WorldWideScience

Sample records for aureus staphylococcus epidermidis

  1. Common R-plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis during a nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M. L.; Wong, E. S.; Falkow, S

    1982-01-01

    During a 7-month period in 1978 to 1979, 31 patients and personnel at a Kentucky hospital were colonized or infected with a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, penicillin, and tetracycline. S. epidermidis with similar antibiotic resistance patterns had been isolated in this hospital in the year before the S. aureus outbreak. A 32-megadalton R-plasmid, pUW3626, mediating resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, was present in these isol...

  2. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence: Implication for skin homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa eNdiaye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2 production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  3. PREVALENCIA DE Staphylococcus epidermidis Y Staphylococcus aureus EN PACIENTES CON CONJUNTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hernández-Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, se evaluaron clínica y bacteriológicamente 131 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de conjuntivitis. A cada participante se le tomó muestra de secreción ocular, para la coloración de Gram y cultivo; además, se probó la susceptibilidad de los aislamientos frente a Oxacilina (Ox, Gentamicina (GM, Vancomicina (Va, Trimetoprim Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetraciclina (Te, Cefalothin (CF, Ceftriaxone (CRO y Ciprofloxacina (CIP. El 53% de los cultivos bacteriológicos fueron positivos, donde el 87% de los aislamientos correspondieron a Gram positivos, siendo los más frecuentes Staphylococcus epidermidis (43%, Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Streptococcus sp. (15%, Enterococcus (7%, Corynebacterium sp. 5%. Se observó multirresistencia frente a 3 ó más antibióticos en S. epidermidis (44% y S.aureus (42%. La alta frecuencia de estos microorganismos y la multirresistencia encontrada en este estudio, determinan la importancia que tienen, como posibles patógenos oculares, y la necesidad de implementar las pruebas de susceptibilidad bacteriana en el ámbito oftalmológico. Este es el primer estudio publicado en Colombia sobre la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, el cual seguramente originará la iniciación de posteriores investigaciones, encaminadas a determinar el verdadero papel de estos microorganismos, en el proceso infeccioso ocular.

  4. Differential Roles of Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Surface Polysaccharide and Extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms▿

    OpenAIRE

    Era A Izano; Amarante, Matthew A.; Kher, William B.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are major human pathogens of increasing importance due to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains. Evidence suggests that the ability to form matrix-encased biofilms contributes to the pathogenesis of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In this study, we investigated the functions of two staphylococcal biofilm matrix polymers: poly-N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide (PNAG) and extracellular DNA (ecDNA). We measured the ability o...

  5. In vitro activities of oxazolidinone compounds U100592 and U100766 against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G W; Seo, S M

    1996-01-01

    The new oxazolidinone antimicrobial agents U100592 and U100766 demonstrated good in vitro inhibitory activity against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis regardless of methicillin susceptibility. Both agents appeared bacteriostatic by time-kill analysis. Stable resistance to low multiples of the MIC of either drug could be produced only in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  6. Phenazine antibiotic inspired discovery of potent bromophenazine antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Nicholas V; Bai, Fang; Perez, Cristian; Duong, Benjamin Q; Rocca, James R; Jin, Shouguang; Huigens, Robert W

    2014-02-14

    Nearly all clinically used antibiotics have been (1) discovered from microorganisms (2) using phenotype screens to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth. The effectiveness of these antibiotics is attributed to their endogenous roles as bacterial warfare agents against competing microorganisms. Unfortunately, every class of clinically used antibiotic has been met with drug resistant bacteria. In fact, the emergence of resistant bacterial infections coupled to the dismal pipeline of new antibacterial agents has resulted in a global health care crisis. There is an urgent need for innovative antibacterial strategies and treatment options to effectively combat drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe the implementation of a Pseudomonas competition strategy, using redox-active phenazines, to identify novel antibacterial leads against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis and evaluation of a diverse 27-membered phenazine library. Using this microbial warfare inspired approach, we have identified several bromophenazines with potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The most potent bromophenazine analogue from this focused library demonstrated a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78-1.56 μM, or 0.31-0.62 μg mL(-1), against S. aureus and S. epidermidis and proved to be 32- to 64-fold more potent than the phenazine antibiotic pyocyanin in head-to-head MIC experiments. In addition to the discovery of potent antibacterial agents against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we also report a detailed structure-activity relationship for this class of bromophenazine small molecules.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chessa

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections.

  8. Induction of oxidative burst response in human neutrophils by adherent staphylococci. Comparison between Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, U; Espersen, F; Skinhøj, P;

    1993-01-01

    The ability of staphylococci adherent to silicone surfaces to induce superoxide anion (O2-) production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated and compared with the same activity induced by planktonic bacteria. The responses to Staphylococcus aureus strain E 2371 and Staphylococcus...... epidermidis strain ATCC 14990 were compared. The staphylococci were allowed to adhere to silicone catheters for 2 h at 37 degrees C. After opsonization of adherent bacteria in 30% human AB-positive serum, the induction of superoxide anion production by PMNs was measured in a cytochrome C reduction assay. Both...... bacterial strains, when adhered to the surfaces, were able to induce superoxide anion production by PMNs to about the same extent. Comparing adherent and planktonic bacteria with these two bacterial strains, it was found that planktonic S. epidermidis induced one to three times higher superoxide anion...

  9. [In vitro activity of linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, clindamycin and rifampin, alone and in combination, against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, A; Jurado, A; Marco, F; Almela, M; Ortega, M; Mensa, J

    2005-06-01

    Information about the in vitro effect of combinations of anti-staphylococcal agents on staphylococci is scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, clindamycin and rifampin, alone or in combination, against Staphylococcus spp. Two Staphylococcus aureus and two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from blood cultures were studied using the killing curve method. The combinations analyzed were linezolid+moxifloxacin, linezolid+levofloxacin, linezolid+clindamycin, linezolid+rifampin, moxifloxacin+rifampin, moxifloxacin+clindamycin, levofloxacin+rifampin and levofloxacin+clindamycin. The following concentrations (mg/l) were used: 8 and 16 for linezolid, 2 for moxifloxacin, 3 for levofloxacin, 2 for clindamycin and 2 and 5 for rifampin. The activity was considered synergistic when a reduction in growth of at least 2 log(10) was produced with the combination in comparison to the most active antibiotic alone; antagonistic when a growth of at least 2 log(10) was produced with the combination in comparison to the most active antibiotic alone; and indifferent if the variation was less than 1 log(10). Linezolid and clindamycin were bacteriostatic, while moxifloxacin and levofloxacin were bactericidal. Rifampin was bacteriostatic against S. aureus and bactericidal against S. epidermidis. Linezolid and clindamycin reduced the bactericidal activity of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, however an antagonistic effect was only observed against S. aureus. Other combinations of linezolid, rifampin, clindamycin, levofloxacin or moxifloxacin were indifferent. Linezolid and clindamycin antagonize the bactericidal activity of fluorquinolones against staphylococci. There was no difference between any other combinations against either S. aureus or S. epidermidis.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of milk somatic cells in mastitis resistant and susceptible sheep upon challenge with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasca Christian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of a genetic basis for host responses to bacterial intramammary infections has been widely documented, but the underlying mechanisms and the genes are still largely unknown. Previously, two divergent lines of sheep selected for high/low milk somatic cell scores have been shown to be respectively susceptible and resistant to intramammary infections by Staphylococcus spp. Transcriptional profiling with an 15K ovine-specific microarray of the milk somatic cells of susceptible and resistant sheep infected successively by S. epidermidis and S. aureus was performed in order to enhance our understanding of the molecular and cellular events associated with mastitis resistance. Results The bacteriological titre was lower in the resistant than in the susceptible animals in the 48 hours following inoculation, although milk somatic cell concentration was similar. Gene expression was analysed in milk somatic cells, mainly represented by neutrophils, collected 12 hours post-challenge. A high number of differentially expressed genes between the two challenges indicated that more T cells are recruited upon inoculation by S. aureus than S. epidermidis. A total of 52 genes were significantly differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible animals. Further Gene Ontology analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, leukocyte adhesion, cell migration, and signal transduction. Close biological relationships could be established between most genes using gene network analysis. Furthermore, gene expression suggests that the cell turn-over, as a consequence of apoptosis/granulopoiesis, may be enhanced in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible line. Conclusions Gene profiling in resistant and susceptible lines has provided good candidates for mapping the biological pathways and genes underlying genetically determined resistance and susceptibility

  11. Insights on Evolution of Virulence and Resistance from the Complete Genome Analysis of an Early Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain and a Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain†

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Steven R.; Derrick E Fouts; Archer, Gordon L.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; DeBoy, Robert T; Ravel, Jacques; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolonay, James F.; Brinkac, Lauren; Beanan, Mauren; Robert J Dodson; Sean C Daugherty; Madupu, Ramana; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Durkin, A. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the major causative agent of numerous hospital- and community-acquired infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a causative agent of infections often associated with implanted medical devices. We have sequenced the ∼2.8-Mb genome of S. aureus COL, an early methicillin-resistant isolate, and the ∼2.6-Mb genome of S. epidermidis RP62a, a methicillin-resistant biofilm isolate. Comparative analysis of these and other staphylococc...

  12. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990. Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs.

  13. In Vitro Activities of Telavancin and Vancomycin against Biofilm-Producing Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    LaPlante, Kerry L.; Mermel, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the activities of telavancin and vancomycin against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. At clinically attainable concentrations, telavancin was active against bacteria embedded in biofilm (minimal biofilm eradication concentration [MBEC], 0.125 to 2 μg/ml) and inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations below the MIC. Vancomycin did not demonstrate the same activity (MBEC, ≥512 μg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Telavancin ...

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Y C Cheung

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSMδ, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS. These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus.

  15. Biofilm-formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from subclinical mastitis in conditions mimicking the udder environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, R; Varanda, D; Bexiga, R; Tavares, L; Oliveira, M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus is the genus most commonly isolated from bovine mastitis in many countries. It may express several virulence factors including biofilm formation, which may protect the bacterial community from antimicrobials' action, preventing these compounds from reaching its interior, where they reach subinhibitory concentrations (subMIC). Most biofilm production assays are performed in static conditions, while studies regarding antimicrobial resistance usually do not resemble the udder environment because they are performed at high concentrations. In this study we evaluated the influence of dynamic conditions and media, including Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) and UHT whole milk (WM), as well as the effect of subMIC concentrations of five different antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation by staphylococci isolated from subclinical mastitis. Results suggest that dynamic conditions and media may influence biofilm formation and revealed that milking simulation may significantly increase biofilm production. Sub-MIC concentrations decrease biofilm formation in MHB but increase in WM, suggesting a protective role of milk against antimicrobial compounds' action. Therefore, in vitro conditions that simulate the udder environment and in vivo conditions should be included as one of the parameters in evaluation of biofilm producing strains, in order to provide more reliable results. PMID:26812821

  16. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on the hands of health-care workers using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, P; Schouenborg, P Øland; Brandslund, I

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay intended as a tool for monitoring hand hygiene in hospital wards. METHODS: The hands of 20 health-care workers were sampled for 10 days using real-time PCR for quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and S...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  18. Method for Preparation and Electroporation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Melinda R; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-01-01

    For bacterial species that are not known to be naturally competent, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, electroporation is an efficient method for introducing genetic material into the cell. The technique utilizes electrical pulses to transiently permeabilize bacterial cell membranes, which allows for the passage of plasmid DNA across the membranes. Here, we describe methods for preparing electrocompetent S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells and outline a procedure for electroporation of the prepared competent cells.

  19. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G. MacKay (William); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTen samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Sample

  20. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    2007-01-01

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  1. 1Molecular basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci and one of the most abundant colonizers of human skin. While for a long time regarded as innocuous, it has been identified as the most frequent cause of device-related infections occurring in the hospital setting and is therefore now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. S. epidermidis produces a series of molecules that provide protection from host defenses. Specifically, many protein...

  2. AI-2-dependent gene regulation in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdevant Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoinducer 2 (AI-2, a widespread by-product of the LuxS-catalyzed S-ribosylhomocysteine cleavage reaction in the activated methyl cycle, has been suggested to serve as an intra- and interspecies signaling molecule, but in many bacteria AI-2 control of gene expression is not completely understood. Particularly, we have a lack of knowledge about AI-2 signaling in the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Results To determine the role of LuxS and AI-2 in S. epidermidis, we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in an S. epidermidis luxS mutant and after addition of AI-2 synthesized by over-expressed S. epidermidis Pfs and LuxS enzymes. Genes under AI-2 control included mostly genes involved in sugar, nucleotide, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism, but also virulence-associated genes coding for lipase and bacterial apoptosis proteins. In addition, we demonstrate by liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry of culture filtrates that the pro-inflammatory phenol-soluble modulin (PSM peptides, key virulence factors of S. epidermidis, are under luxS/AI-2 control. Conclusion Our results provide a detailed molecular basis for the role of LuxS in S. epidermidis virulence and suggest a signaling function for AI-2 in this bacterium.

  3. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  4. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0-50 mu M) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitativ

  5. Penetration of Rifampin through Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhilan; Philip S. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rifampin penetrated biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis but failed to effectively kill the bacteria. Penetration was demonstrated by a simple diffusion cell bioassay and by transmission electron microscopic observation of antibiotic-affected cells at the distal edge of the biofilm.

  6. Efficacy of ultraviolet C light at sublethal dose in combination with antistaphylococcal antibiotics to disinfect catheter biofilms of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Azizi M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed El-Azizi,1 Nancy Khardori2 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, New Cairo City, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Background: Biofilm formation inside inserted medical devices leads to their failure and acts as a source of refractory infections. The ultraviolet C (UVC light is a potential therapy that can be used against the biofilm of bacterial pathogens. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of sublethal dose of UVC light with anti-staphylococcal antibiotics against biofilms made from 30 isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis on vascular catheters. Materials and methods: A novel biofilm device was used to assess the combined approach. The biofilms on the catheters were irradiated with the UVC light at 254 nm and irradiance of 6.4 mW followed by treatment with vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin at twice their minimum bactericidal concentrations or with linezolid at 64 µg/mL for 24 hours. The catheters were cut into segments and sonicated, and the number of the sessile cells was determined ­colorimetrically using XTT viable cells assay. The effect of UVC radiation followed by treatment with an ­antistaphylococcal antibiotic on the viability of the bacteria in the biofilm was visualized using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability stain and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Exposure of the bacterial biofilms to the UVC light or each of the antibiotics alone was ineffective in killing the bacteria. Treatment of the biofilms with the antibiotics following their exposure to UVC light significantly (P<0.001 reduced the number of viable cells within the biofilms but did not completely eradicate them. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this combinatorial approach has not been

  7. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, P G; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colo...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions.

  9. Penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-hu; HE Lei; GAO Jie; LIU Yun-xi; SUO Ji-jiang; XING Yu-bin; JIA Ning

    2013-01-01

    Background The catheter related infection caused by Staphylococcus epiderrnidis biofilm is increasing and difficult to treat by antimicrobial chemotherapy.The properties of biofilms that give rise to antibiotic resistance are only partially understood.This study aimed to elucidate the penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.Methods The penetration ratio of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and wild isolate S68 was detected by biofilm penetration model at different time points according to the standard regression curve.The RNNDNA ratio and the cell density within the biofilms were observed by confocal laser microscope and transmission electromicroscope,respectively.Results The penetration ratios of erythromycin through the biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and S68 after cultivation for 36 hours were 0.93,0.55 and 0.4,respectively.The erythromycin penetration ratio through 1457 biofilm (0.58 after 8 hours)was higher than that through the other two (0.499 and 0.31 after 24 hours).Lower growth rate of the cells in biofilm was shown,with reduction of RNA/DNA proportion observed by confocal laser microscope through acridine orange stain.Compared with the control group observed by transmission electrmicroscope,the cell density of biofilm air face was lower than that of agar face,with more cell debris.Conclusions Erythromycin could penetrate to the Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm,but could not kill the cells thoroughly.The lower growth rate of the cells within biofilm could help decreasing the erythromycin susceptibility.

  10. Detection and characterization of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, D A; Zarins, L T; Schaberg, D R; Bradley, S. F.; Terpenning, M S; Kauffman, C A

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated over 18 months; 12 exhibited low-level resistance, while two showed high-level resistance. Highly mupirocin-resistant strains contained a large plasmid which transferred mupirocin resistance to other S. aureus strains and to Staphylococcus epidermidis. This plasmid and pAM899-1, a self-transferable gentamicin resistance plasmid, have molecular and biologic similarities.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S....... aureus HG001, a derivative of strain NCTC 8325, across experimental conditions ranging from optimal growth in vitro to intracellular growth in host cells. These data establish an extensive repertoire of transcription units and non-coding RNAs, a classification of 1412 promoters according...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...

  12. BIOFILM DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Rani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . AIMS : To detect biofilm among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . MATERIAL AND METHODS : 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were collected from clinical samples like blood, IV catheter tips, catheterized urine, wound swabs and exudates received from various clinical departments. Biofilm formation was studied in these isolates. The study was carried out over a period o f one year i. e from March 2011 - February 2012. The specimens received were processed by conventional methods. Tissue Culture plate method was used for detection of biofilm. RESULTS: IV catheter tip samples revealed 25%, implant device associated infection s revealed 20%, the Catheterized urine samples showed 16%, blood culture 8%, ventilator associated infections 10%, post - operative wound infections 11% & exudates 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Isolates with O. D. values more than 0. 2 were consi dered as high biofilm producers. 40% of S. epidermidis isolates were weak biofilm producers, 24% were moderate biofilm producers and 36% were high biofilm producers. Isolates from IV catheter tips showed high biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS: In the modern h ealth care set up, various devices such as IV catheters, urine catheters, shunts, implanted prosthetic devices etc are being increasingly used thereby causing the device associated infections particularly of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Device associated in fections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are mainly due to biofilm formation which ultimately makes the treatment difficult.

  13. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  14. Adhesive properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis probed by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong;

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of the surface properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis and of biofilm forming bacteria in general is a key to understand their functions, particularly their adhesive properties. To gain a comprehensive view of the structural and chemical properties of S. epidermidis, four different strains...

  15. Activity of sparfloxacin on Staphylococcus epidermidis attached to plastic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, A; García, I; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1995-08-01

    The activity of sparfloxacin on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. Sparfloxacin showed high bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis biofilms on Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. The combination of sparfloxacin with amikacin or rifampicin significantly increased its activity against bacterial biofilms on polyurethane and Teflon catheters. PMID:8522473

  16. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  17. 表皮葡萄球菌与金黄色葡萄球菌感染分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis and St ap hy lococcus aureus causing infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝云; 熊芸; 孙静; 杨忠玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究临床感染表皮葡萄球菌与金黄色葡萄球菌的药敏差异,为临床合理选用抗菌药物提供科学依据。方法对医院2010年6月-2013年12月临床标本中分离出的表皮葡萄球菌与金黄色葡萄球菌,按照《全国临床检验操作规程》进行病原菌鉴定,药敏试验采用 K‐B纸片法,应用SPSS19.0软件对数据进行统计分析。结果临床共分离表皮葡萄球菌183株占51.12%,金黄色葡萄球菌175株占48.88%,表皮葡萄球菌与金黄色葡萄球菌对常用抗菌药物耐药率均较高,对万古霉素、呋喃妥因、替考拉宁、利奈唑胺、米诺环素耐药率均较低<10.00%,表皮葡萄球菌与金黄色葡萄球菌对苯唑西林、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、克林霉素、红霉素、阿奇霉素、庆大霉素耐药率分别为68.85%与45.71%、20.77%与12%、49.18%与26.86%、73.22%与46.86%、68.85%与48.57%、50.27%与29.14%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论表皮葡萄球菌耐药率高于金黄色葡萄球菌应引起重视,合理选用抗菌药物,减少耐药菌株产生。%OBJECTIVE To observe the difference in the drug susceptibility between the Staphylococcus epidermi‐dis and Staphylococcus aureus causing clinical infections so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics .METHODS From Jun 2010 to Dec 2013 ,the S .epidermidis and S .aureus strains were isolated from the clinical specimens ,then the microbial identification was carried out according to National Clinical Laboratory Operation Procedures ,the drug susceptibility testing was conducted by using K‐B method ,and the statistical anal‐ysis was performed with the use of SPSS19 .0 software .RESULTS A total of 183 strains of S .epidermidis were i‐solated from the clinical specimens ,accounting for 51 .12% ,and 175 strains of S .aureus were isolated ,accounting for 48

  18. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2.......5 h after the first tablet to 2.5 micrograms/mL after the fifth tablet, and 5.5 micrograms/mL after the 13th tablet. All persons harboured susceptible S epidermidis (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] 0.25 microgram/mL) in axilla and nostrils before treatment. Four resistant strains were detected...

  19. Regulation of slime production in Staphylococcus epidermidis by iron limitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, M.; Borland, R

    1993-01-01

    Slime production by most strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis was enhanced by conditions of iron limitation produced by the addition of ethylenediamine-di-o-hydroxyphenol acetic acid to the growth medium. The density of the biofilm which formed on the base of microtiter plates was dependent on the degree of iron limitation, the stage of the growth cycle, and the nutritional state of the initial inoculum. One repeatedly slime-negative S. epidermidis strain, passaged in tryptic soya broth cont...

  20. Interference with granulocyte function by Staphylococcus epidermidis slime.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, G M; Lee, D A; Regelmann, W E; Gray, E. D.; Peters, G; Quie, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of Staphylococcus epidermidis slime with human neutrophils (PMN) was examined by using isolated slime and allowing bacteria to elaborate slime and other extracellular products in situ. S. epidermidis slime was found to contain a chemoattractant. Incubation of PMN with 50 micrograms or more of slime per ml inhibited subsequent chemotaxis of the PMN to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine by 27% and to zymosan-activated serum by 44 to 67% with increasing slime concentrations....

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999–2000 (n=57 and 2004 (n=116. Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00–2.48, injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88–33.49, community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02–1.92, and symptom duration ≥48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22–3.61. Uncomplicated disease was associated with the presence of a central line (0.69, 0.55–0.88 and prompt removal of a primary focus (0.71, 0.57–0.90. Neither methicillin resistance nor genetic lineage was associated with complicated disease, but methicillin resistance was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that clinical rather than microbial factors are the major determinants of SAB outcome and underscores the importance of early treatment.

  2. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  3. SCCmec-associated psm-mec mRNA promotes Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchang; Zhang, Xuemei; Huang, Wenfang; Yin, Yibing

    2016-10-01

    Biofilm formation is considered the major pathogenic mechanism of Staphylococcus epidermidis-associated nosocomial infections. Reports have shown that SCCmec-associated psm-mec regulated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence and biofilm formation. However, the role of psm-mec in S. epidermidis remains unclear. To this purpose, we analysed 165 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis to study the distribution, mutation and expression of psm-mec and the relationship between this gene and biofilm formation. Next, we constructed three psm-mec deletion mutants, one psm-mec transgene expression strain (p221) and two psm-mec point mutant strains (pM, pAG) to explore its effects on S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Then, the amount of biofilm formation, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the constructed strains was measured. Results of psm-mec deletion and transgene expression showed that the gene regulated S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Compared with the control strains, the ability to form biofilm, Triton X-100-induced autolysis and the amount of eDNA increased in the p221 strain and the two psm-mec mutants pM and pAG expressed psm-mec mRNA without its protein, whereas no differences were observed among the three constructed strains, illustrating that psm-mec mRNA promoted S. epidermidis biofilm formation through up-regulation of bacterial autolysis and the release of eDNA. Our results reveal that acquisition of psm-mec promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation. PMID:27502022

  4. A cathelicidin-2-derived peptide effectively impairs Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.; Dijk, A. van; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Haagsman, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of nosocomial infections owing to its ability to form biofilms on the surface of medical devices. Biofilms are surface-adhered bacterial communities. In mature biofilms these communities are encased in an extracellular matrix composed of bacterial polysacc

  5. Staphylococcus aureus triggered reactive arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siam, A R; M. Hammoudeh

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report two patients who developed reactive arthritis in association with Staphylococcus aureus infection. METHODS--A review of the case notes of two patients. RESULTS--Two adult female patients have developed sterile arthritis in association with Staph aureus infection. The first patient has had two episodes of arthritis; the first followed olecranon bursitis, the second followed infection of a central venous catheter used for dialysis. The second patient developed sterile arth...

  6. Lack of Association between fbe Gene with Adherence and Biofilm Forrr:ation in Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华林; 高谦; 瞿涤; 闻玉梅

    2004-01-01

    Biofilm formation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). It has been suggested that protein encoded by the foe (fibrinogen binding protein) gene of S. epidermidis enhances bacterial adherence to medical devices and biofilm formation by binding to host fibrinogen (Fg). In this study, a 1.7 kbfoe gene fragment was amplified in 111 of 115 strains of S. epidermidis chnical isolates using PCR. Contrary to expectations, only 14 strains showed marginally increased adherence to Fg-coated polystyrene wells compared with BSA coated wells. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed no statistically significant difference in Fbe expression between Fg binding strains and Fg non-binding strains. Fttahermore, in the presence of soluble Fg, S. epidermdis biofilm formation decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) strain Cowan I and other 5 S. aureus clinical isolates showed a substantial increase in both adherence and biofilm formation in the presence of Fg. The resuits suggest that in S. epidermidis the foe gene may not be associated with bacterial adherence and biofilm formation.

  7. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  8. Role of Monocytes and Bacteria in Staphylococcus epidermidis Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.; Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Thompson, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The endocardial vegetation which is formed in the course of bacterial endocarditis (BE) contains tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity. Earlier studies showed that monocytes are the main source of TF in the vegetations. The TF activity (TFA) of vegetations isolated from Streptococcus sanguis-infected rabbits depended on the numbers of bacteria as well as monocytes in the vegetation. In this study, we investigated whether for Staphylococcus epidermidis, a frequent pathogen in BE, ...

  9. Mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to model biomaterial surfaces: Establising a link between thrombosis and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Julie Miyo

    Infections involving Staphylococcus epidermidis remain a life threatening complication associated with the use of polymer based cardiovascular devices. One of the critical steps in infection pathogenesis is the adhesion of the bacteria to the device surface. Currently, mechanisms of S. epidermidis adhesion are incompletely understood, but are thought to involve interactions between bacteria, device surface, and host blood elements in the form of adsorbed plasma proteins and surface adherent platelets. Our central hypothesis is that elements participating in thrombosis also promote S. epidermidis adhesion by specifically binding to the bacterial surface. The adhesion kinetics of S. epidermidis RP62A to host modified model biomaterial surface octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) under hydrodynamic shear conditions were characterized. Steady state adhesion to adsorbed proteins and surface adherent platelets was achieved at 90-120 minutes and 60-90 minutes, respectively. A dose response curve of S. epidermidis adhesion in the concentration range of 10sp7{-}10sp9 bac/mL resembled a multilayer adsorption isotherm. Increasing shear stress was found to LTA, and other LTA blocking agents significantly decreased S. epidermidis adhesion to the fibrin-platelet clots, suggesting that this interaction between S. epidermidis and fibrin-platelet clots is specific. Studies evaluated the adhesion of S. epidermidis to polymer immobilized heparin report conflicting results. Paulsson et al., showed that coagulase negative staphylococci adhered in comparable numbers to both immobilized heparin and nonheparinized surfaces, while exhibiting significantly greater adhesion to both surfaces than S. aureus. Preadsorption of the surfaces with specific heparin binding plasma proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen significantly increased adhesion. It was postulated that immobilized heparin contained binding sites for the plasma proteins, exposing bacteria binding domains of the

  10. The effects of ultraviolet B beams on programmed cell death activities in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Payam Behzadi; Elham Behzadi; Reza Ranjbar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bacterial skin diseases caused by drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis are known as a big problem in the field of treating management of infectious diseases. Progression of resistant strains has led to use phototherapy in parallel with pharmacotherapy. In this short survey, we tried to obtain a logic Ultraviolet Radiation protocol to induce the process of programmed cell death in irradiated Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: The samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis were...

  11. Bioinformatics analysis of two-component regulatory systems in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhiqiang; ZHONG Yang; ZHANG Jian; HE Youyu; WU Yang; JIANG Juan; CHEN Jiemin; LUO Xiaomin; QU Di

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen pairs of two-component regulatory systems are identified in the genome of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228 strain, which is newly sequenced by our laboratory for Medical Molecular Virology and Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, by using bioinformatics analysis. Comparative analysis of the twocomponent regulatory systems in S. epidermidis and that of S.aureus and Bacillus subtilis shows that these systems may regulate some important biological functions, e.g. growth,biofilm formation, and expression of virulence factors in S.epidermidis. Two conserved domains, i.e. HATPase_c and REC domains, are found in all 16 pairs of two-component proteins.Homologous modelling analysis indicates that there are 4similar HATPase_c domain structures of histidine kinases and 13 similar REC domain structures of response regulators,and there is one AMP-PNP binding pocket in the HATPase_c domain and three active aspartate residues in the REC domain. Preliminary experiment reveals that the bioinformatics analysis of the conserved domain structures in the two-component regulatory systems in S. epidermidis may provide useful information for discovery of potential drug target.

  12. Mevalonolactone: an inhibitor of Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopel, Marina; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Antunes, Ana Lúcia; Henriques, Amélia Terezinha; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal microorganism at the human skin and mucosae, is nowadays considered an important opportunistic pathogen related to nosocomial infections on indwelling medical devices due biofilm formation. Bacterial biofilms are the worst aspect in the treatment of infections and now efforts have been made in the search for new molecular entities to overcome this situation. In this work, a compound isolated from marine associated fungi was capable to interfere with the adherence and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. This compound, identified as mevalonolactone, showed significant inhibition of S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation, without antibacterial activity, evaluated by crystal violet assay, turbidimetric assay and scanning electron microscopy. When assayed against 12 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis, this compound exhibited both biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial activity, but no activity against gram-negative bacteria was observed. Therefore, when this constitutive molecule is added in the antibiofilm and antibacterial assays, it might act as an important agent against this pathogen, contributing to the arsenal of antibiofilm compounds. PMID:24111986

  13. 傅立叶变换红外光谱技术对2种葡萄球菌的快速分类鉴定%Rapid Differentiation and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆杰; 王静; 隋涛; 宋晓华; 刘玉敏; 崔凤杰; 杨丽君

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to establish a standard Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral library and a FT-IR method of differentiation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. [Method] FT-IR fingerprint absorption spectra of two species of Staphylococcus were collected and analyzed by chemometric methods- [ Result ] A standard FT-IR spectral library was created and could be used to compare with those of the target Staphylococcus and identify them. A cluster model of principal component analysis was established and could differentiate and identify well the two species of Staphylococcus. [Conclusion] As a rapid, easy-to-use and accurate technique , FT-IR spectroscopy is an effective tool to differentiate and identify two species of Staphylococcus.%[目的]建立金黄色葡萄球菌和表皮葡萄球菌2种菌的傅立叶变换红外光谱数据库及FT-IT分类鉴定方法.[方法]应用FT-IR技术对2种葡萄球菌进行指纹图谱数据采集,应用化学计量学分析方法对光谱进行分析.[结果]建立2种葡萄球菌的标准FT-IR光谱数据库,用于FT-IR技术对2种可疑目标葡萄球菌进行鉴定;建立一种基于主成分分析的聚类分析模型,可成功地区分2种葡萄球菌.[结论]傅立叶变换红外光谱分析方法简便、快速、易操作,结果重现性好,是一种区分金黄色葡萄球菌和表皮葡萄球菌的有效方法.

  14. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on icaA Expression and Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Iravati, Susi; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on medical devices, and novel approaches to prevent and kill S. epidermidis biofilms are desired. In this study, the effect of cinnamon oil on planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis isolates was evaluated. Initiall

  15. Pattern Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis via Droplet Evaporation on Micropillars Arrays at a Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey-Arce, A.; Gomez Marin, A.; Massey, A.; Oknianska, A.; Diaz-Fernandez, Y.; Hernandez Sanchez, Jose Federico; Griffiths, E.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Lohse, D.; Raval, R.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of epoxy surface structuring on the evaporation of water droplets containing Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). During evaporation, droplets with S. epidermidis cells yield to complex wetting patterns such as the zipping-wetting1−3 and the coffee-stain effects. Depen

  16. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  18. Antibiofilm activity of Cobetia marina filtrate upon Staphylococcus epidermidis catheter-related isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Trentin, D.S.; Gorziza, D. F.; Abraham, W. R.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Lerner, C.; Mothes, B.; Termignoni, C.; A.J Macedo

    2011-01-01

    We report the antibiofilm activity by the sponge-associated bacterium Cobetia marina upon Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates obtained from central venous catheters. Antibiofilm activity/antimicrobial susceptibility correlation might predict the action of the metabolite(s) upon Staphylococcus epidermidis in the clinic, making it a possible adjuvant in therapies against biofilm-associated infections.

  19. Antibiofilm activity of Cobetia marina filtrate upon Staphylococcus epidermidis catheter-related isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S Trentin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the antibiofilm activity by the sponge-associated bacterium Cobetia marina upon Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates obtained from central venous catheters. Antibiofilm activity/antimicrobial susceptibility correlation might predict the action of the metabolite(s upon Staphylococcus epidermidis in the clinic, making it a possible adjuvant in therapies against biofilm-associated infections.

  20. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prannda Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...

  2. Recently introduced qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis do not increase chlorhexidine MIC/MBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Nielsen, Lene Nørby;

    2013-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qacA/B-encoded ......A/B-encoded efflux pumps. Here, we evaluated if high-level exposure to chlorhexidine selects for tolerant colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis and we addressed the consequences of long-term exposure to chlorhexidine.......Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qac...

  3. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  5. Host-adaptive evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lowder, Bethan Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In addition, S. aureus is a major cause of animal diseases including skeletal infections of poultry and bovine and ovine mastitis, which are a large economic burden on the broiler chicken and dairy farming industries. The population structure of S. aureus associated with humans has been well studied. However, despite the prevalence of S. aureus infections in ...

  6. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  7. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu

    2011-07-01

    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed. PMID:21935792

  8. Molecular characterization of an early invasive Staphylococcus epidermidis prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marnie E; Dever, Lisa L; Moucha, Calin S; Chavda, Kalyan D; Otto, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2011-09-01

    Historically regarded as a skin commensal, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been increasingly implicated in invasive foreign body infections such as catheter-related bloodstream infections, indwelling device infections, and prosthetic joint infections. We report a case of an aggressive, difficult-to-eradicate, invasive prosthetic hip infection occurring early after hardware implant and associated with a high-grade bacteremia and assess its salient molecular characteristics. The clinical and molecular characteristics of this isolate mirror the pathogenesis and persistence commonly seen with invasive methicillin-resistant S. aureus and may be attributed to the combination of resistance genes (SCCmec type IV), putative virulence factors (arcA and opp3a), cytolytic peptide production (α-type phenol-soluble modulins), and biofilm adhesion, interaction, and maturation (bhp, aap, and β-type phenol-soluble modulins).

  9. Effectiveness of Cinnamon Oil Coating on K-wire as an Antimicrobial Agent against Staphylococcus Epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Magetsari, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic osteomyelitis remains one of the common problems with the use of orthopaedic implants. Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices and is one of the most frequent pathogenic agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Cinnamon oil has been proven to be an effective antimicrobial agent against several bacteria, including S. epidermidis. The eradication of S. epidermidis and prevention of biofilm formation on medical devices ...

  10. Ica-expression and gentamicin susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on orthopedic implant biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Aman, Abu T.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2011-01-01

    Ica-expression by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slime production depends on environmental conditions such as implant material and presence of antibiotics. Here, we evaluate biofilm formation and ica-expression of S. epidermidis strains on biomaterials involved in total hip-and knee arthroplasty [po

  11. In vitro Assays of Staphylococcus epidermidis Characteristics and Outcome in an Endocarditis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Herndon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to indwelling polymers is important in prosthetic valve endocarditis. Earlier studies have related streptococcal endocarditis to isolates with high levels of cell-associated hexoses. The objective of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between an S epidermidis isolate assay score and production/severity of experimental endocarditis.

  12. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the SesC protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahrooei, M.; Hira, V.; Stijlemans, B.; Merckx, R.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Eldere, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several well-studied proteins with defined roles in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation are LPXTG motif-containing proteins. Here, we investigate the possible use of the LPXTG motif-containing protein SesC (S. epidermidis surface protein C; accession no. NP_765787) as a target for antibodie

  13. The Possible Role of Staphylococcus epidermidis LPxTG Surface Protein SesC in Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Laleh; Khodaparast, Ladan; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Stijlemans, Benoit; Merckx, Rita; Baatsen, Pieter; O'Gara, James P; Waters, Elaine; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Van Eldere, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common cause of device-associated infections. It has been shown that active and passive immunization in an animal model against protein SesC significantly reduces S. epidermidis biofilm-associated infections. In order to elucidate its role, knock-out of sesC or isolation of S. epidermidis sesC-negative mutants were attempted, however, without success. As an alternative strategy, sesC was introduced into Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 and its isogenic icaADBC and srtA mutants, into the clinical methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate MSSA4 and the MRSA S. aureus isolate BH1CC, which all lack sesC. Transformation of these strains with sesC i) changed the biofilm phenotype of strains 8325-4 and MSSA4 from PIA-dependent to proteinaceous even though PIA synthesis was not affected, ii) converted the non-biofilm-forming strain 8325-4 ica::tet to a proteinaceous biofilm-forming strain, iii) impaired PIA-dependent biofilm formation by 8325-4 srtA::tet, iv) had no impact on protein-mediated biofilm formation of BH1CC and v) increased in vivo catheter and organ colonization by strain 8325-4. Furthermore, treatment with anti-SesC antibodies significantly reduced in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization by these transformants expressing sesC. These findings strongly suggest that SesC is involved in S. epidermidis attachment to and subsequent biofilm formation on a substrate.

  14. Residence time dependent desorption of Staphylococcus epidermidis from hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Kaper, H.J.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion and desorption are simultaneous events during bacterial adhesion to surfaces. although desorption is far less studied than adhesion. Here, desorption of Staphylococcus epidermidis from substratum surfaces is demonstrated to be residence time dependent. Initial desorption rate coefficients w

  15. Treatment and prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis experimental biomaterial-associated infection by bactericidal peptide 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A.T. Velde; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.J.H. van Deventer; S.A.J. Zaat

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) are the major cause of failure of indwelling medical devices and are predominantly caused by staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis. We investigated the in vitro microbicidal activity of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide bactericidal peptide 2

  16. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects we

  17. The cell surface proteome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a wide spread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of life-threatening diseases. To obtain a better understanding of the global mechanisms for pathogenesis and to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions, the S. aureus proteom

  18. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance again

  19. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi; Rahim Bahrinajafi; Sima Nahavandi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin's normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effec...

  20. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  1. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Peres, Adam G.; Andreea C. Damian; Joaquín Madrenas

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and d...

  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A

    2014-06-01

    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  4. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products inhibit staphylococcal growth, and disrupt established biofilms produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liang; Qu, Di;

    2009-01-01

    Multiple bacterial species often coexist as communities, and compete for environmental resources. Here, we describe how an opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses extracellular products to interact with the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. epidermidis biofilms...... and planktonic cultures were challenged with P. aeruginosa supernatant cultures overnight. Results indicated that quorum-sensing-controlled factors from P. aeruginosa supernatant inhibited S. epidermidis growth in planktonic cultures. We also found that P. aeruginosa extracellular products, mainly...... polysaccharides, disrupted established S. epidermidis biofilms. Cellulase-treated P. aeruginosa supernatant, and supernatant from pelA, ps/F and pe/Aps/BCD mutants, which are deficient in polysaccharide biosynthesis, diminished the disruption of S. epidermidis biofilms. In contrast, S. epidermidis supernatant...

  6. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  7. Prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation using electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Jose L; Rouse, Mark S; Euba, Gorane; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Steckelberg, James M; Patel, Robin

    2014-09-05

    A technique for the prevention of staphylococcal adhesion by electrical current exposure was investigated. Teflon coupons were exposed to a continuous flow of 103 cfu/ml Staphylococcus epidermidis with or without 2000 microA DC electrical current delivered by electrodes on opposite sides of a coupon, touching neither each other nor the coupon. A mean 3.46 (SD, 0.20) and 5.70 (SD, 1.03) log10 cfu/cm2 were adhered to the non-electrical current exposed coupons after 4 h and 24 h, respectively. A mean 2.46 (SD, 0.31) and 1.47 (SD, 0.73) log10 cfu/cm2 were adhered after 4 h and 24 h with exposure to 2000 microA electrical current delivered by graphite electrodes. A mean 2.21 (SD, 0.14) and 0.55 (SD, 0.00) log10 cfu/cm2 were adhered after 4 h and 24 h with exposure to 2000 microA electrical current delivered by stainless steel electrodes. Electrical current may be useful in the prevention of staphylococcal adhesion to biomaterials.

  8. Coagulase-negative staphylococci as reservoirs of genes facilitating MRSA infection: Staphylococcal commensal species such as Staphylococcus epidermidis are being recognized as important sources of genes promoting MRSA colonization and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that Staphylococcus epidermidis is a reservoir of genes that, after horizontal transfer, facilitate the potential of Staphylococcus aureus to colonize, survive during infection, or resist antibiotic treatment, traits that are notably manifest in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). S. aureus is a dangerous human pathogen and notorious for acquiring antibiotic resistance. MRSA in particular is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and death in hospitalized patients. S. aureus is an extremely versatile pathogen with a multitude of mechanisms to cause disease and circumvent immune defenses. In contrast, most other staphylococci, such as S. epidermidis, are commonly benign commensals and only occasionally cause disease. Recent findings highlight the key importance of efforts to better understand how genes of staphylococci other than S. aureus contribute to survival in the human host, how they are transferred to S. aureus, and why this exchange appears to be uni-directional.

  9. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  10. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  11. Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms: Functional Molecules, Relation to Virulence, and Vaccine Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Dietrich; Davies, Angharad P.; Harris, Llinos G.; Knobloch, Johannes K. M.; Rohde, Holger

    Medical device-associated infections, most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are of increasing importance in modern medicine. The formation of adherent, multilayered bacterial biofilms is crucial in the pathogenesis of these infections. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan of β-1,6-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosyl residues, of which about 15% are non-N-acetylated, is central to biofilm accumulation in staphylococci. It transpires that polysaccharides - structurally very similar to PIA - are also key to biofilm formation in a number of other organisms including the important human pathogens Escherichia coli, Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Yersinia pestis, and Bordetella spp. Apparently, synthesis of PIA and related polysaccharides is a general feature important for biofilm formation in diverse bacterial genera. Current knowledge about the structure and biosynthesis of PIA and related polysaccharides is reviewed. Additionally, information on their role in pathogenesis of biomaterial-related and other type of infections and the potential use of PIA and related compounds for prevention of infection is evaluated.

  12. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  13. The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, TIMOTHY JAMES

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or "superbugs." A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that...

  14. Transmissible mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Noble, W. C.; Cookson, B

    1989-01-01

    The spread of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus with high level resistance to mupirocin is described. The resistance proved to be easily transferred to other S. aureus strains by filter mating experiments and on the skin of mice. No plasmid band corresponding to the resistance could be demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis or by caesium chloride gradient centrifugation but cleavage of 'chromosomal' DNA from resistant recipients showed bright bands of DNA absent from sensitive controls.

  15. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall be prepared from toxoided broth cultures of selected toxogenic strains...

  16. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis: pathogenesis and implications for treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2012-12-01

    The insertion of medical devices, such as intraventricular shunts, is often complicated by infection leading to ventriculitis. Frequently, such infections result from colonisation and subsequent biofilm formation on the surfaces of the shunts by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The pathogenesis of neurosurgical shunt-related infection is complex with interactions between the pathogen, the device and the unique local immunological environment of the central nervous system (CNS). An ability to form biofilm, the main virulence determinant of Staphylococcus epidermidis, facilitates protection of the organism from the host defences while still initiating an immunological response. The presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the biofilm itself also complicates treatment, which presents many challenges when managing shunt infections. A greater understanding of the interplay between S. epidermidis and the CNS could potentially improve the diagnosis, treatment and management of such infections. This review describes the pathogenesis, treatment and implications of S. epidermidis ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections, concentrating on recent research and the implications for treatment.

  17. SarA is a negative regulator of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christer; Heinze, C.; Busch, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation is essential for Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenicity in implant-associated infections. Nonetheless, large proportions of invasive S. epidermidis isolates fail to show accumulative biofilm growth in vitro. We here tested the hypothesis that this apparent paradox is related...... to the existence of superimposed regulatory systems suppressing a multi-cellular biofilm life style in vitro. Transposon mutagenesis of clinical significant but biofilm-negative S. epidermidis 1585 was used to isolate a biofilm positive mutant carrying a Tn917 insertion in sarA,chief regulator of staphylococcal...... regulator of Embp- and eDNA dependent biofilm formation. Given the importance of SarA as a positive regulator of polysaccharide mediated cell aggregation, the regulator enables S. epidermidis to switch between mechanisms of biofilm formation, ensuring S. epidermidis adaptation to hostile environments....

  18. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Dreyer, Z.S.; Makgotlho, E.; Oosthuysen, W.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the local epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, we characterised blood culture isolates using molecular methods and prospectively collected clinical data to determine the occurrence of community-acquired, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA). Consecutive S. aureus blood cu

  19. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, wh...

  20. Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Bisno, A L; Beachey, E H

    1982-01-01

    Slime production is not a generally recognized feature of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In a recent outbreak of S. epidermidis intravascular catheter-associated sepsis, we noted that 63% of clinically implicated strains grew as a slimy film coating the culture tube walls when propagated in tryptic soy broth. Only 37% of randomly collected blood culture contaminants and skin isolates demonstrated a similar phenomenon (p less than 0.05). Transmission electron micrographs of these coating bacteria...

  1. Role of the Staphylococcus epidermidis slime layer in experimental tunnel tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, C C; Plaunt, M R; Hetherington, S V; May, S M

    1992-01-01

    An experimental animal model was used to assess the slime layer of Staphylococcus epidermidis as a pathogenic factor in tunnel tract infections. Mice were inoculated with high-slime-producing or non-slime-producing strains of S. epidermidis, either along the length of a subcutaneous catheter or in the area where a catheter had been placed and immediately removed (controls). Among the catheter-bearing mice, the phenotypically distinct staphylococci produced similar, high frequencies of abscess...

  2. The influence of lens material and lens wear on the removal and viability of staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lívia; Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Oliveira, Rosário; Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, Eva; Azeredo, Joana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of lens material and lens wear on the removal capability of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Assessment of viability of remaining adhered bacteria was another goal of this work. Four silicone hydrogel materials (galyfilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B) and one conventional hydrogel material (etafilcon A) were assayed. Methods: Detachment studies on S. epidermidis were carried out in a parallel plate flow chamber...

  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Larsen, Marianne Halberg;

    2013-01-01

    pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged...... of S. epidermidis with tolerance towards triclosan and that the adaptation involves FabI as well as other factors. We suggest increased caution in the general application of triclosan as triclosan has not shown efficacy in reducing infections and is toxic to aquatic organisms....

  4. Raman spectroscopy for rapid discrimination of Staphylococcus epidermidis clones related to medical device-associated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for the fast typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) strains related to medical device-associated infections. In this study bacterial colonies were directly probed on culture plates and Raman spectra were recorded from volumes containing approximately 10 bacteria. The spectra contain information on the molecular composition of the whole bacteria, such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids, DNA as well as RNA. We demonstrate the potential to discriminate different S. epidermidis clones, even after only short Raman exposure/collection times

  5. Prevalence of Virulence-Related Determinants in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jazayeri Moghadas, Ali; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus epidermidis, a member of the human flora, is recognized as an opportunistic pathogen and cause of nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis surface components are able to establish bacteria on the host surface, and cause infection. Objectives The frequency of icaA, IS256, aap, fbe and bhp in clinical isolates of S. epidermidis were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine S. epidermidis isolates were collected from blood (50), wound (1), urine (4) and tracheal (4) samples (Tehran, Iran). Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were identified with conventional bacteriological tests. Virulence-associated genes were detected by specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Results Of the 59 S. epidermidis, fbe was found in 89.8%, while aap and bhp were observed in 64.4% and 15.3% of the samples, respectively. Coexistence of aap and fbe was found in 32 isolates, while coexistence of bhp and fbe was observed in five isolates. Two isolates were negative for the investigated genes. Conclusions Prevalence of fbe and aap was significantly different from similar studies, yet frequency of bhp was in accordance with other studies. Prevalence of icaA and IS256 was not significantly different from some studies while a significant difference was observed when results were compared with some other studies. PMID:27800129

  6. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  8. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. M. Parnaby; G. O'Dwyer; H. A. Monsey; M. S. Shafi

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe point prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and -resistant) carriage by inpatients on acute elderly care wards was estimated. The relationship to body site and to previous admissions to hospital or other institutions was determined. Fifty-five patie

  9. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  10. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections are important because of their increasing frequency, resistance to antibiotics, and high associated rates of disabilities and deaths. We examined the incidence and correlates of S. aureus infections following 219,958 major surgical procedures in a 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2004-2007. Of these surgical patients, 0.3% had S. aureus infections during the hospitalizations when index surgical procedures were performed; and 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively, were hospitalized with infections within 60 days or 180 days following admissions for index surgeries. S. aureus infections occurred within 180 days in 1.9% of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 2.3% following hip surgery, and 5.9% following gastric or esophageal surgery. Of patients first hospitalized with any major infection reported during the first 180 days after index surgery, 15% of infections were due to S. aureus, 18% to other documented organisms, and no specific organism was reported on claim forms in 67%. Patient-level predictors of S. aureus infections included transfer from skilled nursing facilities or chronic hospitals and comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease. In a logarithmic regression, elective index admissions with S. aureus infection stayed 130% longer than comparable patients without that infection. Within 180 days of the index surgery, 23.9% of patients with S. aureus infection and 10.6% of patients without this infection had died. In a multivariate logistic regression of death within 180 days of admission for the index surgery with adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities, and other risks, S. aureus was associated with a 42% excess risk of death. Due to incomplete documentation of organisms in Medicare claims, these statistics may underestimate the magnitude of S. aureus infection

  11. Activity of glycopeptides in combination with amikacin or rifampin against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, A; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin (fourfold the MBC), alone and in combination with amikacin (16 mg/l) or rifampin (1 mg/l), against Staphylococcus epidermidis (slime-producing and non slime-producing strains) biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. The addition of amikacin or rifampin significantly increased the activity of glycopeptides against sessile bacteria. With the slime-producing strain, these combinations were able to sterilize the surface of Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. It is concluded that the in vitro activity of glycopeptides against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters can be increased by the addition of amikacin or rifampin. PMID:7957277

  12. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...... large epidemiological studies in Europe. Nevertheless, the overall numbers identified in some Northern European reference laboratories have increased during the past decade. To determine whether the S. aureus t437 clone is present in other European countries, and to assess its genetic diversity across...... Europe, we analysed 147 S. aureus t437 isolates from 11 European countries collected over a period of 11 years using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and MLST. Additionally 16 S. aureus t437 isolates from healthy carriers and patients from China were...

  13. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  14. Influence of papain in biofilm formed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Lara da Cruz Dinéas de Oliveira; Maria Emília de Castro Kling Fleming; Patrícia Vollu Silva; Geraldo Renato de Paula; Débora Omena Futuro; Guillermo Coca Velarde; Luciana Maria Ramires Esper; Lenise Arneiro Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MRSHa) are important coagulase-negative staphylococci. They are often isolated from bacteremia in humans mainly due to their ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of medical devices. Papain is a complex mixture of proteolytic enzymes and peroxidases extracted from the latex of Carica papaya and it is recognized by accelerating the healing process of wounds. This study aimed to eval...

  15. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  16. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Harrison, Ewan M; Fisher, Elizabeth A; Graham, Elizabeth M; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  17. The typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a lectin-binding assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Hansen, J E; Rosdahl, V T;

    1992-01-01

    A new typing method for Staphylococcus epidermidis was developed. Four biotinylated lectins--wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soy bean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA) and Concanavalin A (ConA)--were added to immobilised whole cells of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in microtitration...... strains of CNS, including 64 strains of S. epidermidis, were detected if all typing methods were taken into consideration. If only one typing method was used the highest discriminatory power among the S. epidermidis isolates was obtained with the lectin-binding assay which allowed 49 different strains...... to be detected. If the lectin-binding assay was combined with plasmid-profile analysis, all 64 different strains could be identified. The typability of lectin-binding assay was 96.9% among the S. epidermidis isolates and 25 different lectin-binding patterns were established among the 64 strains. The highest...

  18. Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorberg, B. M.; Kuhn, I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and strain diversity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk in commercial dairy herds. A total of 341 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from cows' milk (317), farmers (17) and patients (7) were...... different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin...... showed one pattern, which was identical to the most common pattern found in the milk isolates. Isolates from herd 2 showed three to four patterns, two of these being identical to skin isolates from the milker. As dairy cows are not a natural host for S. epidermidis the results suggest a human source...

  19. Comparison and Evaluation of Three Animal Models for Studying the Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华林; 王勇翔; 陈喆; 齐玲; 瞿涤; 闻玉梅

    2003-01-01

    In order to compare and evaluate three animal models for studying the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, three experimental animal models, namely, murine intra-venous LD50, mouse foreign body infection and rat central venous catheter (CVC) infection models were used to assess the relative virulence of two S. epidermidis strains, ATCC 12228 and 97-337. The results from three animal models were comparable, indicating S. epidermidis 97-337 was more virulent than strain ATCC 12228. The rat CVC infection model best mimicked the conditions of clinical patients with intmvenonscatheters, and more information could be obtained from this model. We conclude that different in vivo models serve for dif-ferent purposes, and the rat CVC infection model is most suitable for studying specific characteristics of catheter related infections caused by S. epidermidis stratus.

  20. Pattern Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis via Droplet Evaporation on Micropillars Arrays at a Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarrey-Arce, A; Marin, A; Massey, A; Oknianska, A; Díaz-Fernandez, Y; Hernández-Sánchez, J F; Griffiths, E; Gardeniers, J G E; Snoeijer, J H; Lohse, Detlef; Raval, R

    2016-07-19

    We evaluate the effect of epoxy surface structuring on the evaporation of water droplets containing Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). During evaporation, droplets with S. epidermidis cells yield to complex wetting patterns such as the zipping-wetting1-3 and the coffee-stain effects. Depending on the height of the microstructure, the wetting fronts propagate circularly or in a stepwise manner, leading to the formation of octagonal or square-shaped deposition patterns.4,5 We observed that the shape of the dried droplets has considerable influence on the local spatial distribution of S. epidermidis deposited between micropillars. These changes are attributed to an unexplored interplay between the zipping-wetting1 and the coffee-stain6 effects in polygonally shaped droplets containing S. epidermidis. Induced capillary flows during evaporation of S. epidermidis are modeled with polystyrene particles. Bacterial viability measurements for S. epidermidis show high viability of planktonic cells, but low biomass deposition on the microstructured surfaces. Our findings provide insights into design criteria for the development of microstructured surfaces on which bacterial propagation could be controlled, limiting the use of biocides.

  1. Farnesol decreases biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and exhibits synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John M; Barrish, Jim; Versalovic, James

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm infections are frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, are resistant to antimicrobial agents, and adversely affect patient outcomes. We evaluated farnesol (FSL), the Candida quorum-sensing molecule, on S. epidermidis biofilms, in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated ED50, ED75, and ED90 (drug concentrations causing 50%, 75%, and 90% inhibition, respectively) of FSL and evaluated synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin. FSL's effects on morphology of S. epidermidis biofilms were analyzed using confocal microscopy and real-time changes using a bioluminescent strain of S. epidermidis, Xen 43. In mice, effects of FSL treatment on s.c. catheter biofilms; cultures of blood, kidney, and catheter and pericatheter tissues; and bioluminescence in strain Xen 43 were evaluated. FSL inhibited biofilms (ED50 ranged from 0.625 to 2.5 mM) and was synergistic with nafcillin and vancomycin at most combination ratios. FSL significantly decreased biovolume, substratum coverage, and mean thickness of S. epidermidis biofilms. In mice, FSL significantly decreased viable colony counts of S. epidermidis from blood, kidney, and catheter and pericatheter tissues and decreased Xen 43 bioluminescence. We confirmed the antibiofilm effects of FSL both in vitro and in vivo, in a bioluminescent strain and its synergy with antibiotics. FSL may be effective against clinical S. epidermidis biofilm infections. PMID:21857375

  2. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  3. Activity of Natural Polyether Ionophores: Monensin and Salinomycin against Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Joann; Stępień, Karolina; Huczyński, Adam; Tyski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, is the most important pathogen responsible for chronic nosocomial infections. These bacteria produce extracellular slime and form biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces. Bacterial biofilms are very resistant to standard antimicrobial therapy and difficult to eradicate, so it is important to search for new more effective anti-biofilm agents, for example in the group of natural substances. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of two ionophores-salinomycin and monensin against clinical S. epidermidis strains, using MIC/MBC method and biofilm formation inhibition assay. Bacterial strains were tested also for slime production using Congo Red Agar. Both tested ionophore antibiotics showed the highest activity against planktonic bacteria of clinical as well as standard S. epidermidis strains and effectively inhibited the formation of bacterial biofilm. PMID:26638535

  4. Expression of slime interferes with in vitro detection of host protein receptors of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, L.; Donelli, G.; Gelosia, A; Simpson, A. W.; Christensen, G D

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesized that slime may mask bacterial molecules important in the attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis to inanimate surfaces. In support of this hypothesis, we found that slime-negative strains attached significantly better to fibrinogen or fibronectin than the parent strains and exhibited greater surface hydrophobicity. Comparable results were obtained with 53 clinical isolates.

  5. Benzyl alcohol and ethanol can enhance the pathogenic potential of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milisavljevic, V.; Tran, L.P.; Batmalle, C.; Bootsma, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of health care-associated infections, particularly in neonates and patients with indwelling catheters. The pathogenesis of infections caused by this organism is associated with its ability to form biofilms. We hypothesized that alcoho

  6. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Hyun Mun; Sung-Bae Kim; Ryong Kong; Jang-Gi Choi; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong-Won Shin; Ok-Hwa Kang; Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA ...

  7. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research. PMID:27482738

  8. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus atsparumas antibiotikams ir fagotipų paplitimas

    OpenAIRE

    Kareivienė, Violeta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Sinkutė, Gintarė; Liegiūtė, Sigutė; Gailienė, Greta

    2006-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains, their prevalence, and resistance of different phage groups to antibiotics. Materials and methods. A total of 294 Staphylococcus aureus strains in Kaunas hospitals were obtained; they were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined. We used the method of routine dilution to test 17 antibiotics against the isolates. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to studied antibio...

  10. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. Methods This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibio...

  11. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  12. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  13. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin′s normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effects, but in comparison to mupirocin it was significantly less (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Nicotinamide stick was made and evaluated. This study showed that nicotinamide had anti-microbial effect on staphylococcus.

  14. Genotipificação de isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis provenientes de casos de mastite caprina Genotyping Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Moraes Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a dinâmica da resistência aos antimicrobianos em uma propriedade rural no município de Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE, foram avaliados 14 isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis de caprinos com mastite subclínica. O perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pelo teste de difusão em disco. A genotipificação foi realizada empregando o marcador REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic - PCR, utilizando o primer RW3A, enquanto os graus de similaridade e o fenograma de agrupamento foram estabelecidos por meio do coeficiente de Sorensen-Dice (SD do algoritmo UPGMA, programa NTSYS-pc, o qual permitiu a identificação de 4 padrões dos 14 isolados de S. epidermidis, sendo oito no perfil A, quatro no perfil B, um no perfil C e um no perfil D. Para todos os grupos, a resistência à penicilina foi observada, enquanto que, para os grupos A e C, esta foi associada à lincomicina, no grupo B, esta foi associada à tetraciclina.To verify the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in a property in Santa Maria da Boa Vista city - Pernambuco were evaluated 14 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from goats with subclinical mastitis. The profile of antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion test. The genotyping was performed using the marker REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic - PCR, using RW3A primer, where the degrees of similarity and clustering phenogram were established by means of the Sorensen-Dice coefficient (SD algorithm UPGMA, program NTSYS-pc, which allowed the identification of 4 patterns of 14 S. epidermidis isolates, being eight in the profile A, four in a profile B, one in profile C and one in profile D. For all groups to penicillin resistance was observed, while for groups A and C this was associated with lincomycin, for group B this was associated with tetracycline.

  15. Depression of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance by sarA disruption in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Hong Tao; Chang-Sheng Fan; Shan-E Gao; Hai-Jiao Wang; Guo-Xin Liang; Qing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of disruption of sarA gene on biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis ).METHODS: In order to disrupt sarA gene, the doublecrossover homologous recombination was applied in S. epidermidis RP62A, and tetracycline resistance gene (tet) was used as the selective marker which was amplified by PCR from the pBR322 and inserted into the locus between sarA upstream and downstream,resulting in pBT2△sarA. By electroporation, the plasmid pBT2△sarA was transformed into S. epidermidis.Gene transcription was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Determination of biofilm was performed in 96-well flat-bottomed culture plates, and antibiotic resistance was analyzed with test tube culture by spectrophotometry at 570 nm respectively.RESULTS: A sarA disrupted strain named S. epidermidis RP62A△sarA was constructed, which was completely defective in biofilm formation, while the sarA complement strain RP62A△sarA (pHPS9sarA) restored the biofilm formation phenotype. Additionally, the knockout of sarA resulted in decreased erythromycin and kanamycin resistance of S. epidermidis RP62A. Compared to the original strain, S. epidermidis RP62A△sarA had an increase of the sensitivity to erythromycin at 200-400 μg/mL and kanamycin at 200-800 μg/mL respectively.CONCLUSION: The knockout of sarA can result in the defect in biofilm formation and the decreased erythromycin and kanamycin resistance in S. epidermidis RP62A.

  16. VISA/VRSA (Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. What is Staphylococcus aureus? Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly found on the ... control personnel. Investigation and Control of Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) [PDF - 300 KB] - This document is ...

  17. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  18. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fangyou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, mainly because of its ability to colonize implanted biomaterials by forming a biofilm. Extensive studies are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation. The LytSR two-component regulatory system regulates autolysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of LytSR played in S. epidermidis remained unknown. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that lytSR knock-out in S. epidermidis did not alter susceptibility to Triton X-100 induced autolysis. Quantitative murein hydrolase assay indicated that disruption of lytSR in S. epidermidis resulted in decreased activities of extracellular murein hydrolases, although zymogram showed no apparent differences in murein hydrolase patterns between S. epidermidis strain 1457 and its lytSR mutant. Compared to the wild-type counterpart, 1457ΔlytSR produced slightly more biofilm, with significantly decreased dead cells inside. Microarray analysis showed that lytSR mutation affected the transcription of 164 genes (123 genes were upregulated and 41 genes were downregulated. Specifically, genes encoding proteins responsible for protein synthesis, energy metabolism were downregulated, while genes involved in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, amino acid transporters were upregulated. Impaired ability to utilize pyruvate and reduced activity of arginine deiminase was observed in 1457ΔlytSR, which is consistent with the microarray data. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that in S. epidermidis LytSR two-component system regulates extracellular murein hydrolase activity, bacterial cell death and pyruvate utilization. Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria.

  19. Origin of the Putrescine-Producing Ability of the Coagulase-Negative Bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was d

  20. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  1. Genotipificação de isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis provenientes de casos de mastite caprina Genotyping Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from mastitis in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Moraes Peixoto; Rodolfo de Moraes Peixoto; Kárita Cláudia Freitas Lidani; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Para verificar a dinâmica da resistência aos antimicrobianos em uma propriedade rural no município de Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE, foram avaliados 14 isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis de caprinos com mastite subclínica. O perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pelo teste de difusão em disco. A genotipificação foi realizada empregando o marcador REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic) - PCR, utilizando o primer RW3A, enquanto os graus de similaridade e o fenograma de a...

  2. Impact of surface coating on the adherence of slime producing and nonproducing Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, V; Ruzicka, F; Votava, M

    2004-07-01

    The ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to grow in the form of a biofilm not only facilitates its persistence in the host, but also allows it to survive at antibiotic concentrations several orders higher than the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). We evaluated different surface treatments of hardened polystyrene in order to develop a model system for growth of S. epidermidis as a biofilm. We assayed for biofilm growth of S. epidermidis clinical isolates on unmodified polystyrene, on polystyrene modified by chemical abrasion and on polystyrene modified by sulfonation, using either Tryptic Soya Broth or Brain Heart Infusion as a growth medium. We concluded that sulfonated polystyrene and Brain Heart Infusion provided the best growth system for predicting the ability of a clinical isolate to form biofilm (Akaike value 23.680). Using this method, biofilm formation was detected in 14 (70%) of ica-positive strains and negative in 16 (80%) of ica-negative strains.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of YycG histidine kinase inhibitors against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Z; Lee, Bao le ri; Yang, Lei;

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a significant pathogen causing infections due to biofilm formation on surfaces of indwelling medical devices. Biofilm-associated bacteria exhibit enhanced resistance to many conventional antibiotics. It is therefore, important to design novel antimicrobial...... reagents targeting S. epidermidis biofilms. In a static chamber system, the bactericidal effect of two leading compounds active as YycG inhibitors was assessed on biofilm cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with viability staining. In young biofilms (6-h-old), the two compounds killed...... biofilm development at the M13C (8 mu g mL(-1)). Even at a high concentration (128 mu g mL(-1)), vancomycin exhibited poor killing on cells embedded in biofilms. The two compounds exhibited faster and more effective killing of S. epidermidis planktonic cells than vancomycin at the early stage of exposure...

  4. Meticilīna rezistentais Staphylococcus epidermidis un tā izplatība veseliem cilvēkiem

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksone, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    Mūsdienās Staphylococcus epidermidis ir nozīmīgs oportūnistiskais patogēns. Tas ir viens no biežākajiem nozokomiālo infekciju izraisītājiem. Staphylococcus epidermidis celmu vidū plaši izplatīta ir rezistence pret antibakteriālajiem līdzekļiem. Maģistra darba mērķis bija izpētīt meticilīna rezistentā Staphylococcus epidermidis izplatību veseliem cilvēkiem. Meticilīna rezistentais Staphylococcus epidermidis netika konstatēts nevienā acs apakšējā plaksta konjunktīvā. Meticilīna rezistentais S...

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections. PMID:20851011

  6. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus laryngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Tracey; Kaye, Keith; Rubin, Adam D

    2010-09-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become more prevalent, in part because of the emergence and spread of community-acquired MRSA. This trend is particularly concerning because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA infections, and because MRSA strains are often resistant to many classes of antibiotics. Reports of infections of the head and neck, including wound infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and otitis externa, are well documented. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of bacterial laryngitis due to MRSA. We report the first published case of bacterial laryngitis caused by MRSA.

  8. Long-term molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis blood culture isolates from patients with hematological malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ahlstrand

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies. Knowledge of the long-term epidemiology of these infections is limited. We surveyed all S. epidermidis blood culture isolates from patients treated for hematological malignancies at the University Hospital of Örebro, Sweden from 1980 to 2009. A total of 373 S. epidermidis isolates were identified and multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec typing and standard antibiotic susceptibility testing were employed to characterize these isolates. The majority of the isolates 361/373 (97% belonged to clonal complex 2, and the 373 isolates were divided into 45 sequence types (STs; Simpson's Diversity Index was 0.56. The most prevalent STs were ST2 (243/373, 65% and ST215 (28/373, 8%. Ninety three percent (226/243 of the ST2 isolates displayed either SCCmec type III or IV. ST2 and 215 were isolated during the entire study period, and together these STs caused temporal peaks in the number of positive blood cultures of S. epidermidis. Methicillin resistance was detected in 213/273 (78% of all isolates. In the two predominating STs, ST2 and ST215, methicillin resistance was detected in 256/271 isolates (95%, compared with 34/100 (34% in other STs (p<0.001. In conclusion, in this long-term study of patients with hematological malignancies, we demonstrate a predominance of methicillin-resistant ST2 among S. epidermidis blood culture isolates.

  9. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  10. Mild Staphylococcus aureus skin infection improves the course of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and ev

  11. Experimental foreign body infections in mice challenged with slime-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Bisno, A L; Beachey, E H

    1983-01-01

    The virulence of two previously described Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was examined in an experimental model of foreign body infection in mice. Animals challenged with the slime-producing strain developed three times as many infections as animals challenged with the strain that did not produce slime (P less than 0.001). Bacterial isolates recovered from the infected sites retained the characteristics of the inoculated strain. Animals without foreign bodies but challenged in a similar ma...

  12. Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a mouse model: significance of extracellular slime.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, M. A.; Borland, R; Capstick, J A

    1996-01-01

    The ability to produce large quantities of biofilm on solid surfaces in vitro is believed to distinguish potentially pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis from commensals. Biofilm consists of staphylococcal cells encased in a matrix of extracellular polysaccharide (also referred to as slime), firmly adherent to each other and to the underlying surface structure. The association of slime with colonization of catheter surfaces in vivo has been examined extensively. Less attention has...

  13. Involvement of Adherence and Adhesion Staphylococcus epidermidis Genes in Pacemaker Lead-Associated Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Klug, Didier; Wallet, Frédéric; Kacet, Salem; Courcol, René J.

    2003-01-01

    We explored three genes of attachment (fbe and atlE) and adhesion (ica) in 27 and 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains involved in pacemaker-related infections (PMI) and intravascular-catheter-related infections (IVCI), respectively, and in 25 saprophytic strains. The detection rates of fbe and atlE were identical in PMI and IVCI strains, but ica detection rates were identical in PMI and saprophytic strains.

  14. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Sousa, Cláudia; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the adhesion capabilities of the most important etiologic agents of microbial ocular infection to the recently available silicone– hydrogel lenses with those to a conventional hydrogel lens. Methods. In vitro static adhesion assays of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10,145, Staphylococcus epidermidis 9142 (biofilm-positive), and 12,228 (biofilm-negative) to two extended-wear silicone– hydrogel lenses (balafilcon A and lotrafilcon A), a daily wear sil...

  15. The effect of silver nanoparticles on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm biomass and cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Khameneh; Hamed Zarei; Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bacterial biofilm has been considered responsible for many deaths and high health costs worldwide. Their better protection against antibacterial agents compared to free living cells leads to poor treatment efficiency. Nanotechnology is promising approach to combat biofilm infections. The aim of the present study was to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm with silver nanoparticles (SNPs). Materials and Methods: SNPs were used at different concentrations (two fold dilutio...

  16. Virulence aspects of Staphylococcus epidermidis : biofilm formations and Poly-N-Acetyl-Glucosamine production

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno

    2006-01-01

    Tese Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Staphylococcus epidermidis and other Staphylococci are now well established as major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of indwelling medical devices. The major virulence factor of these organisms is their ability to adhere to devices and form biofilms. Biofilms are complex microbial communities wherein bacteria acquire different characteristics from their planktonic counterparts, like enhanced resistance to antibiotics and h...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  18. Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Expressing Vancomycin Resistance Early after Adhesion to a Metal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated biofilm formation and time of vancomycin (VCM resistance expression after adhesion to a metal surface in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis with a VCM MIC of 1 μg/mL was used. The bacteria were made to adhere to a stainless steel washer and treated with VCM at different times and concentrations. VCM was administered 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours after adhesion. The amount of biofilm formed was evaluated based on the biofilm coverage rates (BCRs before and after VCM administration, bacterial viability in biofilm was visually observed using the fluorescence staining method, and the viable bacterial count in biofilm was measured. The VCM concentration required to decrease BCR significantly compared with that of VCM-untreated bacteria was 4 μg/mL, even in the 0 hr group. In the 4 and 8 hr groups, VCM could not inhibit biofilm growth even at 1,024 μg/mL. In the 8 hr group, viable bacteria remained in biofilm at a count of 104 CFU even at a high VCM concentration (1,024 μg/mL. It was suggested that biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis expresses resistance to VCM early after adhesion to a metal surface. Resistance increased over time after adhesion as the biofilm formed, and strong resistance was expressed 4–8 hours after adhesion.

  19. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Buah Putih Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus Dari Abses Dan Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 29213™)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Jojor

    2016-01-01

    Daun jambu biji mengandung senyawa aktif seperti tanin, triterpenoid, flavonoid, saponin yang mempunyai efek antibakteri. Mekanisme tanin sebagai antibakteri dengan mengkerutkan dinding sel dan membran sel, inaktivasi enzim, inaktivasi fungsi materi genetik bakteri. Flavonoid merusak sel bakteri, denaturasi protein, inaktivasi enzim dan menyebabkan lisis. Triterpenoid dan saponin menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dengan cara merusak struktur membran sel. Staphylococcus aureus adala...

  20. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Andrew E.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Buchhagen, Jordan; Liu, Cindy M.; Watson, Lindsey; Pearce, Kimberly; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul S; Lance B Price

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.

  2. SAMMD: Staphylococcus aureus Microarray Meta-Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasri Mohamed O

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen, causing a wide variety of diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to severe life threatening infections. S. aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Its ability to resist multiple antibiotics poses a growing public health problem. In order to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis of S. aureus, several global expression profiles have been developed. These transcriptional profiles included regulatory mutants of S. aureus and growth of wild type under different growth conditions. The abundance of these profiles has generated a large amount of data without a uniform annotation system to comprehensively examine them. We report the development of the Staphylococcus aureus Microarray meta-database (SAMMD which includes data from all the published transcriptional profiles. SAMMD is a web-accessible database that helps users to perform a variety of analysis against and within the existing transcriptional profiles. Description SAMMD is a relational database that uses MySQL as the back end and PHP/JavaScript/DHTML as the front end. The database is normalized and consists of five tables, which holds information about gene annotations, regulated gene lists, experimental details, references, and other details. SAMMD data is collected from the peer-reviewed published articles. Data extraction and conversion was done using perl scripts while data entry was done through phpMyAdmin tool. The database is accessible via a web interface that contains several features such as a simple search by ORF ID, gene name, gene product name, advanced search using gene lists, comparing among datasets, browsing, downloading, statistics, and help. The database is licensed under General Public License (GPL. Conclusion SAMMD is hosted and available at http://www.bioinformatics.org/sammd/. Currently there are over 9500 entries for regulated genes, from 67 microarray

  3. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christopher F; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-05-05

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery.

  4. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp.

  5. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. PMID:25687923

  6. Rapid Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Sterile or Nonsterile Clinical Samples by a New Molecular Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Pittet, Didier; Bento, Manuela; Pepey, Béatrice; Vaudaux, Pierre; Lew, Daniel; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    A rapid procedure was developed for detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from sterile sites or mixed flora samples (e.g., nose or inguinal swabs). After a rapid conditioning of samples, the method consists of two main steps: (i) immunomagnetic enrichment in S. aureus and (ii) amplification-detection profile on DNA extracts using multiplex quantitative PCR (5′-exonuclease qPCR, TaqMan). The triplex qPCR assay measures simultaneously the following targets: (i) mecA gene, conferring methicillin resistance, common to both S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis; (ii) femA gene from S. aureus; and (iii) femA gene from S. epidermidis. This quantitative approach allows discrimination of the origin of the measured mecA signal. qPCR data were calibrated using two reference strains (MRSA and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis) processed in parallel to clinical samples. This 96-well format assay allowed analysis of 30 swab samples per run and detection of the presence of MRSA with exquisite sensitivity compared to optimal culture-based techniques. The complete protocol may provide results in less than 6 h (while standard procedure needs 2 to 3 days), thus allowing prompt and cost-effective implementation of contact precautions. PMID:12517857

  7. Molecular characterization and LD(50) identify virulent isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from adult sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndona, B L; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, H; Dall, L

    2000-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays an important role in infections of patients with implanted prosthetic devices. The exact clinical significance of recovered S. epidermidis from clinical specimens is difficult to assess, as they are inhabitants of the normal skin. In this study, 11 adults with clinical sepsis and blood cultures that grew only S. epidermidis were the host population. Bacterial virulence in vivo was determined by using the mouse LD(50) assay where the intravenous lethality was determined for each patient isolate. Bacterial dose (CFU x 10(9)) that produced lethality in 50% of the animals at 12 h was the value used for comparison. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for identification of individual strains and their clonal organization. Confirmation of species assignment was done by RFLP analysis of 16S + 23S rRNA gene regions (ribotyping). Plasmid profile analysis was also conducted. Four of 11 blood isolates from adults with S. epidermidis sepsis had indistinguishable or closely related DNA patterns and were considered clone A. The same clone was previously seen to account for the majority of sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit. There were significant differences in virulence characteristics of the S. epidermidis isolates. Clone A isolates produced lethality by LD(50) in mice at a dose averaging 2.35; clone B isolate at a dose of 2.54, and the remaining isolates, representing six distinct clones, were lethal to mice at significantly larger doses (3.51-5.17, average 4.16). These data suggest that individual clones of S. epidermidis isolated from septic adults have detectable differences in virulence as defined by an animal bioassay, and the more virulent clone is widespread. PMID:10705046

  8. Evaluation of short synthetic antimicrobial peptides for treatment of drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed F; Abdelkhalek, Ahmed; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections present a serious challenge because of the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, antimicrobial peptides are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics for tackling the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. Herein, we investigated the antibacterial activity of two short novel peptides (WR12, a 12 residue peptide composed exclusively of arginine and tryptophan, and D-IK8, an eight residue β-sheet peptide) against multidrug resistant staphylococci. In vitro, both peptides exhibited good antibacterial activity against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis. WR12 and D-IK8 were able to eradicate persisters, MRSA in stationary growth phase, and showed significant clearance of intracellular MRSA in comparison to both vancomycin and linezolid. In vivo, topical WR12 and D-IK8 significantly reduced both the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MRSA-infected skin lesions. Moreover, both peptides disrupted established in vitro biofilms of S. aureus and S. epidermidis significantly more so than traditional antimicrobials tested. Taken together, these results support the potential of WR12 and D-IK8 to be used as a topical antimicrobial agent for the treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. PMID:27405275

  9. Comparative Opsonic and Protective Activities of Staphylococcus aureus Conjugate Vaccines Containing Native or Deacetylated Staphylococcal Poly-N-Acetyl-β-(1-6)-Glucosamine

    OpenAIRE

    Maira-Litrán, Tomás; Kropec, Andrea; Goldmann, Donald A.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis both synthesize the surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetyl-β-(1-6)-glucosamine (PNAG), which is produced in vitro with a high level (>90%) of the amino groups substituted by acetate. Here, we examined the role of the acetate substituents of PNAG in generating opsonic and protective antibodies. PNAG and a deacetylated form of the antigen (dPNAG; 15% acetylation) were conjugated to the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid (DT) and used to immunize...

  10. Two-Component Signal Transduction System SaeRS Positively Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  11. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype.

  12. Staphylococcus epidermidis: metabolic adaptation and biofilm formation in response to different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Alvarez, Cristina; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Peña, Antonio; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a major health hazard. It is necessary to study its metabolism and hopefully uncover therapeutic targets. Cultivating S. epidermidis at increasing oxygen concentration [O2] enhanced growth, while inhibiting biofilm formation. Respiratory oxidoreductases were differentially expressed, probably to prevent reactive oxygen species formation. Under aerobiosis, S. epidermidis expressed high oxidoreductase activities, including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, as well as cytochromes bo and aa3; while little tendency to form biofilms was observed. Under microaerobiosis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase decreased while glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase nearly disappeared; cytochrome bo was present; anaerobic nitrate reductase activity was observed; biofilm formation increased slightly. Under anaerobiosis, biofilms grew; low ethanol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bo were still present; nitrate dehydrogenase was the main terminal electron acceptor. KCN inhibited the aerobic respiratory chain and increased biofilm formation. In contrast, methylamine inhibited both nitrate reductase and biofilm formation. The correlation between the expression and/or activity or redox enzymes and biofilm-formation activities suggests that these are possible therapeutic targets to erradicate S. epidermidis.

  13. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype. PMID:24222464

  14. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The bactericidal properties of myristic acid and curcumin were revealed in a number of studies. However, whether curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions can be used to inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis, which causes nosocomial infections, has not been reported. Our aim was to develop curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions to inhibit S. epidermidis on the skin. The interfacial tension, size distribution, and viscosity data of the microemulsions were characterized to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the curcumin microemulsions. Curcumin distribution in neonate pig skin was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dermal curcumin accumulation (326 µg/g skin) and transdermal curcumin penetration (87 µg/cm(2)/d) were obtained with the microemulsions developed herein. Curcumin at the concentration of 0.86 µg/mL in the myristic acid microemulsion could inhibit 50% of the bacterial growth, which was 12 times more effective than curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cocktail combination of myristic acid and curcumin in the microemulsion carrier synergistically inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis. The results we obtained highlight the potential of using curcumin-loaded microemulsions as an alternative treatment for S. epidermidis-associated diseases and acne vulgaris. PMID:22976319

  15. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chusri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63–5 μg/mL could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500 μg/mL and THR-SK010E (10 and 20 μg/mL for 24 h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm.

  16. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Sompetch, K; Mukdee, S; Jansrisewangwong, S; Srichai, T; Maneenoon, K; Limsuwan, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2012-01-01

    Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63-5 μg/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500 μg/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20 μg/mL) for 24 h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm. PMID:22919409

  17. Farnesol in combination with N-acetylcysteine against Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gomes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of nosocomial sepsis and catheter-related infections, in which biofilm formation is considered to be the main virulence mechanism. In biofilm environment, microbes exhibit enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. This fact boosted the search of possible alternatives to antibiotics. Farnesol and N-acetylcysteine (NAC are non-antibiotic drugs that have demonstrated antibacterial properties. In this study, the effect of farnesol and NAC isolated or in combination (farnesol+NAC was evaluated. NAC at 10 × MIC caused a total cell death in planktonic cells. On the other hand, S. epidermidis biofilms exhibited 4 log reduction in viable cell number after a 24h treatment with NAC at the former concentration. Our results demonstrated that there was a higher CFU log reduction of S. epidermidis planktonic cells when farnesol was combined with NAC at 1 × MIC relatively to each agent alone. However, these results were not relevant because NAC alone at 10 × MIC was always the condition which gave the best results, having a very high killing effect on planktonic cells and a significant bactericidal effect on biofilm cells. This study demonstrated that no synergy was observed between farnesol and NAC. However, the pronounced antibacterial effect of NAC against S. epidermidis, on both lifestyles, indicates the use of NAC as a potential therapeutic agent in alternative to antibiotics.

  18. Different sensitivity levels to norspermidine on biofilm formation in clinical and commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón-Peréz, Miriam L; Díaz-Cedillo, Francisco; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Peralta, Humberto; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino Diaz, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation on medical and surgical devices is the main virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. A recent study has shown that norspermidine inhibits and disassembles the biofilm in the wild-type Bacillus subtilis NCBI3610 strain. In this study, the effect of norspermidine on S. epidermidis biofilm formation of clinical or commensal strains was tested. Biofilm producing strains of S. epidermidis were isolated from healthy skin (HS; n = 3), healthy conjunctiva (HC; n = 9) and ocular infection (OI; n = 19). All strains were treated with different concentrations of norspermidine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μM), and the biofilm formation was tested on microtiter plate. Besides, cell-free supernatants of S. epidermidis growth at 4 h and 40 h were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect norspermidine. Results showed that norspermidine at 25 μM and 100 μM prevented the biofilm formation in 45.16% (14/31) and 16.13% (5/31), respectively; only in one isolate from OI, norspermidine did not have effect. Other polyamines as spermidine, putrescine and cadaverine did not have effect on the biofilm formation of the strains tested. Norspermidine was also capable to disassemble a biofilm already formed. Norspermidine was detected in the 40 h cell-free supernatant of S. epidermidis by GC-MS. Norspermidine inhibited the biofilm development of S. epidermidis on the surface of contact lens. In this work, it was demonstrated that S. epidermidis produces and releases norspermidine causing an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. Moreover, this is the first time showing that clinical S. epidermidis strains have different sensitivity to norspermidine, which suggest that the composition and structure of the biofilms is varied. We propose that norspermidine could potentially be used in the pre-treating of medical and surgical devices to inhibit the biofilm formation.

  19. An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiliopoulou Anastasia I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA, a homoglycan composed of β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS, composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of

  20. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  1. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  2. Where does a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, V G; Proctor, R A

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we examine the current status of Staphylococcus aureus vaccine development and the prospects for future vaccines. Examination of the clinical trials to date show that murine models have not predicted success in humans for active or passive immunization. A key factor in the failure to develop a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections comes from our relatively limited knowledge of human protective immunity. More recent reports on the elements of the human immune response to staphylococci are analysed. In addition, there is some controversy concerning the role of antibodies for protecting humans, and these data are reviewed. From a review of the current state of understanding of staphylococcal immunity, a working model is proposed. Some new work has provided some initial candidate biomarker(s) to predict outcomes of invasive infections and to predict the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in humans. We conclude by looking to the future through the perspective of lessons gleaned from the clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24476315

  3. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  4. Phenotypic and plasmid pattern analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis in bacterial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Niranjan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis , a commensal of the conjunctival sac has been incriminated as the commonest etiological agent of bacterial keratitis. However, the pathogenic potential of this commensal organism is not clearly known. Aim: To determine any phenotypic, molecular markers of S. epidermidis pathogenicity in bacterial keratitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 382 corneal ulcer isolates of S. epidermidis and 87 S. epidermidis isolates from healthy eyes (controls were studied. Speciation, biotyping and antibiotic sensitivity testing were performed by conventional methods. Tube slime and adherence tests were carried out by recommended techniques. Plasmid analysis was conducted by a standard protocol. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was employed for calculations. Results: Out of 382 corneal ulcer isolates (Pathogens 284 (74.3% belonged to biotypes I and II. Slime was detected in 164 (42.9% of 382 pathogens vs. 21 (24.1% of 87 controls ( P < 0.001. Sixty-five (39.6% of 164 slime positive isolates were multidrug-resistant as compared to only 49 (22.4% of 218 slime negative isolates ( P < 0.001. A significantly higher number i.e., 73.1% (120/164 of slime-producers possessed a 21Kb plasmid in contrast to only 53.2% (116/218 of nonslime-producers ( P < 0.001. Presence of this plasmid had a statistical correlation of low significance with multidrug resistance ( P =0.04. One hundred and seventy-two (45.0% of 382 pathogens and 24 (27.6% of the 87 controls were adherent to artificial surfaces ( P =0.003 and the majority of the adherent organisms (99/172, 57.6% were slime producers ( P < 0.001. Conclusions: Slime was associated with multidrug resistance in corneal ulcer isolates of S. epidermidis . The 21Kb plasmid could determine virulence as it was responsible for slime production and adherence.

  5. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  6. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  7. Origin of the Putrescine-Producing Ability of the Coagulase-Negative Bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B▿

    OpenAIRE

    Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this strain, the odc gene was detected on plasmid DNA, suggesting that the ability to form putrescine is carried by a mobile element...

  8. Molecular analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from community and hospital environments in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This study analyzed the differences in genetic endowment and clonal lineages with pathogenesis and resistance traits of S. epidermidis isolates collected from community and hospital environments (patients and healthcare staff of the same ecological niche, time period, and geographical location in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular epidemiology and population analysis showed that nasal colonization rates of S. epidermidis in the community of Shanghai area of China and in healthcare personnel were 44.8% (methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, MRSE: 17.2% and 61.3% (MRSE: 30.0%, respectively. 86.7% of clinical isolates were MRSE. Among the strains studied, 44 sequence types (STs were identified with 91.7% belonging to clonal complex 2 (CC2. Only 40.8% isolates from patients were also found in healthy individuals. MRSE-ST2-SCCmecIII was the predominant clone in clinical isolates, almost resistant to all antibiotics tested. Biofilm-related genes IS256 and icaA were detected in majority of the predominant clinical MRSE-ST2 clone with a 40.5% biofilm-positive rate. No ST2 isolate was found in community setting. We found a high prevalence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME (74.1%. The prevalence of ACME-arc and ACME-opp3 clusters was 71.6% and 32.4%, respectively. Methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis (MSSE isolates harbored more ACME (83.3% than MRSE isolates (67.7%, and there was no association between ACME and SCCmec types. An association was found between low-level ACME presence and invasive infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a high level of diversity within S. epidermidis in this study, with CC2 as the dominant clonal complex in both community and hospital settings. Only 40.8% of the isolates from patients were also found in healthy individuals. Contrary to that biofilm formation and multiple antibiotic resistance were

  9. The effects of ultraviolet B beams on programmed cell death activities in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Behzadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bacterial skin diseases caused by drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis are known as a big problem in the field of treating management of infectious diseases. Progression of resistant strains has led to use phototherapy in parallel with pharmacotherapy. In this short survey, we tried to obtain a logic Ultraviolet Radiation protocol to induce the process of programmed cell death in irradiated Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: The samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis were classified in 4 categories. Each plate which is known as a category included well-grown colonies of bacteria. One plate was taken as a control sample and the left three plates were irradiated by UVB (302 nm in 10 minutes from the distance of 8 cm. The irradiated plates were kept in a dark cell and for 1, 24 and 72 hours respectively. Then, total genomic DNA molecules pertaining to all of the colonies comprising control and irradiated samples were harvested by DNP kit and the extracted DNA molecules were running upon the 1% agarose gel together with ethidium bromide. Results: Control and irradiated samples were studied for probable changes in their macroscopic, microscopic characteristics and then the DNA pattern relating to each group was detected for any variation including smear or DNA laddering bands. No changes were observed in different bacterial properties. No apoptosis were observed in irradiated samples. Conclusion: UVB is a strong apoptosis stimulus in organisms. However, authors of the present study strongly reject the apoptotic effect of UVB irradiation in the format of the present protocol. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(1: 21-24

  10. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Larsen, Anders R;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  11. Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Postoperative Wounds of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smritikana Biswas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus sp., gram positive pyogenic bacteria located on skin, nose etc, secretes toxin that causes toxic shock syndrome, abscess, food poisoning and other infectious diseases. This study was carried out to identify and characterize the type of Staphylococcus sp. bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus in the pus from postoperative wounds of hospitalized patients. From pus samples collected from twenty-four patients from Kharagpur Hospital, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, twenty-eight bacterial isolates were obtained. Among them twenty-five (89.2% were appeared with golden yellow colonies which is usually formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-three (82.14% of the bacterial isolates were Gram positive. Among them twenty isolates (86.9% were further confirmed to be Staphylococcus aureus by their ability to produce Catalase enzyme (positive in Catalase test and Coagulase enzyme (positive in Coagulase Test. Eighteen (90.00% of these Staphylococcus aureus were found to liquefy gelatin (Gelatin hydrolysis test, were able to hydrolyze urea (Urea hydrolysis test and were also l positive in Mannitol Fermentation Test. But there was no growth found of these isolates on MacConkey Agar, while sixteen isolates (80.00% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to penicillin (50µg/ml. Moreover eighteen (90.00% Staphylococcus aureus isolates were able to elaborate Hemolysin (Hemolysis test on Blood Agar media. Hence the bacterial isolates obtained from pus of postoperative wounds were predominantly pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. So it can be concluded that careful treatment and postoperative measures to be taken to avoid serious health problem that may often be life threatening.

  12. Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis slime production in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Baddour, L M; Simpson, W A

    1987-01-01

    Clinical studies performed by us and others have found an association between slime production and strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci that infect indwelling medical devices. By serial low-speed centrifugation of broth cultures we have isolated a stable, weakly adherent strain (RP62A-NA) from a strongly adherent, slime-producing, pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis sensu stricto (RP62A, ATCC 35984). We obtained a second strain from RP62A-NA (RP62A-NAR) by serial subculture...

  13. Novas estratégias terapêuticas contra biofilmes de Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, F. I.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis foi anteriormente considerado um microorganismo comensal inócuo presente na pele humana. Porém, hoje em dia é visto como um importante patogénico oportunista e ocupa o primeiro lugar entre os agentes causadores de infecções hospitalares associadas ao uso de dispositivos médicos. As infecções causadas por este patogénico são caracterizados pelo desenvolvimento de biofilmes na superfície desses dispositivos implantados no doente (válvulas cardíacas, cat...

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis serine--aspartate repeat protein G (SdrG) binds to osteoblast integrin alpha V beta 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, T; Kavanagh, N; Foster, T J; O'Brien, F J; Kerrigan, S W

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading etiologic agent of orthopaedic implant infection. Contamination of the implanted device during insertion allows bacteria gain entry into the sterile bone environment leading to condition known as osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is characterised by weakened bones associated with progressive bone loss. The mechanism through which S. epidermidis interacts with bone cells to cause osteomyelitis is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis can bind to osteoblasts in the absence of matrix proteins. S. epidermidis strains lacking the cell wall protein SdrG had a significantly reduced ability to bind to osteoblasts. Consistent with this, expression of SdrG in Lactococcus lactis resulted in significantly increased binding to the osteoblasts. Protein analysis identified that SdrG contains a potential integrin recognition motif. αVβ3 is a major integrin expressed on osteoblasts and typically recognises RGD motifs in its ligands. Our results demonstrate that S. epidermidis binds to recombinant purified αVβ3, and that a mutant lacking SdrG failed to bind. Blocking αVβ3 on osteoblasts significantly reduced binding to S. epidermidis. These studies are the first to identify a mechanism through which S. epidermidis binds to osteoblasts and potentially offers a mechanism through which implant infection caused by S. epidermidis leads to osteomyelitis.

  15. Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus : live-in and let die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraunholz, Martin; Sinha, Bhanu

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses a plethora of virulence factors to accommodate a diversity of niches in its human host. Aside from the classical manifestations of S. aureus-induced diseases, the pathogen also invades and survives within mammalian host cells. The survival strategies of the pathogen are as

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A;

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  17. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to lysostaphin.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, M M; Huber, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and eleven isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from patients at the Olin E. Teague Veterans Center from March 1983 to April 1987 were as susceptible to lysis by lysostaphin as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus controls were.

  18. Mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, M; Sasatsu, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y.; HAYASAKA, T.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus strains was investigated with high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Drug inactivation by penicillinase was found to be the main mechanism of resistance to cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin in S. aureus.

  19. Activity of and Resistance to Moxifloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Ince, Dilek; Zhang, Xiamei; Hooper, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Moxifloxacin has enhanced potency against Staphylococcus aureus, lower propensity to select for resistant mutants, and higher bactericidal activity against highly resistant strains than ciprofloxacin. Despite similar activity against purified S. aureus topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase, it selects for topoisomerase IV mutants, making topoisomerase IV the preferred target in vivo.

  20. Pneumonia and new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnier, Fabien; Tristan, Anne; François, Bruno; Etienne, Jerome; Delage-Corre, Manuella; Martin, Christian; Liassine, Nadia; Wannet, Wim; Denis, François; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2006-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the Panton-Valentin leukocidin gene is a newly described disease entity. We report a new fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. An S. aureus strain with an agr1 allele and of a new sequence type 377 was recovered, representing a ne

  1. Biofilm characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates associated with device-related meningitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm causes device-related meningitis in neurosurgical patients. This study assessed the contribution of polysaccharide and protein to the development of a strong biofilm-positive phenotype in four S. epidermidis isolates associated with probable device-related meningitis, under varying environmental conditions. RT-PCR analysis of the intercellular adhesion operon (icaADBC) and assessment of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production indicated a correlation between increased icaA transcription and PIA production in ica(+) isolates grown in medium with 4 % ethanol and 4 % NaCl. Treatment of biofilm with sodium metaperiodate caused dispersion of adhered cells (P <0.0001), indicating involvement of PIA. Transcriptional levels of protein factors revealed that atlE transcription levels were similar in all isolates, whilst aap levels were variable, with induction being seen in two isolates following growth in the presence of alcohol or salt. Transcription of agr did not influence protein expression and RNAIII transcription varied among the strains. Although aap transcription was induced, the treatment of biofilm with proteinase K did not always disperse the biofilm. Our data suggest that, among the three ica(+) S. epidermidis isolates clinically associated with meningitis that were studied, PIA contributed to the strong biofilm-positive phenotype, whereas protein factors appeared to have a secondary role.

  2. Inefficacy of vancomycin and teicoplanin in eradicating and killing Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, J; Roriz, M; Merckx, R; Baatsen, P; Van Mellaert, L; Van Eldere, J

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm-associated bacteria display a decreased susceptibility towards antibiotics. Routine assessment of antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic bacteria therefore offers an insufficient prediction of the biofilm response. In this study, in vitro biofilms of eight clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were subjected to treatment with vancomycin, teicoplanin, oxacillin, rifampicin and gentamicin. In addition, the biofilms were subjected to combinations of an antibiotic with rifampicin. The effects on the biofilms were assessed by crystal violet staining to determine the total biofilm biomass, staining with XTT to determine bacterial cell viability, and microscopy. Combining these methods showed that treatment of S. epidermidis biofilms with glycopeptides increased the total biofilm biomass and that these antibiotics were not effective in killing bacteria embedded in biofilms. The decreased killing efficacy was more pronounced in biofilms produced by strains that were classified as 'strong' biofilm producers. Rifampicin, oxacillin and gentamicin effectively killed biofilm-associated bacteria of all tested strains. Combining antibiotics with rifampicin increased the killing efficacy without influencing the total biofilm biomass. When vancomycin or teicoplanin were combined with rifampicin, the increase in biofilm biomass was neutralised and also the killing efficacy was influenced in a positive way. We conclude that the combined methodology used in this study showed that glycopeptides were not effective in eradicating S. epidermidis biofilms but that combination with rifampicin improved the killing efficacy in vitro.

  3. Adherence ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis on prosthetic biomaterials: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Shida,1 Hironobu Koseki,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Hideyuki Sakoda,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Bacterial adhesion to the surface of biomaterials is an essential step in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to the surface of solid biomaterials, including oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy (Oxinium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium alloy, commercially pure titanium, and stainless steel, and performed a biomaterial-to-biomaterial comparison. The test specimens were physically analyzed to quantitatively determine the viable adherent density of the S. epidermidis strain RP62A (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 35984. Field emission scanning electron microscope and laser microscope examination revealed a featureless, smooth surface in all specimens (average roughness <10 nm. The amounts of S. epidermidis that adhered to the biomaterial were significantly lower for Oxinium and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy than for commercially pure titanium. These results suggest that Oxinium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are less susceptible to bacterial adherence and are less inclined to infection than other materials of a similar degree of smoothness.Keyword: bacterial adhesion, implant, infection, surface character

  4. High-throughput screening for small-molecule inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmanee, Warunya; Taylor, Deborah; Shea, Chloe J A; Tang, Hong; Nelson, Sandra; Seibel, William; Papoian, Ruben; Kramer, Ryan; Hassett, Daniel J; Lamkin, Thomas J

    2013-08-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) of 42 865 compounds was performed to identify compounds that inhibit formation of or kill Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a biofilms. Three biological processes were assayed, including (1) growth of planktonic/biofilm bacteria, (2) assessment of metabolically active biofilm bacteria using a resazurin assay, and (3) assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining. After completing the three tiers (primary screening, hit confirmation, and dose-response curves), 352 compounds (representing ~0.8%) were selected as confirmed hit compounds from the HTS assay. The compounds were divided into groups based on their effectiveness on S. epidermidis biofilm properties. The majority of these affected both inhibition and killing of bacterial biofilm cultures. Only 16 of the confirmed hit compounds that have either an AC50 lower than 10 µM and/or Sconst ≥70 from those processed were selected for further study by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CLSM was used to evaluate the confirmed hit compounds on (1) inhibition of biofilm formation and (2) killing of preexisting S. epidermidis biofilms. Taken together, with further testing (e.g., disease-related conditions), such compounds may have applications as broad antimicrobial/antibiofilm use for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention to combat infections in surgical and intensive care clinics and battlefield settings. PMID:23543429

  5. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm.

  6. Antibody responses in patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsson, G; Colque-Navarro, P.; Gustafsson, E.; Andersson, R.; Möllby, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Correlation between antibody response and clinical outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has yielded conflicting results. Immunization schedules have failed in clinical trials. Is the humoral response toward S. aureus of protective nature? A prospective study was performed in patients with invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections during the period 2003?2005. The antibody levels were determined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and one month later (n?=?96, n?=?7...

  7. Mapping the Distribution of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M.; van den Wijngaard, Cees C.; Brian G Spratt; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W.; ,

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and in the nose of about a third of healthy people. Although S. aureus usually coexists peacefully with its human carriers, it is also an important disease-causing organism or pathogen. If it enters the body through a cut or during a surgical procedure, S. aureus can cause minor infections such as pimples and boils or more serious, life-threatening infections such as blood poisoning and pneumonia. Minor S. aureu...

  8. Subacute Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Endocarditis Complicated by Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Elegino-Steffens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 75-year-old man with a history significant for hypertension and congestive heart failure who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement secondary to acute onset of aortic insufficiency. Cultures of the native valve were positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to nafcillin and intravenous cefazolin was initiated. On postoperative day 24, he developed acute decompensated heart failure. A transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated a structurally abnormal mitral valve with severe regurgitation, anterior and posterior leaflet vegetations, and scallop prolapse. There was also evidence of a mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa pseudoaneurysm (P-MAIF with systolic expansion and flow within the aneurysm. Antibiotic treatment was changed from cefazolin to vancomycin for presumed development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. He subsequently underwent a bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and has restoration of health without sequella. This case highlights the development of a P-MAIF as a rare complication of both aortic or mitral valve replacement and infective endocarditis.

  9. Identification of an amyloidogenic peptide from the Bap protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembré, Pierre; Vendrely, Charlotte; Martino, Patrick Di

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm associated proteins (Bap) are involved in the biofilm formation process of several bacterial species. The sequence STVTVT is present in Bap proteins expressed by many Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter baumanii and Salmonella enterica. The peptide STVTVTF derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected through the AGGRESCAN, PASTA, and TANGO software prediction of protein aggregation and formation of amyloid fibers. We characterized the self-assembly properties of the peptide STVTVTF by different methods: in the presence of the peptide, we observed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of Thioflavin T; many intermolecular β-sheets and fibers were spontaneously formed in peptide preparations as observed by infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. In conclusion, a 7 amino acids peptide derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein was sufficient for the spontaneous formation of amyloid fibers. The possible involvement of this amyloidogenic sequence in protein-protein interactions is discussed.

  10. Identification of an amyloidogenic peptide from the Bap protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembré, Pierre; Vendrely, Charlotte; Martino, Patrick Di

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm associated proteins (Bap) are involved in the biofilm formation process of several bacterial species. The sequence STVTVT is present in Bap proteins expressed by many Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter baumanii and Salmonella enterica. The peptide STVTVTF derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected through the AGGRESCAN, PASTA, and TANGO software prediction of protein aggregation and formation of amyloid fibers. We characterized the self-assembly properties of the peptide STVTVTF by different methods: in the presence of the peptide, we observed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of Thioflavin T; many intermolecular β-sheets and fibers were spontaneously formed in peptide preparations as observed by infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. In conclusion, a 7 amino acids peptide derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein was sufficient for the spontaneous formation of amyloid fibers. The possible involvement of this amyloidogenic sequence in protein-protein interactions is discussed. PMID:24354773

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and Co

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  14. Whole-Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain LCT-SA112

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Wan, Daiwei; Fang, Xiangqun; Li, Tianzhi; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang; Wang, Yajuan; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Changting

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. S. aureus is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause staphylococcal infections, which are very common in clinical medicine. Here we report the genome sequence of S. aureus strain LCT-SA112, which was isolated from S. aureus subsp. aureus CGMCC 1.230.

  15. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... inserted surgically, one in a. carotis communis and one in v. jugularis externa. All pigs received 106 CFU/kg body weight S. aureus through the arterial catheter. Bacteria were either suspended in isotonic saline infused at constant flow for 60 minutes (two pigs) or given as a bolus injection of autologoue...

  16. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  17. Antimicrobial drug resistance ofStaphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasidharan S; Prema B; Yoga Latha L

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistantStaphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) in dairy products.Methods:Isolation and identification ofS. aureus were performed in3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to5 different common antimicrobial drugs.Results:Of50 samples examined,5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested.Conclusions:The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistantStaphylococcus.Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistantS. aureus.

  18. Marinopyrrole Derivatives as Potential Antibiotic Agents against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshi Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA continues to be a major problem, causing severe and intractable infections worldwide. MRSA is resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics, and alternative treatments are limited. A very limited number of new antibiotics have been discovered over the last half-century, novel agents for the treatment of MRSA infections are urgently needed. Marinopyrrole A was reported to show antibiotic activity against MRSA in 2008. After we reported the first total synthesis of (±-marinopyrrole A, we designed and synthesized a series of marinopyrrole derivatives. Our structure activity relationship (SAR studies of these novel derivatives against a panel of Gram-positive pathogens in antibacterial assays have revealed that a para-trifluoromethyl analog (33 of marinopyrrole A is ≥63-, 8-, and 4-fold more potent than vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively. The results provide valuable information in the search for new-generation antibiotics.

  19. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sara Svensson,1,2 Magnus Forsberg,1,2 Mats Hulander,1,2 Forugh Vazirisani,1,2 Anders Palmquist,1,2 Jukka Lausmaa,2,3 Peter Thomsen,1,2 Margarita Trobos1,21Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, SwedenAbstract: The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth

  20. Prevention of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ S. aureus colonizes the skin and mucosae of a proportion of the human population. Carriers of S. aureus are at increased risk of developing infections with this pathogen. The aim of this thesis was to add to the prevention of healthcare associated S. aureus infections.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. PMID:25377701

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923

    OpenAIRE

    Todd J. Treangen; Maybank, Rosslyn A.; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F.; Karaolis, David K. R.; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Rosovitz, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid.

  3. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  4. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Imam Khomayni Hospital, Ilam, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azizian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of hospital infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common agent of urinary tract infections. Hospital acquired infection as an old challenge has high importance in hospital infection control and Staphylococcus spp. play main role among routine pathogens. this study designed to investigate the of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus among ICU, Men and Children wards. Materials and methods: Samples collected randomly from ICU, Men and Children wards. Through 203 sampling of wall, floor, bed, pillow and blanket, 75 Staphylococcus spp. isolated. Species recognizes base on culture on Mannitol salt agar and Novobiocin susceptibility determination. Result: Among 75 positive samples, 62 (82.7%, and 13 isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. 51% of bacteria isolated from ICU, 29% from children ward and 20% from men surgery ward. Staphylococcus saprophyticus comprised 87%, 82% and 73% of isolates pertaining to ICU, pediatric and men surgery wards, in a row. Conclusion: Our funding indicate there is an inappropriate instrument to deal with infection in hospital specially ICU. Regards to this issue that Staphylococcus spp. as a main pathogen which has potency to form biofilm and show high resistance to extended broad antibiotics therefore it is suggested to prepare proper guideline to cope with bacteria dissemination and resistance emergence in hospital.

  5. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...... patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in patients with S. aureus IE (150 mg/l (1-521) vs 94 mg/l (6-303); p...% of patients with S. aureus IE (p =0.05). In conclusion, CoNS IE was associated with a long diagnostic delay and high in-hospital mortality, whereas post-discharge prognosis was better in this group of patients compared to patients with IE due to S. aureus....

  6. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  7. Effect of chlorhexidine on oral airway biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünase Büyükkoçak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biofilm formation of microorganisms on the surface of airways may lead to supraglottic colonization that may cause lower respiratuar tract infections. Studies searching the efficiency of local disinfectants on biofilm formation are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine coated airways on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: Culture and electron microscopy methods were used for biofilm assessment. Airways were divided into two groups to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine on number of bacteria attached to the airway and biofilm formation. Group 1(control: naive material, S. epidermidis, Group 2: chlorhexidine coated material, S. epidermidis. No process was applied in Group 1. Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% was sprayed on the surface of naive material for four seconds and then left to dry in air, in Group to. Number of bacteria attached to the airway were counted by microbiological methods and biofilm formation was shown by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Mann-Whitney u test was performed for statistical analyses. Results: In Group 2, bacteria numbers were 1x102-8x102 cfu/ml, whereas they were 3x103-1x104 cfu/ml in Group 1. Chlorhexidine decreased number of microorganisms attached to the airways with statistical significance (p=0.04. The results of the electron microscopic evaluation were in accordance with the acteriological findings. Conclusion: This study has shown that chlorhexidine coating can successfully reduce the number of adhered bacteria and biofilm formation on airways. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 162-166

  8. The two-component signal transduction system ArlRS regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to form biofilms on medical devices, Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of the two-component signal transduction system ArlRS in regulating S. epidermidis biofilm formation. An ArlRS-deficient mutant, WW06, was constructed using S. epidermidis strain 1457 as a parental strain. Although the growth curve of WW06 was similar to that of SE1457, the mutant strain was unable to form biofilms in vitro. In a rabbit subcutaneous infection model, sterile disks made of polymeric materials were implanted subcutaneously followed with inoculation of WW06 or SE1457. The viable bacteria cells of WW06 recovered from biofilms on the embedded disks were much lower than that of SE1457. Complementation of arlRS genes expression from plasmid in WW06 restored biofilm-forming phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. WW06 maintained the ability to undergo initial attachment. Transcription levels of several genes involved in biofilm formation, including icaADBC, sigB, and sarA, were decreased in WW06, compared to SE1457; and icaR expression was increased in WW06, detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The biofilm-forming phenotype was restored by overexpressing icaADBC in WW06 but not by overexpressing sigB, indicating that ArlRS regulates biofilm formation through the regulation of icaADBC. Gel shift assay showed that ArlR can bind to the promoter region of the ica operon. In conclusion, ArlRS regulates S. epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner, distinct from its role in S. aureus.

  9. Purification and Evaluation of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesion (PIA) Antigen from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Bahman; Moosavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Babaei, Ryhane; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Vaziri, Farzam; Shahrooei, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) confers major functional effects in biofilm formation, which bears an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Following the identification of biofilm-forming strains by biochemical and molecular methods, isogenic strain was prepared and in vitro biofilm formation assay was performed consequently. By parallel analysis of both the PIA-positive and PIA-negative strains using size exclusion chromatography by Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) method, the respective PIA was purified. Recovered PIA was examined using colorimetric and hemagglutination assays. Finally, the recovered PIA was analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. By the parallel purification process and comparison of the obtained graphs from the FPLC detector, fractions near the void volume were determined as PIA. The colorimetric and hemagglutination assays were applied and the content of carbohydrates (hexose = 620 µg/ml, hexosamine = 5700 µg/ml and ketoses = 170 µg/ml) and hemagglutination titer (1:128) in recovered polysaccharide were determined. This study shows that PIA has a significant role in the biofilm formation in S. epidermidis strains. The recovered polysaccharide and its molecular weight were analyzed within the near void volume of the utilized column. PMID:27460584

  10. Persistent infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis in endodontic flare-up: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Simone Helena Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic flare-ups are challenging situations and may result from selective growth of specific bacterial species; microbial cultures and antibiograms should be used to allow faster, successful management of refractory lesions. A 47-year-old man reported pain on percussion after uncomplicated retreatment of the maxillary left canine for prosthetic purposes. In the following days, pain dramatically increased, leading to removal of the filling and use of intracanal medication. After many unsuccessful attempts to resolve the problem, a microbial culture of the root canal detected the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. An antibiogram determined the best drug combination to control this infection: tetracycline (oxytetracycline hydrochloride, 500 mg orally) plus third-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone, 1 g intramuscularly). Once the infection was controlled, the root canal was obturated. There was a reduction in the area of radiolucency, and the patient reported no pain at a 2-year follow-up. PMID:26943096

  11. Primary processing of CRISPR RNA by the endonuclease Cas6 in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Noelle; Rajan, Rakhi; Sontheimer, Erik J

    2015-10-01

    In many bacteria and archaea, an adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas) provides immunity against foreign genetic elements. This system uses CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) derived from the CRISPR array, along with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, to target foreign nucleic acids. In most CRISPR systems, endonucleolytic processing of crRNA precursors (pre-crRNAs) is essential for the pathway. Here we study the Cas6 endonuclease responsible for crRNA processing in the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system from Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a, a model for Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems, and define substrate requirements for SeCas6 activity. We find that SeCas6 is necessary and sufficient for full-length crRNA biogenesis in vitro, and that it relies on both sequence and stem-loop structure in the 3' half of the CRISPR repeat for recognition and processing.

  12. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manipal...... using disc diffusion test by cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) disc, further confirmation was done by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ResultsOut of 400 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 139 (34.75%) were found to be MRSA. Among the MRSA isolates, 74 (53.2%) were from inpatient departments, 58 (41...

  13. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  14. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa†

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Vincent H.; Kabbara, Samer; Vo, Giao; Schilling, Amy N.; Coyle, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are often used to treat severe infections with gram-positive organisms. Previous studies have shown concentration-dependent killing by aminoglycosides of gram-negative bacteria, but limited data are available for gram-positive bacteria. We compared the in vitro pharmacodynamics of gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five S. aureus strains were examined (ATCC 29213 and four clinical isolates). Time-kill studies (TKS) in duplicate (baseline inocu...

  15. Role of Monocytes in Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Thompson, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis (BE), the clotting system plays a cardinal role in the formation and maintenance of the endocardial vegetations. The extrinsic pathway is involved in the activation of the coagulation pathway with tissue factor (TF) as the key protein. Staphylococcus aureus is a frequently isolated bacterium from patients with BE. We therefore investigated whether S. aureus can induce TF activity (TFA) on fibrin-adherent monocytes, used as an in vitro model of BE....

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan Tertiary Structure from Carbon-13 Spin Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Shasad; Singh, Manmilan; Kim, Sung Joon; Schaefer,Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The cell-wall peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus is a heterogeneous, highly cross-linked polymer of unknown tertiary structure. We have partially characterized this structure by measuring spin diffusion from 13C labels in pentaglycyl cross-linking segments to natural-abundance 13C in the surrounding intact cell walls. The measurements were performed using a version of centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX). The cell walls were isolated from S. aureus grown in media containing [1-13...

  17. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Couto; Leonard Amaral; José Melo-Cristino; Miguel Viveiros; Cláudia Palma; Elisabete Junqueira; Costa, Sofia S.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide inform...

  18. Methicillin resistance & inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Soumyadeep Ghosh; Mandira Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with inducible clindamycin resistance (iCR) are resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin on routine testing and inducible clindamycin resistance can only be identified by D-test. This study was aimed to detect methicillin resistance and iCR among S. aureus isolates, effectiveness of some commonly used antibiotics and correlation between methicillin resistance and iCR. Methods: The present cro...

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yu-Chuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Ma, David H. K.; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Shin-Yi; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. This observational study aimed to characterize clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypes of ocular infections caused by MRSA based on the clinical and molecular definitions of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) strains. Fifty-nine patients with culture-proven S aureus ocular infection were enrolled from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 at Chang...

  20. Detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Nucleic Acid Biosensor Array Using Au Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Fu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a critical pathogen of nosocomial blood infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM nucleic acid biosensor array using Au nanoparticle signal amplification was developed to rapidly detect S. epidermidis in clinical samples. The synthesized thiolated probes specific targeting S. epidermidis 16S rRNA gene were immobilized on the surface of QCM nucleic acid biosensor arrays. Hybridization was induced by exposing the immobilized probes to the PCR amplified fragments of S. epidermidis, resulting in a mass change and a consequent frequency shift of the QCM biosensor. To further enhance frequency shift results from above described hybridizations, streptavidin coated Au nanoparticles were conjugated to the PCR amplified fragments. The results showed that the lowest detection limit of current QCM system was 1.3×103 CFU/mL. A linear correlation was found when the concentration of S. epidermidis varied from 1.3×103 to 1.3×107 CFU/mL. In addition, 55 clinical samples were detected with both current QCM biosensor system and conventional clinical microbiological method, and the sensitivity and specificity of current QCM biosensor system were 97.14% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the current QCM system is a rapid, low-cost and sensitive method that can be used to identify infection of S. epidermidis in clinical samples.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL ANTI ACNE GEL AND ITS EVALUATION AGAINST ACNE CAUSING BACTERIA PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Farhat S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acne by definition is multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered as the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. Although acne does not pose serious threat to general health, it is one of the most socially distressing conditions especially for adolescents. The objective of this study was to design a product to treat Acne with purely herbal actives as an effective and safe alternative to harmful antibiotics. For this purpose three essential oils and two herbal extracts having anti-microbial properties were selected. These were incorporated in a Gel Base in different concentrations and the in vitro antibacterial activity for the different formulations (F1, F2, F3 was studied against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis, a causative organism for Acne vulgaris using Agar Well Diffusion method. All the formulations showed satisfactory Anti-microbial activity with Formulation F3 showing highest activity. It was then subjected to stress testing for three months at various temperatures. The samples were found to be stable after three months of stability studies and showed satisfactory antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis at the end of the stress testing studies. Thus it was concluded that the formulated Herbal Anti Acne Gel with natural actives can be used effectively for treating acne on skin.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  4. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  5. Homology of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus simulans to that of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, K; Nonoguchi, R; Song, M D; Matsuhashi, M; Konno, M

    1990-01-01

    A penicillin-binding protein of molecular weight 76,000 inducible by beta-lactams was detected in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus simulans. DNA from these strains hybridized to the mecA gene from Staphylococcus aureus; however, the chromosomal HindIII fragments containing the mecA genes were 3.4 kilobases in S. haemolyticus and 4.3 kilobases in S. simulans.

  6. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  8. Detection by multiplex PCR of Staphylococcus aureus , S. intermedius and S. hyicus in artificially contaminated milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Avila Gandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research aimed to detect coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS directly in samples of artificially contaminated milk, using multiplex PCR (mPCR. Standard and isolated bacterial strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli species were used, evaluating the specificity and detection limit of mPCR, for artificially contaminated UHT milk. Primers specific for the nuc gene (NUC1-NUC2 were used for S. aureus, NUC3-NUC4 for S. hyicus and NUC5-NUC6 for S. intermedius. It was possible to detect the three target species by mPCR, directly from bovine whole milk, with adequate specificity and acceptable detention limit for identification of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS in foods. The specificity was determined by the amplification of species-specific fragments, and the detection limit was assessed by the detection thresholds obtained for the three species (103 CFU mL-1. From these results, the mPCR described, with the proposed set of primers, has the potential for use in precise identification and differentiation between CPSs in milk samples.

  9. recA mediated spontaneous deletions of the icaADBC operon of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates : a new mechanism of phenotypic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis involving the slime related ica operon results in heterogeneity in surface characteristics of individual bacteria in axenic cultures. Five clinical S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated phenotypic variation, i.e. both black and red colonies on Congo

  10. The influence of antibodies on Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silicone elastomer in experimental biomaterial-associated infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, C.A.N.; Boer, L.; Schipper, K.; Jones, C.E.; Quadir, S.; Feldman, R.G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Zaat, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infection (BAI) is a major problem in modern medicine, and is often caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. We aimed to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against major surface protein antigens of S. epidermidis, and to assess their possible protective activity in experimental B

  11. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip; Rossen, John W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present st

  13. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  14. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: no apocalypse now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, F W; Kitzis, M D

    2003-08-01

    The number of reports concerning vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is much higher than the number of true resistant strains or unexpected clinical failures. Many confounding factors, including inadequate serum levels, severely ill patients, foreign devices or undrained abscesses, are more likely to be responsible for the clinical failures than resistance to vancomycin. PMID:14616695

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Medical Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Trépanier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA during their training. The occupational risk of this specific population is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data regarding MRSA colonization among health care professionals in Quebec.

  16. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by C-8-Methoxy Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Jian-Ying; Xu, Chen; Dong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones were more lethal than C-8-bromine, C-8-ethoxy, and C-8-H derivatives for Staphylococcus aureus, especially when topoisomerase IV was resistant. The methoxy group also increased lethality against wild-type cells when protein synthesis was inhibited. These properties encourage refinement of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones to kill staphylococci.

  17. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals. PMID:24908537

  18. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  19. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...

  20. Pyrazole Based Inhibitors against Enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Vijayakuma, Vinodhkumar; Palayam, Malathy;

    2015-01-01

    agents. The current study focuses on molecular docking and dynamics studies of pyrazole derivatives against Nucleosidase and DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking and dynamics studies reveal that some of these derivatives show better binding abilities than some of the current drugs...

  1. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  2. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  3. Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes may experience higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without diabetes due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. We investigated the risk of community-acquired (CA) SAB in persons with and without diabetes. DESIGN: Using...

  4. Natural Population Dynamics and Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Melles (Damian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide range of infections, from relatively mild skin infections such as folliculitis and furunculosis to life-threatening conditions, including sepsis, deep abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis

  5. Low efficacy of tobramycin in experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C. J.; Christophersen, L. J.; Trøstrup, H.;

    2015-01-01

    The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin...

  6. New insights into molecular typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) remains a significant problem causing infections in both hospital and community settings. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) continues to evolve and pose a great challenge through outbreaks and pandemic spread. Humans are no longer the only and the most important reservoir of

  7. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: update on the molecular epidemiology and clinical presentation, with a focus on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström, M; Wiström, J; Sjöstedt, A; Monsen, T

    2012-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), originally described as ubiquitous commensals of the healthy human skin and mucosa, have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens primarily causing healthcare-associated infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. Recent studies, utilizing new molecular typing methods, particularly on Staphylococcus epidermidis, have increased our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the evolutionary success of these extremely versatile microorganisms. In the following mini-review, we summarize recent research in this area focusing on the molecular methods and epidemiology of S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus.

  8. High in vitro antimicrobial activity of β-peptoid-peptide hybrid oligomers against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Knapp, Kolja Michael; Yang, Liang;

    2013-01-01

    An array of β-peptoid-peptide hybrid oligomers displaying different amino acid/peptoid compositions and chain lengths was studied with respect to antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis both in planktonic and biofilm cultures, comparing the effects with those of the common...... exponentially growing and stationary-phase S. epidermidis cells with similar killing kinetics. At the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all peptidomimetics inhibited biofilm formation, whilst peptidomimetics at concentrations above the MIC (80-160μg/mL) eradicated young (6-h-old) biofilms, whilst even...... killing of bacterial cells. This class of peptidomimetics may constitute promising antimicrobial alternatives for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis infections....

  9. TSST-1, enterotoxin and bacteriocin-like substance production by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins and bacteriocin-like substances was evaluated in 95 strains of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from raw bovine milk (n=31 and from food samples involved in staphylococcal food poisoning (n=64. Enterotoxigenicity tests with the membrane over agar associated to optimal sensibility plate assays were performed and showed that 96.77% of strains recovered from milk and 95.31% from food samples produced enterotoxins A, B, C, D or TSST-1. Reference strains S. epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus casei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacteroides fragilis were used as indicator bacteria in the antagonistic assays, the first five being sensitive to antagonistic substances. Brain heart infusion agar, in pH values ranging from 5.0 to 7.0 in aerobic atmosphere showed to be the optimum condition for antagonistic activity as evaluated with the best producer strains against the most sensitive indicator bacterium, L. monocytogenes. Sensitivity to enzymes confirmed the proteinaceous nature of these substances. Neither bacteriophage activity nor fatty acids were detected and the antagonistic activity was not due to residual chloroform. Results did not establish a positive correlation between the bacteriocinogenic profile and toxigenicity in the tested S. aureus strains.

  10. Determining of antibiotic resistance profile inStaphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Motamedi; Hadis Mirzabeigi; Tahere Shirali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance amongStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from clinical specimens and to identify community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA)in specimens that have been collected from patients referring to one of the hospitals of Ahvaz.Methods:S. aureus isolates from a hospital in Ahvaz were screened for resistance to various antibiotics including methicillin. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. TheMRSA was also treated with ethidium bromide to find the origin of resistance.Results: Among the bacterial isolates, all of 11S. aureus were resistant to methicillin and cefixime,2 were resistant to ciprofloxacine,6 were resistant to tetracycline and the reminder were sensitive or intermediate to other antibiotics. The treated isolates were reminded resistant to methicillin and this suggested that the plasmid was not the origin of resistance in these isolates.Conclusions: These results showed that infection due toMRSA is widespread in Ahvaz and with respect to the spread of vancomycin resistance among MRSA and appearance of overwhelming infections. It is necessary to identify continuously the profile of antibiotic resistance amongS. aureus isolates in other regions and finding appropriate antibiotic for infection control and eradication.

  11. Arginine deiminase in Staphylococcus epidermidis functions to augment biofilm maturation through pH homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, J K; Thomas, V C; Olson, M E; Chaudhari, S S; Nuxoll, A S; Schaeffer, C R; Lindgren, K E; Jones, J; Zimmerman, M C; Dunman, P M; Bayles, K W; Fey, P D

    2014-06-01

    Allelic replacement mutants were constructed within arginine deiminase (arcA1 and arcA2) to assess the function of the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway in organic acid resistance and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis 1457. A growth-dependent acidification assay (pH ∼5.0 to ∼5.2) determined that strain 1457 devoid of arginine deiminase activity (1457 ΔADI) was significantly less viable than the wild type following depletion of glucose and in the presence of arginine. However, no difference in viability was noted for individual 1457 ΔarcA1 (native) or ΔarcA2 (arginine catabolic mobile element [ACME]-derived) mutants, suggesting that the native and ACME-derived ADIs are compensatory in S. epidermidis. Furthermore, flow cytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested that organic acid stress resulted in oxidative stress that could be partially rescued by the iron chelator dipyridyl. Collectively, these results suggest that formation of hydroxyl radicals is partially responsible for cell death via organic acid stress and that ADI-derived ammonia functions to counteract this acid stress. Finally, static biofilm assays determined that viability, ammonia synthesis, and pH were reduced in strain 1457 ΔADI following 120 h of growth in comparison to strain 1457 and the arcA1 and arcA2 single mutants. It is hypothesized that ammonia synthesis via the ADI pathway is important to reduce pH stress in specific microniches that contain high concentrations of organic acids. PMID:24727224

  12. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis on peritoneal dialysis catheters and the effects of extracellular products from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Maria; Arvidsson, Anna; Skepö, Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a cause of infections related to peritoneal dialysis (PD). We have used a PD catheter flow-cell model in combination with confocal scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy to study biofilm formation by S. epidermidis. Adherence...... to serum-coated catheters was four times greater than to uncoated ones, suggesting that S. epidermidis binds to serum proteins on the catheter surface. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm supernatant interfered with the formation of a serum protein coat thereby reducing the capacity for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis....... Supernatants from ΔpelA, ΔpslBCD and ΔrhlAB strains of P. aeruginosa showed no differences from the wild-type supernatant indicating that the effect on serum coat formation was not due to rhamnolipids or the PelA and PslBCD polysaccharides. Supernatant from P. aeruginosa also dispersed established S. epidermidis...

  13. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect EPS biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn(2+-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5 were generated. MAb(18B6 inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9 enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb(18B6, which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9. Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections.

  14. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors. PMID:27427591

  15. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  16. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements. PMID:26623676

  17. The effect of octylglucoside and sodium cholate in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to soft contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lívia; Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, Rosário; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, Eva; Azeredo, Joana

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, the effect of the natural surfactants octylglucoside and sodium cholate in inhibiting Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to conventional and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses (CL) was assessed. Hydrophobicity was also evaluated to conditioned and nonconditioned CL. Methods. The inhibiting effect of the tested surfactants was determined through “in vitro” adhesion studies to conditioned and nonconditioned CL followed by image acquisit...

  18. Beta-lactamase detection in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Robles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence/production of beta-lactamases by both phenotypic and genotypic methods, verify whether results are dependent of bacteria type (Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - CNS and verify the agreement between tests. A total of 200 bacteria samples from 21 different herds were enrolled, being 100 CNS and 100 S. aureus. Beta-lactamase presence/detection was performed by different tests (PCR, clover leaf test - CLT, Nitrocefin disk, and in vitro resistance to penicillin. Results of all tests were not dependent of bacteria type (CNS or S. aureus. Several S. aureus beta-lactamase producing isolates were from the same herd. Phenotypic tests excluding in vitro resistance to penicillin showed a strong association measured by the kappa coefficient for both bacteria species. Nitrocefin and CLT are more reliable tests for detecting beta-lactamase production in staphylococci.

  19. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, J.; Cohn, M. T.; Petersen, A.;

    2016-01-01

    culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical...... and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give...... an accurate estimate of cellular numbers in liquid cultures of S. aureus regardless of the aggregation level of the given strain. We further show that the sonication procedure is applicable for accurate determination of cell numbers using agar plate counting of aggregating strains....

  20. sarA negatively regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by modulating expression of 1 MDa extracellular matrix binding protein and autolysis‐dependent release of eDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christner, Martin; Heinze, Constanze; Busch, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation is essential for Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenicity in implant‐associated infections. Nonetheless, large proportions of invasive Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates fail to form a biofilm in vitro. We here tested the hypothesis that this apparent paradox is related...... to the existence of superimposed regulatory systems suppressing a multicellular biofilm life style in vitro. Transposon mutagenesis of clinical significant but biofilm‐negative S. epidermidis 1585 was used to isolate a biofilm positive mutant carrying a Tn917 insertion in sarA, chief regulator of staphylococcal......DNA‐dependent biofilm formation. Given the importance of SarA as a positive regulator of polysaccharide mediated cell aggregation, the regulator enables S. epidermidis to switch between mechanisms of biofilm formation, ensuring S. epidermidis adaptation to hostile environments....

  1. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Orlando, P; Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2014-12-01

    Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a source of great concern because, especially in hospitals, this class of antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, is one of the main resources for combating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (VISA) was first described in 1996 in Japan; since then, a phenotype with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (h-VISA) has emerged. H-VISA isolates are characterised by the presence of a resistant subpopulation, typically at a rate of 1 in 10(5) organisms, which constitutes the intermediate stage betweenfully vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and VISA isolates. As VISA phenotypes are almost uniformly cross-resistant to teicoplanin, they are also called Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (GISA) and, in the case of heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides, h-GISA. The overall prevalence of h-VISA is low, accounting for approximately 1.3% of all MRSA isolates tested. Mortality due to h-GISA infections is very high (about 70%), especially among patients hospitalised in high-risk departments, such as intensive care units (ICU). Given the great clinical relevance of strains that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides and the possible negative impact on treatment choices, it is important to draw up and implement infection control practices, including surveillance, the appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleansing and good antibiotic stewardship.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Orlando, P; Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2014-12-01

    Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a source of great concern because, especially in hospitals, this class of antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, is one of the main resources for combating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (VISA) was first described in 1996 in Japan; since then, a phenotype with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (h-VISA) has emerged. H-VISA isolates are characterised by the presence of a resistant subpopulation, typically at a rate of 1 in 10(5) organisms, which constitutes the intermediate stage betweenfully vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and VISA isolates. As VISA phenotypes are almost uniformly cross-resistant to teicoplanin, they are also called Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (GISA) and, in the case of heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides, h-GISA. The overall prevalence of h-VISA is low, accounting for approximately 1.3% of all MRSA isolates tested. Mortality due to h-GISA infections is very high (about 70%), especially among patients hospitalised in high-risk departments, such as intensive care units (ICU). Given the great clinical relevance of strains that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides and the possible negative impact on treatment choices, it is important to draw up and implement infection control practices, including surveillance, the appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleansing and good antibiotic stewardship. PMID:26137787

  3. Antimicrobial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts Teucrium polium L. on Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium polium L. (Labiatae has long been recognized in folk medicine in the treatment of many pathophysiological implications, such as gastrointestinal disorders, inflammations, diabetes and rheumatism. In this study antimicrobial activity of two crude extracts obtained from Teucrium polium L. was tested against bacterial species. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined using a microdilution analysis method. The antimicrobial effects of extracts were evaluated on Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435 by “using the method of Collins” and “disk agar diffusion method”. The results showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while both extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and alcoholic extracts concentrations, was inhibition effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and ethanolic extracts concentrations, has inhibition effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing, but at 10 and 20 mg/ml concentrations, no inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed. The results indicate that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Teucrium polium L. have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (p Results showed, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L., have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  4. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous, ethanol, methanol and glycerin on streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian medicinal plants, such as Satureja bachtiarica have been utilized as traditional medicines by the indigenous people of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari in Iran. In this study, Satureja bachtiarica were dried in suitable condition (in shadow after extraction with watery, ethanol 96 %, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by “screening antimicrobial activity” and “disk agar diffusion test” in 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml concentration of the extract against Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435. The results showed that aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extracts were quite effective in 2 mg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, was inhibited effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but 40 mg/ml  aqueous and 30 and 40 mg/ml ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, has inhibited effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing. The results indicate that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. As a result, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Satureja bachtiarica, have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  5. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D. B.; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  6. Indole and 7-benzyloxyindole attenuate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Hyun Seob; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Banskota, Suhrid; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2013-05-01

    Human pathogens can readily develop drug resistance due to the long-term use of antibiotics that mostly inhibit bacterial growth. Unlike antibiotics, antivirulence compounds diminish bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability and thus, may not lead to drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections and produces diverse virulence factors, such as the yellow carotenoid staphyloxanthin, which promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the host immune system. To identify novel antivirulence compounds, bacterial signal indole present in animal gut and diverse indole derivatives were investigated with respect to reducing staphyloxanthin production and the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Treatment with indole or its derivative 7-benzyloxyindole (7BOI) caused S. aureus to become colorless and inhibited its hemolytic ability without affecting bacterial growth. As a result, S. aureus was more easily killed by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and by human whole blood in the presence of indole or 7BOI. In addition, 7BOI attenuated S. aureus virulence in an in vivo model of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is readily infected and killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that both indole and 7BOI repressed the expressions of several virulence genes such as α-hemolysin gene hla, enterotoxin seb, and the protease genes splA and sspA and modulated the expressions of the important regulatory genes agrA and sarA. These findings show that indole derivatives are potential candidates for use in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection. PMID:23318836

  7. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, J.C.; Valiquette, G.; Kennedy, K.J.;

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  8. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  9. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  10. Mechanism of bacteriophage conversion of lipase activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C Y; Iandolo, J J

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus PS54 harbors two temperate bacteriophages and manifests no lipase activity on egg yolk agar. Curing of one of the resident prophages (L54a) restores lipase activity. To study the mechanism of bacteriophage conversion, the prophage was cured, and the gene encoding lipase activity was cloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli on a 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment of the chromosome. The fragment was subcloned into a shuttle vector and subsequently transformed into S. aureus and Bacil...

  11. CHARACTERISATION OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM SHINGLES PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine R. et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Even after treating Shingles patients with antiviral drugs, they are found to suffer from secondary bacterial infections. With this background as a guide, we undertook an investigation to isolate the bacterial pathogens from the pus of Shingles patients. Among the isolates obtained during the one year study period, Staphylococcus aureus sp. was found to be multi drug resistant and hence it was chosen for the study. The antibiogram pattern of the methicillin resistant S. aureus was obtained, since this could serve as a tool for suggesting useful drugs.

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  13. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  14. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino, MS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  15. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  16. The effect of silver nanoparticles on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm biomass and cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Khameneh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Bacterial biofilm has been considered responsible for many deaths and high health costs worldwide. Their better protection against antibacterial agents compared to free living cells leads to poor treatment efficiency. Nanotechnology is promising approach to combat biofilm infections. The aim of the present study was to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm with silver nanoparticles (SNPs. Materials and Methods: SNPs were used at different concentrations (two fold dilutions and incubation times (24, 48, 72 h. The crystal violet staining and pour plate assays were used to assess biofilm biomass and bacterial viability, respectively. The ability of SNPs on biofilm matrix eradication was assessed through optical density ratio (ODr. Positive control was defined as an ODr =1.0. Results: The crystal violet assay indicated that the biofilm matrixes were intact at different concentrations of SNOs and incubation times. There were no significant differences between these parameters (P >0.05. Bacterial enumeration studies revealed that higher concentrations of SNPs were more effective in killing bacteria than lower ones. Although, longer incubation times  led to enhancement of anti-biofilm activity of SNPs. Conclusion: The anti-biofilm activity of SNPs was concentration- and time-dependent. The results of this study highlighted that SNPs were effective against cell viability; however they were ineffective against biomass.

  17. Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples.

  18. Antioxidant Hydroxytyrosol-Based Polyacrylate with Antimicrobial and Antiadhesive Activity Versus Staphylococcus Epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisante, Fernanda; Taresco, Vincenzo; Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Martinelli, Andrea; D'Ilario, Lucio; Pietrelli, Loris; Francolini, Iolanda; Piozzi, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial biofilms has been recently recognized to play a role in promoting antibiotic resistance in biofilm-growing bacteria. ROS are also over-produced when a medical device is implanted and they can promote device susceptibility to infection or aseptic loosening. High levels of ROS seem also to be responsible for the establishment of chronic wounds.In this study, a novel antioxidant polyacrylate was synthesized and investigated in terms of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. The polymer possesses in side-chain hydroxytyrosol (HTy), that is a polyphenolic compound extracted from olive oil wastewaters.The obtained 60 nm in size polymer nanoparticles showed good scavenging and antibacterial activity versus a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Microbial adherence assays evidenced that the hydroxytyrosol-containing polymer was able to significantly reduce bacterial adhesion compared to the control. These findings open novel perspective for a successful use of this antioxidant polymer for the prevention or treatment of biofilm-based infections as those related to medical devices or chronic wounds. PMID:26542603

  19. The pls Gene Found in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Is Common in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri

    OpenAIRE

    Juuti, Katri; Ibrahem, Salha; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Kuusela, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    pls, a gene found in type I staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) regions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, was present in 12 of the 15 human clinical Staphylococcus sciuri isolates studied. Pls was expressed in the S. sciuri isolates, although at a lower level than in S. aureus. Other parts of SCCmec could also be found in the S. sciuri genome.

  20. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  1. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B.N.; Deepak, D.; Rawat, A. K. S.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and charact...

  2. Quinupristin/dalfopristin in Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Da Mota Sergio E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The intravitreal injection of antibiotics remains the mainstay of therapy for postoperative endophthalmitis. Bacterial resistance, however, is still a pitfall in achieving an adequate response to treatment. Quinupristin/dalfopristin might be a feasible therapeutic option in these cases. Case presentation A 55-year-old Hispanic man had endophthalmitis secondary to Staphylococcus aureus in his right eye and was treated with intravitreal 0.4 mg/0.1 ml quinupristin/dalfopris...

  3. Determination of aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by DNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickgiesser, N; Kreiswirth, B N

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identification of the genes conferring aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by dot-blot and Southern blot techniques. As radioactive probes, fragments of plasmids pAT48, pUBH2, and pH13, carrying the genes for an aminocyclitol-3'-phosphotransferase, an aminocyclitol-4'-adenylyltransferase, and an aminocyclitol-2''-phosphotransferase-aminocyclitol-6'-acetyltransferase, respectively, were used.

  4. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  5. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Bhone Myint Kyaw; Shuchi arora; Chu Sing Lim

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination ...

  6. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo, S.; Donos, N.; Spratt, D.; Bozec, L.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for max...

  7. Coated vesicle isolation by immunoadsorption on Staphylococcus aureus cells

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Porcine brain coated vesicles were isolated from crude fractions of tissue homogenates by affinity separation using anticlathrin-coated STaphylococcus aureus (Staph A) cells as a solid-phase immunoadsorbent. The specificity of the immunoadsorption was monitored by SDS PAGE analysis and by competitive ELISA assays. SDS PAGE of the material immunoadsorbed from a fraction of porcine bran smooth microsomes showed a selective enrichment in a 180,000 mol wt protein. In an ELISA assay, this protein ...

  8. Farnesol Decreases Biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Exhibits Synergy with Nafcillin and Vancomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John M.; Barrish, Jim; Versalovic, James

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm infections are frequently caused by S. epidermidis, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and adversely affect patient outcomes. We evaluated farnesol, the Candida quorum sensing molecule, on S. epidermidis biofilms, in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated ED50, ED75 and ED90 –(drug concentrations causing 50%, 75% and 90% inhibition respectively) of farnesol and evaluated synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin. Farnesol’s effects on morphology of S. epidermidis biofilms were analyzed using ...

  9. Detoxification of toxins by bacillithiol in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Gerald L; Fahey, Robert C; Rawat, Mamta

    2012-04-01

    Bacillithiol (BSH), an α-anomeric glycoside of l-cysteinyl-d-glucosaminyl-l-malate, is a major low-molecular-mass thiol found in bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Deinococcus radiodurans. Like other low-molecular-mass thiols such as glutathione and mycothiol, BSH is likely to be involved in protection against environmental toxins including thiol-reactive antibiotics. We report here a BSH-dependent detoxification mechanism in S. aureus. When S. aureus Newman strain was treated with monobromobimane and monochlorobimane, the cellular BSH was converted to the fluorescent S-conjugate BS-bimane. A bacillithiol conjugate amidase activity acted upon the BS-bimane to produce Cys-bimane, which was then acetylated by an N-acetyltransferase to generate N-acetyl-Cys-bimane, a mercapturic acid. An S. aureus mutant lacking BSH did not produce mercapturic acid when treated with monobromobimane and monochlorobimane, confirming the involvement of bacillithiol. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus Newman with rifamycin, the parent compound of the first-line anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin, indicated that this thiol-reactive antibiotic is also detoxified in a BSH-dependent manner, since mercapturic acids of rifamycin were observed in the culture medium. These data indicate that toxins and thiol-reactive antibiotics are detoxified to less potent mercapturic acids in a BSH-dependent manner and then exported out of the cell in S. aureus.

  10. Exploring the transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus in its natural niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jáuregui, Ruy; Medina, Eva; Oxley, Andrew Pa; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and commensal, where the human nose is the predominant reservoir. To better understand its behavior in this environmental niche, RNA was extracted from the anterior nares of three documented S. aureus carriers and the metatranscriptome analyzed by RNAseq. In addition, the in vivo transcriptomes were compared to previously published transcriptomes of two in vitro grown S. aureus strains. None of the in vitro conditions, even growth in medium resembling the anterior nares environment, mimicked in vivo conditions. Survival in the nose was strongly controlled by the limitation of iron and evident by the expression of iron acquisition systems. S. aureus populations in different individuals clearly experience different environmental stresses, which they attempt to overcome by the expression of compatible solute biosynthetic pathways, changes in their cell wall composition and synthesis of general stress proteins. Moreover, the expression of adhesins was also important for colonization of the anterior nares. However, different S. aureus strains also showed different in vivo behavior. The assessment of general in vivo expression patterns and commonalities between different S. aureus strains will in the future result in new knowledge based strategies for controlling colonization. PMID:27641137

  11. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Couto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide information on approaches useful to the assessment and characterization of efflux activity, as well as contributing to our understanding of the role of efflux to phenotypes of antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance in S. aureus clinical isolates. The results described show that efflux is an important contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in S. aureus and suggest it as a major mechanism in the early stages of resistance development. We also show that efflux plays an important role on the reduced susceptibility to biocides in S. aureus, strengthening the importance of this long neglected resistance mechanism to the persistence and proliferation of antibiotic/biocide-resistant S. aureus in the hospital environment.

  12. Anti-biofilm activity of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac125 against staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm: Evidence of a signal molecule involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilli, E; Papa, R; Carillo, S; Tilotta, M; Casillo, A; Sannino, F; Cellini, A; Artini, M; Selan, L; Corsaro, M M; Tutino, M L

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is recognized as cause of biofilm-associated infections and interest in the development of new approaches for S. epidermidis biofilm treatment has increased. In a previous paper we reported that the supernatant of Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 presents an anti-biofilm activity against S. epidermidis and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the supernatant suggested that this activity is due to a polysaccharide. In this work we further investigated the chemical nature of the anti-biofilm P. haloplanktis TAC125 molecule. The production of the molecule was evaluated in different conditions, and reported data demonstrated that it is produced in all P. haloplanktis TAC125 biofilm growth stages, also in minimal medium and at different temperatures. By using a surface coating assay, the surfactant nature of the anti-biofilm compound was excluded. Moreover, a purification procedure was set up and the analysis of an enriched fraction demonstrated that the anti-biofilm activity is not due to a polysaccharide molecule but that it is due to small hydrophobic molecules that likely work as signal. The enriched fraction was also used to evaluate the effect on S. epidermidis biofilm formation in dynamic condition by BioFlux system. PMID:25816412

  13. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zunita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 50 samples from 8 stable horses. They are positive in the catalase and coagulase tests. Upon testing the cultures with SLIDEX test kit all formed agglutination within a few seconds, confirming they are of S. aureus. When cultured onto MSA, all isolates formed yellow colonies. However, none of the isolates produced blue colonies on ORSAB indicating that there were no MRSA among the S. aureus. There were 13 isolates which were multiresistant. Eleven are resistant to eight out of ten antibiotics tested. All these isolates were found to originate from stable G. One isolate is resistant to 5 antibiotics while another one isolate is resistant to 3 antibiotics. The rest of the isolates are not multiresistant to the antibiotics tested. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(6.000: 165-167

  14. Contribution of coagulases towards Staphylococcus aureus disease and protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice G Cheng

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus seeds abscesses in host tissues to replicate at the center of these lesions, protected from host immune cells via a pseudocapsule. Using histochemical staining, we identified prothrombin and fibrin within abscesses and pseudocapsules. S. aureus secretes two clotting factors, coagulase (Coa and von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp. We report here that Coa and vWbp together are required for the formation of abscesses. Coa and vWbp promote the non-proteolytic activation of prothrombin and cleavage of fibrinogen, reactions that are inhibited with specific antibody against each of these molecules. Coa and vWbp specific antibodies confer protection against abscess formation and S. aureus lethal bacteremia, suggesting that coagulases function as protective antigens for a staphylococcal vaccine.

  15. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert J; Powell, Anne M; Paape, Max J; Kerr, David E; Bannerman, Douglas D; Pursel, Vernon G; Wells, Kevin D; Talbot, Neil; Hawk, Harold W

    2005-04-01

    Mastitis, the most consequential disease in dairy cattle, costs the US dairy industry billions of dollars annually. To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced. In vitro assays demonstrated the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Intramammary infusions of S. aureus were administered to three transgenic and ten nontransgenic cows. Increases in milk somatic cells, elevated body temperatures and induced acute phase proteins, each indicative of infection, were observed in all of the nontransgenic cows but in none of the transgenic animals. Protection against S. aureus mastitis appears to be achievable with as little as 3 micrograms/ml [corrected] of lysostaphin in milk. Our results indicate that genetic engineering can provide a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improve the well-being of livestock.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  17. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Sin-Yeang; Ali, Syed Atif

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Diawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes.Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration, comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes.Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002. But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61% was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87% had at least two virulence toxin genes.Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  20. The expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis%表皮葡萄球菌在慢性鼻-鼻窦炎患者中生物膜的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应华永; 徐瑞龙; 诸葛盼; 卜黎红; 杨卫仙; 尤慧华

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究表皮葡萄球菌生物膜在慢性鼻-鼻窦炎(CRS)患者鼻黏膜中的表达情况.方法 将临床手术中获取的180例慢性鼻-鼻窦炎患者内镜手术黏膜样本,根据细菌培养结果将其分为4组,分别 为表皮葡萄球菌生长组79例,其他葡萄球菌生长组33例,阴性杆菌生长组27例,细菌培养阴性组41例,所有样本均行标准的扫描电子显微镜方法检测.结果 表皮葡萄球菌生长组79例全部观察到生物膜的存在,表达率为100%(79/79),其他葡萄球菌生长组为75.8%(25/33),阴性杆菌生长组为77.8%(21/27),细菌培养阴性组为41.5%(17/41).后3组分别与表皮葡萄球菌组比较,P值均<0.01.结论 表皮葡萄球菌在CRS患者生物膜形成中起重要作用.%Objective To investigate the expression of Staplzylococcus epidermidis biofilm in the nasal mucosa of patients with chronic thinosinusitis ( CRS ).Methods 180 samples were collected during endoscopic sinus surgery from patients with CRS.According to the results of bacterial culture, they were classified into 4 groups [ Staphylococcus epidermidis growth group ( 79 cases ), other Staphylococcus aureus growth group ( 33 cases ), negative bacillus growth group ( 27 cases ) and hacterial culture-negative group ( 41 cases ) ].All samples were subjected to scanning electron microscopy.Results The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed bacterial biofilms in all cases of the Staphylococcus epidermidis growth group, and the expressions for the 4 groups were l00% ( 79/79 ), 75.8% ( 25/33 ),77.8% ( 21/27 ) and 41.5% ( 17/41 ), respectively.The results were compared hetween Staphylococcus epidermidis growth group and other 3 groups ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusions Staphylococcus epidermidis is important for the formation of biofilms in the patients with CRS.

  1. The Significance of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and the Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Wenzel (Richard); T. M. Perl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus infections are associated with considerable morbidity and, in certain situations, mortality. The association between the nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent infection has been comprehensively established in a variety of clinical settings, in particular, patie

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Isha; Chakrapani, Harinath; Chopra, Sidharth

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29213 is one of the most commonly used strains in drug discovery research and for quality control. We report the completed draft genome sequence for the strain.

  3. Efficacy of a synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetic versus vancomycin in a Staphylococcus epidermidis device-related murine peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline; Granslo, Hildegunn Norbakken; Fredheim, Elizabeth Aarag;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prevalent cause of peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis. We compared the efficacy of a synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetic (Ltx21) versus vancomycin in a murine model mimicking a device-related peritonitis. Methods Silicone implants......, pre-colonized with an S. epidermidis biofilm, were inserted into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. Three groups (36 mice in each) with pre-colonized implants received intraperitoneal treatment with Ltx21, vancomycin or placebo. Mice were euthanized on day 3 (n = 12), day 6 (n = 12) or day 8 (n...... = 12) post-implantation. Controls were mice with sterile implants (n = 18) and mice without surgery (n = 6). Bacterial reductions in cfu were analysed from implants and peritoneal fluid (PF). Inflammatory responses in serum and PF were measured. Results Vancomycin resulted in a stronger reduction...

  4. Characterization of Haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ariyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen bacteria causing food poisoning and various infection in animals and humans. Haemolysin is one of the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. The aims of the research were to characterize haemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origin, phenotypic- and genotypically. In the present study, eleven Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origins from traditional markets and supermarkets in Yogyakarta, Sidoarjo, Jakarta, and Bandung were characterized for haemolysin, pheno- and genotypically. Characterization of haemolysin phenotypically based on haemolysis pattern of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plate. Genes encoding hemolysin were amplified with specific primers by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The results of the studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plates revealed an alpha haemolysis pattern (18,18%, beta haemolysis (27,27% and gamma haemolysis (54,55%. Based on amplification of the gene encoding haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus with specific primers showed hla genes (81,81%, and hla combined with hlb genes (18,18%. The amplification of gene hla and hlb had a single amplicon with a size of approximately 534 bp and 833 bp, respectively. The haemolysin characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus from various food of animal origin could be used as important information to control staphylococcal food poisoning.Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, haemolysin, PCR, food of animal origins

  5. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Persistent or Recurrent Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially with persistent (PB or recurrent bacteremia (RB.

  6. In Vivo Activity of Ceftobiprole in Murine Skin Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Hilliard, Jamese J.; Abbanat, Darren; Zhang, Wenyan; Melton, John L.; Santoro, Colleen M.; Flamm, Robert K.; Bush, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC β-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC β-lactamase). In the MSSA an...

  7. The sortase A substrates FnbpA, FnbpB, ClfA and ClfB antagonize colony spreading of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Tsompanidou

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is renowned both for its rapid transmission within hospitals and the community, and for the formation of antibiotic resistant biofilms on medical implants. Recently, it was shown that S. aureus is able to spread over wet surfaces. This motility phenomenon is promoted by the surfactant properties of secreted phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs, which are also known to inhibit biofilm formation. The aim of the present studies was to determine whether any cell surface-associated S. aureus proteins have an impact on colony spreading. To this end, we analyzed the spreading capabilities of strains lacking non-essential components of the protein export and sorting machinery. Interestingly, our analyses reveal that the absence of sortase A (SrtA causes a hyper-spreading phenotype. SrtA is responsible for covalent anchoring of various proteins to the staphylococcal cell wall. Accordingly, we show that the hyper-spreading phenotype of srtA mutant cells is an indirect effect that relates to the sortase substrates FnbpA, FnbpB, ClfA and ClfB. These surface-exposed staphylococcal proteins are known to promote biofilm formation, and cell-cell interactions. The hyper-spreading phenotype of srtA mutant staphylococcal cells was subsequently validated in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We conclude that cell wall-associated factors that promote a sessile lifestyle of S. aureus and S. epidermidis antagonize the colony spreading motility of these bacteria.

  8. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  9. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Reizner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorised by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarised and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health. PMID:23060511

  11. Crystal Violet and XTT Assays on Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Yanrui; Lin, Shiqi; Chen, Dingqiang; Li, Bing; Li, Lin; Deng, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus) is a common food-borne pathogenic microorganism. Biofilm formation remains the major obstruction for bacterial elimination. The study aims at providing a basis for determining S. aureus biofilm formation. 257 clinical samples of S. aureus isolates were identified by routine analysis and multiplex PCR detection and found to contain 227 MRSA, 16 MSSA, 11 MRCNS, and 3 MSCNS strains. Two assays for quantification of S. aureus biofilm formation, the crystal violet (CV) assay and the XTT (tetrazolium salt reduction) assay, were optimized, evaluated, and further compared. In CV assay, most isolates formed weak biofilm 74.3 %), while the rest formed moderate biofilm (23.3 %) or strong biofilm (2.3 %). However, most isolates in XTT assay showed weak metabolic activity (77.0 %), while the rest showed moderate metabolic activity (17.9 %) or high metabolic activity (5.1 %). In this study, we found a distinct strain-to-strain dissimilarity in terms of both biomass formation and metabolic activity, and it was concluded from this study that two assays were mutual complementation rather than being comparison. PMID:27324342

  12. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3-10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  14. Diversity of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci from veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In this study we determined whether methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus (MRNAS) from veal calves may be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistance and virulence genes. Fifty-eight MRNAS were studied by means of DNA-microarray and PCR for detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. The isolates carried a variety of antimicrobial-resistance genes [aacA-aphD, aadD, aph3, aadE, sat, spc, ampA, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(T), lnu(A), msr(A)-msr(B), vga(A), mph(C), tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), cat, fexA, dfrA, dfrD, dfrG, dfrK, cfr, fusB, fosB, qacA, qacC, merA-merB]. Some isolates carried resistance genes without showing the corresponding resistance phenotype. Most MRNAS carried typical S. aureus virulence factors like proteases (sspP) and enterotoxins (seg) genes. Most Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates carried the arginine catabolic element, and nearly 40% of the Staphylococcus sciuri isolates carried leukocidins, and/or fibronectin-binding protein genes. MRNAS were highly multi-resistant and represent an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. PMID:25637268

  15. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections.

  16. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennison L. Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1 whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone and (2 whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n=3,927 and were not screened (n=1,751 for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received chlorhexidine body wipes preoperatively. Patients carrying MSSA and MRSA were treated preoperatively with mupirocin and vancomycin, respectively, along with the standard preoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine body wipes. Screened patients were 50% less likely to require revision due to prosthetic joint infection compared to those not screened (p=0.04. Multivariate regression models were poorly accurate in predicting colonization with MSSA (AUC = 0.58 and MRSA (AUC = 0.62. These results support the routine screening and decolonization of S. aureus prior to TJA.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible.

  18. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  19. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival.

  20. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  1. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival. PMID:26748534

  2. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  3. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  4. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...... resources for handling the epidemic are not available. Without active intervention, this situation will have serious implications for the health care system....

  5. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  6. Strain Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus Using Superantigen Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Hau-Yang; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Shuo-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial species that may cause clinical infection and food-poisoning cases. Strains of this species may produce a series of superantigens (SAgs). Due to the importance of staphylococcal infections, reliable methods for the discrimination of strains of this species are important. Such data may allow us to trace the infection origins and be used for epidemiological study. For strain discrimination, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), etc., could be used. Recently, toxin gene profiles, which can be used for the elucidation of the genetic and pathogenic relatedness between strains, also have been used to improve the strain discrimination. For S. aureus, as more SAg genes were discovered, the SAg profiles become more useful for the strain discrimination of S. aureus. In this chapter, a method for the discrimination of S. aureus strains using superantigen profiles will be described in detail.

  7. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin induces IL-8 expression in human astrocytes via a mechanism involving TLR2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic biofilm-forming pathogen associated with neurosurgical device-related meningitis. Expression of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) on its surface promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Here we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of PIA against primary and transformed human astrocytes. PIA induced IL-8 expression in a dose- and\\/or time-dependent manner from U373 MG cells and primary normal human astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by depletion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine polymer from the PIA preparation with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin or sodium meta-periodate. Expression of dominant-negative versions of the TLR2 and TLR4 adaptor proteins MyD88 and Mal in U373 MG cells inhibited PIA-induced IL-8 production. Blocking IL-1 had no effect. PIA failed to induce IL-8 production from HEK293 cells stably expressing TLR4. However, in U373 MG cells which express TLR2, neutralization of TLR2 impaired PIA-induced IL-8 production. In addition to IL-8, PIA also induced expression of other cytokines from U373 MG cells including IL-6 and MCP-1. These data implicate PIA as an important immunogenic component of the S. epidermidis biofilm that can regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production from human astrocytes, in part, via TLR2.

  10. Autoinducer-2 increases biofilm formation via an ica- and bhp-dependent manner in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Ni, Jingtian; Shang, Fei; Chen, Xiaolin; Zhang, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become the most common cause of nosocomial bacteraemia and the principal organism responsible for indwelling medical device -associated infections. Its pathogenicity is mainly due to its ability to form biofilms on the implanted medical devices. Biofilm formation is a quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent process controlled by autoinducers, which are signalling molecules. Here, we investigated the function of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) QS system, especially the influence of AI-2 on biofilm formation in S. epidermidis RP62A. Results showed that the addition of AI-2 leads to a significant increase in biofilm formation, in contrast with previous studies which showed that AI-2 limits biofilm formation in Staphylococci. We found that AI-2 increases biofilm formation by enhancing the transcription of the ica operon, which is a known component in the AI-2-regulated biofilm pathway. In addition, we first observed that the transcript level of bhp, which encodes a biofilm-associated protein, was also increased following the addition of AI-2. Furthermore, we found that, among the known biofilm regulator genes (icaR, sigB, rbsU, sarA, sarX, sarZ, clpP, agrA, abfR, arlRS, saeRS), only icaR can be regulated by AI-2, suggesting that AI-2 may regulate biofilm formation by an icaR-dependent mechanism in S. epidermidis RP62A.

  11. Correlation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Breakpoints and Methicillin Resistance Gene Carriage in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Eftekhar,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of coagulase negative staphylococci responsible for community and hospital acquired infections. Most clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are resistant to methicillin making these infections difficult to treat. In this study, correlation of methicillin resistance phenotype was compared with methicillin resistance (mecA gene carriage in 55 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis. Susceptibility was measured by disc diffusion using methicillin discs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were measured using broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance gene (MecA gene carriage was detected by specific primers and PCR. Disc susceptibility results showed 90.9% resistance to methicillin. Considering a MIC of 4 µg/ml, 78.1% of the isolates were methicillin resistant, 76.36% of which carried the mecA gene. On the other hand, when a breakpoint of 0.5 µg/ml was used, 89.09% were methicillin resistant, of which 93.75% were mecA positive. There was a better correlation between MIC of 0.5 µg/ml with disc diffusion results and mecA gene carriage. The findings suggest that despite the usefulness of molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of virulence genes, gene carriage does not necessarily account for virulence phenotype. Ultimately, gene expression, which is controlled by the environment, would determine the outcome

  12. Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Pinheiro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to correlate the presence of ica genes, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in 107 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures. The isolates were analysed to determine their methicillin resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type, ica genes and biofilm formation and the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was measured for isolates and subpopulations growing on vancomycin screen agar. The mecA gene was detected in 81.3% of the S. epidermidis isolated and 48.2% carried SCCmec type III. The complete icaADBC operon was observed in 38.3% of the isolates; of these, 58.5% produced a biofilm. Furthermore, 47.7% of the isolates grew on vancomycin screen agar, with an increase in the MIC in 75.9% of the isolates. Determination of the MIC of subpopulations revealed that 64.7% had an MIC ≥ 4 μg mL-1, including 15.7% with an MIC of 8 μg mL-1 and 2% with an MIC of 16 μg mL-1. The presence of the icaADBC operon, biofilm production and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were associated with methicillin resistance. This study reveals a high level of methicillin resistance, biofilm formation and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in subpopulations of S. epidermidis. These findings may explain the selection of multidrug-resistant isolates in hospital settings and the consequent failure of antimicrobial treatment.

  13. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also ...

  14. Molecular mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M A; Liñares, J; Martín, R

    1997-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are among the most common nosocomial pathogens. The most significant mechanism of resistance to methicillin in this-species is the acquisition of a genetic determinant (mecA gene). However, resistance seems to have a more complex molecular basis, since additional chromosomal material is involved in such resistance. Besides, overproduction of penicillinase and/or alterations in the PBPs can contribute to the formation of resistance phenotypes. Genetic and environmental factors leading to MRSA are reviewed.

  15. In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Scott, David A.; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Kriz, Andrea J.; Zetsche, Bernd; Shalem, Ophir; Wu, Xuebing; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene; Sharp, Phillip A.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a versatile genome-editing platform. However, the size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for basic research and therapeutic applications that employ the highly versatile adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery vehicle. Here, we characterize six smaller Cas9 orthologs and show that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can edit the genome with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9, while being >1...

  16. Binding of collagen to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P; Raucci, G; Visai, L.; Switalski, L M; Timpl, R; Höök, M

    1986-01-01

    Collagen binds to a receptor protein present on the surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to its bacterial receptor is reversible, and Scatchard plot analysis indicates the presence of one class of receptor that occurs on an average of 3 X 10(4) copies per cell and binds type II collagen with a Kd of 10(-7) M. Studies on the specificity of collagen cell binding indicate that the receptor does not recognize noncollagenous proteins but binds all of th...

  17. Inhibition of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Maja; Vuković, Dragana; Živanović, Irena; Dakić, Ivana; Soldatović, Ivan; Maletić, Dejan; Lazović, Saša; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran; Puač, Nevena

    2014-03-01

    In numerous recent papers plasma chemistry of non equilibrium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure has been linked to plasma medical effects including sterilization. In this paper we present a study of the effectiveness of an atmospheric pressure plasma source, known as plasma needle, in inhibition of the growth of biofilm produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even at the lowest powers the biofilms formed by inoculi of MRSA of 104 and 105 CFU have been strongly affected by plasma and growth in biofilms was inhibited. The eradication of the already formed biofilm was not achieved and it is required to go to more effective sources.

  18. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus": Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aniltta; Letizia, MariJo

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is a disease-causing organism that has been present in hospital settings since the 1960s. However, a genetically distinct strain of MRSA, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA), has emerged in recent years in community settings among healthy…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Community Acquired and Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    P R, Vysakh; M, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital.

  20. Population Genomics of Reduced Vancomycin Susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishishwar, Lavanya; Kraft, Colleen S; Jordan, I King

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) is an emerging health care threat. Genome-based comparative methods hold great promise to uncover the genetic basis of the VISA phenotype, which remains obscure. S. aureus isolates were collected from a single individual that presented with recurrent staphylococcal bacteremia at three time points, and the isolates showed successively reduced levels of vancomycin susceptibility. A population genomic approach was taken to compare patient S. aureus isolates with decreasing vancomycin susceptibility across the three time points. To do this, patient isolates were sequenced to high coverage (~500×), and sequence reads were used to model site-specific allelic variation within and between isolate populations. Population genetic methods were then applied to evaluate the overall levels of variation across the three time points and to identify individual variants that show anomalous levels of allelic change between populations. A successive reduction in the overall levels of population genomic variation was observed across the three time points, consistent with a population bottleneck resulting from antibiotic treatment. Despite this overall reduction in variation, a number of individual mutations were swept to high frequency in the VISA population. These mutations were implicated as potentially involved in the VISA phenotype and interrogated with respect to their functional roles. This approach allowed us to identify a number of mutations previously implicated in VISA along with allelic changes within a novel class of genes, encoding LPXTG motif-containing cell-wall-anchoring proteins, which shed light on a novel mechanistic aspect of vancomycin resistance. IMPORTANCE The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens are two of the gravest threats to public health facing the world today. We report the development and application of a novel population genomic

  1. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  2. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  3. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  4. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  5. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Silva; Radcliff, Fiona J; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M; Fraser, John D; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2013-01-01

    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ) which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization. PMID:24023720

  6. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  7. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from remote African Babongo Pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins, S. aureus protein A (spa types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%, enterotoxin B (20.6%, exfoliative toxin D (11.7% and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7% were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  9. Comparison of community-onset Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in Thailand: a prospective multicentre observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Chantratita, N.; Wikraiphat, C; Tandhavanant, S.; Wongsuvan, G; Ariyaprasert, P.; Suntornsut, P; Thaipadungpanit, J; Teerawattanasook, N.; Jutrakul, Y.; Srisurat, N; Chaimanee, P; Anukunananchai, J.; Phiphitaporn, S; Srisamang, P; Chetchotisakd, P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a globally distributed cause of human infection, but diagnostic laboratories misidentify this as Staphylococcus aureus. We determined whether there is clinical utility in distinguishing between the two. A prospective cohort study of community-onset invasive staphylococcal sepsis was conducted in adults at four hospitals in northeast Thailand between 2010 and 2013. Of 311 patients analysed, 58 (19%) were infected with S. argenteus and 253 (81%) with S. aureus. Most ...

  10. A rare case of acute epiglottitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiglottitis has been mainly associated with childhood infection with Haemophilis influenzae type B but cases of adult epiglottitis are increasing. We report here a case of adult epiglottitis and present evidence that it was caused by S. aureus. A 48-year old patient with clinical symptoms of epiglottitis grew Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture from an epiglottal swab. Staphylococcus aureus should be considered as a potential pathogen in adult epiglottitis.

  11. A cohort study of the Copenhagen CF Centre eradication strategy against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with CF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Christina Schjellerup; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed....

  12. The population structure of Staphylococcus Aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Driessen, C.; Sebastian, S.; Nijs, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal carri

  13. Nosocomial Infections and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Methicillin Sensitive and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nitish Kumar; Garg, Raina; Baliga, Shrikala; Bhat K., Gopalkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Strains That are Hypersusceptible to Resistance Gene Transfer from Enterococci▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Julia M.-L.; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2007-01-01

    We identified naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus mutants of the restriction modification pathway SauI, including bovine lineage ST151. In a model of vancomycin resistance transfer from Enterococcus faecalis, ST151 isolates are 500 times more susceptible than human S. aureus isolates. The eradication of “hyperrecipient” strains may reduce the evolution of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

  15. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  16. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  17. Proteome changes of Caenorhabditis elegans upon a Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoofs Liliane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. The aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a Staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach. Results Different types of growth media in combination with either E. coli OP50 or Staphylococcus aureus were tested for an effect on the worm's lifespan. LB agar was chosen and C. elegans samples were collected 1 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h post S. aureus infection or E. coli incubation. Proteomics analyses resulted in the identification of 130 spots corresponding to a total of 108 differentially expressed proteins. Conclusions Exploring four time-points discloses a dynamic insight of the reaction against a gram-positive infection at the level of the whole organism. The remarkable upregulation after 8 h and 24 h of many enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle might illustrate the cost of fighting off an infection. Intriguing is the downregulation of chaperone molecules, which are presumed to serve a protective role. A comparison with a similar experiment in which C. elegans was infected with the gram-negative Aeromonas hydrophila reveals that merely 9% of the identified spots, some of which even exhibiting an opposite regulation, are present in both studies. Hence, our findings emphasise the complexity and pathogen-specificity of the worm's immune response and form a firm basis for future functional research. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Itai Yanai, Dieter Wolf and Torben Luebke (nominated by Walter Lutz.

  18. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus isolates in domestic dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Staphylococcus aureusis a one of THE most frequent causes of food poisoning (FP in dairy products. The main etiologic agents of FP are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE. There are different types of SE; types A (SEA and B (SEB are the most clinically important enterotoxins. Traditional dairy products are still produced in small batches and sold by some vendors without a permit from the Ministry of Health. This study focuses on the molecular and serological detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus SEA and SEB genes and its products, respectively from samples of such traditional products."nMaterials and Methods: 100 samples from dairy products were produced under sterile conditions via traditional methods and were transported to the laboratory. The samples were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were evaluated by PCR tests for detection of the genes encoding SEA and SEB. Subsequently, the ability of these strains to produce enterotoxin was examined by Sac's culture method and was confirmed by Sigel Radial Immounodiffussion (SRID."nResults: The results indicated that 32% of the dairy products were contaminated by S. aureus (cream 18% , cheese 10%, milk 4%. The PCR results showed that 15.6% of the S. aureus isolates possessed the SEA gene, 9.3% had the SEB gene, and 6.2% possessed both genes. The evaluation of enterotoxin production indicated that 80% of SEA and 33% of SEB genes were expressed."nConclusion: Enterotoxins SEA and SEB are heat stable and consequently; heating has no effect on dairy products contaminated by entertoxins. Subsequently, gastritis may occur within several hours after consumption. Our findings suggest that PCR is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for detecting SE and can replace the traditional assays.

  19. Analysis of Cell Wall Teichoic Acids in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, Gonçalo; Vaz, Filipa; Henriques, Gabriela; Pinho, Mariana G; Filipe, Sérgio R

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial cells are surrounded by a surface composed mainly of peptidoglycan (PGN), a glycopolymer responsible for ensuring the bacterial shape and a telltale molecule that betrays the presence of bacteria to the host immune system. In Staphylococcus aureus, as in most gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan is concealed by covalently linked molecules of wall teichoic acids (WTA)-phosphate rich molecules made of glycerol and ribitol phosphates which may be tailored by different amino acids and sugars.In order to analyze and compare the composition of WTA produced by different S. aureus strains, we describe methods to: (1) quantify the total amount of WTA present at the bacterial cell surface, through the determination of the inorganic phosphate present in phosphodiester linkages of WTA; (2) identify which sugar constituents are present in the assembled WTA molecules, by detecting the monosaccharides, released by acid hydrolysis, through an high-performance anion exchange chromatography analysis coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and (3) compare the polymerization degree of WTA found at the cell surface of different S. aureus strains, through their different migration in a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). PMID:27311674

  20. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  1. Novel antibiotics for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsen, Knut

    2009-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic treatment of infections owing to S. aureus have become increasingly challenging as the pathogen has acquired a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In particular, emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) progressed to a global health threat. The glycopeptides antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin have remained as the drugs of last resort for more than 20 years. Fortunately, in addition to the glycopeptides, several novel antibiotics including linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin and ceftobiprole acting against MRSA have been recently introduced into clinical practice broadening therapeutic options. Although the arsenal of antistaphylococcal drugs has filled up in recent years, the rate of MRSA infection continues to be high in most countries. This demands an ongoing search for new antibacterials and lead compounds as well as development of alternative therapies and faster diagnostics to ensure effective anti-staphylococcal therapy in the future. PMID:22112259

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Regulatory RNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeau, Valérie; Cady, Anne; Revest, Matthieu; Rostan, Octavie; Sassi, Mohamed; Tattevin, Pierre; Donnio, Pierre-Yves; Felden, Brice

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal bacterium and pathogen. Identifying biomarkers for the transition from colonization to disease caused by this organism would be useful. Several S. aureus small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate virulence. We investigated presence and expression of 8 sRNAs in 83 S. aureus strains from 42 patients with sepsis or septic shock and 41 asymptomatic colonized carriers. Small pathogenicity island sRNAs sprB and sprC were clade specific. Six sRNAs had variable expression not correlated with clinical status. Expression of RNAIII was lower in strains from septic shock patients than in strains from colonized patients. When RNAIII was associated with expression of sprD, colonizing strains could be discriminated from strains in patients with bloodstream infections, including patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolates associated with colonization might have sRNAs with target expression different from those of disease isolates. Monitoring expression of RNAIII and sprD could help determine severity of bloodstream infections. PMID:27224202

  3. Modulation of Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with Coumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Aquino de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic and commercial coumarins were investigated for their antibacterial and adjuvant properties with antibiotic agents against norfloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus aureus as based on efflux mechanisms. The coumarins and certain commercial antibiotics had their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations determined by broth microdilution assay against resistant S. aureus strains which overexpress efflux pump proteins. For evaluation of the modulatory activity, the antibiotics MICs were determined in the presence of the coumarin derivatives at subinhibitory concentration. Although the coumarins did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC ≥ 128 µg/mL, they did modulate the antibiotics activities. Various coumarins, especially the alkylated derivatives in combination with antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations, modulated antibiotic activity, reducing the MIC for tetracycline and norfloxacin by 2 to 8 times. Polar Surface Area (PSA studies were performed and the fact that the presence of apolar groups is an important factor for the modulatory activity of coumarins was corroborated. Docking on the Penicillin-Binding Protein from MRSA identified that 18 is a potential ligand presenting low Ebinding. The results indicate that coumarin derivatives modulated antibiotic resistance and may be used as potential antibiotic adjuvants, acting by bacterial efflux pump inhibition in S. aureus.

  4. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains.

  5. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains. PMID:17157942

  6. Risk factors of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care staff in a teaching hospital in central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Humaidan, Ohoud S.; El-kersh, Talat A; Al-Akeel, Raid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate possible risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage associated with various health troubles among healthcare workers (HCWs) at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Method: This prospective study was conducted between May 2012 and January 2013 in KKUH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 200 nasal swabs were collected from HCWs. Identification was carried out based on morphology, Gram stain, catalase an...

  7. Surgimiento y diseminación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant: emergence and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones nosocomiales ocasionadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistentes (SAMR son un problema de salud importante en todo el mundo. Este microorganismo produce una gran variedad de infecciones incluyendo osteomielitis, endocarditis invasora, artritis séptica y septicemia. La multirresistencia es un factor que influye en la persistencia de los SAMR dentro del ámbito hospitalario. La introducción de técnicas de tipificación molecular dentro de las investigaciones epidemiológicas ha provisto nuevas herramientas para conocer el origen y las vías de diseminación de este microorganismo. Una de las conclusiones importantes que han surgido de este tipo de estudios es que un número pequeño de clonas son las responsables de las infecciones estafilocócicas en todo el mundo.Nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important health problem worldwide. This microorganism causes a variety of clinical infections, including osteomyelitis, invasive endocarditis, septic arthritis and septicemia. Antimicrobial resistance is a factor that influences the persistence of MRSA in the hospital environment. The introduction of molecular typing techniques in epidemiological investigations has provided new tools for identifying the microorganism's origin and routes of dissemination. One of the most important conclusions that have resulted from these types of studies is that a small number of clones are responsible for most of the staphylococcal infections throughout the world.

  8. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  9. Ceftriaxone and tetracycline effect on biofilm-formation strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Sidashenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 122 strains of staphylococci were identified. Among the examined 122 clinical strains of staphylococci, 67 strains belonged to coagulase-positive, and 55 strains to the coagulase-negative ones. According to the study of physiological and biochemical properties, it was found that 37 strains (30.3% belonged to S. epidermidis species. One of the biological properties of many bacteria is the ability to film formation and these strains attract special attention, since it is known that the film antibiotic resistance is higher than in planktonic cultures. It was determined that 20 strains of those under study were film-forming, 17 strains – non-biofilm forming ones. The film was formed during three days, and settled to the bottom of the plate holes. The clinical (Cl strain of S. epidermidis was sensitive to ceftriaxone and tetracicline. The control (C strains of S. epidermidis were sensitive to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and sizomicine. The study of biofilm growth for 2, 3 and 4 days of incubation was carried out. The maximum rate of biofilm S. epidermidis C was observed during 2–3 days; there is the most intense increase of cells number from 5.2 × 108 CFU/ml, for S. epidermidis Cl to 5.6 × 108 CFU/ml. The effect of ceftriaxone and tetracycline on biofilm formation by 2 investigation strains of S. epidermidis was found. We determined differences in minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for planktonic cultures and biofilm of strains under study. It was established that MIC antibiotics inhibited the growth of planktonic cultures on average 2 times lower compared to the MIC which inhibited the biofilm formation. MIC for planktonic culture of S. epidermidis Cl defined for ceftriaxone was equal to 10 mg/ml, and for tetracycline – 1 mg/ml. MIC of ceftriaxone for the control strain was equal to 12 mg/ml, MIC of tetracycline – 0.7 mg/ml. MIC values for dynamics biofilm formation of S. epidermidis Cl strain on the plater were as follows: to

  10. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Yeaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target

  11. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward M; Needs, Polly F; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n=153), Africa (n=28), South America (n=14) and Australia (n=1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump.

  12. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients : model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activ

  13. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  14. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragland, Inger Sofie; Rukke, Håkon Valen; Stenhagen, Ida S R; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Kopperud, Hilde M

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of low viscosity chitosan on S. epidermidis growth and biofilm formation. Methods and Results. The antibacterial and antibiofilm properties were investigated, during both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. This was performed using different concentrations in media and by coating on polystyrene surfaces. In addition, the bactericidal effect was investigated using a modified direct contact test. The results showed that low viscosity chitosan in media had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis in a concentration dependent manner. Polystyrene discs coated with chitosan reduced both early biofilm formation (6 h) and late biofilm formation (18 h), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The modified direct contact test showed a bactericidal effect. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that low viscosity chitosan has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis and that the activity is dependent on the amount of chitosan added. In addition, low viscosity chitosan reduced biofilm formation both when added to media and when coated on polystyrene surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study. Low viscosity chitosan could be a contribution to new treatment approaches of biofilm-related infections of S. epidermidis. PMID:27635144

  15. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sofie Dragland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of low viscosity chitosan on S. epidermidis growth and biofilm formation. Methods and Results. The antibacterial and antibiofilm properties were investigated, during both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. This was performed using different concentrations in media and by coating on polystyrene surfaces. In addition, the bactericidal effect was investigated using a modified direct contact test. The results showed that low viscosity chitosan in media had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis in a concentration dependent manner. Polystyrene discs coated with chitosan reduced both early biofilm formation (6 h and late biofilm formation (18 h, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The modified direct contact test showed a bactericidal effect. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that low viscosity chitosan has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis and that the activity is dependent on the amount of chitosan added. In addition, low viscosity chitosan reduced biofilm formation both when added to media and when coated on polystyrene surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study. Low viscosity chitosan could be a contribution to new treatment approaches of biofilm-related infections of S. epidermidis.

  16. Community-onset Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daly, Denise A; Pearson, Julie C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Robinson, James O; Turnidge, John D

    2014-03-01

    In 2012, the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) conducted a community-onset period-prevalence survey of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital outpatients and general practice patients including nursing homes, long term care facilities and hospice patients. Day surgery and dialysis patients were excluded. Twenty-nine medical microbiology laboratories from all state and mainland territories participated. Isolates were tested by Vitek2® (AST-P612 card). Results were compared with previous AGAR community surveys. Nationally, the proportion of S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) increased significantly from 11.5% in 2000 to 17.9% in 2012 (P<0.0001). Resistance to the non-ß-lactam antimicrobials varied between regions. No resistance was detected to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. Resistance in methicillin susceptible S. aureus was rare apart from erythromycin (12.8%) and was absent for vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and daptomycin. The proportion of S. aureus characterised as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) was 5.1%. Three HA-MRSA clones were characterised, with 72.9% and 26.4% of HA-MRSA classified as ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA) respectively. Multi-clonal community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) accounted for 12.5% of all S. aureus. Regional variation in resistance in MRSA was primarily due to the differential distribution of the 2 major HA-MRSA clones; ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA), which is resistant to multiple non-ß-lactam antimicrobials, and ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15), which is resistant to ciprofloxacin and typically erythromycin. Although the majority of CA-MRSA were non-multi-resistant, a significant expansion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive CA-MRSA clones has occurred nationally. The mean age of patients (31.7 years, 95% CI 28.9-34.5) with a PVL positive CA-MRSA infection was significantly lower (P<0.0001), than the mean age of patients with a PVL

  17. Modeling Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Non-Unions: Subclinical and Clinical Evidence in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna Barbara; Romanò, Carlo Luca; Bottagisio, Marta; Monti, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Previdi, Sara; Accetta, Riccardo; Drago, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    S. epidermidis is one of the leading causes of orthopaedic infections associated with biofilm formation on implant devices. Open fractures are at risk of S. epidermidis transcutaneous contamination leading to higher non-union development compared to closed fractures. Although the role of infection in delaying fracture healing is well recognized, no in vivo models investigated the impact of subclinical low-grade infections on bone repair and non-union. We hypothesized that the non-union rate is directly related to the load of this commonly retrieved pathogen and that a low-grade contamination delays the fracture healing without clinically detectable infection. Rat femurs were osteotomized and stabilized with plates. Fractures were infected with a characterized clinical-derived methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (103, 105, 108 colony forming units) and compared to uninfected controls. After 56 days, bone healing and osteomyelitis were clinically assessed and further evaluated by micro-CT, microbiological and histological analyses. The biofilm formation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The control group showed no signs of infection and a complete bone healing. The 103 group displayed variable response to infection with a 67% of altered bone healing and positive bacterial cultures, despite no clinical signs of infection present. The 105 and 108 groups showed severe signs of osteomyelitis and a non-union rate of 83–100%, respectively. The cortical bone reaction related to the periosteal elevation in the control group and the metal scattering detected by micro-CT represented limitations of this study. Our model showed that an intra-operative low-grade S. epidermidis contamination might prevent the bone healing, even in the absence of infectious signs. Our findings also pointed out a dose-dependent effect between the S. epidermidis inoculum and non-union rate. This pilot study identifies a relevant preclinical model to assess the role of subclinical

  18. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    F Amin Harati; Amini, M; AR Shahverdi; Pourmand MR; Yousefi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has inc...

  19. Investigation of the bactericidal effects of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin on Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞGÖR-LİMONCU, Mine; ERMERTCAN, Şafak; COŞAR, Güner

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the bactericidal activity of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) on Staphylococcus aureus isolates and their minimal inhibition concentrations. The in-vitro susceptibilities of the 99 S. aureus isolates to vancomycin and Q/D were investigated by agar dilution. Thirty methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) vancomycin and Q/D susceptible isolates were involved in time-kill stu...

  20. Daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomycin-intermediate, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Yu; Dale, Suzanne E; Deborah Yamamura; Vida Stankus; Christine Lee

    2012-01-01

    Due to the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility, newer antibiotics, including daptomycin, have been used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is approved to treat S aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis, and reports of S aureus with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin are infrequent. To our knowledge, the present report describes the first Canadian case of daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomyci...

  1. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  2. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joanne Wai Ling; Ceranic, Borka; Harris, Robert; Timehin, Elwina

    2015-09-14

    This case highlights the diagnostic challenges in patients presenting with bilateral sudden sensorinueral hearing loss (SNHL). The aetiology of bilateral sudden SNHL may span several medical disciplines. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of such presentations, and consider aetiologies beyond otological and neurological causes. We present a case of a previously healthy 51-year-old woman who presented with coryzal symptoms and sudden audiovestibular failure. Examination revealed fever, tachycardia, bilateral profound hearing loss and nystagmus. Following investigations, an initial working diagnosis of vasculitis was made. Later, blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and a transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed endocarditis. The patient made a good recovery, but the hearing loss was permanent and managed with a cochlear implant.

  3. Strategies for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J M

    1995-07-01

    In areas where the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very low, aggressive strategies, which appear to have been effective, such as those used in the Netherlands and western Australia, may be feasible. In hospitals where MRSA is epidemic or highly endemic, less rigorous strategies are appropriate. However, which isolation techniques and barrier precautions are optimal is controversial. In addition, there is no consensus regarding the epidemiological importance of environmental contamination. Rapid detection of MRSA, prompt implementation of barrier precautions and prospective surveillance are essential components of a successful control programme. Eradicating nasal carriage of MRSA among patients and personnel can be useful during epidemics, but the cost-effectiveness of using this approach in hospitals where the prevalence of MRSA is low is unknown. Additional studies of this issue need to include surveillance for mupirocin-resistant strains.

  4. [Clonal eosinophilia revealed by recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbos, F; Figueredo, M; Dumon-Gubeno, M-C; Nicolle, I; Tarhini, A; Medioni, L-D; Naman, H; Mouroux, J

    2011-06-01

    Acquired eosinophilia is currently classified into secondary (reactional to underlying diseases), clonal (presence of a bone marrow histological, cytogenetic or molecular marker of a myeloid malignancy) and idiopathic (neither secondary nor clonal) categories. We report the case of a 47-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital for Staphylococcus aureus recurring infections. An hypereosinophilia was discovered and led to molecular analysis. The identification of FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene permitted the diagnostic of clonal eosinophilia. Treatment by imatinib mesylate induced an haematological remission, the control of the infection and thoracotomy cicatrization. This case is original because of its infectious presentation and the efficacy of imatinib mesylate to control the infectious process. PMID:21665081

  5. Colonization of Cimex lectularius with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Hu, Baofeng; Nachamkin, Irving; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-05-01

    A recent paper published by Lowe and Romney in Emerging Infectious Diseases titled, Bed bugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria has sparked a renewed interest in bed bug vector potential. We followed a pyrethroid resistant strain of the human bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) fed either human blood or human blood with added methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for 9 days post-feeding. Results indicated that while the bed bug midgut is a hospitable environment for MRSA, the bacteria does not survive longer than 9 days within the midgut. Additionally, MRSA is not amplified within the midgut of the bug as the infection was cleared within 9 days. Due to the weekly feeding behaviours of bed bugs, these results suggest that bed bug transmission of MRSA is highly unlikely. PMID:24589308

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Ae-Li; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Mal-Nam; Jang, Geum-Chan; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-02-01

    A total of 402 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk collected during 2003-2009 in Korea were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to 11 of 20 antimicrobials tested; no resistance was observed against pirlimycin, telithromycin, novobiocin, penicillin/novobiocin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, clindamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, trimethprim/sulfamethoxazol, vancomycin, and linezolid. Over 66% of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin. Resistance was also seen for gentamicin (11.9%), erythromycin (7.7%), methicillin (oxacillin and cefoxitin, 6.2%), and tetracycline (4.2%). No noticeable change was observed in penicillin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance over the 7-year period. Tetracycline resistance appeared to decrease consistently, whereas methicillin resistance was observed from 2005. About 2.7% (11/402) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Genotyping of the 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from each cow revealed two staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (IV and IVa), three spa types (t286, t324, and untypable), and two sequence types (ST1 and ST72). Eleven of 17 (64.7%) MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t324-ST72. The rest of strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t286-ST1 (n = 3) and SCCmec IV-untypable-ST72 (n = 3). None of the MRSA carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. These characteristics are the same as those found in community-acquired (CA) MRSA strains prevalent in humans in Korea. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (A-C) were observed among the 17 MRSA strains examined, and 14 strains belonged to the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern regardless of their geographical origin and year of isolation. The results of this study provide evidence of CA-MRSA infection in dairy cattle for the first time in Korea. PMID:21034263

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Chovanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from indwelling catheters exhibit enhanced biofilm dispersal and "self-renewal" through downregulation of agr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lu; Yang, Liang; Parsons, Chris;

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se) has become a major nosocomial pathogen and the most common cause of infections of implanted prostheses and other indwelling devices. This is due in part to avid biofilm formation by Se on device surfaces. However, it still remains unknown...... that how the process of Se biofilm development is associated with relapsed infection in such patients.Results: We have identified clinical Se isolates displaying enhanced biofilm dispersal and self-renewal relative to reference strain. These isolates also exhibit enhanced initial cell attachment...... these features.Conclusions: Collectively, these data reveal the role of agr system in long-term biofilm development and pathogenesis during Se caused indwelling devices-related relapsed infection....

  9. Antimicrobial peptide incorporated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels for the prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis-associated biomaterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of the antimicrobial peptide maximin-4, the ultrashort peptide H-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2), and the lipopeptide C(12)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2) in preventing adherence of pathogens to a candidate biomaterial were tested utilizing both matrix- and immersion-loaded poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)) hydrogels. Antiadherent properties correlated to both the concentration released and the relative antimicrobial concentrations of each compound against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984, at each time point. Immersion-loaded samples containing C(12)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2) exhibited the lowest adherence profile for all peptides studied over 1, 4, and 24 h. The results outlined in this article show that antimicrobial peptides have the potential to serve as an important weapon against biomaterial associated infections.

  10. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanová, Romana; Mikulášová, Mária; Vaverková, Stefánia

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

  11. Autophagy mediates tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Katie; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Alonzo, Francis; Durbin, Joan; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two defense strategies employed by the host against microbial threats. Autophagy-mediated degradation of bacteria has been extensively described as a major resistance mechanism. Here we find that the dominant function of autophagy proteins during infections with the epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 is to mediate tolerance rather than resistance. Atg16L1 hypomorphic mice (Atg16L1(HM)), which have reduced autophagy, were highly susceptible to lethality in both sepsis and pneumonia models of USA300 infection. Autophagy confers protection by limiting the damage caused by α-toxin, particularly to endothelial cells. Remarkably, Atg16L1(HM) mice display enhanced survival rather than susceptibility upon infection with α-toxin-deficient S. aureus. These results identify an essential role for autophagy in tolerance to Staphylococcal disease and highlight how a single virulence factor encoded by a pathogen can determine whether a given host factor promotes tolerance or resistance.

  12. Converting a Staphylococcus aureus toxin into effective cyclic pseudopeptide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Olivia; Mosbah, Amor; Baudy Floc'h, Michèle; Felden, Brice

    2015-03-19

    Staphylococcus aureus produces peptide toxins that it uses to respond to environmental cues. We previously characterized PepA1, a peptide toxin from S. aureus, that induces lytic cell death of both bacterial and host cells. That led us to suggest that PepA1 has an antibacterial activity. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously provided PepA1 has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We also see that PepA1 is significantly hemolytic, thus limiting its use as an antibacterial agent. To overcome these limitations, we converted PepA1 into nonhemolytic derivatives. Our most promising derivative is a cyclic heptapseudopeptide with inconsequential toxicity to human cells, enhanced stability in human sera, and sharp antibacterial activity. Mechanistically, linear and helical PepA1 derivatives form pores at the bacterial and erythrocyte surfaces, while the cyclic peptide induces bacterial envelope reorganization, with insignificant action on the erythrocytes. Our work demonstrates that bacterial toxins might be an attractive starting point for antibacterial drug development.

  13. Expression of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus possesses three MsrA enzymes (MsrA1, MsrA2, MsrA3 that reduce the S-epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetO and an MsrB enzyme that reduces R-MetO. The four msr genes are expressed from three different promoters. The msrA1/msrB genes are coexpressed. To determine the expression pattern of msr genes, three independent reporter strains were constructed where msr promoter was cloned in front of a promoterless lacZ and the resulting construct was integrated in the chromosome. Using these strains, it was determined that the msrA1/B expression is significantly higher in S. aureus compared to msrA2 or msrA3. Expression of msrA1/B was highest during stationary phase growth, but the expression of msrA2 and msrA3 was highest during the early to midexponential growth phase. Expression of msrA1/B was induced by oxacillin and the expression of msrA3 was upregulated by salt. Expression of msrA2 remained unchanged under all tested conditions.

  14. Investigation of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassat, James E; Smeltzer, Mark S; Lee, Chia Y

    2014-01-01

    Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are often characterized by recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy, which is a function not only of widespread antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates, but also the capacity to form biofilms. Biofilms consist of ordered populations of bacterial colonies encased in a polysaccharide and/or proteinaceous matrix. This unique physiologic adaptation limits penetration of antimicrobial molecules and innate immune effectors to the infectious focus, increasing the likelihood of treatment failure and progression to chronic infection. Investigation of mechanisms of biofilm formation and dispersal, as well as the physiologic adaptations to the biofilm lifestyle, is therefore critical to developing new therapies to combat MRSA infections. In this chapter, we describe two in vitro methods for the investigation of staphylococcal biofilm formation, a microtiter plate-based assay of biofilm formation under static conditions and a flow cell-based assay of biofilm formation under fluid shear. We also detail an in vivo murine model of catheter-associated biofilm formation that is amenable to imaging and microbiologic analyses. Special consideration is given to the conditions necessary to support biofilm formation by clinical isolates of S. aureus. PMID:24085698

  15. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Berube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small β-barrel pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of α-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as α-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for α-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on α-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of α-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host.

  16. Colostrum hexasaccharide, a novel Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  17. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  18. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Myint Kyaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination with selected antibiotics was tested against 12 strains of S. aureus (ATCC MRSA 43300, ATCC methicillin sensitive S. aureus or MSSA 29213 and 10 MRSA clinical strains collected from National University Hospital, Singapore. Out of the six phytochemicals used, tannic acid was synergistic with fusidic acid, minocycline, cefotaxime and rifampicin against most of strains tested and additive with ofloxacin and vancomycin. Quercetin showed synergism with minocycline, fusidic acid and rifampicin against most of the strains. Gallic acid ethyl ester showed additivity against all strains in combination with all antibiotics under investigation except with vancomycin where it showed indifference effect. Eugenol, menthone and caffeic acid showed indifference results against all strains in combination with all antibiotics. Interestingly, no antagonism was observed within these interactions. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices, synergistic pairs were further examined by time-kill assays to confirm the accuracy and killing rate of the combinations over time. The two methods concurred with each other with 92% accuracy and the combinatory pairs were effective throughout the 24 hours of assay. The study suggests a possible incorporation of effective phytochemicals in combination therapies for MRSA infections.

  19. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  20. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    -acquired S. aureus infections and suggest that the adaptability of S. aureus to antibiotics involves the agr locus. IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen in intensive care units and a common cause of nosocomial infections, resulting in a high degree of morbidity......Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that at times turns into a serious bacterial pathogen causing life-threatening infections. For the delicate control of virulence, S. aureus employs the agr quorum-sensing system that, via the intracellular effector molecule RNAIII, regulates virulence gene...... increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly...

  1. Genomic organization of a vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the genomic organization of vancomycin resistance in a local isolate of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, January 2008 through December 2010. Methodology: A vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA-CP2) isolate (MIC 16 mu g/ml) was isolated from a local hospital of Karachi. Species identification was confirmed by Gram staining, standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the nuc gene. The vancomycin MIC was re-confirmed by E-test. For the genetic determination of vancomycin resistance, in-vitro amplification of vanA cassette was performed by using plasmid DNA of CP2, CP2's transformant as template on MWG Thermo-Cycler. Amplified products of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, orf2, orf1D, orf2E, orf-Rev and IS element genes were subjected to Sanger's electrophoresis based sequence determination using specific primers. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm was used to identify sequences in GenBank with similarities to the vanA cassette genes. Results: The vancomycin-resistant isolate CP2 was found to be resistant to oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, gentamicin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, as well. The isolate CP2 revealed four bands: one of large molecular size approx 56.4 kb and three of small size approx 6.5 kb, approx 6.1 kb and approx 1.5 kb by agarose gel electrophoresis indicating the presence of 3 plasmids. The plasmid DNA of isolate CP2 was analyzed by PCR for the presence of the van cassettes with each of the vanA , vanB and vanC specific primers. It carried vanA cassette, which comprises of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, and orf2. The vanA cassette of isolate CP2 also carried an insertion element (IS). However, it did not show the PCR product for orf1. Vancomycin resistance was successfully transferred from the donor CP2 to a vancomycin-sensitive recipient S

  2. Modeling Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Non-Unions: Subclinical and Clinical Evidence in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Barbara Lovati

    Full Text Available S. epidermidis is one of the leading causes of orthopaedic infections associated with biofilm formation on implant devices. Open fractures are at risk of S. epidermidis transcutaneous contamination leading to higher non-union development compared to closed fractures. Although the role of infection in delaying fracture healing is well recognized, no in vivo models investigated the impact of subclinical low-grade infections on bone repair and non-union. We hypothesized that the non-union rate is directly related to the load of this commonly retrieved pathogen and that a low-grade contamination delays the fracture healing without clinically detectable infection. Rat femurs were osteotomized and stabilized with plates. Fractures were infected with a characterized clinical-derived methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (10(3, 10(5, 10(8 colony forming units and compared to uninfected controls. After 56 days, bone healing and osteomyelitis were clinically assessed and further evaluated by micro-CT, microbiological and histological analyses. The biofilm formation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The control group showed no signs of infection and a complete bone healing. The 10(3 group displayed variable response to infection with a 67% of altered bone healing and positive bacterial cultures, despite no clinical signs of infection present. The 10(5 and 10(8 groups showed severe signs of osteomyelitis and a non-union rate of 83-100%, respectively. The cortical bone reaction related to the periosteal elevation in the control group and the metal scattering detected by micro-CT represented limitations of this study. Our model showed that an intra-operative low-grade S. epidermidis contamination might prevent the bone healing, even in the absence of infectious signs. Our findings also pointed out a dose-dependent effect between the S. epidermidis inoculum and non-union rate. This pilot study identifies a relevant preclinical model to assess the

  3. Modeling Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Non-Unions: Subclinical and Clinical Evidence in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna Barbara; Romanò, Carlo Luca; Bottagisio, Marta; Monti, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Previdi, Sara; Accetta, Riccardo; Drago, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    S. epidermidis is one of the leading causes of orthopaedic infections associated with biofilm formation on implant devices. Open fractures are at risk of S. epidermidis transcutaneous contamination leading to higher non-union development compared to closed fractures. Although the role of infection in delaying fracture healing is well recognized, no in vivo models investigated the impact of subclinical low-grade infections on bone repair and non-union. We hypothesized that the non-union rate is directly related to the load of this commonly retrieved pathogen and that a low-grade contamination delays the fracture healing without clinically detectable infection. Rat femurs were osteotomized and stabilized with plates. Fractures were infected with a characterized clinical-derived methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (10(3), 10(5), 10(8) colony forming units) and compared to uninfected controls. After 56 days, bone healing and osteomyelitis were clinically assessed and further evaluated by micro-CT, microbiological and histological analyses. The biofilm formation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The control group showed no signs of infection and a complete bone healing. The 10(3) group displayed variable response to infection with a 67% of altered bone healing and positive bacterial cultures, despite no clinical signs of infection present. The 10(5) and 10(8) groups showed severe signs of osteomyelitis and a non-union rate of 83-100%, respectively. The cortical bone reaction related to the periosteal elevation in the control group and the metal scattering detected by micro-CT represented limitations of this study. Our model showed that an intra-operative low-grade S. epidermidis contamination might prevent the bone healing, even in the absence of infectious signs. Our findings also pointed out a dose-dependent effect between the S. epidermidis inoculum and non-union rate. This pilot study identifies a relevant preclinical model to assess the role of

  4. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  5. Study on the resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis to mupirocin%表皮葡萄球菌对莫匹罗星的耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林纯婵; 陈舒影; 丁宇; 李丹; 张雪青; 王良兴; 余方友

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解表皮葡萄球菌对莫匹罗星的耐药情况,并探讨其耐药菌株对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药特性。方法收集2012年到2014年分离的表皮葡萄球菌498株,对表皮葡萄球菌临床分离株进行菌种鉴定和药敏试验;用K-B法测定表皮葡萄球菌临床分离株对莫匹罗星的耐药性。结果498株表皮葡萄球菌中,39株对莫匹罗星耐药,耐药率为7.8%(39/498)。39株莫匹罗星耐药的表皮葡萄球菌均为耐甲氧西林表皮葡萄球菌( MRSE)。39株耐莫匹罗星的MRSE对奎诺普丁/达福普汀、利奈唑胺、万古霉素和呋喃妥因均表现为敏感,对青霉素、克林霉素、红霉素、环丙沙星和磺胺甲唑/甲氧苄啶等耐药率较高(>60%),对庆大霉素、利福平耐药率超过35%。结论莫匹罗星对表皮葡萄球菌表现出较好的体外抗菌活性,但对莫匹罗星耐药的表皮葡萄球菌已在临床分离株中出现,耐药性问题不容忽视。%Objective To investigate the resistance of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates to mupirocin and its resistant characteristics to anti-bacterial agents used in clinical.Methods A total of 489 Staphyloco-ccus epidermidis isoliates were isolated from the various specimens of pa-tients in our Hospital.The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were determined by Vitek-2 Compact full automated Microbiology Analyzer.The susceptibility of 489 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates to mupirocin was determined by disc-diffusion method.Results Among 489 Staphylococcus epidermidis clini-cal isolates, 39 methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis ( MRSE) were resistant to mupirocin.The prevalence of mupirocin resis-tance among Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates was 7.8%(39/498).All mupirocin-resistant isolates were susceptible to quinu-pristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin and nitrofurantoin

  6. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning and household bleach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.; Paltinaite, R.; Koomen, A.J.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Effective cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation sites is important because pathogens are readily spread to food contact surfaces after preparation of contaminated raw products. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning by wiping with regular, microfiber,

  7. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome with persistent vertebral osteomyelitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San S. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with a slowly progressive, relatively asymptomatic course in a young woman with suspected hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (Job's syndrome.

  8. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: determinants of treatment failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Ammerlaan; J.A.J.W. Kluytmans; H. Berkhout; A. Buiting; E.I.G.B. de Brauwer; P.J. van den Broek; P. van Gelderen; S.C.A.P. Leenders; A. Ott; C.J.J. Richter; L. Spanjaard; I.J.B. Spijkerman; F.H. van Tiel; G.P. Voorn; M.W.H. Wulf; J. van Zeijl; A. Troelstra; M.J.M. Bonten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from an observational study in which the effectiveness of a guideline for eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage was evaluated, we identified variables that were associated with treatment failure. Methods: A multivariate logistic regression

  9. Microcalorimetric Study of the Action of Yb3+ ion on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯安新; 薛智; 刘义; 屈松生

    2003-01-01

    A microcalorimetric method was used to evaluate the action of Yb3+ ions onthe growth metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus.The power-time curves of the growth metabolism of Staphylo.coccus aureus and the action of Yb3+ ions were obtained by us-ing stopped-flow method at 37 ℃. For evaluation of the action,the growth rate constants ( k1 and k2) for the log phase 1, log phase 2, and the total heat effect (Qtotal) for Staphylococcus aureus were determined. The results show that Yb3+ ions at low concentrations have the stimnlatory effect on Staphylococcus au-reus and that Yb3+ions at higher concentration could inhibit its growth.

  10. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis with 0.2% topical linezolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Lavado Landeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the use of 0.2% topical linezolid in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis with successful results. Material and methods: All cases were viewed in Centro Vision, here they underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus keratitis based on a microbiological study. In both cases we began with the gold standard therapy based on fortified topical drops of vancomycin and an aminoglycoside. Due to ineffective action and/or poor tolerance of vancomycin, we decided to use topical linezolid. Results: Two female patients with Staphylococcus aureus keratitis received ocular 0.2% topical linezolid every hour. In both cases we saw a marked clinical improvement and a good tolerance to this antibiotic. Conclusions: 0.2% Topical linezolid is an effective and well tolerated antibiotic when used in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. It is more comfortable and less toxic than topical vancomycin.

  11. Study of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus and its sensitivity to enzybiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Čmelík, R. (Richard); Melková, K.; Kobzová, Š.; Janda, L

    2015-01-01

    The endolysin resistant and sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus were compared by means of LC-MS based structural analysis of peptidoglycan isolated from their cell walls. The structural explanation of the resistance was suggested.

  12. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  13. Improved detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phenyl mannitol broth containing aztreonam and ceftizoxime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); C. van Pelt (Cindy); P. de Man (Peter); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe tested a phenyl mannitol broth containing ceftizoxime and aztreonam (PHMB(+)) for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reference MRSA strains and, subsequently, with clinical samples (n = 1,098). All reference MRSA strains

  14. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  15. Prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in European hospitals: moving beyond policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, M.A.; Hulscher, M.; Scicluna, E.A.; Richards, J.; Azanowsky, J.M.; Xuereb, D.; Huis, A. van; Moro, M.L.; Maltezou, H.C.; Frank, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia can be reduced with improved infection control and antibiotic stewardship. AIM: To survey infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices within European hospitals and to identify initiatives that

  16. The incidence and risk factors for heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娜娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus(hVISA) and the sensitivity of hVISA to novel antibiotics,and to explore the risk factors and infection attributable

  17. Three-Dimensional Structure and Biophysical Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Surface Antigen-Manganese Transporter MntC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribenko, Alexey; Mosyak, Lidia; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Parris, Kevin; Svenson, Kristine; Moran, Justin; Chu, Ling; Li, Sheng; Liu, Tong; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Green, Bruce A.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Matsuka, Yury V. [Pfizer; (UCSD)

    2013-08-23

    MntC is a metal-binding protein component of the Mn2 +-specific mntABC transporter from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The protein is expressed during the early stages of infection and was proven to be effective at reducing both S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections in a murine animal model when used as a vaccine antigen. MntC is currently being tested in human clinical trials as a component of a multiantigen vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus infections. To better understand the biological function of MntC, we are providing structural and biophysical characterization of the protein in this work. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 Å resolution and suggests two potential metal binding modes, which may lead to reversible as well as irreversible metal binding. Precise Mn2 +-binding affinity of the protein was determined from the isothermal titration calorimetry experiments using a competition approach. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments confirmed that divalent metals can indeed bind to MntC reversibly as well as irreversibly. Finally, Mn2 +-induced structural and dynamics changes have been characterized using spectroscopic methods and deuterium–hydrogen exchange mass spectroscopy. Results of the experiments show that these changes are minimal and are largely restricted to the structural elements involved in metal coordination. Therefore, it is unlikely that antibody binding to this antigen will be affected by the occupancy of the metal-binding site by Mn2 +.

  18. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic

  19. Polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, V K; Kumar, S.; Sharma, A.; N. Sindhu

    2010-01-01

    In India, Haryana has the world’s best dairy type buffalo, the Murrah capable of milk yields as high as 35 kg a day. Clinical and Sub clinical mastitis exerts a negative impact on milk quality, quantity and animal health and profits. In India, Staphylococci are the main causative agents responsible for mastitis of economic importance. Therefore, a suitable and specific test is required for the rapid diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus. For definitive diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus in...

  20. Epidemiology of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pediatric cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Timothy Ronan; Yau, Yvonne; Atenafu, Eshetu; Corey, Mary; Ratjen, Felix; Waters, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A single-centre retrospective study was undertaken in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) to evaluate 1) risk factors for acquisition; 2) molecular epidemiology; and 3) impact on disease progression of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) versus mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The study comprised of 1) identification of all children with at least one respiratory specimen positive for either BORSA or MRSA during the s...

  1. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat in Qena, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Karmi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in poultry meat and its products. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 poultry samples were collected during 2012 in Qena governorate for presence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples were taken from freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses (25/125), chicken portions (25/125), chicken luncheon (25/125), chicken sausages ...

  2. Efek Antibakteri dari Rebusan Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan Produk Herbal Sambiloto Terhadap Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Sikumalay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees merupakan tanaman obat yang memiliki berbagai khasiat, salah satunya sebagai antibakteri.  Staphylococcus aureus merupakan penyebab utama infeksi. Penggunaan Sambiloto di masyarakat saat ini mempunyai beberapa pilihan diantaranya dengan membuat rebusan langsung dari daun sambiloto ataupun dengan membeli produk herbal sambiloto yang dijual di pasaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan efek antibakteri dari rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan produk herbal sambiloto terhadap Staphylococcus aureus. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan sembilan kali pengulangan menggunakan metode difusi. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Padang dari Maret  sampai Desember 2014. Sambiloto diekstrak dengan metode infusum. Kontrol yang digunakan adalah amoksisilin. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan tidak ada daerah bebas kuman di sekitar cakram disk yang telah mengandung sambiloto. Kesimpulan hasil ini ialah rebusan daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees dan produk herbal sambiloto tidak mempunyai efek antibakteri terhadap Staphylococcus aureus.Kata kunci: sambiloto, staphylococcus aureus, infusum AbstractBitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant that have various benefits, such as an antibacterial. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection. The use of bitter in today's society has several options such as by making direct decoction of the leaves of bitter or by buying herbal products of bitter sold in the market. The objective  of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of decocted leaf of bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees and herbal products of bitter against Staphylococcus aureus.This type of research was experimental with nine repetitions using diffusion method. This research was conducted in the laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Andalas University Padang in March to

  3. Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Raviglione, M. C.; Boyle, J. F.; Mariuz, P; Pablos-Mendez, A; Cortes, H; Merlo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of ciprofloxacin as an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection has been paralleled by the emergence of resistant strains. This phenomenon has also been noticed in our hospital. To confirm our observation, methicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibilities were tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. We studied 83 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various sources over a 4-month period...

  4. Evaluation of fusidic acid in therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian; Yieng-Kow, Runa Vavia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl;

    2003-01-01

    Combination therapy that includes fusidic acid, an antimicrobial agent highly active against staphylococci, has been recommended in the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, CSF bactericidal and anti-inflammatory pr......Combination therapy that includes fusidic acid, an antimicrobial agent highly active against staphylococci, has been recommended in the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, CSF bactericidal and anti...

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Melissa U.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent source of infections affecting premature and critically ill infants in neonatal intensive care units. Neonates are particularly vulnerable to colonization and infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and many studies have attempted to identify risk factors that predispose certain infants to its acquisition in order to discover potential areas for clinical intervention. In addition, epidemiologic assessment of transmi...

  6. Efeito terapêutico da aplicação intra-ocular de ozônio em modelo experimental de endoftalmite por Staphylococcus epidermidis em coelhos Therapeutic effect of intraocular application of ozone in experimental Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Clive Lake

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação antiinflamatória e antimicrobiana da injeção intravítrea de ozônio diluído em solução salina balanceada (BSS em modelo experimental de endoftalmite por Staphylococcus epidermidis. MÉTODOS: Dezessete coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia receberam inoculação no olho direito de 0,1 ml de uma solução de 10(5 bactérias (S. epidermidis por ml para indução de endoftalmite. Sete coelhos receberam injeção intravítrea de 0,1ml de BSS como controle e os outros dez coelhos receberam injeção intravítrea de 0,1ml de BSS com ozônio diluído a 2 ppm. Os dados foram quantificados de acordo com parâmetros clínicos e histopatológicos e computados numericamente para cada coelho após 24 horas de evolução. As médias e os desvios-padrão (DP foram calculados e comparados por meio de teste t com duas amostras. RESULTADOS: A média da quantificação clínica dos olhos dos coelhos do grupo controle foi de 11,14 com DP de 1,04. A média clínica dos olhos tratados com ozônio foi de 4,90 com DP de 1,29. A média dos olhos tratados com ozônio foi significativamente menor do que os não tratados (PPURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of intraocular ozone diluted in BSS on experimental Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis. METHODS: We injected 0.1ml of S. epidermidis colonies (10(5 colonies/ml to produce experimental endophthalmitis in the right eyes of 17 New Zealand rabbits. Seven rabbits were assigned to a control group and received an intravitreal injection of 0.1ml BSS. Ten rabbits were treated with intravitreal injection of 0.1ml BSS-diluted ozone (2 ppm. Data were distributed according to clinical and histological findings after 24 hours, each rabbit receiving a score. Mean scores and standard deviations were compared using the two-sample t test. RESULTS: Mean clinical score for the control group was 11.14 ± 1.04. Mean clinical score for the treated group was 4.90 ± 1

  7. Antibacterial activity of four mouthrinses containing triclosan against salivary Staphylococcus aureus Atividade antibacteriana de quatro anti-sépticos bucais contendo triclosan contra Staphylococcus aureus da saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Maria Guerreiro Tanomaru; Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento; Evandro Watanabe; Fumio Matoba-Júnior; Mário Tanomaru-Filho; Izabel Yoko Ito

    2008-01-01

    The maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) of triclosan-based mouthwashes against 28 Staphylococcus aureus strains was evaluated. Dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared. Strains were inoculated using a Steers multipoint inoculator. The MID was considered as the maximum dilution capable of inhibiting microorganism growth. The mouthwashes presented different MIDs.A Diluição Inibitória Máxima (DIM) de anti-sépticos bucais à base de triclosan contra 28 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus fo...

  8. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous and ethanolic on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study antimicrobial effect of extracts evaluated by two methods, “Collins method” and “disk agar diffusion method” on Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 and Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1337 microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for both species determined by using a dilution method. All ethanolic extract concentrations had inhibitory effect in the disk agar diffusion method. In “Collins method” ethanolic extract in 2000 µg/ml concentration, could prevent the growth of both strains on medium. The aqueous extract, had no antimicrobial significant effect in 2000 µg/ml concentration. The ethanolic extract MIC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 8 mg/ml, and for Escherichia coli was 16 mg/ml. But the aqueous extracts MIC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 32 mg/ml and for Escherichia coli was 64 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract MBC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 16 mg/ml, and for Escherichia coli was 32 mg/ml. But the aqueous extracts MBC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 64 mg/ml and for Escherichia coli was 256 mg/ml. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1337. 

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates from Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Karmakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is opportunistic human as well as animal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases. A total of 100 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from clinical samples derived from hospitalized patients. The presumptive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates were identified phenotypically by different biochemical tests. Molecular identification was done by PCR using species specific 16S rRNA primer pairs and finally 100 isolates were found to be positive as Staphylococcus aureus. Screened isolates were further analyzed by several microbiological diagnostics tests including gelatin hydrolysis, protease, and lipase tests. It was found that 78%, 81%, and 51% isolates were positive for gelatin hydrolysis, protease, and lipase activities, respectively. Antibiogram analysis of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains with respect to different antimicrobial agents revealed resistance pattern ranging from 57 to 96%. Our study also shows 70% strains to be MRSA, 54.3% as VRSA, and 54.3% as both MRSA and VRSA. All the identified isolates were subjected to detection of mecA, nuc, and hlb genes and 70%, 84%, and 40% were found to harbour mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, respectively. The current investigation is highly important and informative for the high level multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections inclusive also of methicillin and vancomycin.

  10. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  11. Use of mupirocin-chlorhexidine treatment to prevent Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, X; Slekovec, C; Talon, D

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation of: Bode LGM, Kluytmans JAJW, Wertheim HFL et al.: Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 9-17 (2010). Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen responsible for surgical-site infections and nasal carriage is a major risk factor for subsequent infection with this bacteria. Mupirocin is considered to be the topical antibacterial agent of choice for eradication of nasal S. aureus. The paper by Bode et al. provides strong evidence that the combination of a rapid identification of a S. aureus nasal carrier, mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate soap, significantly reduces the rate of S. aureus surgical-site infection by nearly 60%. In conclusion, mupirocin nasal ointment use in S. aureus carriers before surgery has numerous advantages with few side effects. PMID:20441543

  12. Be alert to the alterations in the biological characteristics in heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus in many cases appears to be associated with characteristic changes. These changes may have pitfall of identifying S. aureus by automated testing methods like Vitek 32. In this study, we retested 24 heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus haemolyticus (h-VISH collected in 2008-2010 at the Department of Clinical Microbiology by conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA reversion test and electron microscopic examination were also used. Six isolates of 24 h-VISH possessed nuc, coa, and 16S rRNA genes, and could be reversed into S. aureus. It suggested that biochemical and morphological changes in hVISA and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA should be considered, and the detection of S. aureus, especially reduced vancomycin susceptibility isolates, requires more attention and different techniques.

  13. Functionalized polyanilines disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija R; Pagnon, Joanne C; Ali, Naseem; Sum, Reuben; Davies, Noel; Roddam, Louise F; Ambrose, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of functionalized polyanilines (fPANIs) against stationary phase cells and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using homopolymer of sulfanilic acid (poly-SO3H) as a model. The chemically synthesized poly-SO3H was characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The molecular weight (Mw) and elemental analysis of homopolymer poly-SO3H were also examined. We found that poly-SO3H was bactericidal against stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus at a concentration of 20 mgml(-1). Surprisingly, we discovered that the same concentration (20 mgml(-1)) of poly-SO3H significantly disrupted and killed bacterial cells present in pre-established forty-eight hour static biofilms of these organisms, as shown by crystal violet and bacterial live/dead fluorescence staining assays. In support of these data, poly-SO3H extensively diminished the expression of bacterial genes related to biofilm formation in stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa, and seemed to greatly reduce the amount of the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) able to be recovered from biofilms of this organism. Furthermore, we found that poly-SO3H was able to effectively penetrate and kill cells in biofilms formed by the P. aeruginosa (AESIII) isolate derived from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient. Taken together, the results of the present study emphasise the broad antimicrobial activities of fPANI, and suggest that they could be developed further and used in some novel ways to construct medical devices and/or industrial equipment that are refractory to colonization by biofilm-forming bacteria.

  14. Functionalized polyanilines disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija R; Pagnon, Joanne C; Ali, Naseem; Sum, Reuben; Davies, Noel; Roddam, Louise F; Ambrose, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of functionalized polyanilines (fPANIs) against stationary phase cells and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using homopolymer of sulfanilic acid (poly-SO3H) as a model. The chemically synthesized poly-SO3H was characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The molecular weight (Mw) and elemental analysis of homopolymer poly-SO3H were also examined. We found that poly-SO3H was bactericidal against stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus at a concentration of 20 mgml(-1). Surprisingly, we discovered that the same concentration (20 mgml(-1)) of poly-SO3H significantly disrupted and killed bacterial cells present in pre-established forty-eight hour static biofilms of these organisms, as shown by crystal violet and bacterial live/dead fluorescence staining assays. In support of these data, poly-SO3H extensively diminished the expression of bacterial genes related to biofilm formation in stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa, and seemed to greatly reduce the amount of the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) able to be recovered from biofilms of this organism. Furthermore, we found that poly-SO3H was able to effectively penetrate and kill cells in biofilms formed by the P. aeruginosa (AESIII) isolate derived from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient. Taken together, the results of the present study emphasise the broad antimicrobial activities of fPANI, and suggest that they could be developed further and used in some novel ways to construct medical devices and/or industrial equipment that are refractory to colonization by biofilm-forming bacteria. PMID:26496473

  15. Response of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to amicoumacin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Lama

    Full Text Available Amicoumacin A exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, hence we sought to uncover its mechanism of action. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. aureus COL in response to amicoumacin A showed alteration in transcription of genes specifying several cellular processes including cell envelope turnover, cross-membrane transport, virulence, metabolism, and general stress response. The most highly induced gene was lrgA, encoding an antiholin-like product, which is induced in cells undergoing a collapse of Δψ. Consistent with the notion that LrgA modulates murein hydrolase activity, COL grown in the presence of amicoumacin A showed reduced autolysis, which was primarily caused by lower hydrolase activity. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of amicoumacin A, a whole genome comparison of wild-type COL and amicoumacin A-resistant mutants isolated by a serial passage method was carried out. Single point mutations generating codon substitutions were uncovered in ksgA (encoding RNA dimethyltransferase, fusA (elongation factor G, dnaG (primase, lacD (tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and SACOL0611 (a putative glycosyl transferase. The codon substitutions in EF-G that cause amicoumacin A resistance and fusidic acid resistance reside in separate domains and do not bring about cross resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that amicoumacin A might cause perturbation of the cell membrane and lead to energy dissipation. Decreased rates of cellular metabolism including protein synthesis and DNA replication in resistant strains might allow cells to compensate for membrane dysfunction and thus increase cell survivability.

  16. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, S; Donos, N; Spratt, D; Bozec, L

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for maximum adhesion force were found to increase from 0-s (-0.27 ± 0.30 nN) to 60-s (-9.15 ± 0.78 nN) surface delays, with similar results observed for total adhesion work (7.39 ± 2.38 and 988.06 ± 117.08 aJ, respectively). Single unbinding events observed at higher surface delays were modeled according to the wormlike chain model, obtaining molecular contour-length predictions of 314.06 ± 9.27 nm. Average single-bond rupture forces of -0.95 ± 0.04 nN were observed at increased contact times. Short- and long-range force components of bacterial adhesion were obtained by Poisson analysis of single unbinding event peaks, yielding values of -0.75 ± 0.04 and -0.58 ± 0.15 nN, respectively. Addition of 2-mg/mL chlorhexidine to the buffer solution resulted in the inhibition of specific adhesive events but an increased overall adhesion force and work. These results suggest that initial attachment of S. aureus to smooth titanium is mostly mediated by short-range attractive forces observed at higher surface delays. PMID:26130256

  17. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Brown (Aisling F.); A.G. Murphy (Alison G.); S.J. Lalor (Stephen J.); J.M. Leech (John M.); K.M. O’Keeffe (Kate M.); M. Mac Aogáin (Micheál); D.P. O’Halloran (Dara P.); K.A. Lacey (Keenan A.); M. Tavakol (Mehri); C.H. Hearnden (Claire H.); D. Fitzgerald-Hughes (Deirdre); H. Humphreys (Hilary); J.P. Fennell (Jérôme P.); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); T.J. Foster (Timothy J.); J.A. Geoghegan (Joan A.); E.C. Lavelle (Ed C.); T.R. Rogers (Thomas R.); R.M. McLoughlin (Rachel M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrate

  18. Multilocus Sequence Typing And Antibiotic Resistance Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From The Brazilian Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza; Lee, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of food poisoning due to enterotoxin production. This is particularly an issue in the dairy industry, where S. aureus can contaminate the product e.g. from raw milk or the handlers. In Brazil, soft cheese is mainly produced in small dairy plants where good...

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); W.T. van der Feltz; L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.J. Van Zuuren; S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in pati

  20. Key role for clumping factor B in Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E.J. Walsh (Evelyn); R.S.R. Choudhurry (Roos); D.C. Melles (Damian); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); H. Miajlovic (Helen); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); T.J. Foster (Timothy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus permanently colonizes the vestibulum nasi of one-fifth of the human population, which is a risk factor for autoinfection. The precise mechanisms whereby S. aureus colonizes the nose are still unknown. The staphylococcal cell-wall protein clumping factor

  1. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless s

  2. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in

  3. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Ott, A.; Voss, A.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Broucke-Grauls, C.M. van den; Meester, M.; Keulen, P.H. van; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the eff

  4. Mechanism and consequences of invasion of endothelial cells by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    It has become clear that Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular microorganism. Adherence and invasion are a prerequisite for endovascular infections caused by S. aureus, such as infective endocarditis. These phenomena may also be involved in the pathogenesis of invasive and metastatic

  5. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  6. Triple-acting antimicrobial treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  7. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus; Grønvall Kjær Hansen, Sanne; Møller, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally...

  8. Nosocomial Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterimia among Nasal Carriers of Methicillin- Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ariza (Javier); J. Ayats (Josefina); M.A. Dominguez; F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine the relevance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, either methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicillinresistant (MRSA), as a risk factor for the development of nosocomial S aureus bacteremia during an MRSA outbreak. patients and methods: In this prospective

  9. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information.

  10. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr type determination by a novel multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  11. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  12. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, G; Herrmann, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell. Microbiol

  13. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Schlecht; B.M. Peters; B.P. Krom; J.A. Freiberg; G.M. Hänsch; S.G. Filler; M.A. Jabra-Rizk; M.E. Shirtliff

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  14. Correlation between Reduced Daptomycin Susceptibility and Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Longzhu; Tominaga, Eiji; Neoh, Hui-min; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    We present here findings of a strong positive correlation between reduced daptomycin susceptibility and vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). This correlation is related to cell wall thickening, suggesting that, similar to the case with vancomycin resistance in VISA, the physical barrier of a thickened cell wall may contribute to daptomycin resistance in S. aureus.

  15. Comparative analysis of conjugative plasmids mediating gentamicin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Goering, R. V.; Ruff, E A

    1983-01-01

    Five gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were found to contain self-transmissible plasmids of 32 to 37 megadaltons in size. Restriction endonuclease digests of the plasmids were markedly similar to those of reference plasmids of unrelated geographical origin, thus suggesting the significant contribution of common conjugal plasmids to the emergence of gentamicin resistance in S. aureus populations.

  16. Uptake of sparfloxacin and norfloxacin by clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kojima, T.; M. Inoue; Mitsuhashi, S

    1991-01-01

    The amount of sparfloxacin uptake was higher than that of norfloxacin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, energy-dependent reduction in quinolone uptake, probably due to active efflux of the quinolone, was observed. The reduction in quinolone uptake appeared to be associated with quinolone resistance in S. aureus.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Targets the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) to Lyse Erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Badiou, Cédric; Cochet, Sylvie; Boguslawski, Kristina M.; Yoong, Pauline; Day, Christopher J.; Gosselaar-de Haas, Carla J C; van Kessel, Kok P M; Vandenesch, François; Jennings, Michael P.; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Colin, Yves; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Henry, Thomas; Torres, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for Staphylococcus aureus to thrive inside the mammalian host, the bacterium has to overcome iron scarcity. S. aureus is thought to produce toxins that lyse erythrocytes, releasing hemoglobin, the most abundant iron source in mammals. Here we identify the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokin

  18. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concepción Porrero, M.; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I.;

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (ML...

  19. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteri

  20. Multicenter evaluation of arbitrarily primed PCR for typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); R. Bax (René); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); E. Peters; A.C. Fluit (Ad); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); A. van den Brule; H. Koeleman; W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFifty-nine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and a single strain of Staphylococcus intermedius were typed by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR). To study reproducibility and discriminatory abilities, AP-PCR was carried out in seven laboratories with a standardi

  1. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Colony-Spreading Stimulatory Factors from Mammalian Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Omae; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Chikara Kaito

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus forms giant colonies on soft-agar surfaces, which is called colony-spreading. In the present study, we searched for host factors that influence S. aureus colony-spreading activity. The addition of calf serum, porcine serum, or silkworm hemolymph to soft-agar medium stimulated S. aureus colony-spreading activity. Gel filtration column chromatography of calf serum produced a high molecular weight fraction and a low molecular weight fraction, both of which exhibited colony-...

  2. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics ......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  3. Infertility as a Consequence of Spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Genital Tract of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Siftjit Kaur; Vijay Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility...

  4. High Level Expression and Purification of Atl, the Major Autolytic Protein of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vineet K.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen. Autolysins regulate the growth, turnover, cell lysis, biofilm formation, and the pathogenicity of S. aureus. Atl is the major autolysin in S. aureus. The biochemical and structural studies of staphylococcal Atl have been limited due to difficulty in cloning, high level overexpression, and purification of this protein. This study describes successful cloning, high level over-expression, and purification of two forms of fully functiona...

  5. High Genetic Diversity among Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: Results from a Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Empel, Joanna; Bouchami, Ons; Faria, Nuno A.; Tavares, Ana; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fluit, Ad C.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this continent. Methods and Findings A total of 568 colonization and infection isolates, comprising both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were recover...

  6. Differential Expression and Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Determinants during Colonization and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Amy; Diep, Binh An; Mai, Thuy T.; Vo, Nhung H.; Warrener, Paul; Suzich, Joann; Stover, C. Kendall; Sellman, Bret R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium known to asymptomatically colonize the human skin, nares, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonized individuals are at increased risk for developing S. aureus infections, which range from mild skin and soft tissue infections to more severe diseases, such as endocarditis, bacteremia, sepsis, and osteomyelitis. Different virulence factors are required for S. aureus to infect different body sites. In this study, virulence gene ex...

  7. Mechanism of hetero-erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a comparison of detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)hetero-resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin and compare their detection methods so as to report results accurately to guide clinical rational use of antibiotics.Methods D test was used to detect the phenotypes of S.aureus hetero-resistant to erythromycin.And then the results of two methods(automated instrument and disk diffusion)were analyzed.All strains were continuously passaged for 50 generations to

  8. Application of molecular techniques in the study of Staphylococcus aureus clonal evolution - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcos Vivoni

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections. A major characteristic of this microorganism is the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Several molecular techniques have been applied for the characterization of S. aureus in epidemiological studies. In the present review, we discuss the application of molecular techniques for typing S. aureus strains and describe the nomenclature and evolution of epidemic clones of this important pathogen.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Maréchal Caroline; Jardin Julien; Jan Gwenaël; Even Sergine; Pulido Coralie; Guibert Jean-Michel; Hernandez David; François Patrice; Schrenzel Jacques; Demon Dieter; Meyer Evelyne; Berkova Nadia; Thiéry Richard; Vautor Eric; Le Loir Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ew...

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    AnnalisaPantosti

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become...

  11. Novel Chromosomally Encoded Multidrug Efflux Transporter MdeA in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jianzhong; O'Toole, Paul W.; Shen, Wei; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Jiang, Xinhe; Lobo, Neethan; Palmer, Leslie M.; Voelker, LeRoy; Fan, Frank; Gwynn, Michael N.; McDevitt, Damien

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic efflux is an important mechanism of resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel chromosomally encoded multidrug resistance efflux protein in Staphylococcus aureus, MdeA (multidrug efflux A). MdeA was identified from screening an S. aureus open reading frame expression library for resistance to antibiotic compounds. When overexpressed, MdeA confers resistance on S. aureus to a range of quaternary ammonium compounds and antib...

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  13. Combining biofilm matrix measurements with biomass and viability assays in susceptibility assessments of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, Malena Elise; Vuorela, Pia Maarit; Fallarero, Adyary

    2012-09-01

    Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

  14. Thiazolidione derivatives targeting the histidinekinase YycG are effective against both planktonicand biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-zheng HUANG; You-cong WU; Shi-qing HAN; Di QU; Li-ka ng ZHENG; Hua-yong LIU; Bin PAN; Jian HU; Tao ZHU; WeiWANG; Dan-bin JIANG; Yang WU

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacies of six derivatives of Compound 2,a novel YycG histidine kinase inhibitor with the thiazolidione core structure in the treatment of medical device-related biofilm infections.Methods:The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the derivatives was determined using the macrodilution broth method,and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained via sub-culturing 100 μL from each negative tube from the MIC assay onto drug-free Mueller-Hinton agar plates.Biofilm-killing effect for immature (6 h-old) biofilms was examined using a semiquantitative plate assay,and the effect on mature (24 h-old) biofilms was observed under a confocal laserscanning microscope (CLSM).Results:The derivatives potently suppressed the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis.The MIC values of the derivatives H2-10,H2-12,H2-20,H2-29,H2-27,and H2-28 on S epidermidis ATCC 35984 were 24.3,6.5,6.2,3.3,3.1,and 1.5 μg/mL,respectively.The MBC values of these derivatives were 48.6,52.2,12.4,52.6,12.4,and 6.2 μg/mL,respectively.The derivatives killed all bacteria in immature (6 h-old) biofilms and eliminated the biofilm proliferation.The derivatives also displayed strong bactericidal activities toward cells in mature (24 h-old) biofilms,whereas they showed low cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity toward Vero cells and human erythro-cytes.Conclusion:The bactericidal and biofilm-killing activities of the new anti-YycG compounds were significantly better than the parent Compound 2.

  15. Postpartum Mastitis and Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pavani; Qi, Chao; Zembower, Teresa; Noskin, Gary A.; Bolon, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This single-center, case-control study documents a relative increase in methicillin resistance among 48 cases of Staphylococcus aureus–associated postpartum mastitis during 1998–2005. Of 21 cases with methicillin resistance, 17 (81%) occurred in 2005. Twenty (95%) isolates contained the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec type IV gene; this suggests that the increase is due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Vola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus ocular infections in a tertiary health center in Brazil and compare antibiotic susceptibility patterns between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Electronic records from the ocular microbiology laboratory of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (between January 2000 and December 2009 all conjunctivitis, keratitis, and endophthalmitis cases with a positive culture for S. aureus were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-six S. aureus isolates were identified; of those, 56 (9.9% were resistant to methicillin. Throughout the 10-year period, Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant increasing trend from 7.55% to 16.18% among overall S. aurues infections (p=0.001 and from 3.7% to 13.16% in conjunctivitis (p=0.001. Conversely, we did not observe the same trend among those with keratitis (p=0.38. Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed higher resistance rates to tobramycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin when compared with S. aureus isolates (p< 0.001. All cases were susceptible to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: We observed an increasing trend in the overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ocular infections and statistically significant higher resistance rates to commonly used antibiotics compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Our data supports the need for constant bacterial surveillance and should be taken into consideration before initiating empiric treatment of ocular infections.

  17. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Ciftci; Arzu Findik; Ertan Emek Onuk; Serap Savasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them...

  18. Pigments of Staphylococcus aureus, a series of triterpenoid carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J H; Wilmoth, G J

    1981-01-01

    The pigments of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and purified, and their chemical structures were determined. All of the 17 compounds identified were triterpenoid carotenoids possessing a C30 chain instead of the C40 carotenoid structure found in most other organisms. The main pigment, staphyloxanthin, was shown to be alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1-O-(4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4-oate) 6-O-(12-methyltetradecanoate), in which glucose is esterified with both a triterpenoid carotenoid carboxylic acid and a C15 fatty acid. It is accompanied by isomers containing other hexoses and homologs containing C17 fatty acids. The carotenes 4,4'-diapophytoene, 4,4'-diapophytofluene, 4-4'-diapophytofluene, 4-4'-diapo-zeta-carotene, 4,4'-diapo-7,8,11,12-tetrahydrolycopene, and 4,4'-diaponeurosporene and the xanthophylls 4,4'-diaponeurosporenal, 4,4'-diaponeurosporenoic acid, and glucosyl diaponeurosporenoate were also identified, together with some of their isomers or breakdown products. The symmetrical 4,4'-diapo- structure was adopted for these triterpenoid carotenoids, but an alternative unsymmetrical 8'-apo-structure could not be excluded. PMID:7275936

  19. Typing of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Mehndiratta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA worldwide is a growing public health concern. MRSA typing is an essential component of an effective surveillance system to describe epidemiological trends and infection control strategies. Current challenges for MRSA typing are focused on selecting the most appropriate technique in terms of efficiency, reliability, ease of performance and cost involved. This review summarises the available information on application, potential and problems of various typing techniques in discriminating the strains and understanding the epidemiology of MRSA strains. The phenotypic methods in general are easier to perform, easier to interpret, cost effective and are widely available, however less discriminatory. The genotypic methods are expensive and technically demanding, however more discriminatory. Newer technologies involving sequencing of various genes are coming up as broadly applicable and high throughput typing systems. Still there is no consensus regarding the single best method for typing of MRSA strains. Phage typing is recommended as first line approach in epidemiological investigation of MRSA strains. PFGE remains the gold standard for characterisation of outbreak strains. DNA sequencing methods including MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing and toxin gene profile typing are more practical methods for detecting evolutionary changes and transmission events. The choice of typing technique further depends on the purpose of the study, the facilities available and the utility of data generated to answer a desirable research question. A need for harmonisation of typing techniques by following standard protocols is emphasised to establish surveillance networks and facilitate global MRSA control.

  20. Human Sperm Interaction with Staphylococcus aureus: A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm immobilization factor (SIF causing 100% immobilization of spermatozoa isolated from Staphylococcus aureus when characterized using LC-MS (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that this 20 kDa protein had peptide sequence similarity with hsp-70 protein. It was found to completely (100% inhibit Mg++ ATPase activity of spermatozoa at concentration of 100 μg mL−1. Sperm samples treated with SIF also showed reduction in calcium ionophore-induced acrosome reaction as compared to control samples (treated with calcium ionophore alone. Binding studies of FITC labelled SIF with spermatozoa using fluorescent microscopy showed binding of SIF to the surface of spermatozoa indicating the presence of SIF binding receptor. The receptor was extracted by 3M NaCl and purified by gel permeation chromatography. Characterization of the receptor by MALDI-TOF (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight indicated that the receptor shared sequence similarity with MHC class II antigen. A calorimetric study showed that the receptor moiety on spermatozoa was specific for the purified ligand as binding of the receptor to ligand was enthalpically (−11.9 kJ mole−1 as well as entropically (21.53 J mole−1 K−1 favored resulting in the Gibb's free energy of −18.57 kJ mole−1.