, P; Zweifel, C

    2009-07-01

    Four hours after the consumption of raw goat milk, three Swiss children came down with emesis and diarrhea in July 2008. First investigations showed that the milk originated from a goat suffering from clinical mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus). In the milk sample from the untreated left udder, Staphylococcus aureus counts reached 5.0 x 10(7) CFU ml(-1). By PCR, the gene for the staphylococcal enterotoxin D was found in isolated strains. The consumption of raw milk is rarely associated with Staphylococcus aureus intoxications. Due to the flora naturally present in raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus normally cannot multiply sufficiently. However, in the present case, high Staphylococcus aureus counts were already present in the milk due to the mastitis of the goat. This amount sufficed to cause a Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in the children. PMID:19565455

  12. Staphylococcus aureus atsparumas antibiotikams ir fagotipų paplitimas

    OpenAIRE

    Kareivienė, Violeta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Sinkutė, Gintarė; Liegiūtė, Sigutė; Gailienė, Greta

    2006-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains, their prevalence, and resistance of different phage groups to antibiotics. Materials and methods. A total of 294 Staphylococcus aureus strains in Kaunas hospitals were obtained; they were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined. We used the method of routine dilution to test 17 antibiotics against the isolates. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to studied antibio...

  13. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. Methods This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibio...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cervante-García, Estrella; García-Gonzalez, Rafael; Reyes-Torres, Angélica; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs). Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to diff...

  15. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  16. Classification of Healthcare-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether different definitions of healthcare-associated infection influenced the prevalence, characteristics, and mortality of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. With different definitions, the proportion of patients classified as having healthcare-associated S. aureus...

  17. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  18. Risk of peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis in carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. N. Batalha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the nasal cavities and pericatheter skin of peritoneal dialysis patients put them at high risk of developing peritonitis. However, it is not clear whether the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS in the nasal passages and skin of patients is related to subsequent occurrence of peritoneal infection. The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between endogenous sources of S. aureus and CNS and occurrence of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Thirty-two patients on peritoneal hemodialysis were observed for 18 months. Staphylococcus species present in their nasal passage, pericatheter skin and peritoneal effluent were identified and compared based on drug susceptibility tests and dendrograms, which were drawn to better visualize the similarity among strains from extraperitoneal sites as well as their involvement in the causes of infection. Out of 288 Staphylococcus strains isolated, 155 (53.8% were detected in the nasal cavity, 122 (42.4% on the skin, and 11 (3.8% in the peritoneal effluent of patients who developed peritonitis during the study. The most frequent Staphylococcus species were CNS (78.1%, compared with S. aureus (21.9%. Among CNS, S. epidermidis was predominant (64.4%, followed by S. warneri (15.1%, S. haemolyticus (10.7%, and other species (9.8%. Seven (64% out of 11 cases of peritonitis analyzed presented similar strains. The same strain was isolated from different sites in two (66% out of three S. aureus infection cases. In the six cases of S. epidermidis peritonitis, the species that caused infection was also found in the normal flora. From these, two cases (33% presented highly similar strains and in three cases (50%, it was difficult to group strains as to similarity. Patients colonized with multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis strains were more predisposed to infection. Results demonstrated that an endogenous source of S. epidermidis could

  19. Phenotypic and plasmid pattern analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis in bacterial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Niranjan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis , a commensal of the conjunctival sac has been incriminated as the commonest etiological agent of bacterial keratitis. However, the pathogenic potential of this commensal organism is not clearly known. Aim: To determine any phenotypic, molecular markers of S. epidermidis pathogenicity in bacterial keratitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 382 corneal ulcer isolates of S. epidermidis and 87 S. epidermidis isolates from healthy eyes (controls were studied. Speciation, biotyping and antibiotic sensitivity testing were performed by conventional methods. Tube slime and adherence tests were carried out by recommended techniques. Plasmid analysis was conducted by a standard protocol. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was employed for calculations. Results: Out of 382 corneal ulcer isolates (Pathogens 284 (74.3% belonged to biotypes I and II. Slime was detected in 164 (42.9% of 382 pathogens vs. 21 (24.1% of 87 controls ( P < 0.001. Sixty-five (39.6% of 164 slime positive isolates were multidrug-resistant as compared to only 49 (22.4% of 218 slime negative isolates ( P < 0.001. A significantly higher number i.e., 73.1% (120/164 of slime-producers possessed a 21Kb plasmid in contrast to only 53.2% (116/218 of nonslime-producers ( P < 0.001. Presence of this plasmid had a statistical correlation of low significance with multidrug resistance ( P =0.04. One hundred and seventy-two (45.0% of 382 pathogens and 24 (27.6% of the 87 controls were adherent to artificial surfaces ( P =0.003 and the majority of the adherent organisms (99/172, 57.6% were slime producers ( P < 0.001. Conclusions: Slime was associated with multidrug resistance in corneal ulcer isolates of S. epidermidis . The 21Kb plasmid could determine virulence as it was responsible for slime production and adherence.

  20. VISA/VRSA (Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. What is Staphylococcus aureus? Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly found on the ... control personnel. Investigation and Control of Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) [PDF - 300 KB] - This document is ...

  1. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  2. The effects of ultraviolet B beams on programmed cell death activities in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Behzadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bacterial skin diseases caused by drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis are known as a big problem in the field of treating management of infectious diseases. Progression of resistant strains has led to use phototherapy in parallel with pharmacotherapy. In this short survey, we tried to obtain a logic Ultraviolet Radiation protocol to induce the process of programmed cell death in irradiated Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: The samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis were classified in 4 categories. Each plate which is known as a category included well-grown colonies of bacteria. One plate was taken as a control sample and the left three plates were irradiated by UVB (302 nm in 10 minutes from the distance of 8 cm. The irradiated plates were kept in a dark cell and for 1, 24 and 72 hours respectively. Then, total genomic DNA molecules pertaining to all of the colonies comprising control and irradiated samples were harvested by DNP kit and the extracted DNA molecules were running upon the 1% agarose gel together with ethidium bromide. Results: Control and irradiated samples were studied for probable changes in their macroscopic, microscopic characteristics and then the DNA pattern relating to each group was detected for any variation including smear or DNA laddering bands. No changes were observed in different bacterial properties. No apoptosis were observed in irradiated samples. Conclusion: UVB is a strong apoptosis stimulus in organisms. However, authors of the present study strongly reject the apoptotic effect of UVB irradiation in the format of the present protocol. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(1: 21-24

  3. Origin of the Putrescine-Producing Ability of the Coagulase-Negative Bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B▿

    OpenAIRE

    Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this strain, the odc gene was detected on plasmid DNA, suggesting that the ability to form putrescine is carried by a mobile element...

  4. Role of the luxS Quorum-Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Li, Hualin; Vuong, Cuong; Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Wang, Jianping; Yao, Yufeng; Otto, Michael; Gao, Qian

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. Quorum-sensing regulation plays a major role in the biofilm development of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe luxS, a quorum-sensing system in staphylococci that has a significant impact on biofilm development and virulence. We constructed an isogenic ΔluxS mutant strain of a biofilm-forming clinical isolate of S. epidermidis and demonstrated that luxS signa...

  5. Novas estratégias terapêuticas contra biofilmes de Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, F. I.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis foi anteriormente considerado um microorganismo comensal inócuo presente na pele humana. Porém, hoje em dia é visto como um importante patogénico oportunista e ocupa o primeiro lugar entre os agentes causadores de infecções hospitalares associadas ao uso de dispositivos médicos. As infecções causadas por este patogénico são caracterizados pelo desenvolvimento de biofilmes na superfície desses dispositivos implantados no doente (válvulas cardíacas, cat...

  6. Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis slime production in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Baddour, L M; Simpson, W A

    1987-01-01

    Clinical studies performed by us and others have found an association between slime production and strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci that infect indwelling medical devices. By serial low-speed centrifugation of broth cultures we have isolated a stable, weakly adherent strain (RP62A-NA) from a strongly adherent, slime-producing, pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis sensu stricto (RP62A, ATCC 35984). We obtained a second strain from RP62A-NA (RP62A-NAR) by serial subculture...

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections. PMID:20851011

  8. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  9. Biofilm characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates associated with device-related meningitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm causes device-related meningitis in neurosurgical patients. This study assessed the contribution of polysaccharide and protein to the development of a strong biofilm-positive phenotype in four S. epidermidis isolates associated with probable device-related meningitis, under varying environmental conditions. RT-PCR analysis of the intercellular adhesion operon (icaADBC) and assessment of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production indicated a correlation between increased icaA transcription and PIA production in ica(+) isolates grown in medium with 4 % ethanol and 4 % NaCl. Treatment of biofilm with sodium metaperiodate caused dispersion of adhered cells (P <0.0001), indicating involvement of PIA. Transcriptional levels of protein factors revealed that atlE transcription levels were similar in all isolates, whilst aap levels were variable, with induction being seen in two isolates following growth in the presence of alcohol or salt. Transcription of agr did not influence protein expression and RNAIII transcription varied among the strains. Although aap transcription was induced, the treatment of biofilm with proteinase K did not always disperse the biofilm. Our data suggest that, among the three ica(+) S. epidermidis isolates clinically associated with meningitis that were studied, PIA contributed to the strong biofilm-positive phenotype, whereas protein factors appeared to have a secondary role.

  10. Adherence ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis on prosthetic biomaterials: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Shida,1 Hironobu Koseki,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Hideyuki Sakoda,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Bacterial adhesion to the surface of biomaterials is an essential step in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to the surface of solid biomaterials, including oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy (Oxinium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium alloy, commercially pure titanium, and stainless steel, and performed a biomaterial-to-biomaterial comparison. The test specimens were physically analyzed to quantitatively determine the viable adherent density of the S. epidermidis strain RP62A (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 35984. Field emission scanning electron microscope and laser microscope examination revealed a featureless, smooth surface in all specimens (average roughness <10 nm. The amounts of S. epidermidis that adhered to the biomaterial were significantly lower for Oxinium and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy than for commercially pure titanium. These results suggest that Oxinium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are less susceptible to bacterial adherence and are less inclined to infection than other materials of a similar degree of smoothness.Keyword: bacterial adhesion, implant, infection, surface character

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility among Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections, with focus on doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Tarza; Hellmark, Bengt; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa; Söderquist, Bo

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, coagulase-negative staphylococci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis have gained importance as nosocomial pathogens, especially in immunocompromised patients and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). These infections are often long lasting and difficult to treat due to the production of bacterial biofilm and the transformation of the bacteria into a stationary growth phase. Rifampicin is able to penetrate the biofilm, but to reduce the risk of development of rifampicin resistance it should be used in combination with an additional antibiotic. In this study we used Etest to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 134 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis obtained from PJIs to six oral antibiotics: doxycycline, rifampicin, linezolid, fusidic acid, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin. We also performed synergy testing on doxycycline in combination with each of the remaining antibiotics. Ninety-three (69%) of the 134 isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, 94/134 (70%) to rifampicin, 56/134 (42%) to clindamycin, 25/134 (19%) to ciprofloxacin, 81/134 (60%) to fusidic acid, and 100% to linezolid. Thirty-two (80%) of the 40 isolates not fully susceptible to rifampicin were susceptible to doxycycline. Doxycycline in combination with each of the other investigated antibiotics exerted an additive effect on nearly half of the isolates, with the exception of clindamycin, which displayed an even higher percentage of additive effect (69%). To conclude, as the majority of the S. epidermidis isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, this antimicrobial agent may provide a potential alternative for combination therapy together with rifampicin. PMID:26547372

  12. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  13. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  14. Identification of an amyloidogenic peptide from the Bap protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembré, Pierre; Vendrely, Charlotte; Martino, Patrick Di

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm associated proteins (Bap) are involved in the biofilm formation process of several bacterial species. The sequence STVTVT is present in Bap proteins expressed by many Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter baumanii and Salmonella enterica. The peptide STVTVTF derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected through the AGGRESCAN, PASTA, and TANGO software prediction of protein aggregation and formation of amyloid fibers. We characterized the self-assembly properties of the peptide STVTVTF by different methods: in the presence of the peptide, we observed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of Thioflavin T; many intermolecular β-sheets and fibers were spontaneously formed in peptide preparations as observed by infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. In conclusion, a 7 amino acids peptide derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein was sufficient for the spontaneous formation of amyloid fibers. The possible involvement of this amyloidogenic sequence in protein-protein interactions is discussed. PMID:24354773

  15. Comparison of RNA extraction methods from biofilm samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic resistance and tolerance to the immune system. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Obtaining high quality mRNA from biofilms is crucial to validate the transcriptional measurements associated with the switching to the biofilm mode of growth. Therefore, we selected three commercially available RNA extraction kits with distinct characteristics, including those using silica membrane or organic extraction methods, and enzymatic or mechanical cell lysis, and evaluated the RNA quality obtained from two distinct S. epidermidis bacterial biofilms. Results RNA extracted using the different kits was evaluated for quantity, purity, integrity, and functionally. All kits were able to extract intact and functional total RNA from the biofilms generated from each S. epidermidis strain. The results demonstrated that the kit based on mechanical lysis and organic extraction (FastRNA® Pro Blue was the only one that was able to isolate pure and large quantities of RNA. Normalized expression of the icaA virulence gene showed that RNA extracted with PureLink™ had a significant lower concentration of icaA mRNA transcripts than the other kits tested. Conclusions When working with complex samples, such as biofilms, that contain a high content extracellular polysaccharide and proteins, special care should be taken when selecting the appropriate RNA extraction system, in order to obtain accurate, reproducible, and biologically significant results. Among the RNA extraction kits tested, FastRNA® Pro Blue was the best option for both S. epidermidis biofilms used.

  16. Rapid Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Sterile or Nonsterile Clinical Samples by a New Molecular Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Pittet, Didier; Bento, Manuela; Pepey, Béatrice; Vaudaux, Pierre; Lew, Daniel; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    A rapid procedure was developed for detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from sterile sites or mixed flora samples (e.g., nose or inguinal swabs). After a rapid conditioning of samples, the method consists of two main steps: (i) immunomagnetic enrichment in S. aureus and (ii) amplification-detection profile on DNA extracts using multiplex quantitative PCR (5′-exonuclease qPCR, TaqMan). The triplex qPCR assay measures simultaneously the following targets: (i) mecA gene, conferring methicillin resistance, common to both S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis; (ii) femA gene from S. aureus; and (iii) femA gene from S. epidermidis. This quantitative approach allows discrimination of the origin of the measured mecA signal. qPCR data were calibrated using two reference strains (MRSA and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis) processed in parallel to clinical samples. This 96-well format assay allowed analysis of 30 swab samples per run and detection of the presence of MRSA with exquisite sensitivity compared to optimal culture-based techniques. The complete protocol may provide results in less than 6 h (while standard procedure needs 2 to 3 days), thus allowing prompt and cost-effective implementation of contact precautions. PMID:12517857

  17. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Buah Putih Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus Dari Abses Dan Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 29213™)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Jojor

    2016-01-01

    Daun jambu biji mengandung senyawa aktif seperti tanin, triterpenoid, flavonoid, saponin yang mempunyai efek antibakteri. Mekanisme tanin sebagai antibakteri dengan mengkerutkan dinding sel dan membran sel, inaktivasi enzim, inaktivasi fungsi materi genetik bakteri. Flavonoid merusak sel bakteri, denaturasi protein, inaktivasi enzim dan menyebabkan lisis. Triterpenoid dan saponin menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dengan cara merusak struktur membran sel. Staphylococcus aureus adala...

  18. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Andrew E.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Buchhagen, Jordan; Liu, Cindy M.; Watson, Lindsey; Pearce, Kimberly; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul S; Lance B Price

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.

  20. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. PMID:25687923

  1. Comparative Opsonic and Protective Activities of Staphylococcus aureus Conjugate Vaccines Containing Native or Deacetylated Staphylococcal Poly-N-Acetyl-β-(1-6)-Glucosamine

    OpenAIRE

    Maira-Litrán, Tomás; Kropec, Andrea; Goldmann, Donald A.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis both synthesize the surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetyl-β-(1-6)-glucosamine (PNAG), which is produced in vitro with a high level (>90%) of the amino groups substituted by acetate. Here, we examined the role of the acetate substituents of PNAG in generating opsonic and protective antibodies. PNAG and a deacetylated form of the antigen (dPNAG; 15% acetylation) were conjugated to the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid (DT) and used to immunize...

  2. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sara Svensson,1,2 Magnus Forsberg,1,2 Mats Hulander,1,2 Forugh Vazirisani,1,2 Anders Palmquist,1,2 Jukka Lausmaa,2,3 Peter Thomsen,1,2 Margarita Trobos1,21Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, SwedenAbstract: The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth

  3. Characterization of a Mouse-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Holtfreter, Silva; Fiona J Radcliff; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M.; Fraser, John D.; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2013-01-01

    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the ‘superbug’ Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-ad...

  4. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  5. Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Brinsmade, Shaun ,; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. S taphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community-associated infections. S. aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1 was originally isolated from the ...

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    increase the risk of contaminating hands, arms and the front of the uniform. Hand hygiene is therefore essential, but the use of protection gowns with long sleeves is also important in order to prevent transmission of MRSA. After culture of MRSA and implementation of specific precautions to prevent......INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...... transmission of MRSA, no further transmissions were observed. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The data in this study are included in the routine surveillance of MRSA at Rigshospitalet and do not form part of a trial....

  7. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Skovgaard

    Full Text Available Since its introduction to the market in the 1970s, the synthetic biocide triclosan has had widespread use in household and medical products. Although decreased triclosan susceptibility has been observed for several bacterial species, when exposed under laboratory settings, no in vivo studies have associated triclosan use with decreased triclosan susceptibility or cross-resistance to antibiotics. One major challenge of such studies is the lack of strains that with certainty have not been exposed to triclosan. Here we have overcome this challenge by comparing current isolates of the human opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged in the laboratory in the presence of triclosan, old and current susceptible isolates could be adapted to the same triclosan MIC level as found in current tolerant isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that laboratory-adapted strains carried mutations in fabI encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase isoform, FabI, that is the target of triclosan, and the expression of fabI was also increased. However, the majority of the tolerant current isolates carried no mutations in fabI or the putative promoter region. Thus, this study indicates that the widespread use of triclosan has resulted in the occurrence of S. epidermidis with tolerance towards triclosan and that the adaptation involves FabI as well as other factors. We suggest increased caution in the general application of triclosan as triclosan has not shown efficacy in reducing infections and is toxic to aquatic organisms.

  10. Effect of chlorhexidine on oral airway biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünase Büyükkoçak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biofilm formation of microorganisms on the surface of airways may lead to supraglottic colonization that may cause lower respiratuar tract infections. Studies searching the efficiency of local disinfectants on biofilm formation are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine coated airways on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: Culture and electron microscopy methods were used for biofilm assessment. Airways were divided into two groups to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine on number of bacteria attached to the airway and biofilm formation. Group 1(control: naive material, S. epidermidis, Group 2: chlorhexidine coated material, S. epidermidis. No process was applied in Group 1. Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% was sprayed on the surface of naive material for four seconds and then left to dry in air, in Group to. Number of bacteria attached to the airway were counted by microbiological methods and biofilm formation was shown by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Mann-Whitney u test was performed for statistical analyses. Results: In Group 2, bacteria numbers were 1x102-8x102 cfu/ml, whereas they were 3x103-1x104 cfu/ml in Group 1. Chlorhexidine decreased number of microorganisms attached to the airways with statistical significance (p=0.04. The results of the electron microscopic evaluation were in accordance with the acteriological findings. Conclusion: This study has shown that chlorhexidine coating can successfully reduce the number of adhered bacteria and biofilm formation on airways. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 162-166

  11. Effects of temperature on the morphological, polymeric, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovsky, Leonid; Sturtevant, Rachael A; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2015-02-17

    Changes in temperature were found to affect the morphology, cell viability, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms. S. epidermidis biofilms are commonly associated with hospital-acquired medical device infections. We observed the effect of heat treatment on three physical properties of the biofilms: the bacterial cell morphology and viability, the polymeric properties of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and the rheological properties of the bulk biofilm. After application of a 1 h heat treatment at 45 °C, cell reproduction had ceased, and at 60 °C, cell viability was significantly reduced. Size exclusion chromatography was used to fractionate the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) based on size. Chemical analysis of each fraction showed that the relative concentrations of the polysaccharide, protein, and DNA components of the EPS were unchanged by the heat treatment at 45 and 60 °C. The results suggest that the EPS molecular constituents are not significantly degraded by the temperature treatment. However, some aggregation on the scale of 100 nm was found by dynamic light scattering at 60 °C. Finally, relative to control biofilms maintained at 37 °C, we observed an order of magnitude reduction in the biofilm yield stress after 60 °C temperature treatment. No such difference was found for treatment at 45 °C. From these results, we conclude that the yield stress of bacterial biofilms is temperature-sensitive and that this sensitivity is correlated with cell viability. The observed significant decrease in yield stress with temperature suggests a means to weaken the mechanical integrity of S. epidermidis biofilms with applications in areas such as the treatment of biofilm-infected medical devices. PMID:25602470

  12. Where does a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, V G; Proctor, R A

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we examine the current status of Staphylococcus aureus vaccine development and the prospects for future vaccines. Examination of the clinical trials to date show that murine models have not predicted success in humans for active or passive immunization. A key factor in the failure to develop a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections comes from our relatively limited knowledge of human protective immunity. More recent reports on the elements of the human immune response to staphylococci are analysed. In addition, there is some controversy concerning the role of antibodies for protecting humans, and these data are reviewed. From a review of the current state of understanding of staphylococcal immunity, a working model is proposed. Some new work has provided some initial candidate biomarker(s) to predict outcomes of invasive infections and to predict the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in humans. We conclude by looking to the future through the perspective of lessons gleaned from the clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24476315

  13. In vitro study of the properties influencing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to prosthetic vascular graft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the influence of the properties of various vascular graft materials on the bacterial adherence process of two different strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (mucous and normucous producing). Dacron grafts (both knitted and woven), Teflon grafts, and Dacron grafts coated with one and two layers of silicone were studied because these materials differ significantly in porosity, hydrophobicity, and surface charge (zeta potential). Graft segments were immersed in 3H-labeled bacteria solution for periods ranging from 5 to 180 minutes and liquid scintillation techniques were used to quantify bacterial adherence. The porous knitted Dacron material had a significantly higher rate of bacterial adherence than either the woven Dacron or Teflon (p less than 0.05). Silicone coating (either one or two layers) reduced adherence by a factor of four for the knitted Dacron (p less than 0.05) and by a factor of two for woven Dacron (p less than 0.05). The mucous producing strain of S. epidermidis displayed significantly better adherence to woven and knitted Dacron than the normucous producing strain, but only when 0.25% dextrose was added to the bacteria solution. These findings indicate that the highly porous knitted Dacron grafts have the highest propensity for bacterial adhesion. Graft materials with the most negative zeta potentials are more resistant to bacterial adherence. Silicone coating of Dacron material significantly changed adherence characteristics, suggesting that this may be a viable strategy for protecting implantable medical devices containing materials to which bacteria readily adhere

  14. Antibacterial activity of fresh pomegranate juice against clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Betanzos-Cabrera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyphenols have received a great deal of attention due to their biological functions. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is a polyphenol-rich fruit. In the past decade, studies testing the antimicrobial activity of pomegranates almost exclusively used solvent extracts instead of fresh pomegranate juice (FPJ. The use of FPJ instead of solvent extracts would reduce toxicity issues while increasing patient acceptance. We established a model to test FPJ as a natural antimicrobial agent. Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of FPJ on clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Design: Sixty strains of S. epidermidis isolated from ocular infections were grown in the presence of FPJ, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by broth and agar dilution methods. Results: FPJ at 20% had a MIC equal to 100% (MIC100% on all 60 strains tested. This inhibition of FPJ was confirmed by the growth kinetics of a multidrug-resistant strain exposed to different concentrations of FPJ. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of FPJ was compared against commercial beverages containing pomegranate: Ocean Spray® had a MIC100% at 20%, followed by Del Valle® with a MIC15% at 20% concentration only. The beverages Jumex® and Sonrisa® did not have any antimicrobial activity. FPJ had the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Conclusions: Overall, FPJ had antimicrobial activity, which might be attributed to its high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity.

  15. Antibacterial activity of fresh pomegranate juice against clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Montes-Rubio, Perla Y.; Fabela-Illescas, Héctor E.; Belefant-Miller, Helen; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polyphenols have received a great deal of attention due to their biological functions. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit. In the past decade, studies testing the antimicrobial activity of pomegranates almost exclusively used solvent extracts instead of fresh pomegranate juice (FPJ). The use of FPJ instead of solvent extracts would reduce toxicity issues while increasing patient acceptance. We established a model to test FPJ as a natural antimicrobial agent. Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of FPJ on clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Design Sixty strains of S. epidermidis isolated from ocular infections were grown in the presence of FPJ, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth and agar dilution methods. Results FPJ at 20% had a MIC equal to 100% (MIC100%) on all 60 strains tested. This inhibition of FPJ was confirmed by the growth kinetics of a multidrug-resistant strain exposed to different concentrations of FPJ. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of FPJ was compared against commercial beverages containing pomegranate: Ocean Spray® had a MIC100% at 20%, followed by Del Valle® with a MIC15% at 20% concentration only. The beverages Jumex® and Sonrisa® did not have any antimicrobial activity. FPJ had the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Overall, FPJ had antimicrobial activity, which might be attributed to its high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25999265

  16. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  17. Persistent infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis in endodontic flare-up: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Simone Helena Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic flare-ups are challenging situations and may result from selective growth of specific bacterial species; microbial cultures and antibiograms should be used to allow faster, successful management of refractory lesions. A 47-year-old man reported pain on percussion after uncomplicated retreatment of the maxillary left canine for prosthetic purposes. In the following days, pain dramatically increased, leading to removal of the filling and use of intracanal medication. After many unsuccessful attempts to resolve the problem, a microbial culture of the root canal detected the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. An antibiogram determined the best drug combination to control this infection: tetracycline (oxytetracycline hydrochloride, 500 mg orally) plus third-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone, 1 g intramuscularly). Once the infection was controlled, the root canal was obturated. There was a reduction in the area of radiolucency, and the patient reported no pain at a 2-year follow-up. PMID:26943096

  18. Aislamiento de Staphylococcus epidermidis portador de integrón clase 1 en un paciente con sepsis neonatal Isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain carrier of the class one integron in a septic neonatal patient

    OpenAIRE

    Gladys Pinilla; Liliana Muñoz; Ariel Ivan Ruiz; Bibiana Chavarro; Yolanda Cifuentes

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y secuencia del integrón clase I en un aislamiento clínico de Staphylococcus epidermidis proveniente de un neonato con diagnóstico de sepsis. Materiales y métodos. En una cepa de S. epidermidis, aislada de una muestra de hemocultivo de un neonato, se realizaron las pruebas de identificación microbiológica, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y la caracterización molecular de los genes aac6´-aph2´´, mecA, el gen de la integrasa intI1 y el gen casete aac6´. Resultad...

  19. The two-component signal transduction system ArlRS regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to form biofilms on medical devices, Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of the two-component signal transduction system ArlRS in regulating S. epidermidis biofilm formation. An ArlRS-deficient mutant, WW06, was constructed using S. epidermidis strain 1457 as a parental strain. Although the growth curve of WW06 was similar to that of SE1457, the mutant strain was unable to form biofilms in vitro. In a rabbit subcutaneous infection model, sterile disks made of polymeric materials were implanted subcutaneously followed with inoculation of WW06 or SE1457. The viable bacteria cells of WW06 recovered from biofilms on the embedded disks were much lower than that of SE1457. Complementation of arlRS genes expression from plasmid in WW06 restored biofilm-forming phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. WW06 maintained the ability to undergo initial attachment. Transcription levels of several genes involved in biofilm formation, including icaADBC, sigB, and sarA, were decreased in WW06, compared to SE1457; and icaR expression was increased in WW06, detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The biofilm-forming phenotype was restored by overexpressing icaADBC in WW06 but not by overexpressing sigB, indicating that ArlRS regulates biofilm formation through the regulation of icaADBC. Gel shift assay showed that ArlR can bind to the promoter region of the ica operon. In conclusion, ArlRS regulates S. epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner, distinct from its role in S. aureus.

  20. Detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Nucleic Acid Biosensor Array Using Au Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Fu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a critical pathogen of nosocomial blood infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM nucleic acid biosensor array using Au nanoparticle signal amplification was developed to rapidly detect S. epidermidis in clinical samples. The synthesized thiolated probes specific targeting S. epidermidis 16S rRNA gene were immobilized on the surface of QCM nucleic acid biosensor arrays. Hybridization was induced by exposing the immobilized probes to the PCR amplified fragments of S. epidermidis, resulting in a mass change and a consequent frequency shift of the QCM biosensor. To further enhance frequency shift results from above described hybridizations, streptavidin coated Au nanoparticles were conjugated to the PCR amplified fragments. The results showed that the lowest detection limit of current QCM system was 1.3×103 CFU/mL. A linear correlation was found when the concentration of S. epidermidis varied from 1.3×103 to 1.3×107 CFU/mL. In addition, 55 clinical samples were detected with both current QCM biosensor system and conventional clinical microbiological method, and the sensitivity and specificity of current QCM biosensor system were 97.14% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the current QCM system is a rapid, low-cost and sensitive method that can be used to identify infection of S. epidermidis in clinical samples.

  1. Separation of Staphylococcus aureus causing serious infections by electrophoretic techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesařová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Moravcová, Dana; Šťavíková, Lenka; Růžička, F.

    2014. s. 237-238. [Chemtech /14./. 22.10.2014-25.10.2014, Istambul] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus * electrophoretic techniques Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL ANTI ACNE GEL AND ITS EVALUATION AGAINST ACNE CAUSING BACTERIA PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Farhat S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acne by definition is multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered as the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. Although acne does not pose serious threat to general health, it is one of the most socially distressing conditions especially for adolescents. The objective of this study was to design a product to treat Acne with purely herbal actives as an effective and safe alternative to harmful antibiotics. For this purpose three essential oils and two herbal extracts having anti-microbial properties were selected. These were incorporated in a Gel Base in different concentrations and the in vitro antibacterial activity for the different formulations (F1, F2, F3 was studied against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis, a causative organism for Acne vulgaris using Agar Well Diffusion method. All the formulations showed satisfactory Anti-microbial activity with Formulation F3 showing highest activity. It was then subjected to stress testing for three months at various temperatures. The samples were found to be stable after three months of stability studies and showed satisfactory antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis at the end of the stress testing studies. Thus it was concluded that the formulated Herbal Anti Acne Gel with natural actives can be used effectively for treating acne on skin.

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Larsen, Marianne Halberg;

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction to the market in the 1970s, the synthetic biocide triclosan has had widespread use in household and medical products. Although decreased triclosan susceptibility has been observed for several bacterial species, when exposed under laboratory settings, no in vivo studies have...... pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus: portadores entre manipuladores de alimentos Staphylococcus aureus: food handler carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Gonçalves Raddi

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas amostras de mãos e fossas nasais de 48 manipuladores de alimentos das principais casas comerciais da cidade de Araraquara, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, e de 20 estudantes universitários. Dentre os indivíduos foram encontrados 44,1% e 34,8% que portavam Staphylococcus aureus em fossas nasais e mãos, respectivamente. Observou-se predomínio de fagotipos dos grupos I e III. Dos 12 portadores do microrganismo, concomitantemente em mãos e fossas nasais, 75,0% apresentaram cepas com vínculo epidemiológico. Os achados mostram o risco potencial representado pelas mãos nas intoxicações alimentares.Material was collected from the hands and nasal passages of forty-eight food handlers and twenty college students of Araraquara (S. Paulo State, Brazil and analized in order to evaluate the carrier function with regard to Staphylococcus aureus. The organism discovered in both samples of nine out of the twelve volunteers were of the same S. aureus phage types. The incidence of carriage on the hands was much greater in the handlers' group. These findings demonstrate the potential risk represented by hands in the transmission of food poisoning.

  6. Lysostaphin in treatment of neonatal Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluola, Okunola; Kong, Lingkun; Fein, Mindy; Weisman, Leonard E

    2007-06-01

    This study describes lysostaphin's effect against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in suckling rats. Standard techniques determined minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy. The numbers of surviving rats after vancomycin, oxacillin, and lysostaphin treatment were comparable and were different from that of controls (P < 0.00001). Lysostaphin appears effective in the treatment of neonatal S. aureus infection. PMID:17420212

  7. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to lysostaphin.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, M M; Huber, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and eleven isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from patients at the Olin E. Teague Veterans Center from March 1983 to April 1987 were as susceptible to lysis by lysostaphin as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus controls were.

  8. Mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, M; Sasatsu, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y.; HAYASAKA, T.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus strains was investigated with high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Drug inactivation by penicillinase was found to be the main mechanism of resistance to cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin in S. aureus.

  9. Activity of and Resistance to Moxifloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Ince, Dilek; Zhang, Xiamei; Hooper, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Moxifloxacin has enhanced potency against Staphylococcus aureus, lower propensity to select for resistant mutants, and higher bactericidal activity against highly resistant strains than ciprofloxacin. Despite similar activity against purified S. aureus topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase, it selects for topoisomerase IV mutants, making topoisomerase IV the preferred target in vivo.

  10. Antibody responses in patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsson, G; Colque-Navarro, P.; Gustafsson, E.; Andersson, R.; Möllby, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Correlation between antibody response and clinical outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has yielded conflicting results. Immunization schedules have failed in clinical trials. Is the humoral response toward S. aureus of protective nature? A prospective study was performed in patients with invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections during the period 2003?2005. The antibody levels were determined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and one month later (n?=?96, n?=?7...

  11. Vitamin D sufficiency and Staphylococcus aureus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeffrey W; Hogan, Patrick G; Hunstad, David A; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D promotes epithelial immunity by upregulating antimicrobial peptides, including LL-37, which have bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We found that children with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D recurrent, rather than primary, S. aureus skin or soft tissue infection. Vitamin D sufficiency may be one of a myriad of host and environmental factors that can be directly impacted to reduce the frequency of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25860535

  12. Mapping the Distribution of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M.; van den Wijngaard, Cees C.; Brian G Spratt; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W.; ,

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and in the nose of about a third of healthy people. Although S. aureus usually coexists peacefully with its human carriers, it is also an important disease-causing organism or pathogen. If it enters the body through a cut or during a surgical procedure, S. aureus can cause minor infections such as pimples and boils or more serious, life-threatening infections such as blood poisoning and pneumonia. Minor S. aureu...

  13. Infection control of Staphylococcus aureus : spa typing to elucidate transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Mernelius, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human flora, primarily colonizing the anterior nares and throat, but it may also cause infections ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections to severe diseases such as endocarditis and septicemia. S. aureus is also a major nosocomial problem increasing with the worldwide dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The main vector for bacterial cross-transmission in healthcare settings is the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs). No...

  14. Epicutaneous Model of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakara, Ranjani; Foreman, Oded; De Pascalis, Roberto; Lee, Gloria M.; Plaut, Roger D.; Kim, Stanley Y.; Stibitz, Scott; Elkins, Karen L.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Although the majority of S. aureus community-acquired SSTIs are uncomplicated and self-clearing in nature, some percentage of these cases progress into life-threatening invasive infections. Current animal models of S. aureus SSTI suffer from two drawbacks: these models are a better representation of hospital-acquired SSTI than community-acquired SSTI, and they involv...

  15. Two-component signal transduction system SaeRS is involved in competence and penicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiang; Ma, Yuanfang; Qu, Di

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, the S. epidermidis SaeRS was identified to negatively regulate the expression of genes involved in competence (comF, murF), cytolysis (lrgA), and autolysis (lytS) by DNA microarray or real-time RT-PCR analysis. In addition, saeRS mutant showed increased competence and higher susceptibility to antibiotics such as penicillin and oxacillin than the wild-type strain. The study will be helpful for understanding the characterization of the SaeRS in S. epidermidis. PMID:26898187

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and Co

  18. recA mediated spontaneous deletions of the icaADBC operon of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates : a new mechanism of phenotypic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis involving the slime related ica operon results in heterogeneity in surface characteristics of individual bacteria in axenic cultures. Five clinical S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated phenotypic variation, i.e. both black and red colonies on Congo

  19. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect EPS biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn(2+-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5 were generated. MAb(18B6 inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9 enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb(18B6, which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9. Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections.

  20. Application of a high throughput Alamar blue biofilm susceptibility assay to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pettit George R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms differ in structure, growth and regulation, and thus the high-throughput method of evaluating biofilm susceptibility that has been published for S. epidermidis cannot be applied to S. aureus without first evaluating the assay's reproducibility and reliability with S. aureus biofilms. Methods Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were treated with eleven approved antibiotics, lysostaphin, or Conflikt®, exposed to the oxidation reduction indicator Alamar blue, and reduction relative to untreated controls was determined visually and spectrophotometrically. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC was defined as ≤ 50% Alamar blue reduction and a purple/blue well 60 min after the addition of Alamar blue. Because all of the approved antibiotics had MBICs >128 μg/ml (most >2048 μg/ml, lysostaphin and Conflikt®, with relatively low MBICs, were used to correlate Alamar blue reduction with 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction and viable counts (CFU/ml for S. aureus ATCC 29213 and three clinical isolates. Alamar blue's stability and lack of toxicity allowed CFU/ml to be determined from the same wells as Alamar blue absorbances. Results Overall, Alamar blue reduction had excellent correlation with XTT reduction and with CFU/ml. For ATCC 29213 and two clinical isolates treated with lysostaphin or Conflikt®, Alamar blue reduction had excellent correlation with XTT reduction (r = 0.93-0.99 and with CFU/ml (r = 0.92-0.98. For one of the clinical isolates, the results were moderately correlated for Conflikt® (r = 0.76, Alamar blue vs. XTT; r = 0.81, Alamar blue vs. CFU/ml and had excellent correlation for lysostaphin (r = 0.95, Alamar blue vs. XTT; r = 0.97, Alamar blue vs. CFU/ml. Conclusion A reliable, reproducible method for evaluating biofilm susceptibility was successfully applied to S. aureus biofilms. The described method

  1. Intra-cellular Staphylococcus aureus alone causes infection in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hamza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can “hide” in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain LCT-SA112

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Wan, Daiwei; Fang, Xiangqun; Li, Tianzhi; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang; Wang, Yajuan; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Changting

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. S. aureus is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause staphylococcal infections, which are very common in clinical medicine. Here we report the genome sequence of S. aureus strain LCT-SA112, which was isolated from S. aureus subsp. aureus CGMCC 1.230.

  3. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... inserted surgically, one in a. carotis communis and one in v. jugularis externa. All pigs received 106 CFU/kg body weight S. aureus through the arterial catheter. Bacteria were either suspended in isotonic saline infused at constant flow for 60 minutes (two pigs) or given as a bolus injection of autologoue...

  4. Antimicrobial drug resistance ofStaphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasidharan S; Prema B; Yoga Latha L

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistantStaphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) in dairy products.Methods:Isolation and identification ofS. aureus were performed in3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to5 different common antimicrobial drugs.Results:Of50 samples examined,5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested.Conclusions:The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistantStaphylococcus.Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistantS. aureus.

  5. The effect of octylglucoside and sodium cholate in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to soft contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lívia; Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, Rosário; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, Eva; Azeredo, Joana

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, the effect of the natural surfactants octylglucoside and sodium cholate in inhibiting Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to conventional and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses (CL) was assessed. Hydrophobicity was also evaluated to conditioned and nonconditioned CL. Methods. The inhibiting effect of the tested surfactants was determined through “in vitro” adhesion studies to conditioned and nonconditioned CL followed by image acquisit...

  6. Antimicrobial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts Teucrium polium L. on Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium polium L. (Labiatae has long been recognized in folk medicine in the treatment of many pathophysiological implications, such as gastrointestinal disorders, inflammations, diabetes and rheumatism. In this study antimicrobial activity of two crude extracts obtained from Teucrium polium L. was tested against bacterial species. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined using a microdilution analysis method. The antimicrobial effects of extracts were evaluated on Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435 by “using the method of Collins” and “disk agar diffusion method”. The results showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while both extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and alcoholic extracts concentrations, was inhibition effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and ethanolic extracts concentrations, has inhibition effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing, but at 10 and 20 mg/ml concentrations, no inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed. The results indicate that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Teucrium polium L. have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (p Results showed, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L., have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  7. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous, ethanol, methanol and glycerin on streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian medicinal plants, such as Satureja bachtiarica have been utilized as traditional medicines by the indigenous people of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari in Iran. In this study, Satureja bachtiarica were dried in suitable condition (in shadow after extraction with watery, ethanol 96 %, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by “screening antimicrobial activity” and “disk agar diffusion test” in 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml concentration of the extract against Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435. The results showed that aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extracts were quite effective in 2 mg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, was inhibited effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but 40 mg/ml  aqueous and 30 and 40 mg/ml ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, has inhibited effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing. The results indicate that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. As a result, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Satureja bachtiarica, have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  8. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements. PMID:26623676

  9. Radioimmunoassays for protein A of Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassays have been developed that can detect nanogram amounts of protein A (SpA), a product generated by Staphylococcus aureus that binds selectively to the Fc region of IgG from most mammalian species. Competition assays for fluid phase SpA utilize antibodies produced in chickens, 125I-labeled SpA as the tracer molecule, and either F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit IgG anti-chicken IgG or 40% ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent to separate antigen-antibody complexes from free antigen. The double antibody assay could be carried out in serum from species that form only soluble complexes with SpA (e.g., rabbit), that react poorly with SpA (e.g., rat) or under appropriate conditions in serum from species (e.g., dog) that show high reactivity with SpA and form precipitating complexes. Chicken antibodies prepared by affinity chromatography on SpA-Sepharose and labeled with 125I were used in a direct binding assay for SpA present either on the cell wall of Cowan strain I or Wood 46 bacteria, in insoluble complexes prepared from SpA and whole serum or purified IgG, or in C1q binding complexes that were formed by passage of serum from normal or tumor bearing humans or dogs over SpA-collodion charcoal. Since both types of assays could detect SpA even in the presence of serum or IgG, they offer advantages over other techniques in which the SpA-Fc interaction may interfere. (Auth.)

  10. Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples.

  11. Clinical and microbiologic aspects of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, C U; Miller, H

    1983-01-01

    10 patients with serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 cases of endocarditis in non-prosthetic valves, 1 was complicated by osteomyelitis, 1 case of osteomyelitis, and 1 case of septicemia) are described. Clinical and microbiologic features were evaluated including antibiotic sensitivity and synergy studies, phage typing and biotyping. Endocarditis tended to affect the elderly population and the clinical manifestations were quite similar to those caused by Streptococcus viridans. Both patients with osteomyelitis had involvement of the cervical spine with excellent response to antibiotic therapy. The only patient with septicemia acquired via hyperalimentation had delayed clearance of the bacteremia but ultimately responded to intravenous antibiotics. Rifampicin was the most effective of all antibiotics tested. All isolates were sensitive to penicillinase-resistant penicillins and cephalosporins and over half were sensitive to penicillin. Full synergistic activity was demonstrated with cephalothin and nafcillin in combination with rifampicin, and rifampicin-vancomycin was partially synergistic against the majority of the strains. Five of 8 available isolates were non-phage typeable and no definite pattern was established for various types of infections. Four of the 8 isolates were classified as biotype SIIa, 2 biotype SIIc and 2 biotype SVh. PMID:6361977

  12. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azizian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  13. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...... patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in patients with S. aureus IE (150 mg/l (1-521) vs 94 mg/l (6-303); p...% of patients with S. aureus IE (p =0.05). In conclusion, CoNS IE was associated with a long diagnostic delay and high in-hospital mortality, whereas post-discharge prognosis was better in this group of patients compared to patients with IE due to S. aureus....

  14. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  15. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manipal...... using disc diffusion test by cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) disc, further confirmation was done by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ResultsOut of 400 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 139 (34.75%) were found to be MRSA. Among the MRSA isolates, 74 (53.2%) were from inpatient departments, 58 (41...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan Tertiary Structure from Carbon-13 Spin Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Shasad; Singh, Manmilan; Kim, Sung Joon; Schaefer,Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The cell-wall peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus is a heterogeneous, highly cross-linked polymer of unknown tertiary structure. We have partially characterized this structure by measuring spin diffusion from 13C labels in pentaglycyl cross-linking segments to natural-abundance 13C in the surrounding intact cell walls. The measurements were performed using a version of centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX). The cell walls were isolated from S. aureus grown in media containing [1-13...

  17. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa†

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Vincent H.; Kabbara, Samer; Vo, Giao; Schilling, Amy N.; Coyle, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are often used to treat severe infections with gram-positive organisms. Previous studies have shown concentration-dependent killing by aminoglycosides of gram-negative bacteria, but limited data are available for gram-positive bacteria. We compared the in vitro pharmacodynamics of gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five S. aureus strains were examined (ATCC 29213 and four clinical isolates). Time-kill studies (TKS) in duplicate (baseline inocu...

  18. Role of Monocytes in Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Thompson, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis (BE), the clotting system plays a cardinal role in the formation and maintenance of the endocardial vegetations. The extrinsic pathway is involved in the activation of the coagulation pathway with tissue factor (TF) as the key protein. Staphylococcus aureus is a frequently isolated bacterium from patients with BE. We therefore investigated whether S. aureus can induce TF activity (TFA) on fibrin-adherent monocytes, used as an in vitro model of BE....

  19. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to reactive discharge gases

    OpenAIRE

    Traba, Christian; Liang, Jun F.

    2011-01-01

    Formation of bacterial biofilms at solid-liquid interfaces creates numerous problems in both industrial and biomedical sciences. In this study, the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to discharge gas generated from plasma was tested. It was found that despite distinct chemical/physical properties, discharge gases from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon demonstrated very potent and almost the same anti-biofilm activity. The bacterial cells in S. aureus biofilms were killed (>99.9%) by d...

  20. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Couto; Leonard Amaral; José Melo-Cristino; Miguel Viveiros; Cláudia Palma; Elisabete Junqueira; Costa, Sofia S.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide inform...

  1. Methicillin resistance & inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Soumyadeep Ghosh; Mandira Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with inducible clindamycin resistance (iCR) are resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin on routine testing and inducible clindamycin resistance can only be identified by D-test. This study was aimed to detect methicillin resistance and iCR among S. aureus isolates, effectiveness of some commonly used antibiotics and correlation between methicillin resistance and iCR. Methods: The present cro...

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yu-Chuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Ma, David H. K.; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Shin-Yi; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. This observational study aimed to characterize clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypes of ocular infections caused by MRSA based on the clinical and molecular definitions of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) strains. Fifty-nine patients with culture-proven S aureus ocular infection were enrolled from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 at Chang...

  3. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet-irradiation damage in Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus strain 7 - 8 to undergo photoenzymatic repair of UV-irradiation induced damage and compares it to the photoreactivation (PR) response of Escherichia coli strain B. Staphylococcus aureaus showed greater inhibition by UV irradiation than E. coli, consistent with its higher adenine and thymine content of DNA. Staphylococcus aureus showed an enhanced rate of photoreactivation with no lag in initiation of the PR response at low PR doses compared to E. coli. Maximum PR capacity of both cultures was about equal and occurred in cultures incubated at 23 - 250. The PR responses at 11 - 12 and 35 - 370 for S. aureus and E. coli differed although both were capable of PR at each of these temperatures. The PR response of E. coli was directly related to the dosage of PR light (J/m2); however, the photoenzymatic capacity of S. aureus was not directly responsive to continued decrease in light intensity. The capacity of S. aureus to undergo liquid holding recovery (LHR) occurred at 23 - 250 (not at 11 - 120 or 35 - 370), whereas E. coli underwent LHR at 11 - 120 and 23 - 250 but not at 35 - 370. The LHR response of S. aureus was somewhat more effective than E. coli and did not show the direct response to increased liquid-holding period as did E. coli. (author)

  4. Homology of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus simulans to that of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, K; Nonoguchi, R; Song, M D; Matsuhashi, M; Konno, M

    1990-01-01

    A penicillin-binding protein of molecular weight 76,000 inducible by beta-lactams was detected in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus simulans. DNA from these strains hybridized to the mecA gene from Staphylococcus aureus; however, the chromosomal HindIII fragments containing the mecA genes were 3.4 kilobases in S. haemolyticus and 4.3 kilobases in S. simulans.

  5. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database....... The database can be applied for identification of virulence genes in S. aureus using whole genome 5 sequence data. The S. aureus VirulenceFinder will be part of the tool package generated for the Centre for Genomic Epidemiology (CGE) (www.genomicepidemiology.org)....

  6. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  7. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: no apocalypse now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, F W; Kitzis, M D

    2003-08-01

    The number of reports concerning vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is much higher than the number of true resistant strains or unexpected clinical failures. Many confounding factors, including inadequate serum levels, severely ill patients, foreign devices or undrained abscesses, are more likely to be responsible for the clinical failures than resistance to vancomycin. PMID:14616695

  8. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals. PMID:24908537

  9. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  10. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  11. Pyrazole Based Inhibitors against Enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Vijayakuma, Vinodhkumar; Palayam, Malathy;

    2015-01-01

    agents. The current study focuses on molecular docking and dynamics studies of pyrazole derivatives against Nucleosidase and DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking and dynamics studies reveal that some of these derivatives show better binding abilities than some of the current drugs...

  12. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by C-8-Methoxy Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Jian-Ying; Xu, Chen; Dong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones were more lethal than C-8-bromine, C-8-ethoxy, and C-8-H derivatives for Staphylococcus aureus, especially when topoisomerase IV was resistant. The methoxy group also increased lethality against wild-type cells when protein synthesis was inhibited. These properties encourage refinement of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones to kill staphylococci.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Siphovirus Phage JS01

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Hongying; Bai, Qinqin; Yang, Yongchun; Yao, Huochun

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent and economically significant pathogen causing bovine mastitis. We isolated and characterized one staphylophage from the milk of mastitis-affected cattle and sequenced its genome. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation shows that it belongs to the family Siphovirus. We announce here its complete genome sequence and report major findings from the genomic analysis.

  14. Natural Population Dynamics and Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Melles (Damian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide range of infections, from relatively mild skin infections such as folliculitis and furunculosis to life-threatening conditions, including sepsis, deep abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis

  15. Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip; Rossen, John W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present st

  16. New insights into molecular typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) remains a significant problem causing infections in both hospital and community settings. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) continues to evolve and pose a great challenge through outbreaks and pandemic spread. Humans are no longer the only and the most important reservoir of

  17. Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Finks, Jennie; Wells, Eden; Dyke, Teri Lee; Husain, Nasir; Plizga, Linda; Heddurshetti, Renuka; Wilkins, Melinda; Rudrik, James; Hageman, Jeffrey; Patel, Jean; Miller, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infections, which are always methicillin-resistant, are a rare but serious public health concern. We examined 2 cases in Michigan in 2007. Both patients had underlying illnesses. Isolates were vanA-positive. VRSA was neither transmitted to or from another known VRSA patient nor transmitted from patients to identified contacts.

  18. Determining of antibiotic resistance profile inStaphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Motamedi; Hadis Mirzabeigi; Tahere Shirali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance amongStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from clinical specimens and to identify community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA)in specimens that have been collected from patients referring to one of the hospitals of Ahvaz.Methods:S. aureus isolates from a hospital in Ahvaz were screened for resistance to various antibiotics including methicillin. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. TheMRSA was also treated with ethidium bromide to find the origin of resistance.Results: Among the bacterial isolates, all of 11S. aureus were resistant to methicillin and cefixime,2 were resistant to ciprofloxacine,6 were resistant to tetracycline and the reminder were sensitive or intermediate to other antibiotics. The treated isolates were reminded resistant to methicillin and this suggested that the plasmid was not the origin of resistance in these isolates.Conclusions: These results showed that infection due toMRSA is widespread in Ahvaz and with respect to the spread of vancomycin resistance among MRSA and appearance of overwhelming infections. It is necessary to identify continuously the profile of antibiotic resistance amongS. aureus isolates in other regions and finding appropriate antibiotic for infection control and eradication.

  19. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors. PMID:27427591

  20. Frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among patients suffering from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Nadia; Izhar, Mateen; Mehdi, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine rate of nasal colonization in Patients suffering from bacteraemia caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary ca re, University Teaching Hospital (Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore) from October 2010 to August 2011. Nasal swabs were taken from patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia and were plated on mannitol salt agar plates to isolate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which were then tested for oxacillin susceptibility. Results: Nasal colonization was present in 52.5% of patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia. Conclusion: Nasal colonization rates with MRSA were high among patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia especially in those undergoing dialysis or surgical procedures. Therefore, screening and nasal decolonization should be practiced in hospitals. PMID:24550968

  1. A sensitive assay for Staphylococcus aureus nucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive assay for staphylococcal nuclease involving incubation of the enzyme sample with heat-denatured [3H] thymidine labelled DNA from E.coli, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of the radioactivity of acid-soluble nucleotides released has been developed. The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs ., 3 tabs

  2. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, D L; Stone, W J; Alford, R H

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen male hemodialysis patients developed 21 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia. Infections involving vascular access were responsible for 65% of initial bacteremias. The arteriovenous fistula was the most prevalent type of access used, and thus was responsible for the majority of these illnesses. Phage typing indicated that recurrent episodes were due to reinfection rather than relapse. Complications included endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic embolism, and pericarditis. One patient died of infectious complications. It is recommended that hemodialysis patients developing bacteremia due to S. aureus receive at least 6 weeks of beta lactamase-resistant antimicrobial therapy. PMID:608860

  3. Beta-lactamase detection in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Robles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence/production of beta-lactamases by both phenotypic and genotypic methods, verify whether results are dependent of bacteria type (Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - CNS and verify the agreement between tests. A total of 200 bacteria samples from 21 different herds were enrolled, being 100 CNS and 100 S. aureus. Beta-lactamase presence/detection was performed by different tests (PCR, clover leaf test - CLT, Nitrocefin disk, and in vitro resistance to penicillin. Results of all tests were not dependent of bacteria type (CNS or S. aureus. Several S. aureus beta-lactamase producing isolates were from the same herd. Phenotypic tests excluding in vitro resistance to penicillin showed a strong association measured by the kappa coefficient for both bacteria species. Nitrocefin and CLT are more reliable tests for detecting beta-lactamase production in staphylococci.

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin induces IL-8 expression in human astrocytes via a mechanism involving TLR2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic biofilm-forming pathogen associated with neurosurgical device-related meningitis. Expression of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) on its surface promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Here we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of PIA against primary and transformed human astrocytes. PIA induced IL-8 expression in a dose- and\\/or time-dependent manner from U373 MG cells and primary normal human astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by depletion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine polymer from the PIA preparation with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin or sodium meta-periodate. Expression of dominant-negative versions of the TLR2 and TLR4 adaptor proteins MyD88 and Mal in U373 MG cells inhibited PIA-induced IL-8 production. Blocking IL-1 had no effect. PIA failed to induce IL-8 production from HEK293 cells stably expressing TLR4. However, in U373 MG cells which express TLR2, neutralization of TLR2 impaired PIA-induced IL-8 production. In addition to IL-8, PIA also induced expression of other cytokines from U373 MG cells including IL-6 and MCP-1. These data implicate PIA as an important immunogenic component of the S. epidermidis biofilm that can regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production from human astrocytes, in part, via TLR2.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    large epidemiological studies in Europe. Nevertheless, the overall numbers identified in some Northern European reference laboratories have increased during the past decade. To determine whether the S. aureus t437 clone is present in other European countries, and to assess its genetic diversity across...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Orlando, P; Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2014-12-01

    Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a source of great concern because, especially in hospitals, this class of antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, is one of the main resources for combating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (VISA) was first described in 1996 in Japan; since then, a phenotype with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (h-VISA) has emerged. H-VISA isolates are characterised by the presence of a resistant subpopulation, typically at a rate of 1 in 10(5) organisms, which constitutes the intermediate stage betweenfully vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and VISA isolates. As VISA phenotypes are almost uniformly cross-resistant to teicoplanin, they are also called Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (GISA) and, in the case of heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides, h-GISA. The overall prevalence of h-VISA is low, accounting for approximately 1.3% of all MRSA isolates tested. Mortality due to h-GISA infections is very high (about 70%), especially among patients hospitalised in high-risk departments, such as intensive care units (ICU). Given the great clinical relevance of strains that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides and the possible negative impact on treatment choices, it is important to draw up and implement infection control practices, including surveillance, the appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleansing and good antibiotic stewardship. PMID:26137787

  7. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D. B.; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  8. Indole and 7-benzyloxyindole attenuate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Hyun Seob; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Banskota, Suhrid; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2013-05-01

    Human pathogens can readily develop drug resistance due to the long-term use of antibiotics that mostly inhibit bacterial growth. Unlike antibiotics, antivirulence compounds diminish bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability and thus, may not lead to drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections and produces diverse virulence factors, such as the yellow carotenoid staphyloxanthin, which promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the host immune system. To identify novel antivirulence compounds, bacterial signal indole present in animal gut and diverse indole derivatives were investigated with respect to reducing staphyloxanthin production and the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Treatment with indole or its derivative 7-benzyloxyindole (7BOI) caused S. aureus to become colorless and inhibited its hemolytic ability without affecting bacterial growth. As a result, S. aureus was more easily killed by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and by human whole blood in the presence of indole or 7BOI. In addition, 7BOI attenuated S. aureus virulence in an in vivo model of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is readily infected and killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that both indole and 7BOI repressed the expressions of several virulence genes such as α-hemolysin gene hla, enterotoxin seb, and the protease genes splA and sspA and modulated the expressions of the important regulatory genes agrA and sarA. These findings show that indole derivatives are potential candidates for use in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection. PMID:23318836

  9. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, J.C.; Valiquette, G.; Kennedy, K.J.;

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  11. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  12. Capturing of staphylococcus aureus onto an interface containing graft chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microbial-cell-capturing material was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto a polyethylene-based fiber before the introduction of diethylamine. The prepared fiber was tested against a Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli solution. The results showed that the grafted-type fiber had a capturing rate constant 1000-fold higher than the commercial crosslinked-type bead for S. aureus and that an activation energy of 39 kJ/mol was obtained for the microbial-cell-capturing action. (author)

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in schoolteachers in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Beth A; Kruth, Steven A; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2008-11-01

    A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers' conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2%) participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33%) individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population. PMID:19436569

  14. Mechanism of bacteriophage conversion of lipase activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C Y; Iandolo, J J

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus PS54 harbors two temperate bacteriophages and manifests no lipase activity on egg yolk agar. Curing of one of the resident prophages (L54a) restores lipase activity. To study the mechanism of bacteriophage conversion, the prophage was cured, and the gene encoding lipase activity was cloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli on a 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment of the chromosome. The fragment was subcloned into a shuttle vector and subsequently transformed into S. aureus and Bacil...

  15. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  16. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121 in...... 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...

  17. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...

  18. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  19. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  20. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino, MS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  1. SarA is a negative regulator of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christer; Heinze, C.; Busch, M.; Franke, G.; Hentschke, M.; Dühring, Sara Bayard; Buettner, H.; Kotasinska, M.; Wischnewski, V.; Buck, F.; Molin, Søren; Otto, Michael; Rohde, Henning

    2012-01-01

    the existence of superimposed regulatory systems suppressing a multi-cellular biofilm life style in vitro. Transposon mutagenesis of clinical significant but biofilm-negative S. epidermidis 1585 was used to isolate a biofilm positive mutant carrying a Tn917 insertion in sarA,chief regulator of...... contributed to biofilm formation in mutant 1585ΔsarA. Increased eDNA amounts indirectly resulted from up-regulation of metalloprotease SepA, leading to boosted processing of major autolysin AtlE, in turn inducing augmented autolysis and release of chromosomal DNA. Hence, this study identifies sarA as a...... negative regulator of Embp- and eDNA dependent biofilm formation. Given the importance of SarA as a positive regulator of polysaccharide mediated cell aggregation, the regulator enables S. epidermidis to switch between mechanisms of biofilm formation, ensuring S. epidermidis adaptation to hostile...

  2. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains. PMID:17157942

  3. The pls Gene Found in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Is Common in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri

    OpenAIRE

    Juuti, Katri; Ibrahem, Salha; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Kuusela, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    pls, a gene found in type I staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) regions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, was present in 12 of the 15 human clinical Staphylococcus sciuri isolates studied. Pls was expressed in the S. sciuri isolates, although at a lower level than in S. aureus. Other parts of SCCmec could also be found in the S. sciuri genome.

  4. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Haddadin, A; Fappiano, S; Lipsett, P

    2002-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. MRSA strains are endemic in many American and European hospitals and account for 29%–35% of all clinical isolates. Recent studies have documented the increased costs associated with MRSA infection, as well as the importance of colonisation pressure. Surveillance strategies have been proposed especially in high risk areas such as the intensive care unit. Pneum...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi. B.M; J.Vimalin Hena

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. The MRSA can cause a wide range of diseases, which is associated with its production to large number of extracellular toxins and other virulence factors. The diseases are toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome and food poisoning. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) in persons who have had frequent or recent contact with hospitals or healthcare facilities within the prev...

  6. Diversity of Prophages in Dominant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Lineages▿

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Christiane; Pantucek, Roman; Holtfreter, Silva; Schulte, Berit; Zink, Manuel; Grumann, Dorothee; Barbara M. Bröker; Doskar, Jiri; Wolz, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus, for instance, by mediating the horizontal gene transfer of virulence factors. Here we established a classification scheme for staphylococcal prophages of the major Siphoviridae family based on integrase gene polymorphism. Seventy-one published genome sequences of staphylococcal phages were clustered into distinct integrase groups which were related to the chromosomal integration site and to the enco...

  7. Quinupristin/dalfopristin in Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Da Mota Sergio E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The intravitreal injection of antibiotics remains the mainstay of therapy for postoperative endophthalmitis. Bacterial resistance, however, is still a pitfall in achieving an adequate response to treatment. Quinupristin/dalfopristin might be a feasible therapeutic option in these cases. Case presentation A 55-year-old Hispanic man had endophthalmitis secondary to Staphylococcus aureus in his right eye and was treated with intravitreal 0.4 mg/0.1 ml quinupristin/dalfopris...

  8. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  9. Quinolone accumulation in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffrey, C; Bertasso, A; Pace, J.; Georgopapadakou, N H

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of quinolones by Escherichia coli JF568, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 was measured by a modified fluorometric assay (J. S. Chapman and N. H. Georgopapadakou, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:27-29, 1989). The quinolones examined were fleroxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, difloxacin, A56620, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and Ro 09-1168. In all three organisms, uptake was complete in less than 5 min and was proportional to extracellular quinolone...

  10. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Bhone Myint Kyaw; Shuchi arora; Chu Sing Lim

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination ...

  11. Coated vesicle isolation by immunoadsorption on Staphylococcus aureus cells

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Porcine brain coated vesicles were isolated from crude fractions of tissue homogenates by affinity separation using anticlathrin-coated STaphylococcus aureus (Staph A) cells as a solid-phase immunoadsorbent. The specificity of the immunoadsorption was monitored by SDS PAGE analysis and by competitive ELISA assays. SDS PAGE of the material immunoadsorbed from a fraction of porcine bran smooth microsomes showed a selective enrichment in a 180,000 mol wt protein. In an ELISA assay, this protein ...

  12. Immunoprophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in diary cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vakanjac Slobodanka; Pavlović M.; Pavlović V.; Obrenović Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The prevention of pathogen penetration in the udder, its colonization and reproduction impose the constant need for regular milk check-ups, and preventive and therapeutic measures. Staphylococcus aureus causes subclinical and clinical mastitis, which when in the acute form can originate difficult and malignant udder infections with granulomatous and necrotic changes. Chronic forms of Staphylococcal mast...

  13. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  14. Determination of aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by DNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickgiesser, N; Kreiswirth, B N

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identification of the genes conferring aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by dot-blot and Southern blot techniques. As radioactive probes, fragments of plasmids pAT48, pUBH2, and pH13, carrying the genes for an aminocyclitol-3'-phosphotransferase, an aminocyclitol-4'-adenylyltransferase, and an aminocyclitol-2''-phosphotransferase-aminocyclitol-6'-acetyltransferase, respectively, were used.

  15. Genetic behavior of the methicillin resistance determinant in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, G C; Rosenblum, E D

    1980-01-01

    The cotransformation frequency of mecC5 with pur-102 using Staphylococcus aureus C5 deoxyribonucleic acid was found to be approximately 45%. However, in cotransduction studies, there was a 15% cotransduction of purine prototrophy and methicillin sensitivity but, in the reciprocal cross, no purine-prototrophic plus Mecr cotransductants were obtained (frequency less than 0.06%). The data support the hypothesis that the mec determinant resides on an inserted deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in S. ...

  16. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo, S.; Donos, N.; Spratt, D.; Bozec, L.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for max...

  17. Temporal and Stochastic Control of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Moormeier, Derek E.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Bayles, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biofilm communities contain distinct microniches that result in metabolic heterogeneity and variability in gene expression. Previously, these niches were visualized within Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by observing differential expression of the cid and lrg operons during tower formation. In the present study, we examined early biofilm development and identified two new stages (designated “multiplication” and “exodus”) that were associated with changes in matrix composition and a di...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus phage types and their correlation to antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most devastating human pathogen. The organism has a differential ability to spread and cause outbreak of infections. Characterization of these strains is important to control the spread of infection in the hospitals as well as in the community. Aim: To identify the currently existing phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus, their prevalence and resistance to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Study was undertaken on 252 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples. Strains were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined following standard microbiological procedures. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test was used to compare the antibiotic susceptibility between methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strains. Results: Prevalence of MRSA and MSSA strains was found to be 29.36% and 70.65% respectively. Of these 17.56% of MRSA and 40.44% of MSSA strains were community acquired. All the MSSA strains belonging to phage type 81 from the community were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested including clindamycin and were resistant to penicillin. Forty five percent strains of phage group III and 39% of non-typable MRSA strains from the hospital were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Conclusion: The study revealed that predominant phage group amongst MRSA strains was phage group III and amongst MSSA from the community was phage group NA (phage type 81. MSSA strains isolated from the community differed significantly from hospital strains in their phage type and antibiotic susceptibility. A good correlation was observed between community acquired strains of phage type 81 and sensitivity to gentamycin and clindamycin.

  19. Ceftriaxone and tetracycline effect on biofilm-formation strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Sidashenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 122 strains of staphylococci were identified. Among the examined 122 clinical strains of staphylococci, 67 strains belonged to coagulase-positive, and 55 strains to the coagulase-negative ones. According to the study of physiological and biochemical properties, it was found that 37 strains (30.3% belonged to S. epidermidis species. One of the biological properties of many bacteria is the ability to film formation and these strains attract special attention, since it is known that the film antibiotic resistance is higher than in planktonic cultures. It was determined that 20 strains of those under study were film-forming, 17 strains – non-biofilm forming ones. The film was formed during three days, and settled to the bottom of the plate holes. The clinical (Cl strain of S. epidermidis was sensitive to ceftriaxone and tetracicline. The control (C strains of S. epidermidis were sensitive to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and sizomicine. The study of biofilm growth for 2, 3 and 4 days of incubation was carried out. The maximum rate of biofilm S. epidermidis C was observed during 2–3 days; there is the most intense increase of cells number from 5.2 × 108 CFU/ml, for S. epidermidis Cl to 5.6 × 108 CFU/ml. The effect of ceftriaxone and tetracycline on biofilm formation by 2 investigation strains of S. epidermidis was found. We determined differences in minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for planktonic cultures and biofilm of strains under study. It was established that MIC antibiotics inhibited the growth of planktonic cultures on average 2 times lower compared to the MIC which inhibited the biofilm formation. MIC for planktonic culture of S. epidermidis Cl defined for ceftriaxone was equal to 10 mg/ml, and for tetracycline – 1 mg/ml. MIC of ceftriaxone for the control strain was equal to 12 mg/ml, MIC of tetracycline – 0.7 mg/ml. MIC values for dynamics biofilm formation of S. epidermidis Cl strain on the plater were as follows: to

  20. Molecular Studies on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study of the MecA gene in our clinical isolates has been detected and verified by antibiotic disc diffusion test and nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Part of the product of the second PCR was also sequenced. The results indicated 97.7% similarity between the sequences of the mecA gene isolated from an Egyptian Staphylococcus aureus strain and that compared from Staphylococcus aureus strain no. GI46628 cited at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) database under accession number Y00688 in the region from nucleotide 467 to 875. The effect of gamma-radiation on these isolates was observed by plotting the dose survival curves of these isolates and determining their D10 values. Their D10 values were found to be ranged from 0.44 to 0.66 kGy. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were also carried out after exposure of Oxacillin-susceptible isolate to sub -lethal doses of γ-radiation.Results indicated that Staphylococcus aureus isolates which were sensitive to oxacillin discs were found by PCR to harbor the mecA gene in their genomes. Also, exposure of a sensitive isolate to sublethal doses of gamma radiation led to the emergence of a oxacillin-resistant variant which could be a serious problem in case of using sub-lethal doses of radiation for the sterilization of medical products

  1. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Couto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide information on approaches useful to the assessment and characterization of efflux activity, as well as contributing to our understanding of the role of efflux to phenotypes of antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance in S. aureus clinical isolates. The results described show that efflux is an important contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in S. aureus and suggest it as a major mechanism in the early stages of resistance development. We also show that efflux plays an important role on the reduced susceptibility to biocides in S. aureus, strengthening the importance of this long neglected resistance mechanism to the persistence and proliferation of antibiotic/biocide-resistant S. aureus in the hospital environment.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus – antimicrobial resistance and the immunocompromised child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeil JC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available J Chase McNeilDepartment of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Children with immunocompromising conditions represent a unique group for the acquisition of antimicrobial resistant infections due to their frequent encounters with the health care system, need for empiric antimicrobials, and immune dysfunction. These infections are further complicated in that there is a relative paucity of literature on the clinical features and management of Staphylococcus aureus infections in immunocompromised children. The available literature on the clinical features, antimicrobial susceptibility, and management of S. aureus infections in immunocompromised children is reviewed. S. aureus infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are associated with higher HIV viral loads and a greater degree of CD4 T-cell suppression. In addition, staphylococcal infections in children with HIV often exhibit a multidrug resistant phenotype. Children with cancer have a high rate of S. aureus bacteremia and associated complications. Increased tolerance to antiseptics among staphylococcal isolates from pediatric oncology patients is an emerging area of research. The incidence of S. aureus infections among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients varies considerably by the organ transplanted; in general however, staphylococci figure prominently among infections in the early posttransplant period. Staphylococcal infections are also prominent pathogens among children with a number of immunodeficiencies, notably chronic granulomatous disease. Significant gaps in knowledge exist regarding the epidemiology and management of S. aureus infection in these vulnerable children.Keywords: pediatric, HIV, cancer, transplant

  3. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zunita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 50 samples from 8 stable horses. They are positive in the catalase and coagulase tests. Upon testing the cultures with SLIDEX test kit all formed agglutination within a few seconds, confirming they are of S. aureus. When cultured onto MSA, all isolates formed yellow colonies. However, none of the isolates produced blue colonies on ORSAB indicating that there were no MRSA among the S. aureus. There were 13 isolates which were multiresistant. Eleven are resistant to eight out of ten antibiotics tested. All these isolates were found to originate from stable G. One isolate is resistant to 5 antibiotics while another one isolate is resistant to 3 antibiotics. The rest of the isolates are not multiresistant to the antibiotics tested. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(6.000: 165-167

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products inhibit staphylococcal growth, and disrupt established biofilms produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liang; Qu, Di;

    2009-01-01

    in overnight cultures had no effect on established P. aeruginosa biofilms and planktonic growth. These findings reveal that P. aeruginosa extracellular products are important microbial competition factors that overcome competition with S. epidermidis, and the results may provide clues for the development...

  5. Surgimiento y diseminación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant: emergence and dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza

    2005-01-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales ocasionadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistentes (SAMR) son un problema de salud importante en todo el mundo. Este microorganismo produce una gran variedad de infecciones incluyendo osteomielitis, endocarditis invasora, artritis séptica y septicemia. La multirresistencia es un factor que influye en la persistencia de los SAMR dentro del ámbito hospitalario. La introducción de técnicas de tipificación molecular dentro de las investigaciones epi...

  6. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization among pediatric health care workers from different outpatient settings

    OpenAIRE

    Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Satola, Sarah W.; Jain, Shabnam; Courtney, McCracken; Watson, J. Reneé; Chan, Trisha; Traci, Leong; Gottlieb, Edward; Jerris, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates in pediatric health care workers from different types of outpatient settings were determined from December 2008 through May 2010. Colonization rates for Staphylococcus aureus and, specifically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates were similar to the rates that have been reported for the general population. The predominant MRSA pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type associated with colonization in these health care workers is not MRS...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Isha; Chakrapani, Harinath; Chopra, Sidharth

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29213 is one of the most commonly used strains in drug discovery research and for quality control. We report the completed draft genome sequence for the strain.

  9. The Significance of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and the Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Wenzel (Richard); T. M. Perl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus infections are associated with considerable morbidity and, in certain situations, mortality. The association between the nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent infection has been comprehensively established in a variety of clinical settings, in particular, patie

  10. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  11. Characterization of Haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ariyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen bacteria causing food poisoning and various infection in animals and humans. Haemolysin is one of the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. The aims of the research were to characterize haemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origin, phenotypic- and genotypically. In the present study, eleven Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origins from traditional markets and supermarkets in Yogyakarta, Sidoarjo, Jakarta, and Bandung were characterized for haemolysin, pheno- and genotypically. Characterization of haemolysin phenotypically based on haemolysis pattern of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plate. Genes encoding hemolysin were amplified with specific primers by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The results of the studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plates revealed an alpha haemolysis pattern (18,18%, beta haemolysis (27,27% and gamma haemolysis (54,55%. Based on amplification of the gene encoding haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus with specific primers showed hla genes (81,81%, and hla combined with hlb genes (18,18%. The amplification of gene hla and hlb had a single amplicon with a size of approximately 534 bp and 833 bp, respectively. The haemolysin characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus from various food of animal origin could be used as important information to control staphylococcal food poisoning.Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, haemolysin, PCR, food of animal origins

  12. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Persistent or Recurrent Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially with persistent (PB or recurrent bacteremia (RB.

  13. In Vivo Activity of Ceftobiprole in Murine Skin Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Hilliard, Jamese J.; Abbanat, Darren; Zhang, Wenyan; Melton, John L.; Santoro, Colleen M.; Flamm, Robert K.; Bush, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC β-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC β-lactamase). In the MSSA an...

  14. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Reizner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorised by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarised and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health. PMID:23060511

  16. Crystal Violet and XTT Assays on Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Yanrui; Lin, Shiqi; Chen, Dingqiang; Li, Bing; Li, Lin; Deng, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus) is a common food-borne pathogenic microorganism. Biofilm formation remains the major obstruction for bacterial elimination. The study aims at providing a basis for determining S. aureus biofilm formation. 257 clinical samples of S. aureus isolates were identified by routine analysis and multiplex PCR detection and found to contain 227 MRSA, 16 MSSA, 11 MRCNS, and 3 MSCNS strains. Two assays for quantification of S. aureus biofilm formation, the crystal violet (CV) assay and the XTT (tetrazolium salt reduction) assay, were optimized, evaluated, and further compared. In CV assay, most isolates formed weak biofilm 74.3 %), while the rest formed moderate biofilm (23.3 %) or strong biofilm (2.3 %). However, most isolates in XTT assay showed weak metabolic activity (77.0 %), while the rest showed moderate metabolic activity (17.9 %) or high metabolic activity (5.1 %). In this study, we found a distinct strain-to-strain dissimilarity in terms of both biomass formation and metabolic activity, and it was concluded from this study that two assays were mutual complementation rather than being comparison. PMID:27324342

  17. Enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Karama, M; Rossitto, P V; Morgante, R A; Cullor, J S

    2003-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of mastitis in cows. The ability of S. aureus strains to produce one or more enterotoxins in milk and dairy products is linked to staphylococcal food poisoning. To determine whether staphylococci causing bovine mastitis could cause human foodborne intoxication, the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins A through D (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED) by 160 S. aureus isolates was evaluated with the use of a reverse passive latex agglutination enterotoxin kit. All S. aureus strains were isolated over a 9-month period from 2,343 routine submissions of a composite quarter collection of individual mastitic cows at 18 dairy farms in the San Joaquin Valley in California. Prior to enterotoxin detection, isolates were grown by a method that enhances the in vitro synthesis of enterotoxin. Twenty-two of 160 S. aureus isolates produced enterotoxin. Seven produced SEC, 12 produced SED, and 3 produced both SEC and SED. None of the isolates produced SEA or SEB. PMID:14503727

  18. Diversity of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci from veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In this study we determined whether methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus (MRNAS) from veal calves may be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistance and virulence genes. Fifty-eight MRNAS were studied by means of DNA-microarray and PCR for detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. The isolates carried a variety of antimicrobial-resistance genes [aacA-aphD, aadD, aph3, aadE, sat, spc, ampA, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(T), lnu(A), msr(A)-msr(B), vga(A), mph(C), tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), cat, fexA, dfrA, dfrD, dfrG, dfrK, cfr, fusB, fosB, qacA, qacC, merA-merB]. Some isolates carried resistance genes without showing the corresponding resistance phenotype. Most MRNAS carried typical S. aureus virulence factors like proteases (sspP) and enterotoxins (seg) genes. Most Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates carried the arginine catabolic element, and nearly 40% of the Staphylococcus sciuri isolates carried leukocidins, and/or fibronectin-binding protein genes. MRNAS were highly multi-resistant and represent an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. PMID:25637268

  19. Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorberg, B. M.; Kuhn, I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2006-01-01

    showed one pattern, which was identical to the most common pattern found in the milk isolates. Isolates from herd 2 showed three to four patterns, two of these being identical to skin isolates from the milker. As dairy cows are not a natural host for S. epidermidis the results suggest a human source of...... (PFGE) and 122 by ribotyping. PFGE showed single patterns in the human strains with one exception; one strain was categorised as the same clone as four of the milk strains. PFGE divided 73 of the milk strains into 62 different patterns. The PFGE method had high discriminatory power and shows that many...... different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-García, Estrella; García-Gonzalez, Rafael; Reyes-Torres, Angélica; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María

    2015-01-01

    Background : Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs). Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods : A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results : We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions : The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections. PMID:25787018

  1. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  2. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus colonization among health care workers in pediatrics departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ivete Martins; Marlow, Mariel Asbury; Pinheiro, Marcos Gabriel; de Freitas, Maria de Fátima Nogueira; Fonseca, Fernanda Fernandes; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Aguiar-Alves, Fábio

    2014-08-01

    Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) were evaluated for 178 health care workers from a public hospital pediatrics department in Brazil. Colonization rates were 33.1% for S aureus and 5.1% for MRSA. Risk factors for S aureus colonization differed from those for MRSA. Results suggest nurses with prolonged pediatric patient contact in inpatient units are at higher risk for MRSA colonization. PMID:25087145

  3. Contribution to the safety of repairing mechanisms in Staphylococcus epidermidis: characterization of mutants sensible to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants obtained from N - methyl -N' - nitro - N - nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment of the W5 strain or Staphylococcus epidermidis and selected for their increased UV - sensitivity were characterized according to their capacity to repair DNA damage. The original W5 parental strain as well as several phenotypically defined strains of Escherichia coli, described in the literature, were used as a reference. The study included: the verification of cellular UVV - and MNNG - sensitivities; the determination of the bacterial potential for phage-reactivation by constitutive enzymatic mechanisms (host cell reactivation), as well as by the action of inducible repair systems (W-reactivation); the assessment of the UV-inductibility of prophage in the lysogenic hosts. (author)

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from indwelling catheters exhibit enhanced biofilm dispersal and "self-renewal" through downregulation of agr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lu; Yang, Liang; Parsons, Chris;

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se) has become a major nosocomial pathogen and the most common cause of infections of implanted prostheses and other indwelling devices. This is due in part to avid biofilm formation by Se on device surfaces. However, it still remains unknown...... that how the process of Se biofilm development is associated with relapsed infection in such patients.Results: We have identified clinical Se isolates displaying enhanced biofilm dispersal and self-renewal relative to reference strain. These isolates also exhibit enhanced initial cell attachment...... these features.Conclusions: Collectively, these data reveal the role of agr system in long-term biofilm development and pathogenesis during Se caused indwelling devices-related relapsed infection....

  5. Antimicrobial peptide incorporated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels for the prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis-associated biomaterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of the antimicrobial peptide maximin-4, the ultrashort peptide H-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2), and the lipopeptide C(12)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2) in preventing adherence of pathogens to a candidate biomaterial were tested utilizing both matrix- and immersion-loaded poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)) hydrogels. Antiadherent properties correlated to both the concentration released and the relative antimicrobial concentrations of each compound against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984, at each time point. Immersion-loaded samples containing C(12)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2) exhibited the lowest adherence profile for all peptides studied over 1, 4, and 24 h. The results outlined in this article show that antimicrobial peptides have the potential to serve as an important weapon against biomaterial associated infections. PMID:22489028

  6. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Chovanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  7. Modeling Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Non-Unions: Subclinical and Clinical Evidence in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Barbara Lovati

    Full Text Available S. epidermidis is one of the leading causes of orthopaedic infections associated with biofilm formation on implant devices. Open fractures are at risk of S. epidermidis transcutaneous contamination leading to higher non-union development compared to closed fractures. Although the role of infection in delaying fracture healing is well recognized, no in vivo models investigated the impact of subclinical low-grade infections on bone repair and non-union. We hypothesized that the non-union rate is directly related to the load of this commonly retrieved pathogen and that a low-grade contamination delays the fracture healing without clinically detectable infection. Rat femurs were osteotomized and stabilized with plates. Fractures were infected with a characterized clinical-derived methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (10(3, 10(5, 10(8 colony forming units and compared to uninfected controls. After 56 days, bone healing and osteomyelitis were clinically assessed and further evaluated by micro-CT, microbiological and histological analyses. The biofilm formation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The control group showed no signs of infection and a complete bone healing. The 10(3 group displayed variable response to infection with a 67% of altered bone healing and positive bacterial cultures, despite no clinical signs of infection present. The 10(5 and 10(8 groups showed severe signs of osteomyelitis and a non-union rate of 83-100%, respectively. The cortical bone reaction related to the periosteal elevation in the control group and the metal scattering detected by micro-CT represented limitations of this study. Our model showed that an intra-operative low-grade S. epidermidis contamination might prevent the bone healing, even in the absence of infectious signs. Our findings also pointed out a dose-dependent effect between the S. epidermidis inoculum and non-union rate. This pilot study identifies a relevant preclinical model to assess the

  8. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus infections in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Mason, Edward O; Hulten, Kristina G

    2015-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections in the Down syndrome (DS) population have not been well characterized. This study determined clinical and molecular characteristics of S. aureus infections in children with DS followed at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH), from 2001 to 2011. Patients were retrospectively identified from an ongoing S. aureus surveillance study. Medical records were reviewed. Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and detection of PVL genes (pvl), mupA (high-level mupirocin resistance gene), smr (chlorhexidine resistance conferring gene), and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) type. Twenty-six patients with DS had a total of 34 S. aureus infections (8 recurrent); 61% were MRSA. DS patients represented 16.8 per 10,000 community onset S. aureus infections seen at TCH. Among 26 initial infections 17 were skin and soft tissue (SSTI), 7 were outer or middle ear and 2 were invasive infections. Seventeen patients were hospitalized. Thirteen (65%) of 20 available isolates were USA300, 14 were pvl+, 5 were mupA+, and 8 were smr+. Five of 8 (63%) recurrent infections were ear infections. All 4 recurrent ear isolates available for study were smr+, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible and treated with ciprofloxacin otic drops. S. aureus infections among patients with DS were similar in presentation to other patient groups, except for a greater proportion being associated with ear infections. Seventy percent of ear fluid isolates carried antiseptic and fluoroquinolone resistance genes. A study of a greater number of DS patients is warranted to further explore these findings. PMID:26386776

  9. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  10. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  11. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  12. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  13. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaber, J; Cohn, M T; Petersen, A; Ingmer, H

    2016-06-01

    Optical density (OD) measurement is applied universally to estimate cell numbers of microorganisms growing in liquid cultures. It is a fast and reliable method but is based on the assumption that the bacteria grow as single cells of equal size and that the cells are dispersed evenly in the liquid culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give an accurate estimate of cellular numbers in liquid cultures of S. aureus regardless of the aggregation level of the given strain. We further show that the sonication procedure is applicable for accurate determination of cell numbers using agar plate counting of aggregating strains. PMID:27080188

  14. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

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    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  15. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  16. In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Scott, David A.; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Kriz, Andrea J.; Zetsche, Bernd; Shalem, Ophir; Wu, Xuebing; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene; Sharp, Phillip A.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a versatile genome-editing platform. However, the size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for basic research and therapeutic applications that employ the highly versatile adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery vehicle. Here, we characterize six smaller Cas9 orthologs and show that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can edit the genome with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9, while being >1...

  17. Modulation of Neutrophil Chemokine Receptors by Staphylococcus aureus Supernate

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, K. E.; Heezius, H. C. J. M.; Verhoef, J; Strijp, J.A.G. van; van Kessel, K. P. M.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that Staphylococcus aureus supernate (SaS) is a potent agonist for both neutrophils and mononuclear cells. To further investigate the immunomodulating effects of SaS, the effect on different neutrophil receptors was studied. Expression of various neutrophil receptors, before and after treatment with SaS, was quantified by flow cytometry. We found that SaS treatment of neutrophils resulted in a specific and total downregulation of the C5a and the fMLP receptor, b...

  18. Inhibition of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Maja; Vuković, Dragana; Živanović, Irena; Dakić, Ivana; Soldatović, Ivan; Maletić, Dejan; Lazović, Saša; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran; Puač, Nevena

    2014-03-01

    In numerous recent papers plasma chemistry of non equilibrium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure has been linked to plasma medical effects including sterilization. In this paper we present a study of the effectiveness of an atmospheric pressure plasma source, known as plasma needle, in inhibition of the growth of biofilm produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even at the lowest powers the biofilms formed by inoculi of MRSA of 104 and 105 CFU have been strongly affected by plasma and growth in biofilms was inhibited. The eradication of the already formed biofilm was not achieved and it is required to go to more effective sources.

  19. Binding of collagen to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P; Raucci, G; Visai, L.; Switalski, L M; Timpl, R; Höök, M

    1986-01-01

    Collagen binds to a receptor protein present on the surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to its bacterial receptor is reversible, and Scatchard plot analysis indicates the presence of one class of receptor that occurs on an average of 3 X 10(4) copies per cell and binds type II collagen with a Kd of 10(-7) M. Studies on the specificity of collagen cell binding indicate that the receptor does not recognize noncollagenous proteins but binds all of th...

  20. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also ...

  1. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus": Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aniltta; Letizia, MariJo

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is a disease-causing organism that has been present in hospital settings since the 1960s. However, a genetically distinct strain of MRSA, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA), has emerged in recent years in community settings among healthy…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Community Acquired and Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    P R, Vysakh; M, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital.

  3. Quantitation and relative distribution of extracellular matrix in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between adherence of bacteria to foreign bodies and their deposition of extracellular matrix was examined on glass and suture material. To quantitate bacterial adherence, uptake of [3H]thymidine into bacterial DNA was analyzed. Corresponding amounts of extracellular matrix were measured by a new technique using [14C]glucose incorporation. This study shows that [14C]glucose preferentially labeled bacterial strains in proportion to biofilm production. The ratio of 3H14C in high biofilm producers was 0.9 and in low producers it was 3.7. Radioactive identification of organisms as high and low producers was confirmed by electron microscopy. The results presented here show that production and accumulation of biofilm over time is a stable characteristic in different strains of S. epidermidis. The use of ratios reflecting radiolabeling of bacteria and biofilm by [3H]thymidine and [14C]glucose, respectively, is a quantitative yet simple technique to assess extracellular matrix of different strains of S. epidermidis

  4. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  5. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  6. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  7. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Silva; Radcliff, Fiona J; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M; Fraser, John D; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2013-01-01

    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ) which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization. PMID:24023720

  8. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus ampicillin-resistant from the odontological clinic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Wagner Luis de Carvalho; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in the odontological clinic environment (air), their production of beta-lactamase and antibacterial susceptibility to the major antibiotics utilized in medical particle. During 12 months of samples collect were isolated 9775 CFU by MSA medium suggesting a high amount of Staphylococcus spp. in the clinic environment which can appear through aerosols. A total of 3149 colonies (32.2%) were suggestive of pathogenic staphylococci. Gram coloration, catalase test, colony-mallow growing on chromogenic medium, and coagulase test confirmed the identity of 44 (0.45%) S. aureus isolates. Of these, 35 isolates (79.5%) showed production of beta-lactamase by Cefinase discs and resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin (7 isolates) and tetracycline (1 isolate) suggesting the existence of multiresistant isolates. The evaluation of the oxacillin MIC by Etest assays showed susceptibility patterns suggesting the inexistence of the mecA gene in chromosomal DNA. These results point out to the need of a larger knowledge on the contamination means and propagation of this microorganism into the odontological clinic. PMID:15729470

  10. Comparison of community-onset Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in Thailand: a prospective multicentre observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Chantratita, N.; Wikraiphat, C; Tandhavanant, S.; Wongsuvan, G; Ariyaprasert, P.; Suntornsut, P; Thaipadungpanit, J; Teerawattanasook, N.; Jutrakul, Y.; Srisurat, N; Chaimanee, P; Anukunananchai, J.; Phiphitaporn, S; Srisamang, P; Chetchotisakd, P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a globally distributed cause of human infection, but diagnostic laboratories misidentify this as Staphylococcus aureus. We determined whether there is clinical utility in distinguishing between the two. A prospective cohort study of community-onset invasive staphylococcal sepsis was conducted in adults at four hospitals in northeast Thailand between 2010 and 2013. Of 311 patients analysed, 58 (19%) were infected with S. argenteus and 253 (81%) with S. aureus. Most ...

  11. A rare case of acute epiglottitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiglottitis has been mainly associated with childhood infection with Haemophilis influenzae type B but cases of adult epiglottitis are increasing. We report here a case of adult epiglottitis and present evidence that it was caused by S. aureus. A 48-year old patient with clinical symptoms of epiglottitis grew Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture from an epiglottal swab. Staphylococcus aureus should be considered as a potential pathogen in adult epiglottitis.

  12. Thiazolidione derivatives targeting the histidinekinase YycG are effective against both planktonicand biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-zheng HUANG; You-cong WU; Shi-qing HAN; Di QU; Li-ka ng ZHENG; Hua-yong LIU; Bin PAN; Jian HU; Tao ZHU; WeiWANG; Dan-bin JIANG; Yang WU

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacies of six derivatives of Compound 2,a novel YycG histidine kinase inhibitor with the thiazolidione core structure in the treatment of medical device-related biofilm infections.Methods:The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the derivatives was determined using the macrodilution broth method,and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained via sub-culturing 100 μL from each negative tube from the MIC assay onto drug-free Mueller-Hinton agar plates.Biofilm-killing effect for immature (6 h-old) biofilms was examined using a semiquantitative plate assay,and the effect on mature (24 h-old) biofilms was observed under a confocal laserscanning microscope (CLSM).Results:The derivatives potently suppressed the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis.The MIC values of the derivatives H2-10,H2-12,H2-20,H2-29,H2-27,and H2-28 on S epidermidis ATCC 35984 were 24.3,6.5,6.2,3.3,3.1,and 1.5 μg/mL,respectively.The MBC values of these derivatives were 48.6,52.2,12.4,52.6,12.4,and 6.2 μg/mL,respectively.The derivatives killed all bacteria in immature (6 h-old) biofilms and eliminated the biofilm proliferation.The derivatives also displayed strong bactericidal activities toward cells in mature (24 h-old) biofilms,whereas they showed low cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity toward Vero cells and human erythro-cytes.Conclusion:The bactericidal and biofilm-killing activities of the new anti-YycG compounds were significantly better than the parent Compound 2.

  13. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus isolates in domestic dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Staphylococcus aureusis a one of THE most frequent causes of food poisoning (FP in dairy products. The main etiologic agents of FP are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE. There are different types of SE; types A (SEA and B (SEB are the most clinically important enterotoxins. Traditional dairy products are still produced in small batches and sold by some vendors without a permit from the Ministry of Health. This study focuses on the molecular and serological detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus SEA and SEB genes and its products, respectively from samples of such traditional products."nMaterials and Methods: 100 samples from dairy products were produced under sterile conditions via traditional methods and were transported to the laboratory. The samples were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were evaluated by PCR tests for detection of the genes encoding SEA and SEB. Subsequently, the ability of these strains to produce enterotoxin was examined by Sac's culture method and was confirmed by Sigel Radial Immounodiffussion (SRID."nResults: The results indicated that 32% of the dairy products were contaminated by S. aureus (cream 18% , cheese 10%, milk 4%. The PCR results showed that 15.6% of the S. aureus isolates possessed the SEA gene, 9.3% had the SEB gene, and 6.2% possessed both genes. The evaluation of enterotoxin production indicated that 80% of SEA and 33% of SEB genes were expressed."nConclusion: Enterotoxins SEA and SEB are heat stable and consequently; heating has no effect on dairy products contaminated by entertoxins. Subsequently, gastritis may occur within several hours after consumption. Our findings suggest that PCR is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for detecting SE and can replace the traditional assays.

  14. Proteome changes of Caenorhabditis elegans upon a Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoofs Liliane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. The aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a Staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach. Results Different types of growth media in combination with either E. coli OP50 or Staphylococcus aureus were tested for an effect on the worm's lifespan. LB agar was chosen and C. elegans samples were collected 1 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h post S. aureus infection or E. coli incubation. Proteomics analyses resulted in the identification of 130 spots corresponding to a total of 108 differentially expressed proteins. Conclusions Exploring four time-points discloses a dynamic insight of the reaction against a gram-positive infection at the level of the whole organism. The remarkable upregulation after 8 h and 24 h of many enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle might illustrate the cost of fighting off an infection. Intriguing is the downregulation of chaperone molecules, which are presumed to serve a protective role. A comparison with a similar experiment in which C. elegans was infected with the gram-negative Aeromonas hydrophila reveals that merely 9% of the identified spots, some of which even exhibiting an opposite regulation, are present in both studies. Hence, our findings emphasise the complexity and pathogen-specificity of the worm's immune response and form a firm basis for future functional research. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Itai Yanai, Dieter Wolf and Torben Luebke (nominated by Walter Lutz.

  15. A cohort study of the Copenhagen CF Centre eradication strategy against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with CF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Christina Schjellerup; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed....

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance traits of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a recognized pathogen in humans, which causes nosocomial infections and food poisoning. The transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus (ARSA), especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), between food products and humans has become a serious problem. Hence, it is n...

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Biochemical Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus: Impact of Bio field Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923).

  18. Nosocomial Infections and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Methicillin Sensitive and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nitish Kumar; Garg, Raina; Baliga, Shrikala; Bhat K., Gopalkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Strains That are Hypersusceptible to Resistance Gene Transfer from Enterococci▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Julia M.-L.; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2007-01-01

    We identified naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus mutants of the restriction modification pathway SauI, including bovine lineage ST151. In a model of vancomycin resistance transfer from Enterococcus faecalis, ST151 isolates are 500 times more susceptible than human S. aureus isolates. The eradication of “hyperrecipient” strains may reduce the evolution of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

  20. The population structure of Staphylococcus Aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Driessen, C.; Sebastian, S.; Nijs, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal carri

  1. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  2. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  3. Novel antibiotics for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsen, Knut

    2009-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic treatment of infections owing to S. aureus have become increasingly challenging as the pathogen has acquired a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In particular, emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) progressed to a global health threat. The glycopeptides antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin have remained as the drugs of last resort for more than 20 years. Fortunately, in addition to the glycopeptides, several novel antibiotics including linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin and ceftobiprole acting against MRSA have been recently introduced into clinical practice broadening therapeutic options. Although the arsenal of antistaphylococcal drugs has filled up in recent years, the rate of MRSA infection continues to be high in most countries. This demands an ongoing search for new antibacterials and lead compounds as well as development of alternative therapies and faster diagnostics to ensure effective anti-staphylococcal therapy in the future. PMID:22112259

  4. Purification and crystallization of RNase HIII from Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RNase HIII from S. aureus is presented. Crystals that diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution in space group P212121 were only obtained after removal of the hexahistidine tag. As part of collaborative efforts to characterize virulence factors from Staphylococcus aureus, methods for the large-scale recombinant production of RNase HIII from S. aureus subspecies MRSA252 (Sa-RNase HIII) have been developed. RNase HIII-type ribonucleases are poorly characterized members of the RNase H group of endonucleases which hydrolyze RNA from RNA/DNA hybrids and are thought to be involved in DNA replication and repair. They are characterized by N-terminal extensions of unknown function that do not share sequence homology with the N-terminal extensions of bacterial RNases HI and RNases HII. Sa-RNase HIII was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.9, b = 74.2, c = 127.5 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Regulatory RNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeau, Valérie; Cady, Anne; Revest, Matthieu; Rostan, Octavie; Sassi, Mohamed; Tattevin, Pierre; Donnio, Pierre-Yves; Felden, Brice

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal bacterium and pathogen. Identifying biomarkers for the transition from colonization to disease caused by this organism would be useful. Several S. aureus small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate virulence. We investigated presence and expression of 8 sRNAs in 83 S. aureus strains from 42 patients with sepsis or septic shock and 41 asymptomatic colonized carriers. Small pathogenicity island sRNAs sprB and sprC were clade specific. Six sRNAs had variable expression not correlated with clinical status. Expression of RNAIII was lower in strains from septic shock patients than in strains from colonized patients. When RNAIII was associated with expression of sprD, colonizing strains could be discriminated from strains in patients with bloodstream infections, including patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolates associated with colonization might have sRNAs with target expression different from those of disease isolates. Monitoring expression of RNAIII and sprD could help determine severity of bloodstream infections. PMID:27224202

  6. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  7. Surgimiento y diseminación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant: emergence and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones nosocomiales ocasionadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistentes (SAMR son un problema de salud importante en todo el mundo. Este microorganismo produce una gran variedad de infecciones incluyendo osteomielitis, endocarditis invasora, artritis séptica y septicemia. La multirresistencia es un factor que influye en la persistencia de los SAMR dentro del ámbito hospitalario. La introducción de técnicas de tipificación molecular dentro de las investigaciones epidemiológicas ha provisto nuevas herramientas para conocer el origen y las vías de diseminación de este microorganismo. Una de las conclusiones importantes que han surgido de este tipo de estudios es que un número pequeño de clonas son las responsables de las infecciones estafilocócicas en todo el mundo.Nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important health problem worldwide. This microorganism causes a variety of clinical infections, including osteomyelitis, invasive endocarditis, septic arthritis and septicemia. Antimicrobial resistance is a factor that influences the persistence of MRSA in the hospital environment. The introduction of molecular typing techniques in epidemiological investigations has provided new tools for identifying the microorganism's origin and routes of dissemination. One of the most important conclusions that have resulted from these types of studies is that a small number of clones are responsible for most of the staphylococcal infections throughout the world.

  8. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  9. Using Enzymes to Improve Antibiotic Effectiveness on "Staphylococcus Epidermidis" Biofilm Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candal, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of five different enzymes as treatments against Staphylococcus biofilm growth was measured in the presence of antibiotics and alone. Protease was the least effective enzyme in biofilm removal with all antibiotics, and pectinase was the most effective with dicloxacillin and clindamycin. Also, dicloxacillin was the most effective…

  10. Biofilm Formation and Detection of IcaAB Genes in Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Eftekhar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of nosocomial and community infections. Biofilm formation, mediated by a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA and encoded by the ica operon, is considered to be an important virulence factor in both S. epidermidis and S. aureus. However, the clinical impact of the ica locus and PIA production is less well described in S. aureus. We studied biofilm formation in clinical isolates of MRSA in relation to the presence of the ica operon. Materials and MethodsForty five MRSA were studied for biofilm formation by colony morphology on Congo red agar (CRA and the microtitre plate assay (MtP. Presence of the ica genes was detected by PCR and specific primers. ResultsThe results showed that 53.3% of the isolates had the potential to form biofilm by colony morphology of which, 75% carried the ica operon. Weak biofilm production was observed in the MtP assay by 57.8%, of which 53.8% harbored the ica operon. However, about 70% of biofilm non-producers also carried the ica operon. ConclusionOverall, there was no agreement between the icaAB gene carriage and biofilm phenotype by either of the two phenotypic methods. However, 91% of biofilm formers on CRA also produced biofilm in the MtP assay.

  11. Conserved genes in a path from commensalism to pathogenicity: comparative phylogenetic profiles of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A and ATCC12228

    OpenAIRE

    Jia PeiLin; Xu Hao; Ding GuoHui; Wang XiaoJing; Zhu Yu-Li; Cao ZhiWei; Wei Wu; Qu Di; Danchin Antoine; Li YiXue

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis, long regarded as an innocuous commensal bacterium of the human skin, is the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections associated with implanted medical devices. This conditional pathogen provides a model of choice to study genome landmarks correlated with the transition between commensalism and pathogenicity. Traditional investigations stress differences in gene content. We focused on conserved genes that have accumulated small mutation diffe...

  12. Phagocytosis and oxidative-burst response of planktonic Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A and its non-slime-producing variant in human neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzelmann, M; Herzig, D O; Swain, B.; Mercer-Jones, M A; Bergamini, T M; Polk, H C

    1997-01-01

    The ability of bacterial organisms to produce an extracellular polysaccharide matrix known as slime has been associated with increased virulence and delayed infections in various prosthetic implants. Within a biofilm, this slime may protect the embedded bacteria from host defense mechanisms, especially phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. To determine whether planktonic Staphylococcus epidermidis is protected in a similar way, a novel flow cytometric assay was performed, measuring in...

  13. Rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen in 96 well microtitre plate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm assays promotes biofilm development and is influenced by inoculum cell concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, John J.; O'Gara, James P.; CASEY, Eoin

    2009-01-01

    Biofilm-related research using 96-well microtiter plates involves static incubation of plates indiscriminate of environmental conditions, making oxygen availability an important variable which has not been considered to date. By directly measuring dissolved oxygen concentration over time we report here that dissolved oxygen is rapidly consumed in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm cultures grown in 96-well plates irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the gaseous environment in which the...

  14. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  15. Effects of Growth in the Presence of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Dicloxacillin on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno; Martins, Silvia; Sillankorva, Sanna; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Pier, Gerald B.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of antibiotics can inhibit microbial adherence to medical device surfaces. However, little is known about the changes that occur in the physiology of bacteria within biofilms formed in the presence of subinhibitory (sub-MIC) concentrations of antibiotics. In this study, the densities and matrix compositions of biofilms formed by two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in the absence and in the presence of sub-MIC concentrations of dicloxacillin were evalua...

  16. Untersuchungen zur Diagnostik und Epidemiologie von Staphylococcus aureus in Milchviehbetrieben in Brandenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological features of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus by using genotyping and antibiogram typing. Furthermore different methods for identification of S. aureus were performed to compare the methods’ ability to identify S. aureus from bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from six dairy herds with high prevalence of S. aureus in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. Of each herd, 32 cows in different stages of lactation and different a...

  17. Investigation of the bactericidal effects of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin on Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞGÖR-LİMONCU, Mine; ERMERTCAN, Şafak; COŞAR, Güner

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the bactericidal activity of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) on Staphylococcus aureus isolates and their minimal inhibition concentrations. The in-vitro susceptibilities of the 99 S. aureus isolates to vancomycin and Q/D were investigated by agar dilution. Thirty methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) vancomycin and Q/D susceptible isolates were involved in time-kill stu...

  18. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Chinese Medical College Campus

    OpenAIRE

    DU, JIMEI; Chen, Chun; Ding, Baixing; Tu, Jinjing; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Salgado, Cassandra; Cai, Qiangjun; SONG, Yulong; Bao, Qiyu; Zhang, Liming; Pan, Jingye; Wang, LiangXing; Yu, Fangyou

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopr...

  19. Daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomycin-intermediate, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Yu; Dale, Suzanne E; Deborah Yamamura; Vida Stankus; Christine Lee

    2012-01-01

    Due to the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility, newer antibiotics, including daptomycin, have been used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is approved to treat S aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis, and reports of S aureus with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin are infrequent. To our knowledge, the present report describes the first Canadian case of daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomyci...

  20. Human-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains within great ape populations in Central Africa (Gabon)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nagel; Dischinger, J.; Türck, M.; Verrier, D.; Oedenkoven, M.; Ngoubangoye, B.; Le Flohic, G.; Drexler, J. F.; Bierbaum, G.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    The risk of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is well-known. However, most studies regarding the distribution of (clinically relevant) S.aureus among humans and animals took place in the western hemisphere and only limited data are available from (Central) Africa. In this context, recent studies focused on S.aureus strains in humans and primates, but the question of whether humans and monkeys share related S.aureus strains or may interchange strains remained largely unsolved....

  1. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    F Amin Harati; Amini, M; AR Shahverdi; Pourmand MR; Yousefi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has inc...

  2. Crystal Structures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase Bound to Inhibitory Analogs Reveal New Insight into Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; McWhorter, William J.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC)

    2011-10-28

    The polyisoprenoid compound undecaprenyl phosphate is required for biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogenic Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus spp. In these organisms, the mevalonate pathway is used to produce the precursor isoprenoid, isopentenyl 5-diphosphate. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes formation of isopentenyl 5-diphosphate in an ATP-dependent irreversible reaction and is therefore an attractive target for inhibitor development that could lead to new antimicrobial agents. To facilitate exploration of this possibility, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD (1.85 {angstrom} resolution) and, to the best of our knowledge, the first structures of liganded MDD. These structures include MDD bound to the mevalonate 5-diphosphate analogs diphosphoglycolyl proline (2.05 {angstrom} resolution) and 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP; 2.2 {angstrom} resolution). Comparison of these structures provides a physical basis for the significant differences in K{sub i} values observed for these inhibitors. Inspection of enzyme/inhibitor structures identified the side chain of invariant Ser{sup 192} as making potential contributions to catalysis. Significantly, Ser {yields} Ala substitution of this side chain decreases k{sub cat} by {approx}10{sup 3}-fold, even though binding interactions between FMVAPP and this mutant are similar to those observed with wild type MDD, as judged by the 2.1 {angstrom} cocrystal structure of S192A with FMVAPP. Comparison of microbial MDD structures with those of mammalian counterparts reveals potential targets at the active site periphery that may be exploited to selectively target the microbial enzymes. These studies provide a structural basis for previous observations regarding the MDD mechanism and inform future work toward rational inhibitor design.

  3. [Clonal eosinophilia revealed by recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbos, F; Figueredo, M; Dumon-Gubeno, M-C; Nicolle, I; Tarhini, A; Medioni, L-D; Naman, H; Mouroux, J

    2011-06-01

    Acquired eosinophilia is currently classified into secondary (reactional to underlying diseases), clonal (presence of a bone marrow histological, cytogenetic or molecular marker of a myeloid malignancy) and idiopathic (neither secondary nor clonal) categories. We report the case of a 47-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital for Staphylococcus aureus recurring infections. An hypereosinophilia was discovered and led to molecular analysis. The identification of FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene permitted the diagnostic of clonal eosinophilia. Treatment by imatinib mesylate induced an haematological remission, the control of the infection and thoracotomy cicatrization. This case is original because of its infectious presentation and the efficacy of imatinib mesylate to control the infectious process. PMID:21665081

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Ae-Li; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Mal-Nam; Jang, Geum-Chan; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-02-01

    A total of 402 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk collected during 2003-2009 in Korea were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to 11 of 20 antimicrobials tested; no resistance was observed against pirlimycin, telithromycin, novobiocin, penicillin/novobiocin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, clindamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, trimethprim/sulfamethoxazol, vancomycin, and linezolid. Over 66% of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin. Resistance was also seen for gentamicin (11.9%), erythromycin (7.7%), methicillin (oxacillin and cefoxitin, 6.2%), and tetracycline (4.2%). No noticeable change was observed in penicillin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance over the 7-year period. Tetracycline resistance appeared to decrease consistently, whereas methicillin resistance was observed from 2005. About 2.7% (11/402) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Genotyping of the 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from each cow revealed two staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (IV and IVa), three spa types (t286, t324, and untypable), and two sequence types (ST1 and ST72). Eleven of 17 (64.7%) MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t324-ST72. The rest of strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t286-ST1 (n = 3) and SCCmec IV-untypable-ST72 (n = 3). None of the MRSA carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. These characteristics are the same as those found in community-acquired (CA) MRSA strains prevalent in humans in Korea. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (A-C) were observed among the 17 MRSA strains examined, and 14 strains belonged to the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern regardless of their geographical origin and year of isolation. The results of this study provide evidence of CA-MRSA infection in dairy cattle for the first time in Korea. PMID:21034263

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolation from the vitrectomy specimen four hours after initial treatment with vancomycin and ceftazidime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Javey

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Golnaz Javey1, Stephen G Schwartz2, Andrew A Moshfeghi2, Sanjay Asrani3, Harry W Flynn Jr21Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: A patient presented with acute-onset, postoperative endophthalmitis and visual acuity of light perception. Because of a time delay in arranging a pars plana vitrectomy (PPV, the patient was treated with a prompt vitreous tap for culture an injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime. Four hours later, the PPV was performed and additional antibiotics were injected. The cultures from both the initial needle tap and the subsequent PPV isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to vancomycin, but resistant to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones. The patient eventually recovered a visual acuity of 20/80 before developing retinal detachment. This case illustrates the time lag necessary to sterilize the vitreous cavity, and suggests a possible two-step staged treatment strategy for situations in which access to PPV equipment and support staff may be limited.Keywords: endophthalmitis, pars plana vitrectomy, tap and inject

  6. Staphylococcus aureus infections: transmission within households and the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Justin; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Lowy, Franklin D

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, are now major community-based pathogens worldwide. The basis for this is multifactorial and includes the emergence of epidemic clones with enhanced virulence, antibiotic resistance, colonization potential, or transmissibility. Household reservoirs of these unique strains are crucial to their success as community-based pathogens. Staphylococci become resident in households, either as colonizers or environmental contaminants, increasing the risk for recurrent infections. Interactions of household members with others in different households or at community sites, including schools and daycare facilities, have a critical role in the ability of these strains to become endemic. Colonization density at these sites appears to have an important role in facilitating transmission. The integration of research tools, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS), mathematical modeling, and social network analysis, has provided additional insight into the transmission dynamics of these strains. Thus far, interventions designed to reduce recurrent infections among household members have had limited success, likely due to the multiplicity of potential sources for recolonization. The development of better strategies to reduce the number of household-based infections will depend on greater insight into the different factors that contribute to the success of these uniquely successful epidemic clones of S. aureus. PMID:25864883

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the number of viable biofilm cells, but none of them could remove biofilms completely. Thyme and patchouli oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. PMID:25280938

  8. Excreted Cytoplasmic Proteins Contribute to Pathogenicity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Patrick; Rinker, Janina; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Popella, Peter; Nega, Mulugeta; Luqman, Arif; Schittek, Birgit; Di Marco, Moreno; Stevanovic, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-06-01

    Excretion of cytoplasmic proteins in pro- and eukaryotes, also referred to as "nonclassical protein export," is a well-known phenomenon. However, comparatively little is known about the role of the excreted proteins in relation to pathogenicity. Here, the impact of two excreted glycolytic enzymes, aldolase (FbaA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), on pathogenicity was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus Both enzymes bound to certain host matrix proteins and enhanced adherence of the bacterial cells to host cells but caused a decrease in host cell invasion. FbaA and GAPDH also bound to the cell surfaces of staphylococcal cells by interaction with the major autolysin, Atl, that is involved in host cell internalization. Surprisingly, FbaA showed high cytotoxicity to both MonoMac 6 (MM6) and HaCaT cells, while GAPDH was cytotoxic only for MM6 cells. Finally, the contribution of external FbaA and GAPDH to S. aureus pathogenicity was confirmed in an insect infection model. PMID:27001537

  9. Expression and crystallization of DsbA from Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-interface diffusion crystallization chips were used to identify crystallization conditions for S. aureus DsbA, representing the first Gram-positive DsbA to be crystallized. Native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.1 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. Bacterial Dsb proteins catalyse the in vivo formation of disulfide bonds, a critical step in the stability and activity of many proteins. Most studies on Dsb proteins have focused on Gram-negative bacteria and thus the process of oxidative folding in Gram-positive bacteria is poorly understood. To help elucidate this process in Gram-positive bacteria, DsbA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaDsbA) has been focused on. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of SaDsbA are reported. SaDsbA crystals diffract to a resolution limit of 2.1 Å and belong to the hexagonal space group P65 or P61, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 72.1, c = 92.1 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit (64% solvent content)

  10. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Berube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small β-barrel pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of α-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as α-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for α-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on α-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of α-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host.

  11. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  12. Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jyoti; Shenoy, Shalini M.; Baliga, Shrikala; Chakrapani, M.; Bhat, Gopalkrishna K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen worldwide and its multidrug resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility profile of healthcare-associated MRSA with emphasis on resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotypes and vancomycin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between February 2014 and February 2015 across four tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore, South India. Healthcare-associated infections among 291 inpatients at these hospitals were identified according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Clinical specimens were collected based on infection type. S. aureus and MRSA isolates were identified and antibiotic susceptibility tests performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was determined using the Agar dilution method and inducible clindamycin resistance was detected with a double-disk diffusion test (D-test). Results: Out of 291 healthcare-associated S. aureus cases, 88 were MRSA (30.2%). Of these, 54.6% were skin and soft tissue infections. All of the isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and linezolid. Four MRSA isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to vancomycin (4.6%). Of the MRSA strains, 10 (11.4%) were constitutive MLSB phenotypes, 31 (35.2%) were inducible MLSB phenotypes and 14 (15.9%) were macrolide-streptogramin B phenotypes. Conclusion: Healthcare-associated MRSA multidrug resistance was alarmingly high. In routine antibiotic susceptibility testing, a D-test should always be performed if an isolate is resistant to erythromycin but susceptible to clindamycin. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin is necessary when treating patients with MRSA infections. PMID:27226908

  13. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Myint Kyaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination with selected antibiotics was tested against 12 strains of S. aureus (ATCC MRSA 43300, ATCC methicillin sensitive S. aureus or MSSA 29213 and 10 MRSA clinical strains collected from National University Hospital, Singapore. Out of the six phytochemicals used, tannic acid was synergistic with fusidic acid, minocycline, cefotaxime and rifampicin against most of strains tested and additive with ofloxacin and vancomycin. Quercetin showed synergism with minocycline, fusidic acid and rifampicin against most of the strains. Gallic acid ethyl ester showed additivity against all strains in combination with all antibiotics under investigation except with vancomycin where it showed indifference effect. Eugenol, menthone and caffeic acid showed indifference results against all strains in combination with all antibiotics. Interestingly, no antagonism was observed within these interactions. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices, synergistic pairs were further examined by time-kill assays to confirm the accuracy and killing rate of the combinations over time. The two methods concurred with each other with 92% accuracy and the combinatory pairs were effective throughout the 24 hours of assay. The study suggests a possible incorporation of effective phytochemicals in combination therapies for MRSA infections.

  14. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  15. Genomic organization of a vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the genomic organization of vancomycin resistance in a local isolate of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, January 2008 through December 2010. Methodology: A vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA-CP2) isolate (MIC 16 mu g/ml) was isolated from a local hospital of Karachi. Species identification was confirmed by Gram staining, standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the nuc gene. The vancomycin MIC was re-confirmed by E-test. For the genetic determination of vancomycin resistance, in-vitro amplification of vanA cassette was performed by using plasmid DNA of CP2, CP2's transformant as template on MWG Thermo-Cycler. Amplified products of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, orf2, orf1D, orf2E, orf-Rev and IS element genes were subjected to Sanger's electrophoresis based sequence determination using specific primers. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm was used to identify sequences in GenBank with similarities to the vanA cassette genes. Results: The vancomycin-resistant isolate CP2 was found to be resistant to oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, gentamicin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, as well. The isolate CP2 revealed four bands: one of large molecular size approx 56.4 kb and three of small size approx 6.5 kb, approx 6.1 kb and approx 1.5 kb by agarose gel electrophoresis indicating the presence of 3 plasmids. The plasmid DNA of isolate CP2 was analyzed by PCR for the presence of the van cassettes with each of the vanA , vanB and vanC specific primers. It carried vanA cassette, which comprises of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, and orf2. The vanA cassette of isolate CP2 also carried an insertion element (IS). However, it did not show the PCR product for orf1. Vancomycin resistance was successfully transferred from the donor CP2 to a vancomycin-sensitive recipient S

  16. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    -acquired S. aureus infections and suggest that the adaptability of S. aureus to antibiotics involves the agr locus. IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen in intensive care units and a common cause of nosocomial infections, resulting in a high degree of morbidity and......Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that at times turns into a serious bacterial pathogen causing life-threatening infections. For the delicate control of virulence, S. aureus employs the agr quorum-sensing system that, via the intracellular effector molecule RNAIII, regulates virulence gene...... increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly...

  17. Three-Dimensional Structure and Biophysical Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Surface Antigen-Manganese Transporter MntC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribenko, Alexey; Mosyak, Lidia; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Parris, Kevin; Svenson, Kristine; Moran, Justin; Chu, Ling; Li, Sheng; Liu, Tong; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Green, Bruce A.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Matsuka, Yury V. [Pfizer; (UCSD)

    2013-08-23

    MntC is a metal-binding protein component of the Mn2 +-specific mntABC transporter from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The protein is expressed during the early stages of infection and was proven to be effective at reducing both S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections in a murine animal model when used as a vaccine antigen. MntC is currently being tested in human clinical trials as a component of a multiantigen vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus infections. To better understand the biological function of MntC, we are providing structural and biophysical characterization of the protein in this work. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 Å resolution and suggests two potential metal binding modes, which may lead to reversible as well as irreversible metal binding. Precise Mn2 +-binding affinity of the protein was determined from the isothermal titration calorimetry experiments using a competition approach. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments confirmed that divalent metals can indeed bind to MntC reversibly as well as irreversibly. Finally, Mn2 +-induced structural and dynamics changes have been characterized using spectroscopic methods and deuterium–hydrogen exchange mass spectroscopy. Results of the experiments show that these changes are minimal and are largely restricted to the structural elements involved in metal coordination. Therefore, it is unlikely that antibody binding to this antigen will be affected by the occupancy of the metal-binding site by Mn2 +.

  18. Anti-biofilm properties of the antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb and its ability, in combination with EDTA, to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on silicone catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bombardelli, Silvia; Medici, Chiara; Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    In search of new antimicrobials with anti-biofilm potential, in the present study activity of the frog-skin derived antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb (TB) against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms was investigated. A striking ability of TB to kill both forming and mature S. epidermidis biofilms was observed, especially when the peptide was combined with cysteine or EDTA, respectively. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the combination TB/EDTA was active against mature biofilms already after 2-4-h exposure. A double 4-h exposure of biofilms to TB/EDTA further increased the therapeutic potential of the same combination. Of note, TB/EDTA was able to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms formed in vitro on silicone catheters. At eradicating concentrations, TB/EDTA did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The results shed light on the anti-biofilm properties of TB and suggest a possible application of the peptide in the lock therapy of catheters infected with S. epidermidis. PMID:27351824

  19. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  20. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  1. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning and household bleach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.; Paltinaite, R.; Koomen, A.J.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Effective cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation sites is important because pathogens are readily spread to food contact surfaces after preparation of contaminated raw products. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning by wiping with regular, microfiber,

  2. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis with 0.2% topical linezolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Lavado Landeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the use of 0.2% topical linezolid in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis with successful results. Material and methods: All cases were viewed in Centro Vision, here they underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus keratitis based on a microbiological study. In both cases we began with the gold standard therapy based on fortified topical drops of vancomycin and an aminoglycoside. Due to ineffective action and/or poor tolerance of vancomycin, we decided to use topical linezolid. Results: Two female patients with Staphylococcus aureus keratitis received ocular 0.2% topical linezolid every hour. In both cases we saw a marked clinical improvement and a good tolerance to this antibiotic. Conclusions: 0.2% Topical linezolid is an effective and well tolerated antibiotic when used in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. It is more comfortable and less toxic than topical vancomycin.

  3. Microcalorimetric Study of the Action of Yb3+ ion on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯安新; 薛智; 刘义; 屈松生

    2003-01-01

    A microcalorimetric method was used to evaluate the action of Yb3+ ions onthe growth metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus.The power-time curves of the growth metabolism of Staphylo.coccus aureus and the action of Yb3+ ions were obtained by us-ing stopped-flow method at 37 ℃. For evaluation of the action,the growth rate constants ( k1 and k2) for the log phase 1, log phase 2, and the total heat effect (Qtotal) for Staphylococcus aureus were determined. The results show that Yb3+ ions at low concentrations have the stimnlatory effect on Staphylococcus au-reus and that Yb3+ions at higher concentration could inhibit its growth.

  4. The incidence and risk factors for heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娜娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus(hVISA) and the sensitivity of hVISA to novel antibiotics,and to explore the risk factors and infection attributable

  5. Prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in European hospitals: moving beyond policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, M.A.; Hulscher, M.; Scicluna, E.A.; Richards, J.; Azanowsky, J.M.; Xuereb, D.; Huis, A. van; Moro, M.L.; Maltezou, H.C.; Frank, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia can be reduced with improved infection control and antibiotic stewardship. AIM: To survey infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices within European hospitals and to identify initiatives that

  6. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  7. Study of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus and its sensitivity to enzybiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Čmelík, R. (Richard); Melková, K.; Kobzová, Š.; Janda, L

    2015-01-01

    The endolysin resistant and sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus were compared by means of LC-MS based structural analysis of peptidoglycan isolated from their cell walls. The structural explanation of the resistance was suggested.

  8. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Joelle C; Winter, Carl K; Cullor, James S

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative microbial risk assessment was constructed to determine consumer risk from Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin in raw milk. A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to assess the risk from raw milk consumption using data on levels of S. aureus in milk collected by the University of California-Davis Dairy Food Safety Laboratory from 2,336 California dairies from 2005 to 2008 and using U.S. milk consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2003 and 2004. Four modules were constructed to simulate pathogen growth and staphylococcal enterotoxin A production scenarios to quantify consumer risk levels under various time and temperature storage conditions. The three growth modules predicted that S. aureus levels could surpass the 10(5) CFU/ml level of concern at the 99.9th or 99.99th percentile of servings and therefore may represent a potential consumer risk. Results obtained from the staphylococcal enterotoxin A production module predicted that exposure at the 99.99th percentile could represent a dose capable of eliciting staphylococcal enterotoxin intoxication in all consumer age groups. This study illustrates the utility of quantitative microbial risk assessments for identifying potential food safety issues. PMID:19722395

  9. Sudden death caused by Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton–Valentine leukocidin gene in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    Trieu, Thanh-Van; Gaudelus, Joel; Lefevre, Sophie; Teychene, Anne Marie; Poilane, Isabelle; Colignon, Anne; Etienne, Jerome; de Pontual, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus carrying the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene could be the source of both recurrent furunculosis or abscesses and severe infections, mainly necrotising pneumonia. We present the case of a young girl from consanguineous parents who died suddenly. The postmortem examination revealed necrotising pneumonia due to a PVL producing Staphylococcus aureus strain, raising the question of the role of the host’s immune status in this infection.

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Associated with Food Poisoning in Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaomei; Wang, Bing; Tao, Xiaoxia; Hu, Qinghua; Cui, Zhigang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Yiman; You, Yuanhai; Shi, Xiaolu; Grundmann, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    To characterize isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that were associated with staphylococcal food poisoning between 2006 and 2009 in Shenzhen, Southern China, a total of 52 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 11 outbreaks were analyzed by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR analysis was used to analyze the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes sea to sei, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also performed. ST6 was the mo...

  11. Polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, V K; Kumar, S.; Sharma, A.; N. Sindhu

    2010-01-01

    In India, Haryana has the world’s best dairy type buffalo, the Murrah capable of milk yields as high as 35 kg a day. Clinical and Sub clinical mastitis exerts a negative impact on milk quality, quantity and animal health and profits. In India, Staphylococci are the main causative agents responsible for mastitis of economic importance. Therefore, a suitable and specific test is required for the rapid diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus. For definitive diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus in...

  12. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová; Alena Skočková; Zora Šťástková; Renáta Karpíšková

    2014-01-01

    This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters) were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical co...

  13. BIOAKTIFITAS MINYAK ATSIRI SEREH Cymbopogon citratus DC. TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli DAN Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Hasriani

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini mengenai bioaktifitas minyak atsiri sereh Cymbopogon citratus DC. terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bioaktifitas dan sifat antibakteri minyak atsiri sereh Cymbopogon citratus DC. terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Pengujian daya hambat dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar menggunakan 5 variasi konsentrasi 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% dan 6,25% b/v pada media MHA (Mull...

  14. Efek Antibakteri dari Rebusan Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan Produk Herbal Sambiloto Terhadap Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Sikumalay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees merupakan tanaman obat yang memiliki berbagai khasiat, salah satunya sebagai antibakteri.  Staphylococcus aureus merupakan penyebab utama infeksi. Penggunaan Sambiloto di masyarakat saat ini mempunyai beberapa pilihan diantaranya dengan membuat rebusan langsung dari daun sambiloto ataupun dengan membeli produk herbal sambiloto yang dijual di pasaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan efek antibakteri dari rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan produk herbal sambiloto terhadap Staphylococcus aureus. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan sembilan kali pengulangan menggunakan metode difusi. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Padang dari Maret  sampai Desember 2014. Sambiloto diekstrak dengan metode infusum. Kontrol yang digunakan adalah amoksisilin. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan tidak ada daerah bebas kuman di sekitar cakram disk yang telah mengandung sambiloto. Kesimpulan hasil ini ialah rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan produk herbal sambiloto tidak mempunyai efek antibakteri terhadap Staphylococcus aureus.Kata kunci: sambiloto, staphylococcus aureus, infusum AbstractBitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant that have various benefits, such as an antibacterial. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection. The use of bitter in today's society has several options such as by making direct decoction of the leaves of bitter or by buying herbal products of bitter sold in the market. The objective  of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of decocted leaf of bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees and herbal products of bitter against Staphylococcus aureus.This type of research was experimental with nine repetitions using diffusion method. This research was conducted in the laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Andalas University Padang in March to

  15. PREVALENCE OF HETEROGENEOUS GLYCOPEPTIDE INTERMEDIATE RESISTANCE IN METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Chaudhary; Anurag Payasi

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and is on the rise. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of MRSA and heterogeneous Glycopeptide Intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus (hGISA) in various clinical samples, to investigate the various antibiotic resistant determinant genes among these strains collected from north and west Indian hospitals and to evaluate the response of vario...

  16. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat in Qena, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Karmi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in poultry meat and its products. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 poultry samples were collected during 2012 in Qena governorate for presence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples were taken from freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses (25/125), chicken portions (25/125), chicken luncheon (25/125), chicken sausages ...

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Melissa U.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent source of infections affecting premature and critically ill infants in neonatal intensive care units. Neonates are particularly vulnerable to colonization and infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and many studies have attempted to identify risk factors that predispose certain infants to its acquisition in order to discover potential areas for clinical intervention. In addition, epidemiologic assessment of transmi...

  18. Epidemiology of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pediatric cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Timothy Ronan; Yau, Yvonne; Atenafu, Eshetu; Corey, Mary; Ratjen, Felix; Waters, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A single-centre retrospective study was undertaken in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) to evaluate 1) risk factors for acquisition; 2) molecular epidemiology; and 3) impact on disease progression of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) versus mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The study comprised of 1) identification of all children with at least one respiratory specimen positive for either BORSA or MRSA during the s...

  19. Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Raviglione, M. C.; Boyle, J. F.; Mariuz, P; Pablos-Mendez, A; Cortes, H; Merlo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of ciprofloxacin as an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection has been paralleled by the emergence of resistant strains. This phenomenon has also been noticed in our hospital. To confirm our observation, methicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibilities were tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. We studied 83 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various sources over a 4-month period...

  20. Prevalence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Sutton-Shields, Tameaka N.; Kerr, Alan; Wedd, Joel P.; Miller, Melissa B.; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We prospectively determined the prevalence of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus in a large cystic fibrosis (CF) center between October 2005 and October 2007. We found that 2.7% (19/707) of the CF patients who had cultures during the study period were infected with this organism, representing 14% of the total methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (n = 140) recovered from the patient population during the study period.

  1. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Larsen, Anders R;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  2. Antibacterial activity of four mouthrinses containing triclosan against salivary Staphylococcus aureus Atividade antibacteriana de quatro anti-sépticos bucais contendo triclosan contra Staphylococcus aureus da saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Maria Guerreiro Tanomaru; Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento; Evandro Watanabe; Fumio Matoba-Júnior; Mário Tanomaru-Filho; Izabel Yoko Ito

    2008-01-01

    The maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) of triclosan-based mouthwashes against 28 Staphylococcus aureus strains was evaluated. Dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared. Strains were inoculated using a Steers multipoint inoculator. The MID was considered as the maximum dilution capable of inhibiting microorganism growth. The mouthwashes presented different MIDs.A Diluição Inibitória Máxima (DIM) de anti-sépticos bucais à base de triclosan contra 28 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus fo...

  3. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous and ethanolic on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study antimicrobial effect of extracts evaluated by two methods, “Collins method” and “disk agar diffusion method” on Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 and Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1337 microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for both species determined by using a dilution method. All ethanolic extract concentrations had inhibitory effect in the disk agar diffusion method. In “Collins method” ethanolic extract in 2000 µg/ml concentration, could prevent the growth of both strains on medium. The aqueous extract, had no antimicrobial significant effect in 2000 µg/ml concentration. The ethanolic extract MIC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 8 mg/ml, and for Escherichia coli was 16 mg/ml. But the aqueous extracts MIC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 32 mg/ml and for Escherichia coli was 64 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract MBC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 16 mg/ml, and for Escherichia coli was 32 mg/ml. But the aqueous extracts MBC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 64 mg/ml and for Escherichia coli was 256 mg/ml. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1337. 

  4. Comparison of Antiseptics’ Efficacy on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, StaphylococcusEpidermidis and Enterobacter Aeruginosa in Hospital of Imam Khomeini (Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Amini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Nosocomial infection is the cause of deaths, morbidity, higher costs and increased length of stay in hospitals. Correct and appropriate use of antiseptic and disinfectants play an important role in reducing infections. In this study the efficacy of antiseptics on bacteria causing hospital infections has been studied.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the laboratory of Imam Khomeini Hospital of Uremia. In this study the Antimicrobial activity of Descocid, Korsolex basic, Mikrobac forte and persidin 1% was studied against bacteria causing hospital infections such as Enterobacter aeruginosa 1221 (NCTC 10006, Staphylococcus epidermidis (PTCC: 1435 (Cip81.55 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PAO1. Sensitivities of bacteria were determined by Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum bactericidal Concentration (MBC antiseptics. In the second stage, the concentration of antiseptics was prepared according to the manufacturer's suggested protocol and the effect of antimicrobial agents were studied at the certain concentration and contact time.Result: All disinfectants (Descocid, Korsolex basic, Mikrobac forte concentration and contact time, Accordance with the manufacturer's brochure, had inhibitory effect on all bacteria. That this is consistent with the manufacturer's brochure. Persidin one percent in concentration of from 2 and 4 V/V % and exposure time 5 minutes could not inhibit the growth of bacterial. But at concentrations of 10 and 20% respectively 15 and 30 minutes exposure time, all three types of bacteria can be inhibited, which is consistent with the manufacturer's claims.Conclusion: In this study, the efficacy of antiseptics was determined with the Micro-dilution method recommended by the NCCLS. Korsolex basic, weakest antiseptics (the highest MIC for the inhibition of three bacteria was determined

  5. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  6. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP genotyping demonstrates the role of biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant periocular Staphylococcus epidermidis strains in postoperative endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Seyed E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An observational case series was used to study the virulence characteristics and genotypes of paired Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates cultured from intraocular samples and from periocular environment of patients with postcataract surgery endophthalmitis. Methods Eight S. epidermidis isolates were obtained from three patients (2 from patients #1 and 2 and 4 from patient #3 whose vitreous and/or anterior chamber (AC specimens and preoperative lid/conjunctiva samples were culture positive. Cultures were identified by API-Staph phenotypic identification system and genotypically characterized by Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (FAFLP and checked for their antimicrobial susceptibility. The isolates were tested for biofilm-production and methicillin-resistance (MR by PCR amplification of icaAB and mecA gene respectively. Results Four out of eight S. epidermidis strains showed multiple drug resistance (MDR. All the eight strains were PCR positive for mecA gene whereas seven out of eight strains were positive for icaAB genes. In all three patients FAFLP typing established vitreous isolates of S. epidermidis strains to be indistinguishable from the strains isolated from the patient's conjunctival swabs. However, from patient number three there was one isolate (1030b from lid swab, which appeared to be nonpathogenic and ancestral having minor but significant differences from other three strains from the same patient. This strain also lacked icaAB gene. In silico analysis indicated possible evolution of other strains from this strain in the patient. Conclusion Methicillin-resistant biofilm positive S. epidermidis strains colonizing the conjunctiva and eyelid were responsible for postoperative endophthalmitis (POE.

  7. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, S; Donos, N; Spratt, D; Bozec, L

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for maximum adhesion force were found to increase from 0-s (-0.27 ± 0.30 nN) to 60-s (-9.15 ± 0.78 nN) surface delays, with similar results observed for total adhesion work (7.39 ± 2.38 and 988.06 ± 117.08 aJ, respectively). Single unbinding events observed at higher surface delays were modeled according to the wormlike chain model, obtaining molecular contour-length predictions of 314.06 ± 9.27 nm. Average single-bond rupture forces of -0.95 ± 0.04 nN were observed at increased contact times. Short- and long-range force components of bacterial adhesion were obtained by Poisson analysis of single unbinding event peaks, yielding values of -0.75 ± 0.04 and -0.58 ± 0.15 nN, respectively. Addition of 2-mg/mL chlorhexidine to the buffer solution resulted in the inhibition of specific adhesive events but an increased overall adhesion force and work. These results suggest that initial attachment of S. aureus to smooth titanium is mostly mediated by short-range attractive forces observed at higher surface delays. PMID:26130256

  8. Use of mupirocin-chlorhexidine treatment to prevent Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, X; Slekovec, C; Talon, D

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation of: Bode LGM, Kluytmans JAJW, Wertheim HFL et al.: Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 9-17 (2010). Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen responsible for surgical-site infections and nasal carriage is a major risk factor for subsequent infection with this bacteria. Mupirocin is considered to be the topical antibacterial agent of choice for eradication of nasal S. aureus. The paper by Bode et al. provides strong evidence that the combination of a rapid identification of a S. aureus nasal carrier, mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate soap, significantly reduces the rate of S. aureus surgical-site infection by nearly 60%. In conclusion, mupirocin nasal ointment use in S. aureus carriers before surgery has numerous advantages with few side effects. PMID:20441543

  9. Key role for clumping factor B in Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E.J. Walsh (Evelyn); R.S.R. Choudhurry (Roos); D.C. Melles (Damian); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); H. Miajlovic (Helen); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); T.J. Foster (Timothy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus permanently colonizes the vestibulum nasi of one-fifth of the human population, which is a risk factor for autoinfection. The precise mechanisms whereby S. aureus colonizes the nose are still unknown. The staphylococcal cell-wall protein clumping factor

  10. Mechanism and consequences of invasion of endothelial cells by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    It has become clear that Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular microorganism. Adherence and invasion are a prerequisite for endovascular infections caused by S. aureus, such as infective endocarditis. These phenomena may also be involved in the pathogenesis of invasive and metastatic

  11. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  12. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised...

  13. Physicochemical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus-lysing LysK enzyme in complexes with polycationic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many serious visceral, skin, and respiratory diseases. About 90% of clinical strains are multi-drug resistant, but the use of bacteriophage lytic enzymes offers a viable alternative to antibiotic therapy. LysK, the phage K endolysin can lyse S. aureus when purified and ...

  14. Triple-acting Peptidoglycan hydrolase treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  15. Rapid identification and classification of Staphylococcus aureus by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterium that can cause serious infections in humans such as pneumonia and bacteremia. Rapid detection of this pathogen is crucial in food industries and clinical laboratories to control S. aureus food poisoning and human infections. In this study, fourier tran...

  16. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  17. Characterization and comparative analysis of a second thermonuclease in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal nuclease (here termed as NUC1) is considered an important virulence factor and a unique marker widely used in detection of Staphylococcus aureus. A novel functional thermostable nuclease (here termed as NUC2) in S. aureus was characterized after recombinant expression in Escherichia...

  18. Triple-acting antimicrobial treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  19. Comparison of difloxacin, enoxacin, and cefazolin for the treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Boscia, J A; Kobasa, W D; Kaye, D

    1988-01-01

    This study compared difloxacin administered orally, enoxacin administered orally, and cefazolin administered intramuscularly for the treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Difloxacin significantly reduced bacterial counts of vegetations compared with enoxacin. This study demonstrated that difloxacin was significantly more effective than enoxacin and as effective as cefazolin for the treatment of S. aureus endocarditis in rabbits.

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totte (Joan); W.T. van der Feltz; L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.J. Van Zuuren; S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in pati

  1. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information.

  2. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr type determination by a novel multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  3. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  4. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, G; Herrmann, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell. Microbiol

  5. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Ott, A.; Voss, A.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Broucke-Grauls, C.M. van den; Meester, M.; Keulen, P.H. van; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the eff

  6. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in

  7. Correlation between Reduced Daptomycin Susceptibility and Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Longzhu; Tominaga, Eiji; Neoh, Hui-min; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    We present here findings of a strong positive correlation between reduced daptomycin susceptibility and vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). This correlation is related to cell wall thickening, suggesting that, similar to the case with vancomycin resistance in VISA, the physical barrier of a thickened cell wall may contribute to daptomycin resistance in S. aureus.

  8. Comparative analysis of conjugative plasmids mediating gentamicin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Goering, R. V.; Ruff, E A

    1983-01-01

    Five gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were found to contain self-transmissible plasmids of 32 to 37 megadaltons in size. Restriction endonuclease digests of the plasmids were markedly similar to those of reference plasmids of unrelated geographical origin, thus suggesting the significant contribution of common conjugal plasmids to the emergence of gentamicin resistance in S. aureus populations.

  9. Uptake of sparfloxacin and norfloxacin by clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kojima, T.; M. Inoue; Mitsuhashi, S

    1991-01-01

    The amount of sparfloxacin uptake was higher than that of norfloxacin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, energy-dependent reduction in quinolone uptake, probably due to active efflux of the quinolone, was observed. The reduction in quinolone uptake appeared to be associated with quinolone resistance in S. aureus.

  10. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus; Grønvall Kjær Hansen, Sanne; Møller, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally...

  11. Nosocomial Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterimia among Nasal Carriers of Methicillin- Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ariza (Javier); J. Ayats (Josefina); M.A. Dominguez; F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine the relevance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, either methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicillinresistant (MRSA), as a risk factor for the development of nosocomial S aureus bacteremia during an MRSA outbreak. patients and methods: In this prospective

  12. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Schlecht; B.M. Peters; B.P. Krom; J.A. Freiberg; G.M. Hänsch; S.G. Filler; M.A. Jabra-Rizk; M.E. Shirtliff

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  13. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Brown (Aisling F.); A.G. Murphy (Alison G.); S.J. Lalor (Stephen J.); J.M. Leech (John M.); K.M. O’Keeffe (Kate M.); M. Mac Aogáin (Micheál); D.P. O’Halloran (Dara P.); K.A. Lacey (Keenan A.); M. Tavakol (Mehri); C.H. Hearnden (Claire H.); D. Fitzgerald-Hughes (Deirdre); H. Humphreys (Hilary); J.P. Fennell (Jérôme P.); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); T.J. Foster (Timothy J.); J.A. Geoghegan (Joan A.); E.C. Lavelle (Ed C.); T.R. Rogers (Thomas R.); R.M. McLoughlin (Rachel M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrate

  14. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics...... on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle......-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n = 478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age...

  15. VARIABILITY OF PHENOTYPIC, PROTEOMIC AND TRANSCRIPTOMIC EXPRESSION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS SURFACE ADHESINS

    OpenAIRE

    Ythier M.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly successful pathogen responsible of a wide variety of diseases, from minor skin infection to life-threatening sepsis or infective endocarditis, as well as food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. This heterogeneity of infections and the ability of S. aureus to develop antibiotic-resistance to virtually any available drugs reflect its extraordinary capacity to adapt and survive in a great variety of environments. The pathogenesis of S. aureus infection involves...

  16. Glycolytic Dependency of High-Level Nitric Oxide Resistance and Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Vitko, Nicholas P.; Spahich, Nicole A.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a prolific human pathogen capable of causing severe invasive disease with a myriad of presentations. The ability of S. aureus to cause infection is strongly linked with its capacity to overcome the effects of innate immunity, whether by directly killing immune cells or expressing factors that diminish the impact of immune effectors. One such scenario is the induction of lactic acid fermentation by S. aureus in response to host nitric oxide (NO·). This ferment...

  17. IsdB-dependent Hemoglobin Binding Is Required for Acquisition of Heme by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Pishchany, Gleb; Sheldon, Jessica R.; Dickson, Claire F.; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Read, Timothy D.; Gell, David A; Heinrichs, David E.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality. As with most bacteria, S. aureus requires iron to cause disease, and it can acquire iron from host hemoglobin. The current model for staphylococcal hemoglobin-iron acquisition proposes that S. aureus binds hemoglobin through the surface-exposed hemoglobin receptor IsdB. IsdB removes heme from bound hemoglobin and transfers this cofactor to other proteins of the Isd system, which import and de...

  18. High Level Expression and Purification of Atl, the Major Autolytic Protein of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vineet K.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen. Autolysins regulate the growth, turnover, cell lysis, biofilm formation, and the pathogenicity of S. aureus. Atl is the major autolysin in S. aureus. The biochemical and structural studies of staphylococcal Atl have been limited due to difficulty in cloning, high level overexpression, and purification of this protein. This study describes successful cloning, high level over-expression, and purification of two forms of fully functiona...

  19. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Colony-Spreading Stimulatory Factors from Mammalian Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Omae; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Chikara Kaito

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus forms giant colonies on soft-agar surfaces, which is called colony-spreading. In the present study, we searched for host factors that influence S. aureus colony-spreading activity. The addition of calf serum, porcine serum, or silkworm hemolymph to soft-agar medium stimulated S. aureus colony-spreading activity. Gel filtration column chromatography of calf serum produced a high molecular weight fraction and a low molecular weight fraction, both of which exhibited colony-...

  20. Mechanism of hetero-erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a comparison of detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)hetero-resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin and compare their detection methods so as to report results accurately to guide clinical rational use of antibiotics.Methods D test was used to detect the phenotypes of S.aureus hetero-resistant to erythromycin.And then the results of two methods(automated instrument and disk diffusion)were analyzed.All strains were continuously passaged for 50 generations to

  1. High Genetic Diversity among Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: Results from a Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Empel, Joanna; Bouchami, Ons; Faria, Nuno A.; Tavares, Ana; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fluit, Ad C.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this continent. Methods and Findings A total of 568 colonization and infection isolates, comprising both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were recover...

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    AnnalisaPantosti

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus infections in children in an Iranian referral pediatric Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    SABOUNI, F.; RANJBARI, R.; B Pourakbari; Mahmoudi, S; TEYMURI, M.; TAGHI HAGHI ASHTIANI, M.; MOVAHEDI, Z.; S Mamishi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is associated with various infections ranging from skin and soft tissues such as surgical site infections and abscesses to lower respiratory tracts and bloodstream. The aim of this study was to evaluate underlying condition of patients with S. aureus infections in an Iranian referral pediatric Hospital. Material and methods. Information was extracted retrospectively from the medical records of patients who were diagnosed with S. aureus infections. D...

  4. Differential Expression and Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Determinants during Colonization and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Amy; Diep, Binh An; Mai, Thuy T.; Vo, Nhung H.; Warrener, Paul; Suzich, Joann; Stover, C. Kendall; Sellman, Bret R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium known to asymptomatically colonize the human skin, nares, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonized individuals are at increased risk for developing S. aureus infections, which range from mild skin and soft tissue infections to more severe diseases, such as endocarditis, bacteremia, sepsis, and osteomyelitis. Different virulence factors are required for S. aureus to infect different body sites. In this study, virulence gene ex...

  5. Polymorphism in spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Taruna Bhati; Prerna Nathawat; Sandeep Kumar Sharma; Rahul Yadav; Jyoti Bishnoi; Anil Kumar Kataria

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The virulence-associated protein-A of Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by spa gene shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study, the spa gene variation in S. aureus strains was studied which were isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: About 38 isolates of S. aureus were recovered from Holstein–Friesian (HF) crossbred (n=16) and Rathi cattle (n=22) with subclinical mastitis as per standard procedures, and these isolates were subjecte...

  6. Polymorphism in spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhati, Taruna; Nathawat, Prerna; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Rahul; Bishnoi, Jyoti; Kataria, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The virulence-associated protein-A of Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by spa gene shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study, the spa gene variation in S. aureus strains was studied which were isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: About 38 isolatesof S. aureus were recovered from Holstein–Friesian (HF) crossbred (n=16) and Rathi cattle (n=22) with subclinical mastitis as per standard procedures, and these isolates were subjected to...

  7. Application of molecular techniques in the study of Staphylococcus aureus clonal evolution - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcos Vivoni

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections. A major characteristic of this microorganism is the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Several molecular techniques have been applied for the characterization of S. aureus in epidemiological studies. In the present review, we discuss the application of molecular techniques for typing S. aureus strains and describe the nomenclature and evolution of epidemic clones of this important pathogen.

  8. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concepción Porrero, M.; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I.;

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST...... was detected to cefoxitin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. This study suggests that ST522 is the most common S. aureus clone associated with small ruminants followed by CC133....

  9. Current status of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a central teaching hospital in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianming; Song, Yan; Zhu, Yuanjun; Du, Xin; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Background To control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals, infection control measures such as hand hygiene practices were introduced into the teaching hospitals in Shanghai, China, in 2008. Currently, there is limited information characterizing the latest hospital-acquired S. aureus infections in this area. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence, molecular characteristics, and genotype-phenotype correlation of hospital-acquired S. aureus inf...

  10. Attenuated Virulence and Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus following Sublethal Exposure to Triclosan

    OpenAIRE

    Latimer, Joe; Forbes, Sarah; McBain, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Subeffective exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to the biocide triclosan can reportedly induce a small-colony variant (SCV) phenotype. S. aureus SCVs are characterized by low growth rates, reduced pigmentation, and lowered antimicrobial susceptibility. While they may exhibit enhanced intracellular survival, there are conflicting reports regarding their pathogenicity. The current study reports the characteristics of an SCV-like strain of S. aureus created by repeated passage on sublethal triclo...

  11. Novel Chromosomally Encoded Multidrug Efflux Transporter MdeA in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jianzhong; O'Toole, Paul W.; Shen, Wei; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Jiang, Xinhe; Lobo, Neethan; Palmer, Leslie M.; Voelker, LeRoy; Fan, Frank; Gwynn, Michael N.; McDevitt, Damien

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic efflux is an important mechanism of resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel chromosomally encoded multidrug resistance efflux protein in Staphylococcus aureus, MdeA (multidrug efflux A). MdeA was identified from screening an S. aureus open reading frame expression library for resistance to antibiotic compounds. When overexpressed, MdeA confers resistance on S. aureus to a range of quaternary ammonium compounds and antib...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Maréchal Caroline; Jardin Julien; Jan Gwenaël; Even Sergine; Pulido Coralie; Guibert Jean-Michel; Hernandez David; François Patrice; Schrenzel Jacques; Demon Dieter; Meyer Evelyne; Berkova Nadia; Thiéry Richard; Vautor Eric; Le Loir Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ew...

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  14. Postpartum Mastitis and Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pavani; Qi, Chao; Zembower, Teresa; Noskin, Gary A.; Bolon, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This single-center, case-control study documents a relative increase in methicillin resistance among 48 cases of Staphylococcus aureus–associated postpartum mastitis during 1998–2005. Of 21 cases with methicillin resistance, 17 (81%) occurred in 2005. Twenty (95%) isolates contained the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec type IV gene; this suggests that the increase is due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Aktivitas Imunomodulator Ekstrak Buah Mengkudu pada Mencit yang Diinfeksi Staphylococcus aureus (IMMUNOMODULATORS ACTIVITY OF NONI (MORINDA CITRIFOLIA L.) FRUIT EXTRACT IN MICE INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zumrotul Mufidah; Muhaimin Rifa’i; Sri Rahayu

    2013-01-01

    This study aim was to determine the immunomodulatory activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruitextract in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Mice were divided into two group :  non-infected  andinfected. Non Infected group was without S. aureus infection whereas the infected group was infected withS. aureus. Group contain control, dose 1 (25 mg/kg BW), dose 2 (100 mg/kg BW), and dose 3 (300 mg/kg BW).Oral treatment carried out for 20 days in every morning and each sample was inject...

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Vola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus ocular infections in a tertiary health center in Brazil and compare antibiotic susceptibility patterns between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Electronic records from the ocular microbiology laboratory of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (between January 2000 and December 2009 all conjunctivitis, keratitis, and endophthalmitis cases with a positive culture for S. aureus were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-six S. aureus isolates were identified; of those, 56 (9.9% were resistant to methicillin. Throughout the 10-year period, Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant increasing trend from 7.55% to 16.18% among overall S. aurues infections (p=0.001 and from 3.7% to 13.16% in conjunctivitis (p=0.001. Conversely, we did not observe the same trend among those with keratitis (p=0.38. Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed higher resistance rates to tobramycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin when compared with S. aureus isolates (p< 0.001. All cases were susceptible to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: We observed an increasing trend in the overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ocular infections and statistically significant higher resistance rates to commonly used antibiotics compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Our data supports the need for constant bacterial surveillance and should be taken into consideration before initiating empiric treatment of ocular infections.

  17. Human Sperm Interaction with Staphylococcus aureus: A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm immobilization factor (SIF causing 100% immobilization of spermatozoa isolated from Staphylococcus aureus when characterized using LC-MS (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that this 20 kDa protein had peptide sequence similarity with hsp-70 protein. It was found to completely (100% inhibit Mg++ ATPase activity of spermatozoa at concentration of 100 μg mL−1. Sperm samples treated with SIF also showed reduction in calcium ionophore-induced acrosome reaction as compared to control samples (treated with calcium ionophore alone. Binding studies of FITC labelled SIF with spermatozoa using fluorescent microscopy showed binding of SIF to the surface of spermatozoa indicating the presence of SIF binding receptor. The receptor was extracted by 3M NaCl and purified by gel permeation chromatography. Characterization of the receptor by MALDI-TOF (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight indicated that the receptor shared sequence similarity with MHC class II antigen. A calorimetric study showed that the receptor moiety on spermatozoa was specific for the purified ligand as binding of the receptor to ligand was enthalpically (−11.9 kJ mole−1 as well as entropically (21.53 J mole−1 K−1 favored resulting in the Gibb's free energy of −18.57 kJ mole−1.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM DAKSHINA KANNADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Venkatakrishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infections in hospitals and pose a great challenge to the treating clinicians; even emergence of vancomycin resistance has been reported. Therefore the knowledge of prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial profile becomes necessary. This study is aimed to determine prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in Dakshina Kannada.Clinical specimens and carrier samples were cultured as per standard methods. The isolates were identified by using catalase test, coagulase tube test, mannitol fermentation and DNAase test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done for the isolates as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method; the isolates were also tested for methicillin resistance using oxacillin and cefoxitin discs.A total of 250 isolates were tested (200 clinical isolates and 50 from carriers and 67 MRSA isolates were obtained (52 clinical samples and 15 from carriers. The degree of resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin were 100%, 100%, 53-56%, 14-16 % and 45-48% respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was not found. As the degree of resistance of MRSA towards antibiotics varies from region to region, in vitro susceptibility testing of every isolate of MRSA in clinical laboratories is inevitable.

  19. Photodynamic inactivation of contaminated blood with Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Thaila Q.; Inada, Natalia M.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Blanco, Kate C.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream can trigger a serious systemic inflammation and lead to sepsis that cause septic shock and death. Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of sepsis over the years and it is mainly due to the increased resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, since these drugs are still sold and used improperly. The bacterial contamination of blood is also a risk to blood transfusions. Thus, bacteria inactivation in blood is being studied in order to increase the security of the blood supply. The purpose of this study was to decontaminate the blood using the photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Human blood samples in the presence of Photogem® were illuminated at an intensity of 30 mW/cm2, and light doses of 10 and 15 J/cm2. Blood counts were carried out for the quantitative evaluation and blood smears were prepared for qualitative and morphological evaluation by microscopy. The results showed normal viability values for the blood cells analyzed. The light doses showed minimal morphological changes in the membrane of red blood cells, but the irradiation in the presence of the photosensitizer caused hemolysis in red blood cells at the higher concentrations of the photosensitizer. Experiments with Staphylococcus aureus, one of the responsible of sepsis, showed 7 logs10 of photodynamic inactivation with 50 μg/mL and 15 J/cm2 and 1 log10 of this microorganism in a co-culture with blood.

  20. Typing of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Mehndiratta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA worldwide is a growing public health concern. MRSA typing is an essential component of an effective surveillance system to describe epidemiological trends and infection control strategies. Current challenges for MRSA typing are focused on selecting the most appropriate technique in terms of efficiency, reliability, ease of performance and cost involved. This review summarises the available information on application, potential and problems of various typing techniques in discriminating the strains and understanding the epidemiology of MRSA strains. The phenotypic methods in general are easier to perform, easier to interpret, cost effective and are widely available, however less discriminatory. The genotypic methods are expensive and technically demanding, however more discriminatory. Newer technologies involving sequencing of various genes are coming up as broadly applicable and high throughput typing systems. Still there is no consensus regarding the single best method for typing of MRSA strains. Phage typing is recommended as first line approach in epidemiological investigation of MRSA strains. PFGE remains the gold standard for characterisation of outbreak strains. DNA sequencing methods including MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing and toxin gene profile typing are more practical methods for detecting evolutionary changes and transmission events. The choice of typing technique further depends on the purpose of the study, the facilities available and the utility of data generated to answer a desirable research question. A need for harmonisation of typing techniques by following standard protocols is emphasised to establish surveillance networks and facilitate global MRSA control.

  1. Juxtarenal Modular Aortic Stent Graft Infection Caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Novotný

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We are presenting a case report of an infected modular abdominal stent graft. Case Presentation. A 67-year-old male patient three years after Cook’s modular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA graft implantation for juxtarenal AAA with an implantation of a stent extension into the right common iliac artery for type Ib endoleak. The patient was admitted into our center in severe condition with suspected retroperitoneal bleeding. Computed tomography angiography (CTAG confirmed retroperitoneal bleeding in the right common iliac artery. An urgent surgical revision was indicated; destructed arterial wall around the stent extension in the right common iliac artery was discovered. Due to the severe state of health of the patient, a resection of the infected stent and affected arterial wall was performed, followed by an iliac-femoral crossover bypass. The patient was transported to the intensive care unit with hepatic and renal failure, with maximal catecholamine support. Combined antibiotic treatment was started. The patient died five hours after the procedure. The cause of death was multiorgan failure caused by sepsis. Hemocultures and perioperative microbiological cultures showed the infection agent to be Staphylococcus aureus methicillin sensitive. Conclusion. Stent graft infection is a rare complication. Treatment is associated with high mortality and morbidity.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in veterinary personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Beth A; Kruth, Steve A; Rousseau, Joyce; Low, Donald E; Willey, Barbara M; McGeer, Allison; Weese, J Scott

    2006-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from nares of 27/417 (6.5%) attendees at an international veterinary conference: 23/345 (7.0%) veterinarians, 4/34 (12.0%) technicians, and 0/38 others. Colonization was more common for large-animal (15/96, 15.6%) than small-animal personnel (12/271, 4.4%) or those with no animal patient contact (0/50) (p<0.001). Large-animal practice was the only variable significantly associated with colonization (odds ratio 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.2-6.6). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 2 predominant clones with similar distribution among veterinarians as previously reported for horses and companion animals. Canadian epidemic MRSA-2 (CMRSA) was isolated from 11 small-animal and 2 large-animal personnel from the United States (n = 12) and Germany (n = 1). In contrast, CMRSA-5 was isolated exclusively from large-animal personnel (p<0.001) in the United States (n = 10), United Kingdom (n = 2), and Denmark (n = 1). MRSA colonization may be an occupational risk for veterinary professionals. PMID:17326947

  3. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): screening and decolonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Barry; Bonten, Marc J M; Mackenzie, Fiona M; Skov, Robert L; Verbrugh, Henri A; Tacconelli, Evelina

    2011-03-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are of increasing importance to clinicians, public health agencies and governments. Prevention and control strategies must address sources in healthcare settings, the community and livestock. This document presents the conclusions of a European Consensus Conference on the role of screening and decolonisation in the control of MRSA infection. The conference was held in Rome on 5-6 March 2010 and was organised jointly by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC). In an environment where MRSA is endemic, universal or targeted screening of patients to detect colonisation was considered to be an essential pillar of any MRSA control programme, along with the option of decolonising carriers dependent on relative risk of infection, either to self or others, in a specific setting. Staff screening may be useful but is problematic as it needs to distinguish between transient carriage and longer-term colonisation. The consequences of identification of MRSA-positive staff may have important effects on morale and the ability to maintain staffing levels. The role of environmental contamination in MRSA infection is unclear, but screening may be helpful as an audit of hygiene procedures. In all situations, screening procedures and decolonisation carry a significant cost burden, the clinical value of which requires careful evaluation. European initiatives designed to provide further information on the cost/benefit value of particular strategies in the control of infection, including those involving MRSA, are in progress. PMID:21163631

  4. Blue Light Phototherapy Kills Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwemeka, Chukuka S.; Williams, Debora; Enwemeka, Sombiri K.; Hollosi, Steve; Yens, David

    2010-05-01

    Background: Methycillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria continue to defy most available antibiotics. As a result infections with MRSA remain a growing public health concern. As a paradigm shift and a significant departure from the on-going trend to develop stronger drug-based therapies, we studied the effect of 405 nm and 470 nm wavelengths of blue light on two strains of MRSA—US-300 strain of CA-MRSA and the IS853 strain of HA-MRSA—in vitro. Methods: We cultured and plated each strain, following which bacteria colonies were irradiated with 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 Jcm-2 energy densities—just once. Specimens were incubated at 35° C for 24 h. Then, digital images obtained were quantified to obtain colony counts and the aggregate area occupied by bacteria colonies. Results: Each wavelength produced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in both the number and the aggregate area of colonies formed by each bacteria strain (PMRSA and CA-MRSA in vitro; raising the prospect that phototherapy may be an effective clinical tool in the on-going effort to stem MRSA infections.

  5. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Ciftci; Arzu Findik; Ertan Emek Onuk; Serap Savasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  7. Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in radiation sterilized model food systems simulating dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was successfully employed for the development of sterile model food systems simulating dairy products such as pedha and cottage cheese which were inoculated with enterotoxigenic S.aureus S-6 and FR1-100 either individually or in association with S.epidermids and other mixed flora comprising of gram-positive, gram-negative and lactic bacteria and stored at 4 and 35 degC for 6-8 weeks. Pedha failed to support growth of S.aureus while cottage cheese favoured profuse growth of the pathogen. S.epidermidis exhibited a synergistic effect on the growth of S.aureus in cottage cheese. Baired-Parker's medium showed very poor recovery of S.aureus which necessitated the development of a new selective medium for the enumeration of staphylococci in processed foods. (author)

  8. In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Silymarin Nanoliposomes against Isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Faezizadeh, Zohreh; Gharib, Amir; Godarzee, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and remains a common cause of burn wound infections. Different studies have shown that entrapment of plant-derived compounds into liposomes could increase their anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity. Silymarin is the bioactive extract from the known plant Silybum marianum L. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of silymarin in free and nanoliposomal forms against isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain...

  9. Contribution of Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase to the Intracellular Survival of Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Murine Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Debaditya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed in order to carefully investigate the interaction of Staphylococcus aureus with murine macrophages and the contribution of catalase and superoxide dismutase in intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus within murine macrophages during in vitro infection. We have reported that Staphylococcus aureus internalized by murine macrophages did not appear to be rapidly killed. Data indicating the contribution of a single catalase and superoxide dismutase in int...

  10. The Prevalence of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus Among Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Assam with Special Reference to MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Rongpharpi, Sharon Rainy; Hazarika, Naba Kumar; Kalita, Hitesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent years have witnessed the increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to many antimicrobial agents. The most notable example is the emergence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which was reported just one year after the launch of methicillin. The ecological niches of the S. aureus strains are the anterior nares. The identification of Staphylococcus aureus by using a proper antibiogram and the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus...

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus isolates at different sites in the milk producing dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Viviane; Nader Filho, Antonio; de Castro Melo, Poliana; Ferraudo, Guilherme Moraes; Antônio Sérgio, Ferraudo; de Oliveira Conde, Sandra; Fogaça Junior, Flavio Augusto

    2012-10-01

    The epidemiological relationships between isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains in milk samples of dairy cows, reagent to California Mastitis Test, individual and group milk was demonstrated in different sites of the production fluxogram, in 12 milk-producing farms in the Gameleira region, municipality of Sacramento MG Brazil, so that localization and transmission modes may be identified. Two hundred and forty-four strains out of 446 samples collected at several sites were isolated and bio-chemically characterized as coagulase-positive staphylococcus. Specific chromosome DNA fragment of the species Staphylococcus aureus was amplified to 106 strains and 103 underwent (PFGE). Samples' collection sites with the highest isolation frequency of Staphylococcus aureus strains comprised papillary ostia (31.1%), CMT-reagent cow milk (21.7%), mechanical milking machines' insufflators (21,7%), milk in milk pails (6.6%) and the milk in community bulk tanks (5.6%). Genetic heterogeneity existed among the isolated 103 Staphylococcus aureus strains, since 32 different pulse-types were identified. Pulse-type 1 had the highest similarity among the isolated strains within the different sites of the milk-production fluxogram. Highest occurrence of pulsetype 1 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains was reported in samples collected from the papillary ostia (10.6%), followed by milk samples from CMT-reagent dairy cows (5.8%) and mechanical milking machine insufflators (3.8%). The above shows the relevance of these sites in the agents' transmission mechanism within the context of the farms investigated. PMID:24031997

  12. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using an integrated and modular microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Soper, Steven A

    2013-02-21

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired (HA-MRSA) infection worldwide. As a result, the rapid and specific detection of MRSA is crucial not only for early prevention of disease spread, but also for the effective treatment of these infections. We report here an integrated modular-based microfluidic system for MRSA identification, which can carry out the multi-step assay used for MRSA identification in a single disposable fluidic cartridge. The multi-step assay included PCR amplification of the mecA gene harboring methicillin resistance loci that can provide information on drug susceptibility, ligase detection reaction (LDR) to generate fluorescent ligation products appended with a zip-code complement that directs the ligation product to a particular address on a universal array containing zip-code probes and a universal DNA array, which consisted of a planar waveguide for evanescent excitation. The fluidic cartridge design was based on a modular format, in which certain steps of the molecular processing pipeline were poised on a module made from a thermoplastic. The cartridge was comprised of a module interconnected to a fluidic motherboard configured in a 3-dimensional network; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and was used for PCR and LDR, while the module was made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA, and contained an air-embedded waveguide serving as the support for the universal array. Fluid handling, thermal management and optical readout hardware were situated off-chip and configured into a small footprint instrument. In this work, the cartridge was used to carry out a multiplexed PCR/LDR coupled with the universal array allowed for simultaneous detection of five genes that encode for 16S ribosomal RNA (SG16S), protein A (spa), the femA protein of S. epidermidis (femA), the virulence factor of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and the gene that confers methicillin resistance (mecA). Results

  13. Intoxicação alimentar por queijo Minas contaminado com Staphylococcus aureus Food-poisoning from Minas-type cheese, contamined with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Sabioni

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se surto de intoxicação alimentar ocorrido em julho de 1987, na cidade de Ouro Preto, MG (Brasil. O alimento causador foi um queijo Minas, contaminado por Staphylococcus aureus ao nível de 9,3 x 10(7 UFG/g. Detectaram-se cepas produtoras de enterotoxinas do tipo A,B,D e E. A amostra analisada revelou contaminação por coliformes fecais acima de 1,1 x 10(5/g(NMP, mas não continha Salmonella.Devido aos sintomas característicos e à elevada contaminação, concluiu-se que o Staphylococcus aureus foi o patogênico responsável pelo surto.An outbreak of food poisoning which occurred in July, 1987, in the city of Ouro Preto, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported. The food involved was a Minas-type cheese, contamined by Staphylococcus aureus to the level of 9.3 x 10(7 CFU/g. Enterotoxin producing strains of types A,B,D and E were detected. The sample analysed also showed contamination by fecal coliforms above 1.1 x 10(5/g (MPN, but Salmonella were not present. Due to characteristic symptoms and high contamination it was concluded that Staphylococcus aureus was the pathogene responsible for the outbreak.

  14. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  15. Sensitive and rapid detection of staphylococcus aureus in milk via cell binding domain of lysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junping; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yun; Li, Heng; Yang, Hang; Wei, Hongping

    2016-03-15

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important food-borne pathogen in dairy products contaminated through raw ingredients or improper food handling. Rapid detection of S. aureus with high sensitivity is of significance for food quality and safety. In this study, a new method was developed for detecting S. aureus in milk by coupling immunomagnetic separation with enzyme linked cell wall binding domain (CBD) of lysin plyV12, which can bind to S. aureus with high affinity. There are millions of binding sites present on the cell surface of S. aureus for the CBD attachment, which greatly improves the detection sensitivity. The method has the overall testing time of only 1.5h with the detection limit of 4 × 10(3)CFU/mL in spiked milk. Because it is simple, rapid and sensitive, this method could be used for the detection of S. aureus in various food samples. PMID:26433070

  16. Portación de Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxigénicos en manipuladores de alimentos Carriage of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in food handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Figueroa G

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common pathogens causing alimentary toxi-infections is Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus. The presence of S aureus in food, indicates flaws during food manipulations. For this reason most sanitary norms require the detection of S aureus carriers. Aim: To determine the carriage rate of enterotoxin producing S aureus strains in food handlers, and to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility to six antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 food handlers from 19 restaurants in Santiago, were analyzed. Samples for microbiological analysis were obtained with a swab from the retropharynx. Results: S aureus grew in 35 out of the 102 samples obtained (34%. Further analysis revealed that 19/35 (54% strains were able to produce enterotoxins. Therefore the corrected carriage rate was 19% (19/102. The most frequently detected enterotoxin was the type A (12/19. All S aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin and susceptible to oxacillin, clindamycin, kanamycin, vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusions: The carriage rate of S aureus in food handlers is similar to the rate reported in the general population in our country. These results confirm the need for education and training programs in food safety, directed to food handlers (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 859-64

  17. Prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-02-01

    Recent efforts to combat infections have focused on pharmaceutical interventions. However, the global spread of antimicrobial resistance calls for the reappraisal of personal and institutional hygiene. Hygiene embodies behavioural and procedural rules that prevent bacterial transmission. Consequently, the chance of spreading bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is significantly reduced. Hygiene is part of the primacy and totality of patient care, ensuring that no harm is done. Any prevention and control strategy must be underpinned by changes in attitude, embraced by all. The major components of preventing and controlling MRSA include hand and environmental hygiene (as part of standard precautions), patient isolation, and patient\\/staff decolonization. Improving hand hygiene practice is especially important where the risk of infection is highest, e.g. in intensive care. Physical isolation has two advantages: the physical barrier interrupts transmission, and this barrier emphasizes that precautions are required. With limited isolation facilities, risk assessment should be conducted to indicate which patients should be isolated. Environmental hygiene, although important, has a lower priority than standard precautions. When a patient is ready for discharge (home) or transfer (to another healthcare facility), the overall interests of the patient should take priority. All patients should be informed of their MRSA-positive status as soon as possible. Because of increased mupirocin resistance, a selective approach to decolonization should be taken. When MRSA-positive staff are identified, restricting their professional activity will depend on the nature of their work. Finally, politicians and others need to commit to providing the necessary resources to maximize MRSA prevention and control.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi. B.M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. The MRSA can cause a wide range of diseases, which is associated with its production to large number of extracellular toxins and other virulence factors. The diseases are toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome and food poisoning. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA in persons who have had frequent or recent contact with hospitals or healthcare facilities within the previous year, has recently undergone an invasive medical procedure, or is immunocompromised. Mostly HA-MRSA are transmitted most frequently through direct skin-to-skin contact or contact with shared items or surfaces that have come into contact with someone else’s colonized or infected skin. Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL is a biocomponent toxin has been shown to induce lysis of host defence cells. The absence of the PVL gene confirms the MRSA as HA-MRSA. Slime layer plays a remarkable role in bacterial colonization of exterior surfaces by adhesion and production of slime factor plays an important role in antibiotic resistance. Beta lactamases render bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics by hydrolyzing the beta lactam ring of penicillin’s and cephalosporins.There is a linear correlation between beta-lactamase activity and the level of resistance of bacteria to penicillins. The phage groups II and III were present in hospital acquired MRSA which colonizes on the normal skin and enter the body through cut/wound or by fracture and cause osteomyelitis and bacterial arthritis. Bacteriophage typing of MRSA strains is an epidemiological marker and is a successful method in strain characterization.

  19. Interactions of Staphylococcus aureus with ultrasoft hydrogel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Guan, Allan; Isayeva, Irada; Vorvolakos, Katherine; Das, Srilekha; Li, Zhenyu; Phillips, K Scott

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasoft biomaterials-polymers, gels, and human soft tissues with an elastic modulus less than ∼100 kPa-are increasingly used in medical devices. While bacterial interactions (adhesion and biofilm formation) have been extensively studied on stiffer materials, little is known about how bacteria colonize ultrasoft materials as a nidus for infection. The goal of this work was to determine how material properties of ultrasoft hydrogels used for dermal fillers might affect pathogenesis of associated infections. We first synthesized a range of polyacrylamide hydrogels (PAAm) with moduli similar to clinically used dermal fillers and characterized the rheological, morphological and porous properties. We then developed a novel microfabricated insert to contain the PAAm in a flow system for quantification of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. The rate of adhesion and numbers of adherent Staphylococcus aureus on the surface of PAAm both decreased as the modulus increased. Adhesion was reduced by 3 logs (from 93 × 10(4)/cm(2) to 0.083 × 10(4)/cm(2)) with increasing modulus (from 17 Pa to 654 Pa). However, the number of bacteria in the bulk was the highest within the stiffest gels. This trend was further amplified in subsequent biofilm studies, where interfacial coverage of biofilm decreased as the modulus increased, while the fraction of biofilm in the bulk was the highest within the stiffest gel. The results show significant differences in bacterial colonization of PAAm based on material properties, and reveal how the injection process may unexpectedly create discontinuities that provide a microenvironmental niche for bacterial colonization. PMID:27131630

  20. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: vancomycin and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Natasha E; Tong, Steven Y C; Davis, Joshua S; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2015-02-01

    There has been a welcome increase in the number of agents available for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Vancomycin remains an acceptable treatment option, with moves toward individualized dosing to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target. Numerous practicalities, however, would need to be resolved before implementation. Lipoglycopeptides as a class show excellent in vitro potency. Their long half-lives and complex PKs may preclude these agents being used in critically ill patients. Anti-MRSA cephalosporins provide great promise in the treatment of MRSA. These agents, despite broad-spectrum activity, should be reserved for patients with MRSA infections as it is likely that usage will be associated with increased rates of resistance. Daptomycin is currently the only antibiotic to have shown noninferiority to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA bacteremia. The results of an open-labeled trial to address the superiority of daptomycin compared with vancomycin in reduced vancomycin susceptibility infections are eagerly anticipated. No drug to date has shown superiority to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA infections with the possible exception of linezolid in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), making linezolid an important option in the treatment of MRSA-proven HAP. Whether these strengths and features are agent or class specific are unclear but will likely be answered with the marketing of tedizolid. There are insufficient data to recommend either quinupristin/dalfopristin or tigecycline, as first line in the treatment of severe MRSA infections. These agents however remain options in patients with no other alternatives. PMID:25643268

  1. Frequency and Treatment of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Obstetric and Gynaecological Sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To perform culture and sensitivity for pathogens causing puerperal and postoperative wound sepsis and determine the frequency of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in such infections. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from December 2008 to May 2010. Methodology: All patients presenting with puerperal sepsis or postoperative wound infection were enrolled. Pus was collected for culture and sensitivity using standard technique. Two samples were taken from each patient; one before starting the treatment and one at the end of treatment. Ames transport medium was used. Empirical treatment with triple regimen (Ampicillin, Metronidazole and Gentamicin) was started immediately to cover Gram positive as well as negative bacteria in addition to anaerobic infection. After receiving the sensitivity report, antimicrobial agent were changed accordingly. Samples from ward and theater staff and environment were also taken to look for possible mode of transmission. Data was recorded on a proforma. Discrete variables are expressed as percentages. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism isolated in 34.6% cases. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was seen in 20% cases and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was seen in 14.6%. Out of these 14.6% MRSA, (17) 77% was associated with puerperal sepsis and rest (5) 23% was associated with postoperative wound infection. It showed best sensitivity to vancomycin. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were common causative agent of postoperative infections and puerperal sepsis. (author)

  2. In vitro phagocytosis of methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that causes a number of diseases such as abscesses, infective endocarditis, septic arthritis, etc. It is acquiring resistance against many antibiotics like methicillin; therefore its control is becoming increasingly difficult. Peripheral blood phagocytes particularly polymorphonuclear leucocytes play an important role in the protective mechanisms against these organisms. Phagocytes interact with bacteria and phagocytose these microorganisms to kill them. Phenotypically different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were collected from various hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Fresh polymorphonuclaer leucocytes were obtained from healthy individuals by centrifugation using Ficol-Hypaque gradient combined with dextran sedimentation. Microbiological method was used for the determination of phagocytic index of phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant difference was observed between the phagocytic index of both bacterial groups. MSSA group showed the Mean+-SD of 79.46%+-3.9 while MRSA group showed 72.35%+-2.5. Significant difference in phagocytic index indicates that it can be one of the mechanisms of MRSA to evade host immune system as compare to MSSA. (author)

  3. Comparison of two different sensitivity testing agard for detecting methicillin resistance in staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the accuracy of Mueller-Hinton agar and Isosensitest agar using cefoxitin disc for detecting methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using mecA gene PCR assay as gold standard. One hundred clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated; 64 MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and 36 MSSA (methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) by mecA PCR assay. All the isolates were tested with cefoxitin 30 macro g disc using semi-confluent growth on Mueller-Hinton agar as well as on Iso-sensitest agar in ambient air at 35-37degree C after an overnight incubation as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Following diameters provided the best sensitivity and specificity without substantial overlapping between the zones of resistant and sensitive isolates; Mueller-Hinton agar: R/sup 2/ 20 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%), S/sup 3/ 22 mm (sensitivity 97.2% and specificity 100%), and Iso-sensitest agar: R/sup 2/ 26 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity100%), S/sup 3/ 26 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%). High accuracy was obtained with cefoxitin disc on both media. Performance of both media was equally convincing for reliable prediction of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by placing cefoxitin 30 macro g disc on either of these in routine susceptibility testing. (author)

  4. Effects of Fermented Sumach on the Formation of Slime Layer of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Kırmusaoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens in hospitals, and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. Implantation of intravenous catheters and surgical implantation of prosthetic implants carry a risk of infection. In order to prevent all these effects of biofilms, a study was designed to observe the possible antibacterial effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. Material and Methods: The influence of varying concentrations of sumach on the formation of biofilms by 13 strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested by a microelisa assay. Results: The significant differences between varying concentrations of sumach (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml were observed in four methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and nine methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (p<0.05. In bacteria, a dose-related decrease in the formation of slime, which is a major virulence factor of staphylococcal infections, was observed. Conclusion: In our study, using 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml of sumach, thirteen strains lost, 17%, 22%, 28% and 48% respectively of their capacity to produce biofilms. Sumach, which is a herbal product, can decrease the formation of biofilm, which is a major virulence factor in staphylococcal infections.

  5. Efeito bactericida do gerador de alta frequência na cultura de Staphylococcus aureus Bactericidal effect of high frequency generator in Staphylococcus aureus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andiara Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito bactericida do gerador de alta frequência sobre a cultura de Staphylococcus aureus. Para isso, 36 placas de Petri inoculadas com Staphylococcus aureus foram divididas em 6 grupos, sendo 4 tratados (G5-15, G5-10, G3-15 e G3-10 e 2 controles (GC3 e GC5. O G5-15 e o G5-10 foram tratados 5 vezes por semana durante 15 e 10 minutos respectivamente, enquanto o G3-15 e o G3-10 foram tratados 3 vezes por semana durante 15 e 10 minutos respectivamente. No tratamento, foi utilizado o gerador de alta frequência na intensidade 10, técnica de faiscamento com eletrodo standard. Após o 15º dia de tratamento, foram realizadas repicagens para verificar se houve crescimento de novas culturas, observando-se que apenas o G5-15 mostrou-se eficaz quando comparado ao GC5 (p=0,0039. Assim, o gerador de alta frequência apresentou efeito bactericida diante de cultura de Staphylococcus aureus in vitro em uma frequência de 5 vezes por semana aplicado por 15 minutos diários.The purpose of this study was to check the bactericidal effect of the high frequency generator over the Staphylococcus aureus culture. A total of 36 Petri dishes inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus were divided into 6 groups, including 4 treated (G5-15, G5-10, G3-15 and G3-10 and 2 controls (GC3 e GC5. G5-15 and G5-10 were treated 5 times per week during 15 and 10 minutes, respectively, while G3-15 and G3-10 were treated 3 times per week during 15 and 10 minutes, respectively. In treatment, it was used the high frequency generator with intensity of 10, sparking technique with standard electrode. After the 15th day of treatment, there were performed transplanting, in order to check if there were growth of new cultures, and only G5-15 showed to be effective when compared to GC5 (p=0.0039. So, the high frequency generator had a bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro culture at a frequency of 5 times per week and exposure time of 15

  6. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling F Brown

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI. These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  7. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aisling F; Murphy, Alison G; Lalor, Stephen J; Leech, John M; O'Keeffe, Kate M; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O'Halloran, Dara P; Lacey, Keenan A; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P; van Wamel, Willem J; Foster, Timothy J; Geoghegan, Joan A; Lavelle, Ed C; Rogers, Thomas R; McLoughlin, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  8. Polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Jain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In India, Haryana has the world’s best dairy type buffalo, the Murrah capable of milk yields as high as 35 kg a day. Clinical and Sub clinical mastitis exerts a negative impact on milk quality, quantity and animal health and profits. In India, Staphylococci are the main causative agents responsible for mastitis of economic importance. Therefore, a suitable and specific test is required for the rapid diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus. For definitive diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic milk, a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed using target sequence of 16S to 23S rRNA spacer region. This test can be performed within hours and avoids cumbersome and lengthy steps involved in microbiological culture of milk and biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction assay can be used as a screening test for a large herd to detect Staphylococcus aureus in milk.

  9. [Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticse, Ray; Melgarejo, Weymar; Fuentes-Dávila, Alfredo; Ortíz, Jesús; Zegarra, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to community-acquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA) in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated. PMID:22510919

  10. Quercus infectoria: a candidate for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2008-04-01

    Acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) demonstrated significant antibacterial activities against all strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Inhibition zones were in the range 11.75-16.82 mm. Both MRSA and MSSA strains exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values at 0.13 and 0.13-1.00 mg/mL, respectively. At 2 MIC, the growth of two representative MRSA strains was continually inhibited for at least 20 h. Surviving MRSA cells were not detected within 12-14 h after treatment with the extract at 4 MIC concentration. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 demonstrated similar results. PMID:18338770

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Freshwater Microalga Scenedesmus sp. on Foodborne Pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Gogoba Ishaq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae possess promising bioactive compounds with a wide range of activities. In this study, crude pigment extract of Scenedesmus sp. a freshwater microalga was screened against two known foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028 to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. The crude pigment of the microalga was extracted with 90 % acetone whereas antibacterial screening was done by agar well diffusion method. In addition, the MIC of crude pigment was determined following the macrobroth dilution method. Concentrations ranging from 0.35mg/ml – 3.48 mg/ml demonstrated highest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923.  The MIC was achieved at 0.08 mg/ ml. On the other hand, there was no inhibitory activity at any concentration of crude extract against Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028.  Results of this study suggest that the inhibitory activity may be limited to gram positive foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Role of GapC in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerro-Dego, Oudessa; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose; Potter, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as a major pathogen causing clinical or subclinical intramammary infections in lactating cows, sheep and goats. S. aureus produces a wide arsenal of cell surface and extracellular proteins involved in virulence. Among these are two conserved proteins with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity named glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-B (GapB) and -C (GapC). In this study, we used the S. aureus wild type strain RN6390 and its isogenic gapC mutant H330 in in vitro and in vivo studies and determined that the S. aureus GapC protein plays a role on adherence to and internalization into bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. In addition, we found that S. aureus H330 did not caused mastitis after an experimental infection of ovine mammary glands. Together, these results show that GapC is important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus mastitis. PMID:22176759

  13. Neonatal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is not associated with development of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L; Halkjaer, L B; Agner, T;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus in atopic skin has been associated with exacerbation of eczema. Objectives To investigate a possible association between neonatal colonization with S. aureus and the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first 3 years of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study...... monitored prospectively. RESULTS: Of the neonates, 5.3% had positive swabs for S. aureus cultured from the vestibulum nasi (51.3%) and/or the perineum (11.3%). Forty-two per cent developed AD, but without association between colonization with S. aureus at 1 month of age and risk of developing AD at 3 years...... of age. There was a 70% concordance for S. aureus carriage between neonates and parents. At 1 year of age 11.3% children had swabs positive for S. aureus. Fourteen per cent of children tested at the 1-year visit developed AD after the visit but before 3 years of age, but again, there was no association...

  14. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low-direct current electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dunya Zituni; Heidi Schu tt-Gerowitt; Marion Kopp; Martin Kro nke; Klaus Addicks; Christian Hoffmann; Martin Hellmich; Franz Faber; Wilhelm Niedermeier

    2014-01-01

    Electrical potentials up to 800 mV can be observed between different metallic dental restorations. These potentials produce fields in the mouth that may interfere with microbial communities. The present study focuses on the impact of different electric field strengths (EFS) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in vitro. Cultures of S. aureus and E. coli in fluid and gel medium were exposed to different EFS. Effects were determined by calculation of viable counts and measurement of inhibition zones. In gel medium, anodic inhibition zones for S. aureus were larger than those for E. coli at all field strength levels. In fluid medium, the maximum decrease in the viable count of S. aureus cells was at 10 V?m21. Field-treated S. aureus cells presented ruptured cell walls and disintegrated cytoplasm. Conclusively, S. aureus is more sensitive to increasing electric field strength than E. coli.

  15. The dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection in nine Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Sloth, K. H.; Elsberg, C.;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in nine dairy herds, and compare these with isolates from other sites on the cows by phage- and ribotyping. Whether colonisation of milkers with S. aureus could...... be a source of infection for bovine IMI was investigated. In addition, 100 epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from asymptomatic human carriers were also phage- and ribotyped to compare the human and bovine reservoir of S. aureus in Denmark. A total of 625 S. aureus isolates from bovine IMI, bovine......, there was a close correspondence between ribo- and phage types of S. aureus isolated from bovine intramammmary infections and skin lesions. Isolates from milking personnel, however, were not identical to any of the predominant intramammary strains. Furthermore, several of the isolates from milking personnel showed...

  16. Characterization of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus isolates: association of toxin gene profile with genotype and food commodities in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important clinical and foodborne pathogen. Zoonotic risk of transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the ecology of S. aureus in various foods. We characterized the genetic diversity and the distribution of 25 toxin genes in 142 foodborne Staphylococcus au...

  17. Genome Sequences of Four Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Strains with Diverse Drug Resistance Profiles Isolated from Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Murali, Thokur Sreepathy; Paul, Bobby; Parikh, Hersh; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kavitha, Shettigar; Bhat, Manoj K; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen associated with diabetic foot ulcer infections. To gain insight into their pathogenicity and virulence potential, we report draft genome sequences of four strains of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from diabetic foot ulcers, showing profiles with various degrees of resistance to common antibiotics.

  18. Cyclic peptide inhibitors of the β-sliding clamp in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup, Susanne; Hansen, Paula Melo Paulon; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Hansen, Paul Robert; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between pairs of Staphylococcus aureus replication proteins was detected in an Escherichia coli based two-hybrid analysis. A reverse two-hybrid system was constructed for selection of compounds that hindered interaction between interacting protein pairs. A number of cyclic peptides, f...... minimum inhibitory concentration was ∼50 μg/ml for S. aureus cells. These compounds may serve as lead candidates for future development into novel classes of antibiotics as well as provide information on the function of the S. aureus replication process.......Interaction between pairs of Staphylococcus aureus replication proteins was detected in an Escherichia coli based two-hybrid analysis. A reverse two-hybrid system was constructed for selection of compounds that hindered interaction between interacting protein pairs. A number of cyclic peptides...

  19. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    NS) and Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin. Methods: blaZ was detected in 143 strains of penicillin-resistant S. aureus and CoNS from five Danish cattle herds (n = 25/23), random CoNS isolates from Denmark (n = 37), a collection of S. aureus from six different countries (n = 52), humans in Denmark (n = 3) and beta...... types. The major types all contained strains of both human and bovine origin, and more than one Staphylococcus species, demonstrating a shared gene pool. In a comparison of S. aureus and CoNS obtained from five Danish cattle herds, the same type of blaZ was only detected in one case. Conclusions...

  20. Drug repurposing: a new front in the war against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swetarka; Dasgupta, Arunava; Chopra, Sidharth

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus continues its domination of worldwide bacterial infection rates, thereby remaining a pathogen of significant public health interest. A major reason for its continued success is its ability to acquire and maintain diverse drug resistance mechanisms, leading to a paucity of antimicrobials active against it, concomitantly leading to a continuous search for new antimicrobial agents. However, with the withdrawal of the major pharmaceutical firms from the anti-infective area, drug repurposing has provided a potential boost to the drug pipeline. In this review, we provide an overview of the currently approved drugs with repurposing potential against Staphylococcus aureus, thus augmenting the classical drug discovery pathway. PMID:27494302