Sample records for aureus sigma b-dependent

  1. Staphylococcus aureus sigma B-dependent emergence of small-colony variants and biofilm production following exposure to Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline-N-oxide

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    Michaud Sophie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are often found together in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. It was previously shown that the P. aeruginosa exoproduct 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO suppresses the growth of S. aureus and provokes the emergence of small-colony variants (SCVs. The presence of S. aureus SCVs as well as biofilms have both been associated with chronic infections in CF. Results We demonstrated that HQNO stimulates S. aureus to form a biofilm in association with the formation of SCVs. The emergence of SCVs and biofilm production under HQNO exposure was shown to be dependent on the activity of the stress- and colonization-related alternative sigma factor B (SigB. Analysis of gene expression revealed that exposure of a prototypical S. aureus strain to HQNO activates SigB, which was leading to an increase in the expression of the fibronectin-binding protein A and the biofilm-associated sarA genes. Conversely, the quorum sensing accessory gene regulator (agr system and the α-hemolysin gene were repressed by HQNO. Experiments using culture supernatants from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and a double chamber co-culture model confirmed that P. aeruginosa stimulates biofilm formation and activates SigB in a S. aureus strain isolated from a CF patient. Furthermore, the supernatant from P. aeruginosa mutants unable to produce HQNO induced the production of biofilms by S. aureus to a lesser extent than the wild-type strain only in a S. aureus SigB-functional background. Conclusions These results suggest that S. aureus responds to HQNO from P. aeruginosa by forming SCVs and biofilms through SigB activation, a phenomenon that may contribute to the establishment of chronic infections in CF patients.

  2. Identification of a sigma B-dependent small noncoding RNA in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Olsen, Anders Steno; Bonde, Mette


    In Listeria monocytogenes, the alternative sigma factor sigma(B) plays important roles in stress tolerance and virulence. Here, we present the identification of SbrA, a novel small noncoding RNA that is produced in a sigma(B)-dependent manner. This finding adds the sigma(B) regulon to the growing...

  3. Alternative sigma factor sigmaH modulates prophage integration and excision in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Liang Tao


    Full Text Available The prophage is one of the most important components of variable regions in bacterial genomes. Some prophages carry additional genes that may enhance the toxicity and survival ability of their host bacteria. This phenomenon is predominant in Staphylococcus aureus, a very common human pathogen. Bioinformatics analysis of several staphylococcal prophages revealed a highly conserved 40-bp untranslated region upstream of the int gene. A small transcript encoding phage integrase was identified to be initiated from the region, demonstrating that the untranslated region contained a promoter for int. No typical recognition sequence for either sigma(A or sigma(B was identified in the 40-bp region. Experiments both in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that sigma(H recognized the promoter and directed transcription. Genetic deletion of sigH altered the int expression, and subsequently, the excision proportion of prophage DNAs. Phage assays further showed that sigH affected the ability of spontaneous lysis and lysogenization in S. aureus, suggesting that sigH plays a role in stabilizing the lysogenic state. These findings revealed a novel mechanism of prophage integration specifically regulated by a host-source alternative sigma factor. This mechanism suggests a co-evolution strategy of staphylococcal prophages and their host bacteria.

  4. Role of the alternative sigma factor sigma on Staphylococcus aureus resistance to stresses of relevance to food preservation. (United States)

    Cebrián, G; Sagarzazu, N; Aertsen, A; Pagán, R; Condón, S; Mañas, P


    To examine the role of the alternative general stress sigma factor sigma(B) on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to stresses of relevance to food preservation, with special emphasis on emerging technologies such as pulsed electric fields (PEF) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). S. aureus strain Newman and its isogenic DeltasigB mutant were grown to exponential and stationary growth phases and its resistance to various stresses was tested. The absence of the sigma(B) factor caused a decrease in the resistance to heat, PEF, HHP, alkali, acid and hydrogen peroxide. In the case of heat, the influence of the sigma(B) factor was particularly important, and decreases in decimal reduction time values of ninefold were observed as a result of its deficiency. The increased thermotolerance of the parental strain as compared with the sigB mutant could be attributed to a better capacity to sustain and repair sublethal damages caused by heat. sigma(B) factor provides S. aureus cells with resistance to multiple stresses, increasing survival to heat, PEF and HHP treatments. Results obtained in this work help in understanding the physiological mechanisms behind cell survival and death in food-processing environments.

  5. Genetic analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis macromolecular synthesis operon: Serp1129 is an ATP binding protein and sigA transcription is regulated by both sigma(A)- and sigma(B)-dependent promoters. (United States)

    Bryant, Kendall A; Kinkead, Lauren C; Larson, Marilynn A; Hinrichs, Steven H; Fey, Paul D


    The highly conserved macromolecular synthesis operon (MMSO) contains both dnaG (primase) and sigA (primary sigma factor). However, in previously evaluated gram-positive species, the MMSO is divergent upstream of dnaG. The MMSO of Bacillus subtilis contains three open reading frames (ORFs) that are differentially regulated by multiple promoters. In conjunction with studies to determine the expression profile of dnaG, the MMSO of Staphylococus epidermidis was characterized. The ORFs of S. epidermidis were compared to the previously described MMSO of B. subtilis and two additional ORFs in S. epidermidis, serp1129 and serp1130, were identified. The largest transcript, 4.8 kb in length, was expressed only in exponential growth and encompassed all four ORFs (serp1130, serp1129, dnaG, and sigA). A separate transcript (1.5 kb) comprising serp1130 and serp1129 was expressed in early exponential growth. Two smaller transcripts 1.3 and 1.2 kb in size were detected with a sigA probe in both exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Western blot analysis correlated with the transcriptional profile and demonstrated that Serp1129 was detected only in the exponential phase of growth. Computational analysis identified that Serp1130 contained a CBS motif whereas Serp1129 contained an ATP/GTP binding motif. Functional studies of Serp1129 demonstrated that it was capable of binding both ATP and GTP. Comparisons with a sigB:dhfr mutant revealed that the 1.3 kb sigA transcript was regulated by a sigma(B)-dependent promoter. These studies demonstrated that the S. epidermidis 1457 MMSO contains two ORFs (serp1129 and serp1130) not described within the B. subtilis MMSO and at least three promoters, one of which is sigma(beta)-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of sigA by sigma(B) provides evidence that the staphylococcal sigma(B)-dependent response is controlled at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The conservation of serp1129 across multiple gram

  6. Expression of a cryptic secondary sigma factor gene unveils natural competence for DNA transformation in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Kazuya Morikawa

    Full Text Available It has long been a question whether Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, is able to develop natural competence for transformation by DNA. We previously showed that a novel staphylococcal secondary sigma factor, SigH, was a likely key component for competence development, but the corresponding gene appeared to be cryptic as its expression could not be detected during growth under standard laboratory conditions. Here, we have uncovered two distinct mechanisms allowing activation of SigH production in a minor fraction of the bacterial cell population. The first is a chromosomal gene duplication rearrangement occurring spontaneously at a low frequency [≤10(-5], generating expression of a new chimeric sigH gene. The second involves post-transcriptional regulation through an upstream inverted repeat sequence, effectively suppressing expression of the sigH gene. Importantly, we have demonstrated for the first time that S. aureus cells producing active SigH become competent for transformation by plasmid or chromosomal DNA, which requires the expression of SigH-controlled competence genes. Additionally, using DNA from the N315 MRSA strain, we successfully transferred the full length SCCmecII element through natural transformation to a methicillin-sensitive strain, conferring methicillin resistance to the resulting S. aureus transformants. Taken together, we propose a unique model for staphylococcal competence regulation by SigH that could help explain the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer in this important pathogen.

  7. Expression of a cryptic secondary sigma factor gene unveils natural competence for DNA transformation in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Morikawa, Kazuya; Takemura, Aya J; Inose, Yumiko; Tsai, Melody; Nguyen Thi, Le Thuy; Ohta, Toshiko; Msadek, Tarek


    It has long been a question whether Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, is able to develop natural competence for transformation by DNA. We previously showed that a novel staphylococcal secondary sigma factor, SigH, was a likely key component for competence development, but the corresponding gene appeared to be cryptic as its expression could not be detected during growth under standard laboratory conditions. Here, we have uncovered two distinct mechanisms allowing activation of SigH production in a minor fraction of the bacterial cell population. The first is a chromosomal gene duplication rearrangement occurring spontaneously at a low frequency [≤10(-5)], generating expression of a new chimeric sigH gene. The second involves post-transcriptional regulation through an upstream inverted repeat sequence, effectively suppressing expression of the sigH gene. Importantly, we have demonstrated for the first time that S. aureus cells producing active SigH become competent for transformation by plasmid or chromosomal DNA, which requires the expression of SigH-controlled competence genes. Additionally, using DNA from the N315 MRSA strain, we successfully transferred the full length SCCmecII element through natural transformation to a methicillin-sensitive strain, conferring methicillin resistance to the resulting S. aureus transformants. Taken together, we propose a unique model for staphylococcal competence regulation by SigH that could help explain the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer in this important pathogen.

  8. Regulation of biofilm formation by sigma B is a common mechanism in Staphylococcus epidermidis and is not mediated by transcriptional regulation of sarA. (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Jonas, Beate; Pfanzelt, Dorothea; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich; Knobloch, Johannes K-M


    Biofilm formation is a major pathogenetic factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In S. epidermidis the alternative sigma factor sigma B was identified to regulate biofilm formation in S. epidermidis 1457. In S. aureus sigma B dependent regulation plays a minor role, whereas sarA (Staphylococcus accessory regulator) is an essential regulator. Therefore, we investigated the impact of sigma B on sarA transcription and biofilm formation in three independent S. epidermidis isolates. Mutants with dysfunctional sigma B displayed a strongly reduced biofilm formation, whereas in mutants with constitutive sigma B activity biofilm formation was increased. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaA transcription was down-regulated in all sigma B negative mutants while icaR transcription was up-regulated. However, transcriptional differences varied between individual strains, indicating that additional sigma B-dependent regulators are involved in biofilm expression. Interestingly, despite the presence of a sigma B promoter beside two sigma A promoters no differences, or only minor ones, were observed in sarA transcription, indicating that sigma B-dependent sarA transcript has no influence on the phenotypic changes. The data observed in independent clinical S. epidermidis isolates suggests that, in contrast to S. aureus, regulation of biofilm formation by sigma B is a general feature in S. epidermidis. Additionally, we were able to demonstrate that the sarA- dependent regulation is not involved in this regulatory pathway.

  9. Sigma Factor SigB Is Crucial to Mediate Staphylococcus aureus Adaptation during Chronic Infections.

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    Lorena Tuchscherr


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a range of infections from acute invasive to chronic and difficult-to-treat. Infection strategies associated with persisting S. aureus infections are bacterial host cell invasion and the bacterial ability to dynamically change phenotypes from the aggressive wild-type to small colony variants (SCVs, which are adapted for intracellular long-term persistence. The underlying mechanisms of the bacterial switching and adaptation mechanisms appear to be very dynamic, but are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the role and the crosstalk of the global S. aureus regulators agr, sarA and SigB by generating single, double and triple mutants, and testing them with proteome analysis and in different in vitro and in vivo infection models. We were able to demonstrate that SigB is the crucial factor for adaptation in chronic infections. During acute infection, the bacteria require the simultaneous action of the agr and sarA loci to defend against invading immune cells by causing inflammation and cytotoxicity and to escape from phagosomes in their host cells that enable them to settle an infection at high bacterial density. To persist intracellularly the bacteria subsequently need to silence agr and sarA. Indeed agr and sarA deletion mutants expressed a much lower number of virulence factors and could persist at high numbers intracellularly. SigB plays a crucial function to promote bacterial intracellular persistence. In fact, ΔsigB-mutants did not generate SCVs and were completely cleared by the host cells within a few days. In this study we identified SigB as an essential factor that enables the bacteria to switch from the highly aggressive phenotype that settles an acute infection to a silent SCV-phenotype that allows for long-term intracellular persistence. Consequently, the SigB-operon represents a possible target to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies against chronic and therapy

  10. RsbU-dependent regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation is mediated via the alternative sigma factor sigmaB by repression of the negative regulator gene icaR. (United States)

    Knobloch, Johannes K-M; Jäger, Sebastian; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich


    Transposon mutagenesis of rsbU leads to a biofilm-negative phenotype in Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, the pathway of this regulatory mechanism was unknown. To investigate the role of RsbU in the regulation of the alternative sigma factor sigma(B) and biofilm formation, we generated different mutants of the sigma(B) operon in S. epidermidis strains 1457 and 8400. The genes rsbU, rsbV, rsbW, and sigB, as well as the regulatory cascade rsbUVW and the entire sigma(B) operon, were deleted. Transcriptional analysis of sarA and the sigma(B)-dependent gene asp23 revealed the functions of RsbU and RsbV as positive regulators and of RsbW as a negative regulator of sigma(B) activity, indicating regulation of sigma(B) activity similar to that characterized for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants revealed that the dramatic decrease of biofilm formation in rsbU mutants is mediated via sigma(B), indicating a crucial role for sigma(B) in S. epidermidis pathogenesis. However, biofilm formation in mutants defective in sigma(B) or its function could be restored in the presence of subinhibitory ethanol concentrations. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaR is up-regulated in mutants lacking sigma(B) function but that icaA transcription is down-regulated in these mutants, indicating a sigma(B)-dependent regulatory intermediate negatively regulating IcaR. Supplementation of growth media with ethanol decreased icaR transcription, leading to increased icaA transcription and a biofilm-positive phenotype, indicating that the ethanol-dependent induction of biofilm formation is mediated by IcaR. This icaR-dependent regulation under ethanol induction is mediated in a sigma(B)-independent manner, suggesting at least one additional regulatory intermediate in the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Induces the Formation of Dynamic Tubules Labeled with LC3 within Host Cells in a Rab7 and Rab1b-Dependent Manner

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    María M. López de Armentia


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes severe infectious diseases that eventually lead to septic and toxic shock. S. aureus infection is characterized by the production of virulence factors, including enzymes and toxins. After internalization S. aureus resides in a phagosome labeled with Rab7 protein. Here, we show that S. aureus generates tubular structures marked with the small GTPases Rab1b and Rab7 and by the autophagic protein LC3 at early times post-infection. As shown by live cell imaging these tubular structures are highly dynamic, extend, branch and grow in length. We have named them S. aureus induced filaments (Saf. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the formation of these filaments depends on the integrity of microtubules and the activity of the motor protein Kinesin-1 (Kif5B and the Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP. Our group has previously reported that α-hemolysin, a secreted toxin of S. aureus, is responsible of the activation of the autophagic pathway induced by the bacteria. In the present report, we demonstrate that the autophagic protein LC3 is recruited to the membrane of S. aureus induced filaments and that α-hemolysin is the toxin that induces Saf formation. Interestingly, increasing the levels of intracellular cAMP significantly inhibited Saf biogenesis. Remarkably in this report we show the formation of tubular structures that emerge from the S. aureus-containing phagosome and that these tubules generation seems to be required for efficient bacteria replication.

  12. The reduction in small ribosomal subunit abundance in ethanol-stressed cells of Bacillus subtilis is mediated by a SigB-dependent antisense RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Mendonca, Karoline; Denham, Emma L.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten


    One of the best-characterized general stress responses in bacteria is the sigma(B)-mediated stress response of the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The sigma(B) regulon contains approximately 200 protein-encoding genes and 136 putative regulatory RNAs. One of these sigma(B)-dependent

  13. Mass splittings in $\\Sigma_b$ and $\\Sigma_b^*$


    Rosner, Jonathan L.


    The charged $\\Sigma_b$ and $\\Sigma^*_b$ states have recently been reported by the CDF Collaboration. The relation of their reported charge-averaged masses to expectations based on the quark model is reviewed briefly. A relation is proved among the $\\Delta I = 1$ electromagnetic mass differences $\\Sigma_1 \\equiv M(\\Sigma^+) - M(\\Sigma^-)$, $\\Sigma^*_1 \\equiv M(\\Sigma^{*+})- M(\\Sigma^{*-})$, $\\Sigma_{b1} \\equiv M(\\Sigma_b^+) - M(\\Sigma_b^-)$, and $\\Sigma^*_{b1} \\equiv M(\\Sigma_b^{*+}) - M(\\Sigm...

  14. What is Six Sigma?

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    Gulcin Daglioglu


    Full Text Available Sigma (σ refers to Standard Deviation which is a measure of variation in statistics. Methodology of Six Sigma is a management philosophy that is based on the theory that parameters can be cotrolled. Six Sigma applications follow the process of identifying and defining defects, analyzing the defects using various measures, suggesting improvements and having metrics or controls in place to achieve the goals of the business. The error rate is defined as the number of error in a million. An increase in Sigma means decrease in the number of error, and lower values of Sigma correspond to higher number of error. The Six Sigma philosophy aims to bring about improvements in processes that have zero error. The Six Sigma approach is to implement methodologies that aim at reaching world standard quality which is 6 Sigma or more. The Six Sigma methodology used in clinical laboratories appears to be a quality management tool involving statistical calculations, process parameter based, and reports about the process performance. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 132-139

  15. Six Sigma software development

    CERN Document Server

    Tayntor, Christine B


    Since Six Sigma has had marked success in improving quality in other settings, and since the quality of software remains poor, it seems a natural evolution to apply the concepts and tools of Six Sigma to system development and the IT department. Until now however, there were no books available that applied these concepts to the system development process. Six Sigma Software Development fills this void and illustrates how Six Sigma concepts can be applied to all aspects of the evolving system development process. It includes the traditional waterfall model and in the support of legacy systems,

  16. A non-coding RNA promotes bacterial persistence and decreases virulence by regulating a regulator in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Cédric Romilly


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus produces a high number of RNAs for which the functions are poorly understood. Several non-coding RNAs carry a C-rich sequence suggesting that they regulate mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. We demonstrate that the Sigma B-dependent RsaA RNA represses the synthesis of the global transcriptional regulator MgrA by forming an imperfect duplex with the Shine and Dalgarno sequence and a loop-loop interaction within the coding region of the target mRNA. These two recognition sites are required for translation repression. Consequently, RsaA causes enhanced production of biofilm and a decreased synthesis of capsule formation in several strain backgrounds. These phenotypes led to a decreased protection of S. aureus against opsonophagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes compared to the mutant strains lacking RsaA. Mice animal models showed that RsaA attenuates the severity of acute systemic infections and enhances chronic catheter infection. RsaA takes part in a regulatory network that contributes to the complex interactions of S. aureus with the host immune system to moderate invasiveness and favour chronic infections. It is the first example of a conserved small RNA in S. aureus functioning as a virulence suppressor of acute infections. Because S. aureus is essentially a human commensal, we propose that RsaA has been positively selected through evolution to support commensalism and saprophytic interactions with the host.

  17. Six Sigma in Education (United States)

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Cudney, Elizabeth A.


    Purpose: This paper is one of seven in this volume that aims to elaborate different approaches to quality improvement in education. It delineates a methodology called Six Sigma. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study demonstrating an application of Six Sigma in a…

  18. Narrow Sigma -hypernuclear states

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, A


    It is shown that the spin-isospin dependence of low-energy Sigma N to Lambda N conversion leads to substantial quenching of nuclear-matter estimates of the widths of some Sigma -hypernuclear states produced in (K/sup -/, pi ) reactions, to a level below 10 MeV. The estimated widths compare favorably with those of the Sigma -hypernuclear peaks recently observed at CERN for /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, and /sup 12/C. Tentative quantum number assignments are suggested for these states. (10 refs).

  19. Sigma models on supercosets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Vladimir


    The purpose of this thesis is to deepen our understanding of the fundamental properties and defining features of non-linear sigma models on superspaces. We begin by presenting the major concepts that we have used in our investigation, namely Lie superalgebras and supergroups, non-linear sigma models and two dimensional conformal field theory. We then exhibit a method, called cohomological reduction, that makes use of the target space supersymmetry of non-linear sigma models to compute certain correlation functions. We then show how the target space supersymmetry of Ricci flat Lie supergroups simplifies the perturbation theory of suitable deformed Wess-Zumino-Witten models, making it possible to compute boundary conformal weights to all orders. This is then applied to the OSP (2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu Model, leading to a dual description in terms of the sigma model on the supersphere S{sup 2S+1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2S}. With this results in mind, we then turn to the similar, yet more intricate, theory of the non-linear sigma model on the complex projective superspaces CP{sup N-1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup N}. The cohomological reduction allows us to compute several important quantities non-perturbatively with the help of the system of symplectic fermions. Combining this with partial perturbative results for the whole theory, together with numerical computations, we propose a conjecture for the exact evolution of boundary conformal weights for symmetry preserving boundary conditions. (orig.)

  20. Inclusive $\\Sigma^{+}$ and $\\Sigma^{0}$ Production in Hadronic Z Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Campanelli, Mario; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A.P.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; Cozzoni, B.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, Emanuele; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marchesini, P.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G.G.G.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muheim, F.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Produit, N.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruschmeier, D.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Sarakinos, M.E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zoller, M.


    We report on measurements of the inclusive production rate of $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Sigma^0$ baryons in hadronic Z decays collected with the L3 detector at LEP. The $\\Sigma^+$ baryons are detected through the decay $\\Sigma^+ \\rightarrow {\\rm p} \\pi^0$, while the $\\Sigma^0$ baryons are detected via the decay mode $\\Sigma^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\gamma$. The average numbers of $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Sigma^0$ per hadronic Z decay are measured to be: \\begin{eqnarray*} \\left + \\left & = & 0.114 \\pm 0.011_{\\mbox{\\it \\small stat}} \\pm 0.009_{\\mbox{\\it \\small syst}} \\\\ \\left + \\left & = & 0.095 \\pm 0.015_{\\mbox{\\it \\small stat}} \\pm 0.013_{\\mbox{\\it \\small syst}} \\ \\mbox{.} \\end{eqnarray*} These rates are found to be higher than the predictions from Monte Carlo hadronization models and analytical parameterizations of strange baryon production.

  1. Six Sigma method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Brandimarte, P.; Everitt, B.; Molenberghs, G.; Piegorsch, W.; Ruggeri, F.


    Six Sigma is built on principles and methods that have proven themselves over the twentieth century. It has incorporated the most effective approaches and integrated them into a full program. It offers a management structure for organizing continuous improvement of routine tasks, such as

  2. Supersymmetric Sigma Model Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Lindström


    Full Text Available This is a review of how sigma models formulated in Superspace have become important tools for understanding geometry. Topics included are: The (hyperkähler reduction; projective superspace; the generalized Legendre construction; generalized Kähler geometry and constructions of hyperkähler metrics on Hermitian symmetric spaces.

  3. SIGMA's Bibliometrics Project


    Guillaumet, Anna


    31 slides.-- Presentation delivered at the Jostein Hauge Session 1: 'Presentations by euroCRIS members'. Presentation on the features of the Scientific Output Portal (PPC) at Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), with an emphasis on the bibliometric indicators that get automatically pulled into the CRIS. The system runs on the SIGMA Research CERIF CRIS.

  4. TonB-dependent transporters expressed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia N Cornelissen


    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the common sexually transmitted infection, gonorrhea. This microorganism is an obligate human pathogen, existing nowhere in nature except in association with humans. For growth and proliferation, N. gonorrhoeae requires iron and must acquire this nutrient from within its host. The gonococcus is well-adapted for growth in diverse niches within the human body because it expresses efficient transport systems enabling use of a diverse array of iron sources. Iron transport systems facilitating the use of transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoglobin have two components: one TonB-dependent transporter and one lipoprotein. A single component TonB-dependent transporter also allows N. gonorrhoeae to avail itself of iron bound to heterologous siderophores produced by bacteria within the same ecological niche. Other TonB-dependent transporters are encoded by the gonococcus but have not been ascribed specific functions. The best characterized iron transport system expressed by N. gonorrhoeae enables the use of human transferrin as a sole iron source. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms involved in gonococcal iron acquisition from human transferrin and also reviews what is currently known about the other TonB-dependent transport systems. No vaccine is available to prevent gonococcal infections and our options for treating this disease are compromised by the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Because iron transport systems are critical for the survival of the gonococcus in vivo, the surface-exposed components of these systems are attractive candidates for vaccine development or therapeutic intervention.

  5. The role of sigmaB in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria -- targets for food preservation and safety. (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem; Abee, Tjakko


    The alternative sigma factor sigmaB modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, sigmaB is responsible for the transcription of genes that can confer stress resistance to the vegetative cell. Recent findings indicate that sigmaB also plays an important role in antibiotic resistance, pathogenesis and cellular differentiation processes such as biofilm formation and sporulation. Although there are important differences in the regulation of sigmaB and in the set of genes regulated by sigmaB in B. subtilis, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, there are also some conserved themes. A mechanistic understanding of the sigmaB activation processes and assessment of its regulon could provide tools for pathogen control and inactivation both in the food industry and clinical settings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Ferryanto


    Full Text Available This article provides a step by step process of executing analytical or computer based Design for Six Sigma using a Sliding Door project as an example. It comprises of identification of Voice Of the Customer (VOC, transformation of VOC to what it is called Critical To Quality characteristics (CTQs, modeling of system transfers function, optimal and robust solutions, and tolerance design approach

  7. On {\\sigma}-LCD codes


    Carlet, Claude; Mesnager, Sihem; Tang, Chunming; Qi, Yanfeng


    Linear complementary pairs (LCP) of codes play an important role in armoring implementations against side-channel attacks and fault injection attacks. One of the most common ways to construct LCP of codes is to use Euclidean linear complementary dual (LCD) codes. In this paper, we first introduce the concept of linear codes with $\\sigma$ complementary dual ($\\sigma$-LCD), which includes known Euclidean LCD codes, Hermitian LCD codes, and Galois LCD codes. As Euclidean LCD codes, $\\sigma$-LCD ...

  8. Spectra of coset sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group


    We compute the complete 1-loop spectrum of anomalous dimensions for the bulk fields of non-linear sigma models on symmetric coset (super)spaces G/H, both with and without world-sheet supersymmetry. In addition, we provide two new methods for the construction of partition functions in the infinite radius limit and demonstrate their efficiency in the case of (super)sphere sigma models. Our results apply to a large number of target spaces including superspheres and superprojective spaces such as the N=2 sigma model on CP{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 4}.

  9. How Unlucky is 25-Sigma?


    Dowd, Kevin; Cotter, John; Humphrey, Christopher; Woods, Margaret


    This article examines the likelihood of high-sigma loss events, paying particular attention to the so-called 25-sigma events which a number of financial institutions have allegedly experienced in the recent financial turmoil. The authors discuss several well-known cases and their media coverage, and then examine the probabilities of such events and the periods of time that would elapse before one would expect to witness them. They find that 25-sigma events are far less likely to occur than re...

  10. Six sigma for revenue retrieval. (United States)

    Plonien, Cynthia


    Deficiencies in revenue retrieval due to failures in obtaining charges have contributed to a negative bottom line for numerous hospitals. Improving documentation practices through a Six Sigma process improvement initiative can minimize opportunities for errors through reviews and instill structure for compliance and consistency. Commitment to the Six Sigma principles with continuous monitoring of outcomes and constant communication of results to departments, management, and payers is a strong approach to reducing the financial impact of denials on an organization's revenues and expenses. Using Six Sigma tools can help improve the organization's financial performance not only for today, but also for health care's uncertain future.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oke, S.A


    .... This could be of immense benefit to organizations’ top management who need to understand the critical variables and factors for the successful implementation of Six Sigma programmes, leading to substantial, sustainable long-term improvement...

  12. Running Head: Implementing Six Sigma Efforts (United States)

    Lindsay, Jamie Eleaitia Mae


    Six Sigma is an organization wide program that provides common set of goals, language, and methodology for improving the overall quality of the processes within the organization (Davis & Heineke 2004). Six Sigma main concern is for the customer. What will the customers want? Need? Six Sigma has a model that helps Sigma get implemented DMAIC model…

  13. Spectra of conformal sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlapak, Vaclav


    In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2} sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Oke


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite stiff international competition in the global market, world-class manufacturers are increasing their market share and profits through low-cost production, waste reduction in manufacturing, production of high quality products, and exceptional customer service. Six Sigma has been successfully implemented in this regard. In this paper, a selected survey of Six Sigma literature is presented to illustrate the wide scope of the application of the concept. This could be of immense benefit to organizations’ top management who need to understand the critical variables and factors for the successful implementation of Six Sigma programmes, leading to substantial, sustainable long-term improvement in performance results, value for money, and effort. The paper presents motivated pointers – substantiated as far as possible by data and evidence – to key success factors, variables, and their interrelationships.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sterk internasionale mededinging ten spyt verhoog wêreldklasvervaardigers hul markaandeel en winste via laekosteproduksie, skrootvermindering, die produksie van gehalteprodukte en die lewering van primadiens aan klante. Ses Sigma is in hierdie verband as gereedskap suksesvol geïmplimenteer. Die artikel behandel 'n gekeurde oorsig van Ses Sigmaliteratuur om sodoende die toepassingsveldwyde van die konsep te illustreer. Die artikel is nuttig vir organisasiebestuurders uit die oogpunt van veranderlikes en suksesfaktore wat deur die Ses Sigmametode tot substansiële en volhoubare langtermyn verbeterings van 'n onderneming kan lei.

  15. Six Sigma in healthcare delivery. (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew J


    The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review and assessment of the extant Six Sigma healthcare literature, focusing on: application, process changes initiated and outcomes, including improvements in process metrics, cost and revenue. Data were obtained from an extensive literature search. Healthcare Six Sigma applications were categorized by functional area and department, key process metric, cost savings and revenue generation (if any) and other key implementation characteristics. Several inpatient care areas have seen most applications, including admission, discharge, medication administration, operating room (OR), cardiac and intensive care. About 42.1 percent of the applications have error rate as their driving metric, with the remainder focusing on process time (38 percent) and productivity (18.9 percent). While 67 percent had initial improvement in the key process metric, only 10 percent reported sustained improvement. Only 28 percent reported cost savings and 8 percent offered revenue enhancement. These results do not favorably assess Six Sigma's overall effectiveness and the value it offers healthcare. Results are based on reported applications. Future research can include directly surveying healthcare organizations to provide additional data for assessment. Future application should emphasize obtaining improvements that lead to significant and sustainable value. Healthcare staff can use the results to target promising areas. This article comprehensively assesses Six Sigma healthcare applications and impact.

  16. Measurement of ${\\sigma(H\

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinović-Dumbelović, G.; Robson, A.; Roloff, P.


    This paper presents the potential measurement at 1.4 TeV CLIC of the cross-section (times branching ratio) of the Higgs production via $WW$ fusion with the Higgs subsequently decaying in $ZZ^\\ast$, ${\\sigma(H\

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren


    antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination....... aureus HG001, a derivative of strain NCTC 8325, across experimental conditions ranging from optimal growth in vitro to intracellular growth in host cells. These data establish an extensive repertoire of transcription units and non-coding RNAs, a classification of 1412 promoters according...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...

  18. Absolute $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$ spaces


    Kovařík, Vojtěch; Kalenda, Ondřej


    We prove that hereditarily Lindel\\"of space which is $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$ in some compactification is absolutely $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$. In particular, this implies that any separable Banach space is absolutely $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$ when equipped with the weak topology.

  19. Lean Six Sigma in financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Bisgaard, S.


    Lean Thinking and Six Sigma are typically considered as separate approaches to process innovation, with complementary strengths. When combined as Lean Six Sigma, this approach provides a unified framework for systematically developing innovations. Lean Six Sigma can also bring about significant

  20. Topological sigma models on supermanifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Bei, E-mail:


    This paper concerns constructing topological sigma models governing maps from semirigid super Riemann surfaces to general target supermanifolds. We define both the A model and B model in this general setup by defining suitable BRST operators and physical observables. Using supersymmetric localization, we express correlation functions in these theories as integrals over suitable supermanifolds. In the case of the A model, we obtain an integral over the supermoduli space of “superinstantons”. The language of supergeometry is used extensively throughout this paper.

  1. Design for six sigma: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouroush Jenab


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is recognized as an essential tool for continuous improvement of quality. A large num-ber of publications by various authors reflect the interest in this technique. Reviews of literature on Six Sigma have been done in the past by a few authors. However, considering the contributions in the recent times, a more comprehensive review is attempted here. The authors have examined vari-ous papers and have proposed a different scheme of classification. In addition, certain gaps that would provide hints for further research in Six Sigma have been identified. As a results the rela-tionship between Six Sigma, Design for Six Sigma (DFSS, and how these two concepts support the quality system for organizational learning and innovation performance have been discussed that would help researchers, academicians and practitioners to take a closer look at the growth, devel-opment and applicability of Six Sigma in Design.

  2. Topological Terms and Phases of Sigma Models


    Thorngren, Ryan


    We study boundary conditions of topological sigma models with the goal of generalizing the concepts of anomalous symmetry and symmetry protected topological order. We find a version of 't Hooft's anomaly matching conditions on the renormalization group flow of boundaries of invertible topological sigma models and discuss several examples of anomalous boundary theories. We also comment on bulk topological transitions in dynamical sigma models and argue that one can, with care, use topological ...

  3. Sigma Metrics Across the Total Testing Process. (United States)

    Charuruks, Navapun


    Laboratory quality control has been developed for several decades to ensure patients' safety, from a statistical quality control focus on the analytical phase to total laboratory processes. The sigma concept provides a convenient way to quantify the number of errors in extra-analytical and analytical phases through the defect per million and sigma metric equation. Participation in a sigma verification program can be a convenient way to monitor analytical performance continuous quality improvement. Improvement of sigma-scale performance has been shown from our data. New tools and techniques for integration are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying Sigma Metrics to Reduce Outliers. (United States)

    Litten, Joseph


    Sigma metrics can be used to predict assay quality, allowing easy comparison of instrument quality and predicting which tests will require minimal quality control (QC) rules to monitor the performance of the method. A Six Sigma QC program can result in fewer controls and fewer QC failures for methods with a sigma metric of 5 or better. The higher the number of methods with a sigma metric of 5 or better, the lower the costs for reagents, supplies, and control material required to monitor the performance of the methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sigma Receptors in Oncology : Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications of Sigma Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Rybczynska, Anna A.; K. Ramakrishnan, Nisha; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.


    Sigma receptors (subtypes sigma-1 and sigma-2) are a unique class of binding sites expressed throughout the mammalian body. The endogenous ligand for these sites has not been identified, but steroid hormones (particularly progesterone), sphingolipid-derived amines and N,N-dimethyltryptamine can bind

  6. RsbU-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation Is Mediated via the Alternative Sigma Factor σB by Repression of the Negative Regulator Gene icaR (United States)

    Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Jäger, Sebastian; Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich


    Transposon mutagenesis of rsbU leads to a biofilm-negative phenotype in Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, the pathway of this regulatory mechanism was unknown. To investigate the role of RsbU in the regulation of the alternative sigma factor σB and biofilm formation, we generated different mutants of the σB operon in S. epidermidis strains 1457 and 8400. The genes rsbU, rsbV, rsbW, and sigB, as well as the regulatory cascade rsbUVW and the entire σB operon, were deleted. Transcriptional analysis of sarA and the σB-dependent gene asp23 revealed the functions of RsbU and RsbV as positive regulators and of RsbW as a negative regulator of σB activity, indicating regulation of σB activity similar to that characterized for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants revealed that the dramatic decrease of biofilm formation in rsbU mutants is mediated via σB, indicating a crucial role for σB in S. epidermidis pathogenesis. However, biofilm formation in mutants defective in σB or its function could be restored in the presence of subinhibitory ethanol concentrations. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaR is up-regulated in mutants lacking σB function but that icaA transcription is down-regulated in these mutants, indicating a σB-dependent regulatory intermediate negatively regulating IcaR. Supplementation of growth media with ethanol decreased icaR transcription, leading to increased icaA transcription and a biofilm-positive phenotype, indicating that the ethanol-dependent induction of biofilm formation is mediated by IcaR. This icaR-dependent regulation under ethanol induction is mediated in a σB-independent manner, suggesting at least one additional regulatory intermediate in the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. PMID:15213125

  7. Lean Six Sigma in a hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, J.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.


    Abstract Hospitals today face major challenges. Patients demand quality of care to be improved continuously. Health insurance companies demand the lowest possible prices. Lean Six Sigma is a program that can help healthcare providers to achieve these (seemingly) conflicting goals. Lean Six Sigma is

  8. Six Sigma als blauwdruk voor de kenniseconomie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Does, R.J.M.M.


    Abstract Six Sigma is zo langzamerhand een niet weg te denken programma voor kwaliteits- en efficiencyverbeteringen. Het heeft met name voor enorme successen gezorgd in productiebedrijven. Six Sigma ligt ook onder vuur: het zou een trend zijn die voorbij gaat. De auteurs van dit artikel zijn het van

  9. Lean Six Sigma implementation and organizational culture. (United States)

    Knapp, Susan


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between four organizational cultural types defined by the Competing Values Framework and three Lean Six Sigma implementation components - management involvement, use of Lean Six Sigma methods and Lean Six Sigma infrastructure. The study involved surveying 446 human resource and quality managers from 223 hospitals located in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and Rhode Island using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. Findings - In total, 104 completed responses were received and analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Follow-up analysis of variances showed management support was significant, F(3, 100)=4.89, p Six Sigma methods was also not significant, F(3, 100)=1.34, p=0.26, η2=0.04. Post hoc analysis identified group and development cultures having significant interactions with management support. The relationship between organizational culture and Lean Six Sigma in hospitals provides information on how specific cultural characteristics impact the Lean Six Sigma initiative key components. This information assists hospital staff who are considering implementing quality initiatives by providing an understanding of what cultural values correspond to effective Lean Six Sigma implementation. Managers understanding the quality initiative cultural underpinnings, are attentive to the culture-shared values and norm's influence can utilize strategies to better implement Lean Six Sigma.

  10. Integrating the Many Facets of Six Sigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.


    We seek to provide a unified characterization of Six Sigma by studying the phenomenon from the perspectives of business economics, organizational theory, competitive strategy and industrial statistics, and we pinpoint its core methodological principles. We describe Six Sigma as a prescriptive

  11. Comparative Analysis between Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mirela Cristina MUNTEANU


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the benefits of Lean Six Sigma in comparison with Lean and Six Sigma, traditional improvement methodologies. The introduction highlights the appearance of Lean Six Sigma, early 2000s, as well as the benefits brought by the integrated approach. The following parts of the study emphasize the main differences between methodologies and their commonalities based on their synergy. Finally the advantages of Lean Six Sigma versus Lean and Six Sigma are analyzed and systematized by author in order to reveal Lean Six Sigma’s benefits.

  12. TA-55 and Sigma Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearing, Dane Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group (NEN-1)


    These are slides from a facility overview presentation for visiting agencies to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The TA-55 Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is discussed in detail. PF-4 is a unique resource for US plutonium programs. The basic design is flexible and has adapted to changing national needs. It is a robust facility with strong safety and security implementation. It supports a variety of national programs. It will continue for many years into the future. Sigma is then discussed in detail, which handles everything from hydrogen to uranium. It has been in long term service to the Nation (nearly 60 years). It has a flexible authorization basis to handle almost the entire periodic table. It has a wide breadth of prototyping and characterization capabilities. It has integrated program and line management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Sokovic


    Full Text Available Many organizations, dealing with continuous improvement methods, have realized that Lean and Six Sigma methodologies complement each other. Lean manufacturing focuses on the remova l of waste so that all processes in the total system add value from the customers' perspectives. The main emphasis of Six Sigma is the application of statistical tools in a disciplined manner, which requires data-driven decision-making. The integration of Lean and Six Sigma provides a synergetic effect, a rapid process improvement strategy for attaining organizational goals. When separated, Lean manufacturing cannot bring a process under statistical control, and Six Sigma cannot dramatically improve cycle time or reduce invested capital. Together, synergistic qualities are created to maximize the potential for a process improvement. The paper deals with Lean and Six Sigma principles and approaches used in modern manufacturing for process improvements, and bring forward benefits that are gained when these two methodologies are integrated.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with ... from your health care provider. What is a staph infection? Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of ...

  15. Distortion-free delta-sigma beamforming. (United States)

    Nilsen, Carl-Inge Colombo; Holm, Sverre


    We have analyzed a compact, digital delay- and-sum beamformer using 1-bit delta-sigma A/D converters, where dynamic delays are applied directly to the delta-sigma modulated bitstream. It has previously been shown that the introduction of this time-variant operation into the time-invariant delta-sigma demodulator distorts the output signal, and several methods for minimizing this effect have been suggested. We have described the effect using standard system terminology. Based on this description, a new method for removing the distortion without any significant increase in system complexity is introduced. Its advantages, performance-wise, are supported by theoretical assessments and simulations.

  16. Lean six sigma application to transportation logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Tavares Fernandes


    Full Text Available This work presents the application of Lean Six Sigma in a case study of a metallurgic industry. The Six Sigma and the Lean are two processes used by enterprises in Brazil and worldwide. Currently the integration of these processes is a challenge for these companies, which search a way more efficient to reduce their wastes and to adapt to the needs of their markets. The paper had as purpose to demonstrate the applicability of the Lean Six Sigma in a real logistical problem related to the transportation of goods among units of a metallurgic industry. The stages used for the solution of the problem follow the DMAIC cycle – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. The paper presents in details the integrated approach of the improvement processes Lean and Six Sigma, their tools set, as well the excellent results obtained in the case study.

  17. Performance Test for the SIGMA Communication System (United States)

    Jeong, Seonyeong; Lee, Hyojeong; Lee, Seongwhan; Shin, Jehyuck; Lee, Jungkyu; Jin, Ho


    Scientific CubeSat with Instruments for Global Magnetic Fields and Radiations (SIGMA) is a 3-U size CubeSat that will be operated in low earth orbit (LEO). The SIGMA communication system uses a very high frequency (VHF) band for uplink and an ultra high frequency (UHF) band for downlink. Both frequencies belong to an amateur band. The ground station that communicates with SIGMA is located at Kyung Hee Astronomical Observatory (KHAO). For reliable communication, we carried out a laboratory (LAB) test and far-field tests between the CubeSat and a ground station. In the field test, we considered test parameters such as attenuation, antenna deployment, CubeSat body attitude, and Doppler frequency shift in transmitting commands and receiving data. In this paper, we present a communication performance test of SIGMA, a link budget analysis, and a field test process. We also compare the link budget with the field test results of transmitting commands and receiving data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhkeim FA. Flifel


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a well-structured and proven methodology for improving organizational performance. It helps achieving the goals of the organization through the use of project-driven approach. The implementation of Six sigma approach depends on proper identification and selection of projects, moreover, the selection of right Six sigma projects is one of the critical success factors of six sigma efforts. The paper provides the sources for the identification of potential projects, top down and bottom up approaches, the process of selection of projects, guidelines that assist the selection of appropriate projects, selection criteria which must be precisely chosen in accordance with the objectives, needs and capabilities of the organization as well as sophisticated techniques and tools recommended in the literature for the selection of projects.

  19. Operation of six sigma in production engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Pereira Martin


    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive world, where deadlines and targets are becoming more narrow and difficult to achieve, organizations are seeking new competitive advantages that allow them to improve their development, and it is in this context that the Six Sigma program offers a way to enable such income. This study consists of a literature review on the topic: Six Sigma; and a bibliometric review in order to identify the use of the Six Sigma program in Production Engineering. The database ABEPRO was used for the research, which resulted in a set of 34 publications that identified the main centers of studies, authors and more universities that have published articles on the subject, the most recurrent keywords used, number of publications per year, the type of research presented and the tools used in conjunction with the Six Sigma program. Through analysis of the selected articles, it was possible to answer such questions as those asked above

  20. Staphylococcus aureus toxins. (United States)

    Otto, Michael


    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Sigma factors and promoters in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (United States)

    Pátek, Miroslav; Nešvera, Jan


    The Corynebacterium glutamicum genome codes for 7 sigma subunits (factors) of RNA polymerase (RNAP): primary sigma factor SigA (σ(A)), primary-like SigB and 5 other alternative sigma factors (SigC, SigD, SigE, SigH and SigM). Each sigma factor is responsible for recognizing promoters of genes belonging to a regulon (sigmulon) involved in specific functions of the cell. Most promoters of C. glutamicum housekeeping genes are recognized by RNAP+σ(A), whereas σ(B) is involved in transcription of a large group of genes active during the transition phase between the exponential and stationary growth phases when various stress factors threaten to damage the cell. The σ(H) regulon consists of the genes involved in heat shock response including those coding for regulators and other sigma factors. It seems therefore that σ(H) occupies a central position in the cross-regulated network of sigma factors and controls their concerted response to various stress conditions in C. glutamicum. The σ(M) factor was found to regulate genes responding to oxidative stress. The main role of σ(E) is to activate genes involved in response to a cell surface stress. Promoters of individual classes recognized by different sigma factors are compiled and the respective consensus sequences of their key recognition motifs (-35 and -10 regions) are derived. In a number of genes, two or more promoters controlled by the same or different sigma factors were discovered. These multiple, overlapping or dual promoters contribute to a complex gene transcription control mechanisms that integrate internal and external signals and tune gene expression in cells as required by environmental and physiological conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Pseudomonas syringae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Kristoffer; Oguiza, J.A.; Ussery, D.W.


    Genome analyses of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, pv. syringae B728a and pv. phaseolicola 1448A reveal fewer extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors than in related Pseudomonads with different lifestyles. We highlight the presence of a P. syringae-specific ECF s...... sigma factor that is an interesting target for future studies because of its potential role in the adaptation of P. syringae to its specialized phytopathogenic lifestyle....

  3. Regulation of RNA polymerase sigma subunit synthesis in Escherichia coli: intracellular levels of four species of sigma subunit under various growth conditions.


    Jishage, M; Iwata, A.; Ueda, S.; Ishihama, A


    By a quantitative Western immunoblot analysis, the intracellular levels of two principal sigma subunits, sigma 70 (sigma D, the rpoD gene product) and sigma 38 (sigma S, the rpoS gene product), and of two minor sigma subunits, sigma 54 (sigma N, the rpoN gene product) and sigma 28 (sigma F, the rpoF gene product), were determined in two Escherichia coli strains, W3110 and MC4100. The results indicated that the levels of sigma 54 and sigma 28 are maintained at 10 and 50%, respectively, of the ...

  4. Rudder-roll stabilization using fgs-pid controller for sigma-e warship (United States)

    Santoso, M. Y.; Munadhif, I.; Wahidin, A.; Ruddianto; Fathulloh; Soelistijono, R. T.


    The aim of rudder-roll stabilization (RSS) is controlling ship heading and reducing roll motion simultaneously using one actuator, rudder. In this paper, RSS using FGS-PID for SIGMA-e warship was performed, both in normal and disturbed sea conditions. The fuzzy system for determining PID controller are constructed from SIGMA-e linear mathematical model. The wave disturbances are generated based on the WMO. The results show that FGS-PID has superior performance compared to conventional PID controller in heading control and roll damping. It means that the proposed control method can encounter the environmental changes.

  5. Towards a unified grammatical model of sigma 70 and sigma 54 bacterial promoters. (United States)

    Collado-Vides, J


    The organization and integration of large amounts of information on the regulation of gene expression requires new conceptual frameworks to facilitate the discovery of general principles underlying different mechanisms of gene regulation. I have developed a formalism based on generative grammar to explicitly describe pertinent regulatory properties of mechanisms of regulation. The formal proof that justifies the use of generative grammar has been made. We have collected and analyzed an exhaustive database of sigma 70 and sigma 54 promoters in E coli and Salmonella where there is sufficient knowledge on the regulation of these genes. This collection has supported the construction of a grammatical model of the sigma 70 type of promoters. The purpose of this paper is to present some ideas towards the construction of a unified grammar capable of describing regulatory arrays for the sigma 70 and the sigma 54 bacterial promoters. This model is not intended to simply generate the set of binding sites of regulators distributed in a linear array in the DNA. It should also reflect the biological differences on the regulatory mechanisms of these collections, as understood from the analysis that we have done on these collections (Gralla and Collado-Vides, 1996). Based on the biology of these two types of bacterial promoters, a hypothesis is proposed stipulating that in principle it is feasible to activate sigma 70 promoters at a distance, an exclusive property of the sigma 54 class shared with promoters of higher organisms. The model presented assumes this hypothesis is correct. The ideas presented support the beginning of a unique 'universal' grammar for the sigma 70 and sigma 54 promoters. The specification of certain parameters would derive the respective specific sigma 70 and sigma 54 grammatical models.

  6. Studies of the Escherichia coli Rsd-sigma70 complex. (United States)

    Westblade, Lars F; Ilag, Leopold L; Powell, Andrew K; Kolb, Annie; Robinson, Carol V; Busby, Stephen J W


    Escherichia coli Rsd protein was previously identified on the basis of its binding to the RNA polymerase sigma(70) subunit. The Rsd-sigma(70) complex has been studied using different methods. Our data show that Rsd associates with sigma(70) to form a complex with a stoichiometry of 1:1. Alanine scanning and deletion mutagenesis were used to locate regions of sigma(70) that are required for the formation of the Rsd-sigma(70) complex.

  7. Six sigma quality for fuel manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbani, M.D.; Onderwater, T. [GE Canada, Fuel Manufacturing Plant, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)


    It is widely recognized that operational performance in product manufacturing is largely determined by understanding and maintaining process capability. By definition, Six Sigma is a statistical unit of measure reflecting process capability that yields less' than 6.8 defects per million product produced. Statistically, this translates into obtaining a long term manufacturing process capability of {+-} 4.5 standard deviations aboutthe mean within specification limits. The heart of the Six Sigma program developed by the Six Sigma Academy is what we refer to as the Breakthrough Strategy. This rigorous analytical methodology is the driving force in obtaining world class performance of Six Sigma. The methodology applies statistical and practical tools in resolving a problem or improving a product or process. The application of Six Sigma focuses on attacking process input variables (independent) rather than the output variables. Focusing on these independent variables (temperature, power, force, etc.) and the variation in the end product they create, enables us to get to the root of the problem rather than react to the symptoms of the problem. In this manner we prevent defects from occurring rather than inspecting and monitoring the product. Why the need for such an ambitious program? It is estimated that the cost of failure (rework, scrap, warranties, etc.) can be as high as 15% of sales for companies typically operating at 3-4 sigma. In achieving Six Sigma, costs of failure are typically less than 5%. The thought of reducing business costs while achieving the recognition of being our customer's premier choice provides enormous incentive to reach such status. (author)

  8. Six Lessons We Learned Applying Six Sigma (United States)

    Carroll, Napoleon; Casleton, Christa H.


    As Chief Financial Officer of Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I'm not only responsible for financial planning and accounting but also for building strong partnerships with the CFO customers, who include Space Shuttle and International Space Station operations as well all who manage the KSC Spaceport. My never ending goal is to design, manage and continuously improve our core business processes so that they deliver world class products and services to the CFO's customers. I became interested in Six Sigma as Christa Casleton (KSC's first Six Sigma Black belt) applied Six Sigma tools and methods to our Plan and Account for Travel Costs Process. Her analysis was fresh, innovative and thorough but, even more impressive, was her approach to ensure ongoing, continuous process improvement. Encouraged by the results, I launched two more process improvement initiatives aimed at applying Six Sigma principles to CFO processes that not only touch most of my employees but also have direct customer impact. As many of you know, Six Sigma is a measurement scale that compares the output of a process with customer requirements. That's straight forward, but demands that you not only understand your processes but also know your products and the critical customer requirements. The objective is to isolate and eliminate the causes of process variation so that the customer sees consistently high quality.

  9. Geometric sigma model of the Universe (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan


    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how an arbitrarily chosen background of the Universe can be made a solution of a simple geometric sigma model. Geometric sigma models are purely geometric theories in which spacetime coordinates are seen as scalar fields coupled to gravity. Although they look like ordinary sigma models, they have the peculiarity that their complete matter content can be gauged away. The remaining geometric theory possesses a background solution that is predefined in the process of constructing the theory. The fact that background configuration is specified in advance is another peculiarity of geometric sigma models. In this paper, I construct geometric sigma models based on different background geometries of the Universe. Whatever background geometry is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is shown to have a generic classical stability. This way, any freely chosen background metric is made a stable solution of a simple model. Three particular models of the Universe are considered as examples of how this is done in practice. Supported by Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (171031)

  10. Measurements of sigma(e^+ e^- -> Upsilon(nS)pi^+pi^-) and sigma(e^+ e^- -> b bbar) in the Upsilon(10860) and Upsilon(11020) resonance regions

    CERN Document Server

    Santel, D; Chang, P; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Bakich, A M; Bansal, V; Bhuyan, B; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dingfelder, J; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hou, W -S; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Julius, T; Kang, K H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuzmin, A; Lange, J S; Lee, I S; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mori, T; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Oswald, C; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shebalin, V; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Solovieva, E; Starič, M; Steder, M; Tamponi, U; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yang, Y -P; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yusa, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A


    We report new measurements of $R_{\\Upsilon\\pi\\pi}\\equiv\\sigma(e^+e^-\\to \\Upsilon(n{\\rm S})\\pi^+\\pi^-)/\\sigma^0_{\\mu\\mu}$ ($n$ = 1, 2, 3) and $R_b\\equiv\\sigma(e^+e^-\\to b\\bar b)/\\sigma^0_{\\mu\\mu}$ (where $\\sigma^0_{\\mu\\mu}$ is the muon-pair Born cross section) in the region $\\sqrt{s} = 10.63$-$11.05$ GeV, based on data collected with the Belle detector. Distributions in $R_{\\Upsilon\\pi\\pi}$ and $R_b$ are fit for the masses and widths of the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ and $\\Upsilon(11020)$ resonances. Unlike $R_b$, which includes a large non-resonant $b\\bar{b}$ component, we find that $R_{\\Upsilon\\pi\\pi}$ is dominated by the two resonances. With $R_{\\Upsilon\\pi\\pi}$ as the basis, the total rate at the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ peak for known final states containing bottomonium(-like) resonances is estimated. We find that $\\Upsilon(10860)$ is essentially saturated by such modes, raising doubts about the validity of masses measured using $R_b$. With $R_{\\Upsilon\\pi\\pi}$, we measure $M_{10860}=(10891.1\\pm3.2^{+0.6}_{-1.5})$ MeV/$c...

  11. Six Sigma Driven Enterprise Model Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Vella


    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture methods provide a structured system to understand enterprise activities. However, existing enterprise modelling methodologies take static views of the enterprise and do not naturally lead to a path of improvement during enterprise model transformation. This paper discusses the need for a methodology to facilitate changes for improvement in an enterprise. The six sigma methodology is proposed as the tool to facilitate progressive and continual Enterprise Model Transformation to allow businesses to adapt to meet increased customer expectation and global competition. An alignment of six sigma with phases of GERAM life cycle is described with inclusion of Critical-To-Satisfaction (CTS requirements. The synergies of combining the two methodologies are presented in an effort to provide a more culturally embedded framework for Enterprise Model Transformation that builds on the success of six sigma.

  12. Sigma-2 receptor ligands QSAR model dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rescifina


    Full Text Available The data have been obtained from the Sigma-2 Receptor Selective Ligands Database (S2RSLDB and refined according to the QSAR requirements. These data provide information about a set of 548 Sigma-2 (σ2 receptor ligands selective over Sigma-1 (σ1 receptor. The development of the QSAR model has been undertaken with the use of CORAL software using SMILES, molecular graphs and hybrid descriptors (SMILES and graph together. Data here reported include the regression for σ2 receptor pKi QSAR models. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the σ2 receptor pKi values of the FDA approved drugs that are herewith included.

  13. 6 Sigma DFSS technique with easy practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This book describes 6 Sigma DFSS technique which is easy to use. These are the titles of the contents : new demand, the reason that DFSS needs, when is DFSS used?, DMAIC and DMADV and the bastion for achievement of 6 sigma, new trouble, chief, Chang's new store, plan on kalguksu development propel, customers are holding the key, CTQ refinement, process capability evaluation, setting goal, finding of conception of optimum design, finding of design element, the last gateway, and it's time for a DFSS!.

  14. A Lean Six Sigma journey in radiology. (United States)

    Bucci, Ronald V; Musitano, Anne


    The department of radiology at Akron Children's Hospital embarked on a Lean Six Sigma mission as part of a hospital wide initiative to show increased customer satisfaction, reduce employee dissatisfaction and frustration, and decrease costs. Three processes that were addressed were reducing the MRI scheduling back-log, reconciling discrepancies in billing radiology procedures, and implementing a daily management system. Keys to success is that managers provide opportunities to openly communicate between department sections to break down barriers. Executive leaders must be engaged in Lean Six Sigma for the company to be successful.

  15. Interaction of sigma factor sigmaN with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme. (United States)

    Scott, D J; Ferguson, A L; Gallegos, M T; Pitt, M; Buck, M; Hoggett, J G


    The equilibrium binding and kinetics of assembly of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(N)-holoenzyme has been investigated using biosynthetically labelled 7-azatryptophyl- (7AW)sigma(N). The spectroscopic properties of such 7AW proteins allows their absorbance and fluorescence to be monitored selectively, even in the presence of high concentrations of other tryptophan-containing proteins. The 7AWsigma(N) retained its biological activity in stimulating transcription from sigma(N)-specific promoters, and in in vitro gel electrophoresis assays of binding to core RNAP from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, five Trp-->Ala single mutants of sigma(N) were shown to support growth under conditions of nitrogen limitation, and showed comparable efficiency in activating the sigma(N)-dependent nifH promoter in vivo, indicating that none of the tryptophan residues were essential for activity. The equilibrium binding of 7AWsigma(N) to core RNAP was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. In sedimentation equilibrium experiments, absorbance data at 315 nm (which reports selectively on the distribution of free and bound 7AWsigma(N)) established that a 1:1 complex was formed, with a dissociation constant lower than 2 microM. The kinetics of the interaction between 7AWsigma(N) and core RNAP was investigated using stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry. A biphasic decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed when samples were excited at 280 nm, whereas only the slower of the two phases was observed at 315 nm. The kinetic data were analysed in terms of a mechanism in which a fast bimolecular association of sigma(N) with core RNAP is followed by a relatively slow isomerization step. The consequences of these findings on the competition between sigma(N) and the major sigma factor, sigma(70), in Escherichia coli are discussed.

  16. A New Measurement of the Masses and Widths of the Sigma_c^*++ and Sigma_c^*0 Charmed Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, S B; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S S; Müller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Bornheim, A; Pappas, S P; Weinstein, A J; Rosner, J L; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Credé, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M


    Using data recorded by the CLEO III detector at CESR, we have made measurements of some properties of the Sigma_c^{*++} and Sigma_c^{*0} charmed baryons. In particular: Gamma(Sigma_c^{*++})=14.4^{+1.6}_{-1.5}+-1.4 MeV, M(Sigma_c^{*++})-M(Lambda_c^+) = 231.5+-0.4+-0.3 MeV, Gamma(Sigma_c^{*0})=16.6^{+1.9}_{-1.7}+-1.4 MeV, M(Sigma_c^{*0})-M(Lambda_c^+) = 231.4+-0.5+-0.3 MeV.

  17. ANCHR mediates Aurora-B-dependent abscission checkpoint control through retention of VPS4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoresen, Sigrid B; Campsteijn, Coen; Vietri, Marina


    of the ESCRT machinery, the ATPase VPS4. In concert with CHMP4C, ANCHR associates with VPS4 at the midbody ring following DNA segregation defects to control abscission timing and prevent multinucleation in an Aurora-B-dependent manner. This association prevents VPS4 relocalization to the abscission zone...... and is relieved following inactivation of Aurora B to allow abscission. We propose that the abscission checkpoint is mediated by ANCHR and CHMP4C through retention of VPS4 at the midbody ring....

  18. TLR-mediated NF-kB-dependent cytokine production is differently affected by HIV therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren Riis; Mogensen, Trine

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumonia and N. Meningococcus. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...... results suggest an opposing effect of the drugs Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated production of NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines. We present data on the mechanisms behind the drug-mediated remodeling of innate immune activation and how the drugs effect early host...

  19. Lean Six Sigma for Service and Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.


    Lean Six Sigma is built on principles and methods that have proven themselves over the twentieth century. It has incorporated the most effective approaches and integrated them into a full programme. It offers a management structure for organizing continuous improvement of routine tasks, such as

  20. Lean Six Sigma: Stap voor stap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.


    Lean Six Sigma is de culminatie van ontwikkelingen in kwaliteitsverbetering in de 20ste eeuw. Het combineert belangrijke principes en technieken in een goed gestructureerde en geïntegreerde benadering. Het belichaamt wetenschappelijke inzichten over onderzoeksmethodologie, management en economie. In

  1. Implementing Lean Six Sigma in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, B.A.


    This thesis focuses on operational excellence following the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) method. As the popularity of implementing LSS grows, questions about implementing LSS in organizations arise, and this is where we aim to contribute. We study key questions about implementing LSS in organizations at two

  2. The Scientific Underpinning of Lean Six Sigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; de Koning, H.; Bisgaard, S.


    The twentieth century saw an incredible development of professional organizations. The impact of technological advances is obvious, but besides these, innovations in management structures and methods have resulted in the highly productive organizations of today. Lean Six Sigma is not revolutionary.

  3. Need of Six Sigma in Education (United States)

    Mehrotra, Dheeraj


    The marching trend of the new economic order has generated a new capsule of SIX SIGMA as a unified approach to process excellence. The tests reveal that it has transformed some of the most successful companies in the world like Motorola, GE etc. It is activated as an approach to aiming at the target by changing the culture of a company, involving…

  4. Improving Learning Outcome Using Six Sigma Methodology (United States)

    Tetteh, Godson A.


    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to apply the Six Sigma methodology to identify the attributes of a lecturer that will help improve a student's prior knowledge of a discipline from an initial "x" per cent knowledge to a higher "y" per cent of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The data collection method…

  5. How Six Sigma Methodology Improved Doctors' Performance (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, George


    Six Sigma methodology was used in a District General Hospital to assess the effect of the introduction of an educational programme to limit unnecessary admissions. The performance of the doctors involved in the programme was assessed. Ishikawa Fishbone and 5 S's were initially used and Pareto analysis of their findings was performed. The results…

  6. Six Sigma and Introductory Statistics Education (United States)

    Maleyeff, John; Kaminsky, Frank C.


    A conflict exists between the way statistics is practiced in contemporary business environments and the way statistics is taught in schools of management. While businesses are embracing programs, such as six sigma and TQM, that bring statistical methods to the forefront of management decision making, students do not graduate with the skills to…

  7. Performance Test for the SIGMA Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonyeong Jeong


    Full Text Available Scientific CubeSat with Instruments for Global Magnetic Fields and Radiations (SIGMA is a 3-U size CubeSat that will be operated in low earth orbit (LEO. The SIGMA communication system uses a very high frequency (VHF band for uplink and an ultra high frequency (UHF band for downlink. Both frequencies belong to an amateur band. The ground station that communicates with SIGMA is located at Kyung Hee Astronomical Observatory (KHAO. For reliable communication, we carried out a laboratory (LAB test and far-field tests between the CubeSat and a ground station. In the field test, we considered test parameters such as attenuation, antenna deployment, CubeSat body attitude, and Doppler frequency shift in transmitting commands and receiving data. In this paper, we present a communication performance test of SIGMA, a link budget analysis, and a field test process. We also compare the link budget with the field test results of transmitting commands and receiving data.

  8. Atg7 Regulates Brain Angiogenesis via NF-κB-Dependent IL-6 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Fang Zhuang


    Full Text Available The formation of brain vasculature is an essential step during central nervous system development. The molecular mechanism underlying brain angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. The role of Atg7, an autophagy-related protein, in brain angiogenesis was investigated in this study. We found that the microvessel density in mice brains with endothelial-specific knockout of Atg7 (Atg7 EKO was significantly decreased compared to wild-type control. Consistently, in vitro angiogenesis assays showed that Atg7 knockdown impaired angiogenesis in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Further results indicated that knockdown of Atg7 reduced interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells, which is mediated by NF-κB-dependent transcriptional control. Interestingly, exogenous IL-6 restored the impaired angiogenesis and reduced cell motility caused by Atg7 knockdown. These results demonstrated that Atg7 has proangiogenic activity in brain angiogenesis which is mediated by IL-6 production in a NF-κB-dependent manner.

  9. Investigating the green impact of lean, six sigma, and lean six sigma: A systematic literature review


    Chugani, N.; Kumar, V; Garza-Reyes, J. A.; Rocha-Lona, L.; A. Upadhyay


    Purpose - The academic literature and research lines exploring the effect of quality improvement methods on environmental performance still remain in early stages. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate, through a systematic review of the existing academic literature, the environmental (green) impact of using quality and operations improvement methods such as Lean, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma. This includes the impact on energy saving and the usage of natural resources.\\ud \\u...

  10. Operational excellence (six sigma) philosophy: Application to software quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.


    This report contains viewgraphs on operational excellence philosophy of six sigma applied to software quality assurance. This report outlines the following: goal of six sigma; six sigma tools; manufacturing vs administrative processes; Software quality assurance document inspections; map software quality assurance requirements document; failure mode effects analysis for requirements document; measuring the right response variables; and questions.

  11. The cholinergic system, sigma-1 receptors and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Ramakrishnan, Nisha K.; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Nijholt, Ingrid M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.


    This article provides an overview of present knowledge regarding the relationship between the cholinergic system and sigma-1 receptors, and discusses potential applications of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of memory deficits and cognitive disorders. Sigma-1 receptors, initially

  12. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.


    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  13. The Polarization and Magnetic Moment of the Sigma Plus Hyperon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Carol Ann [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The polarization and magnetic moment of the $\\Sigma^+$ hyperon have been determined by analyzing 137,300 $\\Sigma^+ \\to p \\pi^0, \\pi^0 \\to 2 \\gamma$ decays. A beam of + inclusively-produced, polarized $\\Sigma^+$ hyperons was generated in a Fermilab Meson Lab beamline by 400 GeV protons incident on a beryllium target. The $\\Sigma^+$'s were produced at an angle of 5 mrad and ranged in momentum from 140 GeV/c to 350 GeV/c. + 0 The $\\Sigma^+ \\to p \\pi^0, \\pi \\to 2 \\gamma$ decays were detected by a multiwire proportional and drift chamber spectrometer with a lead glass array....

  14. Apelin attenuates postburn sepsis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent mechanism: A randomized animal study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Keqin; Long, Huibao; Xu, Bincan; Luo, Yanling


    This study aims to investigate whether apelin would regulate inflammatory response and promote survival in an experimental burn sepsis model through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway...

  15. Six sigma and lean production adoption in a manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Christian Scheller


    Full Text Available The connection among Lean Production with Six Sigma originated the Lean Six Sigma methodology, focused on processes variation and waste reduction. This methodology was developed on different ways in the companies and there is no consensus over its structure and its implementation. In this context, this paper aims to identify and analyze the main characteristics on the adoption and integration of Lean Six Sigma methodology through a case study conducted in a manufacturing company that adopts lean production and six sigma. The results show two important aspects of the Lean Six Sigma methodology. One of them is the adoption of the value stream mapping as a central tool on Lean Six Sigma. The other is the use of DMAIC for improvements actions. The study indicates that despite the difficulties on Lean Six Sigma implementation, the methodology offers benefits to the company that adopts it in the suitable way.

  16. Implementing Lean Six Sigma in organizations


    Lameijer, B.A.


    This thesis focuses on operational excellence following the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) method. As the popularity of implementing LSS grows, questions about implementing LSS in organizations arise, and this is where we aim to contribute. We study key questions about implementing LSS in organizations at two levels of analysis, being (1) the LSS project level and (2) the implementation of LSS as strategic organizational change initiative. Implementing LSS at the project level We find that the effect o...

  17. Nuclear matter in nonlinear {sigma} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbrair, B.L. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Gridnev, A.B. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)


    In a simple version of the nonlinear {sigma} model the nuclear matter behaves as a system of nucleons interacting via two-body forces with a radius which decreases with increasing density. This allows us to apply the Khodel-Shaginyan method which is adjusted to our approach by taking into account the pseudoscalar-isovector symmetry of pion field and both the scalar and pseudoscalar effective interactions. In contrast to the QHD there are no vacuum corrections in our approach. (orig.)

  18. Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma (United States)


    represents a paradigm shift to improve the concepts of Just-In-Time (JIT) and Total Quality Management ( TQM ) to help stimu- late the needed change. DFSS... TQM ). At a technical level, Six Sigma is aimed at achieving virtually defect-free operations, where parts or compo- nents can be built to very exacting...the concepts of Just-in-Time (JIT) and TQM to help stimulate the needed change. The important contribution of TOC has been its recognition at a

  19. Measurement of SIGMA --> LAMBDAen$\\overline{u}$, LAMBDA --> pen$\\overline{u}$, XI --> LAMBDAen$\\overline{u}$, XI --> SIGMA0en$\\overline{u}$ and SIGMA --> nen$\\overline{u}$ branching ratios and form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, Maurice; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, Daniel; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, Hans-Wolfgang; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J


    Measurement of SIGMA --> LAMBDAen$\\overline{u}$, LAMBDA --> pen$\\overline{u}$, XI --> LAMBDAen$\\overline{u}$, XI --> SIGMA0en$\\overline{u}$ and SIGMA --> nen$\\overline{u}$ branching ratios and form factors

  20. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C


    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  1. A TonB-dependent outer membrane protein as a Bacteroides fragilis fibronectin-binding molecule. (United States)

    Pauer, Heidi; Ferreira, Eliane de Oliveira; dos Santos-Filho, Joaquim; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Soares, Rosangela Maria Araújo; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto


    The binding of Bacteroides fragilis to plasmatic fibronectin was investigated using strains isolated from healthy subjects and from patients with bacteremia. They were cultivated in a synthetic media in which variations in cysteine concentrations determined alterations in the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). All the strains assayed were capable of adhering to plasmatic fibronectin when cultivated under oxidizing and reducing conditions. Bacteroides fragilis 1405 showed the greatest difference when the results under these conditions were compared and it was selected for further investigations. Chemical treatments suggested the involvement of a protein in the interaction between B. fragilis and plasmatic fibronectin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) revealed differences between the extracts obtained from cultures grown under the two conditions. Protein bands of c. 102, 100, 77, 73, 50 and 40 kDa were more highly expressed under oxidizing than reducing conditions. Dot blot analysis showed a stronger recognition of plasmatic fibronectin by OMPs obtained from cultures grown under higher Eh, and Western blot assays confirmed a band of c. 102 kDa as fibronectin-binding protein. This protein was sequenced and revealed to be a putative TonB-dependent OMPs. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of this gene in all the studied strains.

  2. Infected cell killing by HIV-1 protease promotes NF-kappaB dependent HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D Bren


    Full Text Available Acute HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells often results in apoptotic death of infected cells, yet it is unclear what evolutionary advantage this offers to HIV-1. Given the independent observations that acute T cell HIV-1 infection results in (1 NF-kappaB activation, (2 caspase 8 dependent apoptosis, and that (3 caspase 8 directly activates NF-kappaB, we questioned whether these three events might be interrelated. We first show that HIV-1 infected T cell apoptosis, NF-kappaB activation, and caspase 8 cleavage by HIV-1 protease are coincident. Next we show that HIV-1 protease not only cleaves procaspase 8, producing Casp8p41, but also independently stimulates NF-kappaB activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the HIV protease cleavage of caspase 8 is necessary for optimal NF-kappaB activation and that the HIV-1 protease specific cleavage fragment Casp8p41 is sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 replication through NF-kappaB dependent HIV-LTR activation both in vitro as well as in cells from HIV infected donors. Consequently, the molecular events which promote death of HIV-1 infected T cells function dually to promote HIV-1 replication, thereby favoring the propagation and survival of HIV-1.

  3. Differences of Tooth Colorimetric Parameters L*a*b* Depended on Age. (United States)

    Krasniqi, Teuta Pustina; Lila-Krasniqi, Zana; Ajeti, Nexhmije; Shala, Kujtim; Bicaj, Teuta; Dula, Linda


    The study aimed to analyse differences in colourimetric parameters L*a*b*, depended on age. In this study were included 255 subjects with age interval from 20 to 49 years. The subjects were divided into three groups, as follows: in the younger group were 20 to 29 years of age, those in the middle group 30 to 39 years and older group 40 to 49 years. The overall number of analysed teeth in the intercanine sector of the maxilla was 2295. The colour of the teeth was measured using the spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade. The results for differences in the colourimetric parameters in relation with age were tested with Pearson Chi-square (χ2). For χ2 = 572, 87 and df = 124 there was a statistical significant difference between the ages P < 0.001. In this study, it was concluded that the parameter L* - Lightness was decreasing when age increased. In the age group, 20 to 29 years L* was 83.2, whereas in the older group of this investigation; 40 to 49 years was 79.4. In the youngest group, the parameter a* was - 0.7, whereas with increasing of age this parameter was -0.5. The values for parameter b* from the youngest to the older group were from 21.7 to 23.9.

  4. Crystal structure of the Escherichia coli regulator of sigma70, Rsd, in complex with sigma70 domain 4. (United States)

    Patikoglou, Georgia A; Westblade, Lars F; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Lamour, Valérie; Lane, William J; Darst, Seth A


    The Escherichia coli Rsd protein binds tightly and specifically to the RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(70) factor. Rsd plays a role in alternative sigma factor-dependent transcription by biasing the competition between sigma(70) and alternative sigma factors for the available core RNAP. Here, we determined the 2.6 A-resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rsd bound to sigma(70) domain 4 (sigma(70)(4)), the primary determinant for Rsd binding within sigma(70). The structure reveals that Rsd binding interferes with the two primary functions of sigma(70)(4), core RNAP binding and promoter -35 element binding. Interestingly, the most highly conserved Rsd residues form a network of interactions through the middle of the Rsd structure that connect the sigma(70)(4)-binding surface with three cavities exposed on distant surfaces of Rsd, suggesting functional coupling between sigma(70)(4) binding and other binding surfaces of Rsd, either for other proteins or for as yet unknown small molecule effectors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding the role of Rsd, as well as its ortholog, AlgQ, a positive regulator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence, in transcription regulation.

  5. The benefits of multibit chaotic sigma delta modulation. (United States)

    Reiss, J. D.; Sandler, M. B.


    Sigma delta modulation is a popular technique for high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog conversion. We investigate chaotic phenomena in multibit first-order sigma-delta modulators. Particular attention is placed on the occurrence of periodic orbits or limit cycles. These may result in idle tones audible to the listener when sigma-delta modulation is used for audio signal processing. One suggested method of eliminating idle tones is the operation of a sigma delta modulator in the chaotic regime. Unfortunately, chaotic modulation of a first order sigma delta modulator is a poor system for signal processing. We show that minor variations on a traditional first order sigma-delta modulator, together with a multibit implementation, may be used to produce an effective, stable chaotic modulator that accurately encodes the input and helps remove the presence of idle tones. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. String Field Equations from Generalized Sigma Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardakci, K.; Bernardo, L.M.


    We propose a new approach for deriving the string field equations from a general sigma model on the world-sheet. This approach leads to an equation which combines some of the attractive features of both the renormalization group method and the covariant beta function treatment of the massless excitations. It has the advantage of being covariant under a very general set of both local and non-local transformations in the field space. We apply it to the tachyon, massless and first massive level, and show that the resulting field equations reproduce the correct spectrum of a left-right symmetric closed bosonic string.

  7. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Stobberingh, Ellen E


    A broad variety of infections, ranging from minor infections of the skin to post-operative wound infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The adaptive power of S. aureus to antibiotics leaded, in the early 1960s, to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The cause of

  8. Supersymmetric $\\sigma$-models on toric varieties a test case

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdeau, M


    In this letter we study supersymmetric sigma models on toric varieties. These manifolds are generalizations of CP^n manifolds. We examine here sigma models, viewed as gauged linear sigma models, on one of the simplest such manifold, the blow-up of P^2_(2,1,1), and determine their properties using the techniques of topological- antitopological fusion. We find that the model contains solitons which become massless at the singular point of the theory where a gauge symmetry remains unbroken.

  9. Sigma Delta Signal Processing on Via-Configurable Arrays (United States)


    Sigma Delta Signal Processing on Via-Configurable Arrays Jim Kemerling Triad Semiconductor, Inc. Winston-Salem, NC 27103 Abstract: Sigma -Delta...Mask Programmable Analog Array; Mixed-Signal ASIC; Sigma Delta Modulation; Structured Array; Switched Capacitor Circuits; Via-Configurable Array... phase of the input signal at the rate determined by the M output. Figure 9 shows the simulation results and Figure 10 shows the tiles used in the

  10. Six Sigma Process and its Impact on the Organizational Productivity


    Masoud Hekmatpanah; Mohammad Sadroddin; Saeid Shahbaz; Farhad Mokhtari; Farahnaz Fadavinia


    The six sigma method is a project-driven management approach to improve the organization-s products, services, and processes by continually reducing defects in the organization. Understanding the key features, obstacles, and shortcomings of the six sigma method allows organizations to better support their strategic directions, and increasing needs for coaching, mentoring, and training. It also provides opportunities to better implement six sigma projects. The purpose of this paper is the surv...

  11. Getting the sigma in the M_BH - sigma relation right (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland


    The relation between the mass of the central supermassive black hole (M_BH) and the velocity dispersion of its host spheroid (sigma) is fundamental for our understanding of galaxy evolution and its relation to their nuclei. Correspondingly many HST orbits have been invested in determining accurate M_BH masses. Surprisingly little has been done on standardizing the other axis, i.e. sigma measurements. These values are often derived from various long-slit datasets at different physical radii of the galaxy and no homogeneous definition has been given. We propose to remedy this situation by using our dataset of MUSE and PPAK kinematic maps out to 1 R_e of galaxies with a secure black hole mass. These data are useful for large scale kinematics, however, obtaining velocity dispersions at small radii is not possible. To measure velocity dispersions at small radii we require high-spatial resolution spectroscopy as provided by HST/STIS. In addtion, high-resolution photometric data is needed to define consistent apertures in each galaxy. We therefore propose to use the unique capabilities of HST and harvest years of efforts to collect archival spectroscopic and imaging data for BH host galaxies. This will allow creating a catalog of sigma values, calculated in various ways and at various radii and to re-calibrate the M_BH - sigma relation.

  12. The sigma(54) regulon (sigmulon) of Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cases, I.; Ussery, David; de Lorenzo, V.


    , the sigma(54) regulon has been studied both in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and several species of the Rhizobiaceae. Here we present the analysis of the sigma(54) regulon (sigmulon) in the complete genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. We have developed an improved method for the prediction......% of the sigma(54)-dependent promoters of P. putida with high confidence. Our analysis has revealed new functions for sigma(54) and, by means of comparative analysis with the previous studies, we have drawn a potential mechanism for the evolution of this regulatory system....

  13. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Eric A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Camacho, Zenaido T. [Department of Cell Biology, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM 88062 (United States); Hillestad, Matthew L. [Nephrology Training Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J. [Virology and Gene Therapy Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology and Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)


    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  14. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Rodriguez, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tambuwala, Murtaza M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Higgins, Desmond G.; O' Meara, Yvonne [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Slattery, Craig [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Manresa, Mario C. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Baes, Myriam [Laboratory for Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Kriegsheim, Alex von [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cummins, Eoin P. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); and others


    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  15. Measurement of the Masses and Widths of the $\\Sigma_{c^{++}}$ and $\\Sigma_{c^{0}}$ CharmeBaryons

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M


    Using data recorded by the CLEO II and CLEO II.V detector configurations at CESR, we report new measurements of the masses of the Sigma_c^{++} and Sigma_c^0 charmed baryons, and the first measurements of their intrinsic widths. We find M(Sigma_c^{++}) - M(Lambda_c^+) = 167.4 +- 0.1 +- 0.2 MeV, Gamma(Sigma_c^{++}) = 2.3 +- 0.2 +- 0.3 MeV, and M(Sigma_c^0) - M(Lambda_c^+) = 167.2 +- 0.1 +- 0.2 MeV, Gamma(Sigma_c^0) = 2.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.3 MeV, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  16. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.F.


    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik


    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collectio...

  18. Measurement of $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{ABS}}$ and $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{CX}}$ of $\\pi^+$ on carbon by DUET

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, E S Pinzon; Berkman, S; Cao, C; de Perio, P; Hayato, Y; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Kanazawa, Y; Kim, J; Kitching, P; Mahn, K; Nakaya, T; Nicholson, M; Olchanski, K; Rettie, S; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Wilking, M J; Yamauchi, T; Yen, S; Yokoyama, M


    The DUET Collaboration reports on the measurements of the absorption ($\\sigma_{\\mathrm{ABS}}$) and charge exchange ($\\sigma_{\\mathrm{CX}}$) cross sections of positively charged pions on carbon nuclei for the momentum range 201.6 MeV$/c$ to 295.1 MeV$/c$. The uncertainties on the absorption and charge exchange cross sections are $\\sim$9.5\\% and $\\sim$18\\%, respectively. The results are in good agreement with previous experiments. A covariance matrix correlating the 5 $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{ABS}}$ and 5 $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{CX}}$ measured data points is also reported

  19. Studi Implementasi Six Sigma dalam Sistem Inventori Galangan Kapal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwin Elwin


    Full Text Available Dalam industri galangan kapal terdapat bahan baku, barang dalam proses dan barang jadi yang merupakan macam-macam bentuk dari persediaan dan berhubungan dengan stok, ketika persediaan tidak dikelola dengan benar maka akan terjadi pembengkakkan biaya/pengeluaran biaya yang tidak dibutuhkan. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kondisi inventori di PT. Dok dan Perkapalan Surbaya, untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang menjadi penyebab terjadinya variabilitas output six sigma dan mengurangi defect pada sistem inventori dengan menggunakan metode six sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve dan Control,. Berdasarkan perhitungan Material Pipa mengalami defect sebesar 50.98% dengan nilai sigma 1.48, Material Elbow mengalami defect sebesar 89.80% dengan nilai sigma 0.33, Material Flange mengalami defect sebesar 71.99% dengan nilai sigma 0.90, Material Paking mengalami defect sebesar 13.12% dengan nilai sigma 2.74 dan Material Mur mengalami defect sebesar 17.26% dengan nilai sigma 2.57. Sesuai dengan perhitungan reorder point for the inventory untuk masing-masing material, maka dapat diketahui bahwa material Pipa reoder point adalah 58 lonjor, elbow 100 buah, flange 168 buah, paking 24 buah dan mur 946 buah. Nilai sigma yang diperoleh dalam perhitungan tingkat persediaan masih jauh dari nilai yang seharusnya dapat dicapai oleh suatu perusahaan (6σ, sehingga dilakukan tahap Improve dengan metode Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA, pembuat SOP Pengendalian persediaan material dengan format baru serta galangan perlu melakukan perhitungan reorder point.  

  20. A Delta-Sigma beamformer with integrated apodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hemmsen, Martin Christian


    This paper presents a new design of a discrete time Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) oversampled ultrasound beamformer which integrates individual channel apodization by means of variable feedback voltage in the Delta-Sigma analog to digital (A/D) converters. The output bit-width of each oversampled A/D converte...

  1. An application of six sigma for SMEs: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Kaushik


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is the concept of improving the quality by reducing process variations, making con-tinuous improvements, reducing defect rates and improving the processes. Initially, the concept of Six Sigma focused on defect reduction, cost reduction and value addition. Fundamentally the basic idea of Six Sigma is to improve the process-capability and making the process more relia-ble along with reducing wastes within industries. Evaluation the implication of applying Six Sigma over the small and medium-sized enterprises is the main purpose of this research work taking a particular case of automobile industries. In the present work, DMAIC methodology of Six Sigma is used to a small seat slider lock nut manufacturing unit to reduce the play issue in K2 seat slider lock in automobile units by reducing defects inherent in the process. After apply-ing Six Sigma methodology, it was found that manufacturing units could earn profits in terms of reducing the wastage as well as improving the quality standard of the product by controlling the play issue in seat slider lock nut mechanism. Result shows that with the application of Six Sig-ma, process, sigma level brought up to 5.53σ from 1.59σ by varying the seat slider lock nut di-mensions/size.

  2. Sigma-1 receptor: The novel intracellular target of neuropsychotherapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Hayashi


    Full Text Available Sigma-1 receptor ligands have been long expected to serve as drugs for treatment of human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, depression, idiopathic pain, drug abuse, and cancer. Recent research exploring the molecular function of the sigma-1 receptor started unveiling underlying mechanisms of the therapeutic activity of those ligands. Via the molecular chaperone activity, the sigma-1 receptor regulates protein folding/degradation, ER/oxidative stress, and cell survival. The chaperone activity is activated or inhibited by synthetic sigma-1 receptor ligands in an agonist-antagonist manner. Sigma-1 receptors are localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes that are physically associated with the mitochondria (MAM: mitochondria-associated ER membrane. In specific types of neurons (e.g., those at the spinal cord, sigma-1 receptors are also clustered at ER membranes that juxtapose postsynaptic plasma membranes. Recent studies indicate that sigma-1 receptors, partly in sake of its unique subcellular localization, regulate the mitochondria function that involves bioenergetics and free radical generation. The sigma-1 receptor may thus provide an intracellular drug target that enables controlling ER stress and free radical generation under pathological conditions.

  3. Logistics services and Lean Six Sigma implementation: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Gutierrez, L.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Dubbers, R.


    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the application of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) framework for supporting continuous improvement (CI) in logistics services. Both the lean philosophy and the Six Sigma methodology have become two of the most important initiatives for CI in organizations. The combination of

  4. Lean Six Sigma in het ziekenhuis: De beschikbaarheid van infuuspompen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; Kemper, B.P.H.; Koopmans, M.


    In het topklinisch ziekenhuis Medisch Spectrum Twente werd in 2008 een Lean Six Sigma-project gestart. Het doel was vermindering van operationele kosten van infuuspompen. Het is een interessant voorbeeld van Lean Six Sigma in de gezondheidszorg, omdat het laat zien dat kostenbesparing niet hoeft te

  5. An application of Lean Six Sigma in a hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, J.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.; Anthony, J.; Kumar, M.


    Abstract Healthcare today faces major challenges. Patients demand quality of care to be improved continuously. Insurance companies demand the lowest possible prices. Lean Six Sigma is a tool that can help healthcare providers to achieve these at least partly conflicting goals. Lean Six Sigma is an

  6. Sigma-1 Receptor and Neuronal Excitability. (United States)

    Kourrich, Saïd


    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), via interaction with various proteins, including voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels (VGICs and LGICs), is involved in a plethora of neuronal functions. This capability to regulate a variety of ion channel targets endows the Sig-1R with a powerful capability to fine tune neuronal excitability, and thereby the transmission of information within brain circuits. This versatility may also explain why the Sig-1R is associated to numerous diseases at both peripheral and central levels. To date, how the Sig-1R chooses its targets and how the combinations of target modulations alter overall neuronal excitability is one of the challenges in the field of Sig-1R-dependent regulation of neuronal activity. Here, we will describe and discuss the latest findings on Sig-1R-dependent modulation of VGICs and LGICs, and provide hypotheses that may explain the diverse excitability outcomes that have been reported so far.

  7. Lean six sigma case studies in the healthcare enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Furterer, Sandra L


    This book provides a detailed description of how to apply Lean Six Sigma in the health care industry, with a special emphasis on process improvement and operations management in hospitals.  The book begins with a description of the Enterprise Performance Excellence (EPE) improvement methodology developed by the author that links several methodologies including systems thinking, theory of constraints, Lean and Six Sigma to provide an enterprise-wide prioritization and value-chain view of health care. The EPE methodology helps to improve flow at the macro or value-chain level, and then identifies Lean Six Sigma detailed improvements that can further improve processes within the value-chain.  The book also provides real-world health care applications of the EPE and Lean Six Sigma methodologies that showed significant results on throughput, capacity, operational and financial performance. The Enterprise Performance Excellence methodology is described, and also the Six Sigma DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve...

  8. Azoreductase in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong


    Azoreductase(s) catalyze a NAD(P)H-dependent reaction in bacteria to metabolize azo dyes to colorless aromatic amines. Azoreductases from bacteria represent a novel family of enzymes with little similarity to other reductases. This unit will describe the current methods for measuring azoreductase from Staphylococcus aureus, which has been suggested to serve as a model strain to study the azo dye degradation by human skin microflora.

  9. Six Sigma. Quality initiatives for cost reduction and process optimisation; Six Sigma. Qualitaetsinitiative zur Kostenreduzierung und Prozessoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerkircher, Mikko [Rheinkalk GmbH, Flandersbach (Germany). Bereich Brennen und Verdeln


    Six Sigma occupies an important position in management practice. An increasing number of companies have recognised that this quality approach is not only an effective lever in order to reduce the costs of errors. In addition Six Sigma imparts important momentum to customer satisfaction and commitment, which is likewise reflected in increasing income and turnover. (orig.)

  10. The LHCb pentaquark as a $\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c-\\bar{D}^*\\Sigma_c^*$ molecular state

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, L.; Oset, E.


    We perform a theoretical analysis of the $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi K^- p$ reaction from where a recent LHCb experiment extracts a $\\Lambda(1405)$ contribution in the $K^- p$ spectrum close to threshold and two baryon states of hidden charm in the $J/\\psi\\,p$ spectrum. We recall that baryon states of this type have been theoretically predicted matching the mass, width and $J^P$ of the experiment, concretely some states built up from the $J/\\psi\\, N$, $\\bar D^* \\Lambda_c$, $\\bar D^* \\Sigma_c$, $\\bar D \\Sigma^*_c$ and $\\bar D^* \\Sigma^*_c$ coupled channels. We assume that the observed narrow state around 4450 MeV has this nature and we are able to describe simultaneously the shapes and relative strength of the the $K^- p$ mass distribution close to threshold and the peak of the $J/\\psi\\,p$ distribution, with values of the $J/\\psi\\, p$ coupling to the resonance in line with the theoretical ones. The non trivial matching of many properties gives support to a $J^P=3/2^-$ assignment to this state and to its nature as a ...

  11. The P1 promoter of the Escherichia coli rpoH gene is utilized by sigma 70 -RNAP or sigma s -RNAP depending on growth phase. (United States)

    Janaszak, Anna; Nadratowska-Wesołowska, Beata; Konopa, Grazyna; Taylor, Alina


    The P1 promoter of the Escherichia coli rpoH gene has been known as a sigma(70)-dependent promoter (RNAP). We show here that it is also recognized by sigma(S). The sigma(70) and sigma(S) RNA polymerase subunits direct transcription from the P1 promoter in the exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively, and transcriptional start sites for the two holoenzymes differ by 1 nt. The transcription after heat shock is sigma(70)-dependent. The results are based on (1) sequence analysis that revealed features of promoters responsive to both, sigma(70)- and sigma(S)-RNAP, (2) in vitro transcription experiments verifying that both holoenzymes are able to transcribe the promoter, (3) electron microscopy results indicating that both holoenzymes bind the same site, (4) primer extension test performed with RNA isolated from the wild-type and rpoS mutant strains, demonstrating that transcription from the P1 promoter in the stationary phase is sigma(S)-dependent. These and previous results point to cooperation of sigma(70), sigma(24), sigma(S) and sigma(54) regulons in the expression of the rpoH gene, coding for the main regulator of the stress response, thus rendering it active in a variety of conditions.

  12. Non-commutative valuation rings of $K(X;\\sigma,\\delta)$ over a division ring $K$


    XIE, Guangming; MARUBAYASHI, Hidetoshi; KOBAYASHI, Shigeru; KOMATSU, Hiroaki


    Let $K$ be a division ring with a $\\sigma$ -derivation $\\delta$ , where $\\sigma$ is an endomorphism of $K$ and $K(X;\\sigma,\\delta)$ be the quotient division ring of the Ore extension $K[X;\\sigma,\\delta]$ over $K$ in an indeterminate $X$ . First, we describe non-commutative valuation rings of $K(X;\\sigma,\\delta)$ which contain $K[X;\\sigma,\\delta]$ . Suppose that $(\\sigma,\\delta)$ is compatible with $V$ , where $V$ is a total valuation ring of $K$ , then $R^{(1)}=V[X;\\sigma,\\delta]_{J(V)[X;\\sig...

  13. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori sigma54 promoter-binding activity. (United States)

    Pereira, Lara E; Brahmachary, Priyanka; Hoover, Timothy R


    Several Helicobacter pylori flagellar genes require sigma(54) for their transcription. Predicted H. pylori sigma(54)-dependent promoters display a preference for A at position -23 instead of C or T as occurs in promoters from most other bacteria. Substitution of the A at position -23 of the H. pylori flaB promoter with a C did not effect expression of a flaB'-'xylE reporter gene in H. pylori, whereas T or G substitutions at this position drastically reduced expression. Results of gel mobility shift assays that used DNA probes corresponding to core promoter sequences and a H. pylori sigma(54) protein fused to the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein suggested that H. pylori sigma(54) has a higher affinity for promoters with an A at the -23 position. The failure to observe an effect on expression for the flaB mutant promoter with the A to C substitution at the -23 position indicates that sequences flanking the core promoter region may assist binding of H. pylori sigma(54) to the mutant flaB promoter. Alternatively, H. pylori RNA polymerase or the sigma(54)-dependent activator FlgR may compensate for the reduced affinity of sigma(54) for the mutant flaB promoter.

  14. An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost (United States)

    Gaikwad, Lokpriya Mohanrao; Teli, Shivagond Nagappa; Majali, Vijay Shashikant; Bhushi, Umesh Mahadevappa


    This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz. process yield with well-executed control plans. Six Sigma improves the process performance (process yield) of the critical operational process, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  15. Application of Six Sigma towards improving surgical outcomes. (United States)

    Shukla, P J; Barreto, S G; Nadkarni, M S


    Six Sigma is a 'process excellence' tool targeting continuous improvement achieved by providing a methodology for improving key steps of a process. It is ripe for application into health care since almost all health care processes require a near-zero tolerance for mistakes. The aim of this study is to apply the Six Sigma methodology into a clinical surgical process and to assess the improvement (if any) in the outcomes and patient care. The guiding principles of Six Sigma, namely DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), were used to analyze the impact of double stapling technique (DST) towards improving sphincter preservation rates for rectal cancer. The analysis using the Six Sigma methodology revealed a Sigma score of 2.10 in relation to successful sphincter preservation. This score demonstrates an improvement over the previous technique (73% over previous 54%). This study represents one of the first clinical applications of Six Sigma in the surgical field. By understanding, accepting, and applying the principles of Six Sigma, we have an opportunity to transfer a very successful management philosophy to facilitate the identification of key steps that can improve outcomes and ultimately patient safety and the quality of surgical care provided.

  16. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.


    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at

  17. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose


    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...... at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma (A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among...

  18. Linear sigma model for multiflavor gauge theories (United States)

    Meurice, Y.


    We consider a linear sigma model describing 2 Nf2 bosons (σ , a0 , η' and π ) as an approximate effective theory for a S U (3 ) local gauge theory with Nf Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. The model has a renormalizable U (Nf)L⊗U (Nf)R invariant part, which has an approximate O (2 Nf2) symmetry, and two additional terms, one describing the effects of a S U (Nf)V invariant mass term and the other the effects of the axial anomaly. We calculate the spectrum for arbitrary Nf. Using preliminary and published lattice results from the LatKMI collaboration, we found combinations of the masses that vary slowly with the explicit chiral symmetry breaking and Nf. This suggests that the anomaly term plays a leading role in the mass spectrum and that simple formulas such as Mσ2≃(2 /Nf-Cσ)Mη' 2 should apply in the chiral limit. Lattice measurements of Mη'2 and of approximate constants such as Cσ could help in locating the boundary of the conformal window. We show that our calculation can be adapted for arbitrary representations of the gauge group and in particular to the minimal model with two sextets, where similar patterns are likely to apply.

  19. The sigma model on complex projective superspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin; Mitev, Vladimir; Schomerus, Volker [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Quella, Thomas [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Saleur, Hubert [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique; USC, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Physics Dept.


    The sigma model on projective superspaces CP{sup S-1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup S} gives rise to a continuous family of interacting 2D conformal field theories which are parametrized by the curvature radius R and the theta angle {theta}. Our main goal is to determine the spectrum of the model, non-perturbatively as a function of both parameters. We succeed to do so for all open boundary conditions preserving the full global symmetry of the model. In string theory parlor, these correspond to volume filling branes that are equipped with a monopole line bundle and connection. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, we approach the problem within the continuum formulation. Combining combinatorial arguments with perturbative studies and some simple free field calculations, we determine a closed formula for the partition function of the theory. This is then tested numerically in the second part. There we propose a spin chain regularization of the CP{sup S-1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup S} model with open boundary conditions and use it to determine the spectrum at the conformal fixed point. The numerical results are in remarkable agreement with the continuum analysis. (orig.)

  20. NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 exerts cytoprotection against hypoxic injury upon EGFR activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-Dong [Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China); Xu, Liang [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Kan-Kai [Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China); Gong, Fang-Xiao; Liu, Jing-Quan; Ni, Yin; Jiang, Ling-Zhi; Hong, Jun; Han, Fang; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiang-Hong [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Sun, Ren-Hua, E-mail: [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Mo, Shi-Jing, E-mail: [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China)


    Apoptosis of neural cells is one of the main pathological features in hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) might be a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic brain injury since NF-κB has been found to be inactivated after hypoxia exposure, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms of NF-κB inactivation are largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation prevents neuron-like PC12 cells apoptosis in response to hypoxia via restoring NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1. Functionally, EGFR activation by EGF stimulation mitigates hypoxia-induced PC12 cells apoptosis in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Of note, EGFR activation elevates IKKβ phosphorylation, increases IκBα ubiquitination, promotes P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as upregulates cyclin D1 expression. EGFR activation also abrogates the decrease of IKKβ phosphorylation, reduction of IκBα ubiquitination, blockade of P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as downregulation of cyclin D1 expression induced by hypoxia. Furthermore, NF-κB-dependent upregulation of cyclin D1 is instrumental for the EGFR-mediated cytoprotection against hypoxic apoptosis. In addition, the dephosphorylation of EGFR induced by either EGF siRNA transfection or anti-HB-EGF neutralization antibody treatment enhances hypoxic cytotoxicity, which are attenuated by EGF administration. Our results highlight the essential role of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 in EGFR-mediated cytoprotective effects under hypoxic preconditioning and support further investigation of EGF in clinical trials of patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. - Highlights: • EGFR activation significantly decreases hypoxia-induced PC12 cells injury. • EGFR activation abrogates the transcriptional repression of cyclin D1 induced by hypoxia in a NF-κB-dependent

  1. Establishing a Lean Six Sigma Program in Higher Education

    KAUST Repository

    Svensson, Carsten


    Purpose: The objective of this paper is a contribution to the body of Lean Six Sigma knowledge within the vertical of higher education institutions. The paper will review the initial phase of an implementation and highlight future challenges. Approach: The observations presented in this paper, originates from rolling out a large lean six sigma implementation at a newly established university. The paper is supported with secondary data from literature. Findings: The paper will discuss the challenges of applying the lean six sigma method in a complex transactional environment. Research limitations: This paper is based on an empirical study of a single instance and authors’ experiences as practitioners. Originality: This paper is the first description of what is believed to be one of the largest implementations of Lean Six Sigma in higher education.

  2. M sub 1 muscarinic antagonists interact with. sigma. recognition sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudkins, R.L. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States)); DeHaven-Hudkins, D.L. (Sterling Research Group, Malvern, PA (United States))


    The M{sub 1}-selective muscarinic antagonists aprophen, caramiphen, carbetapentane, 2-DAEX, dicyclomine, hexahydrosiladifenidol, iodocaramiphen, nitrocaramiphen, oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl potently inhibited binding to {sigma} sites in brain. Both basic ester and non-ester structural type compounds which exhibit affinity for the muscarinic receptor also demonstrated affinity for the {sigma} site, while the classical antimuscarinic agents atropine and QNB, and the tricyclic pirenzepine, were ineffective in binding to this site. The authors also observed a significant correlation between the K{sub i} values for {sigma}compounds to inhibit ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine binding and their IC{sub 50} values to inhibit carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. These observations may aid in elucidating the relationship of {sigma} binding to inhibition of phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by cholinergic agonists.

  3. Quality and Competitiveness: A Lean Six Sigma Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Virginia Drăgulănescu


    Full Text Available Originally developed to improve the quality and production efficiency, Lean Six Sigma is now widely adopted in other non-manufacturing sectors such as financial, trade, services, etc. The methodology known as Lean Six Sigma combines the Six Sigma techniques, ‒ which allow companies to reduce manufacturing defects ‒ and the Lean Manufacturing principles, ‒ which help companies benefit from faster processing for lower costs and with superior quality. As a result of the research, the authors observed that, despite growing popularity and impressive outcomes obtained by some companies, the Lean Six Sigma model does not always offer the expected results. However, the research has shown that the analysed company, operating in the field of courier services has managed to boost productivity and competitiveness by implementing measures that generated added value.

  4. Black Women Leaders: The Case of Delta Sigma Theta. (United States)

    Canady, Hortense


    Describes the leadership role taken by Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., in educational and economic development, international affairs, and physical and mental health since the organization's founding at Howard University in 1913. (GC)

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture: From Laboratory to Infection-Mimicking Conditions (United States)

    Depke, Maren; Pané-Farré, Jan; Debarbouille, Michel; van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.; Guérin, Cyprien; Dérozier, Sandra; Hiron, Aurelia; Jarmer, Hanne; Leduc, Aurélie; Michalik, Stephan; Reilman, Ewoud; Schaffer, Marc; Schmidt, Frank; Bessières, Philippe; Noirot, Philippe; Hecker, Michael; Msadek, Tarek; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten


    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S. aureus HG001, a derivative of strain NCTC 8325, across experimental conditions ranging from optimal growth in vitro to intracellular growth in host cells. These data establish an extensive repertoire of transcription units and non-coding RNAs, a classification of 1412 promoters according to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19 antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination suppresses pervasive antisense transcription, presumably originating from abundant spurious transcription initiation in this A+T-rich genome, which would otherwise affect expression of the overlapped genes. In summary, our study provides genome-wide information on transcriptional regulation and non-coding RNAs in S. aureus as well as new insights into the biological function of Rho and the implications of spurious transcription in bacteria. PMID:27035918

  6. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spilka


    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  7. Six sigma critical success factors in manufacturing industries (United States)

    Mustafa, Zainol; Jamaluddin, Z.


    The success of Six Sigma implementation is known to depend on a number of contributing factors. The purpose of this paper is to explore Six Sigma critical success factors (CSFs) in the context of Malaysian manufacturing organizations. Although Six Sigma success factors have been abundantly researched in the global context, in this paper, a maiden attempt is made to identify, through an extensive literature review, the CSFs for Six Sigma implementation followed by their validation using primary data collection from Malaysian manufacturing companies. A total of 33 indicators have thus been compiled through an extensive literature review which then been grouped into 6 contributing factors. These contributing success factors are then validated through an empirical research of selected Malaysian manufacturing companies at various stages of implementation of the Six Sigma process improvement methodology. There has been an overemphasis on the role and commitment of the management in the success of a Six Sigma program. Though it is undoubted, certain other factors also play an equally important role in ensuring that the Six Sigma programs are successful. The factor analysis of CSFs of the Malaysian manufacturing organizations selected in this study demonstrates that the top factor is a composite factor showing combination of the ability of the project teams to use the process management on quality initiative and a training using a proper analysis in problem solving. The CSFs extracted through the factor analysis could provide a basis for manufacturing organizations embarking on the Six Sigma journey to look beyond just management involvement. Thus, one can develop an integrated framework of other factors as outlined and give them appropriate priority and focus.

  8. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma. (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks


    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  9. Milestone Report - M31SW030904 - Sigma Team Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This documents the completion of the FCR&D Level 3 milestone for the Off-Gas Sigma Team - ORNL work package (FTOR11SW0309), “Sigma Team Coordination Meeting” (M31SW030904), due 30 November 10. The subject meeting was held at Idaho National Laboratory on October 12 and 13, 2010. The agenda and meeting minutes are attached to this memo.

  10. An unusual primary sigma factor in the Bacteroidetes phylum. (United States)

    Vingadassalom, Didier; Kolb, Annie; Mayer, Claudine; Rybkine, Tania; Collatz, Ekkehard; Podglajen, Isabelle


    The presence of housekeeping gene promoters with a unique consensus sequence in Bacteroides fragilis, previously described by Bayley et al. (2000, FEMS Microbiol Lett 193: 149-154), suggested the existence of a particular primary sigma factor. The single rpoD-like gene observed in the B. fragilis genome, and similarly in those of other members of the Bacteroidetes phylum, was found to be essential. It encodes a protein, sigma(ABfr), of only 32.7 kDa that is produced with equal abundance during all phases of growth and was concluded to be the primary sigma factor. sigma(ABfr) and its orthologues in the Bacteroidetes are unusual primary sigma factors in that they lack region 1.1, have a unique signature made up of 29 strictly identical amino acids and are the only RpoD factors that cluster with the RpoS factors. Although binding to the Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase, sigma(ABfr) does not support transcription initiation from any promoter when it is part of the heterologous holoenzyme, while in the reconstituted homologous holoenzyme it does so only from typical B. fragilis, including rrs, promoters but not from the lacUV5 or RNA I promoters.

  11. Six Sigma Project Selection Using Fuzzy TOPSIS Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Rathi


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is considered as a logical business strategy that attempts to identify and eliminate the defects or failures for improving the quality of product and processes. A decision on project selection in Six Sigma is always very critical; it plays a key role in successful implementation of Six Sigma. Selection of a right Six Sigma project is essentially important for an automotive company because it greatly influences the manufacturing costs. This paper discusses an approach for right Six Sigma project selection at an automotive industry using fuzzy logic based TOPSIS method. The fuzzy TOPSIS is a well recognized tool to undertake the fuzziness of the data involved in choosing the right preferences. In this context, evaluation criteria have been designed for selection of best alternative. The weights of evaluation criteria are calculated by using the MDL (modified digital logic method and final ranking is calculated through priority index obtained by using fuzzy TOPSIS method. In the selected case study, this approach has rightly helped to identify the right project for implementing Six Sigma for achieving improvement in productivity.

  12. Sigma-delta cellular neural network for 2D modulation. (United States)

    Aomori, Hisashi; Otake, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mamoru


    Although sigma-delta modulation is widely used for analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, sigma-delta concepts are only for 1D signals. Signal processing in the digital domain is extremely useful for 2D signals such as used in image processing, medical imaging, ultrasound imaging, and so on. The intricate task that provides true 2D sigma-delta modulation is feasible in the spatial domain sigma-delta modulation using the discrete-time cellular neural network (DT-CNN) with a C-template. In the proposed architecture, the A-template is used for a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), the C-template works as an integrator, and the nonlinear output function is used for the bilevel output. In addition, due to the cellular neural network (CNN) characteristics, each pixel of an image corresponds to a cell of a CNN, and each cell is connected spatially by the A-template. Therefore, the proposed system can be thought of as a very large-scale and super-parallel sigma-delta modulator. Moreover, the spatio-temporal dynamics is designed to obtain an optimal reconstruction signal. The experimental results show the excellent reconstruction performance and capabilities of the CNN as a sigma-delta modulator.

  13. Success of manufacturing industries – Role of Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh N.


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a phenomenal quality management concepts which has helped many organizations to overcome quality crisis in the recent past. Six Sigma is observed as a very promising quality management tool for any organization to make its presence felt in the corporate world as it emphasizes on obtaining a fruitful solution to improve accuracy, reduce defect thereby reduce the cost and improve profits. The main objective of this investigation is to unearth the extent to which the companies have been benefitted due to Six Sigma implementation. This article presents the results based on the analysis of collective opinion of employees of various Indian manufacturing industries that have implemented Six Sigma. This research also examines interrelationship among various parameters defined in the research. The research revealed that industries are benefitted irrespective of their nature in terms of their growth, financial benefits, productivity and satisfaction of the customer. However, peoples’ equity that deals with the benefits that employees obtain after Six Sigma implementation is not certain. The research also revealed the existence of strong interrelationship among various parameters used to measure the success of Six Sigma.

  14. Lean sigma--will it work for healthcare? (United States)

    Bahensky, James A; Roe, Janet; Bolton, Romy


    The manufacturing industry has been using Lean Sigma for years in pursuit of continuous improvement to obtain a competitive advantage. The objectives of these efforts are to use the Lean techniques for reducing cycle times and the Six Sigma concepts for reducing product defects. The Iowa Business Council with several advocates worked with the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (UIHC) and two other Iowa hospitals to determine whether Lean Sigma is adaptable in healthcare. A team of 15 people at UIHC used the Kaizen Breakthrough Methodology over a five-day period in an aggressive identification and elimination of non-value added activities in Radiology CT scanning. The results exceeded the initial project objectives and indicated that Lean Sigma is applicable in healthcare. Overall, the Lean Sigma project increased revenue by approximately $750,000 per year. The Kaizen process proved to be successful and interesting. Within three days, the team installed new work flow processes. This implementation-oriented approach is what differentiates Lean Sigma from other quality improvement processes.

  15. Biochemical Pharmacology of the Sigma-1 Receptor. (United States)

    Chu, Uyen B; Ruoho, Arnold E


    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223 amino acid two transmembrane (TM) pass protein. It is a non-ATP-binding nonglycosylated ligand-regulated molecular chaperone of unknown three-dimensional structure. The S1R is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes with broad functions that regulate cellular calcium homeostasis and reduce oxidative stress. Several multitasking functions of the S1R are underwritten by chaperone-mediated direct (and indirect) interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell growth. The S1R is a promising drug target for the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases related to cellular stress. In vitro and in vivo functional and molecular characteristics of the S1R and its interactions with endogenous and synthetic small molecules have been discovered by the use of pharmacologic, biochemical, biophysical, and molecular biology approaches. The S1R exists in monomer, dimer, tetramer, hexamer/octamer, and higher oligomeric forms that may be important determinants in defining the pharmacology and mechanism(s) of action of the S1R. A canonical GXXXG in putative TM2 is important for S1R oligomerization. The ligand-binding regions of S1R have been identified and include portions of TM2 and the TM proximal regions of the C terminus. Some client protein chaperone functions and interactions with the cochaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (binding immunoglobulin protein) involve the C terminus. Based on its biochemical features and mechanisms of chaperone action the possibility that the S1R is a member of the small heat shock protein family is discussed. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carciofi, A. C.; Faes, D. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Townsend, R. H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)


    Some massive stars possess strong magnetic fields that confine plasma in the circumstellar environment. These magnetospheres have been studied spectroscopically, photometrically, and, more recently, interferometrically. Here we report on the first firm detection of a magnetosphere in continuum linear polarization, as a result of monitoring {sigma} Ori E at the Pico dos Dias Observatory. The non-zero intrinsic polarization indicates an asymmetric structure whose minor elongation axis is oriented 150. Degree-Sign 0 east of the celestial north. A modulation of the polarization was observed with a period of half of the rotation period, which supports the theoretical prediction of the presence of two diametrally opposed, corotating blobs of gas. A phase lag of -0.085 was detected between the polarization minimum and the primary minimum of the light curve, suggestive of a complex shape of the plasma clouds. We present a preliminary analysis of the data with the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model, which could not reproduce simultaneously the photometric and polarimetric data. A toy model comprising two spherical corotating blobs joined by a thin disk proved more successful in reproducing the polarization modulation. With this model we were able to determine that the total scattering mass of the thin disk is similar to the mass of the blobs (2M{sub b}/M{sub d} = 1.2) and that the blobs are rotating counterclockwise on the plane of the sky. This result shows that polarimetry can provide a diagnostic of the geometry of clouds, which will serve as an important constraint for improving the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model.

  17. Measurement of the masses and widths of the bottom baryons $\\Sigma_b^{+-}$ and $\\Sigma_b^{*+-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.


    Using data from p-pbar collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron, we present improved measurements of the masses and first measurements of natural widths of the four bottom baryon resonance states $\\Sigma_b^{+}$, $\\Sigma_b^{*+}$ and $\\Sigma_b^{-}$, $\\Sigma_b^{*-}$. These states are fully reconstructed in their decay modes to $\\Lambda_b \\pi+-$ where $\\Lambda_b$->$\\Lambda_c^+ \\pi-$ with $\\Lambda_c^+$->$p K- \\pi+$. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity 6.0/fb collected by a trigger on tracks displaced from the p-pbar interaction point.

  18. A new RNA polymerase sigma factor, sigma F, is required for the late stages of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces spp. (United States)

    Potúcková, L; Kelemen, G H; Findlay, K C; Lonetto, M A; Buttner, M J; Kormanec, J


    A gene (sigF) encoding a new sigma factor was isolated from Streptomyces aureofaciens using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe designed from the GLI(KDNE)A motif lying within the well-conserved region 2.2 of the eubacterial sigma 70 family. Homologues were present in other Streptomyces spp., and that of the genetically well studied Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) was also cloned. The nucleotide sequences of the two sigF genes were determined and shown to encode primary translation products of 287 (S. coelicolor) and 295 (S. aureofaciens) amino acid residues, both showing greatest similarity to sigma B of Bacillus subtilis. However, while sigma B is involved in stationary-phase gene expression and in the general stress response in B. subtilis, sigma F affects morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. Disruption of sigF did not affect vegetative growth but did cause a whi mutant phenotype. Microscopic examination showed that the sigF mutant produced spores that were smaller and deformed compared with those of the wild type, that the spore walls were thinner and sensitive to detergents and that in sigF mutant spores the chromosome failed to condense. sigma F is proposed to control the late stages of spore development in Streptomyces.

  19. Cloning and characterization of tdhA, a locus encoding a TonB-dependent heme receptor from Haemophilus ducreyi. (United States)

    Thomas, C E; Olsen, B; Elkins, C


    Haemophilus ducreyi is unable to synthesize heme and must acquire it from its only known host, humans. We cloned and sequenced a gene encoding an outer membrane receptor for heme. It was designated tdhA (for TonB-dependent heme receptor A) since it was related by sequence homology to the family of TonB-dependent receptors. TdhA was strikingly similar to open reading frame HI0113 from the genome of Haemophilus influenzae Rd and also shared homology with five other heme receptors, including HxuC, HemR, HmuR, ChuA, and ShuA, from gram-negative bacteria. An Escherichia coli hemA tonB mutant strongly expressing H. ducreyi tdhA grew on low levels of heme as a source of heme only when an intact H. ducreyi Ton system plasmid was present, formally demonstrating functional TonB dependence. tdhA was expressed poorly in vitro by H. ducreyi and only under conditions of heme limitation. A survey of H. ducreyi revealed that all tested strains but one synthesized small amounts of TdhA in vitro under heme-limiting conditions. Surprisingly, an isogenic mutant of tdhA as well as its parent, 35000, both required the same high levels of heme for growth (50 microgram/ml [77 microM] on agar medium). This result, together with previous findings, suggests that in vitro, the uptake of heme by H. ducreyi is mediated by a TonB- and TdhA-independent mechanism, possibly diffusion.

  20. A Novel Spiro-Heterocyclic Compound Identified by the Silkworm Infection Model Inhibits Transcription in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Sekimizu


    Full Text Available Synthetic compounds are a vital source of antimicrobial agents. To uncover therapeutically effective antimicrobial agents from a chemical library, we screened over 100,000 synthetic compounds for in vitro antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated the in vivo therapeutic effectiveness of the hits in S. aureus-infected silkworms. Three antimicrobial agents exhibited therapeutic effects in the silkworm infection model. One of these, GPI0363, a novel spiro-heterocyclic compound, was bacteriostatic and inhibited RNA synthesis in S. aureus cells. GPI0363-resistant S. aureus strains harbored a point mutation in the gene encoding the primary sigma factor, SigA, of RNA polymerase, and this mutation was responsible for the resistance to GPI0363. We further revealed that GPI0363 could bind to SigA, inhibit promoter-specific transcription in vitro, and prolong the survival of mice infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Thus, GPI0363 is an attractive candidate therapeutic agent against drug-resistant S. aureus infections.

  1. A lean Six Sigma team increases hand hygiene compliance and reduces hospital-acquired MRSA infections by 51%. (United States)

    Carboneau, Clark; Benge, Eddie; Jaco, Mary T; Robinson, Mary


    A low hand hygiene compliance rate by healthcare workers increases hospital-acquired infections to patients. At Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque, New Mexico a Lean Six Sigma team identified the reasons for noncompliance were multifaceted. The team followed the DMAIC process and completed the methodology in 12 months. They implemented multiple solutions in the three areas: Education, Culture, and Environment. Based on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mortality research the team's results included an estimated 2.5 lives saved by reducing MRSA infections by 51%. Subsequently this 51% decrease in MRSA saved the hospital US$276,500. For those readers tasked with increasing hand hygiene compliance this article will provide the knowledge and insight needed to overcome multifaceted barriers to noncompliance.

  2. Can Six Sigma be the "cure" for our "ailing" NHS? (United States)

    Antony, Jiju; Downey-Ennis, Kay; Antony, Frenie; Seow, Chris


    The purpose of this research is to analyse whether Six Sigma business strategy can be used to improve the financial and operational performance of the NHS. The paper will also look at some of the major challenges and barriers in the implementation of this powerful process improvement strategy within the healthcare sector. This paper discusses whether Six Sigma DMAIC methodology can be a useful and disciplined approach to tackle process- and quality-related problems in the NHS. The paper presents some key findings from other researchers in the field, followed by some comments on whether Six Sigma is a useful approach to be considered by the NHS for cost reduction and defect reduction strategies. The paper illustrates the point that Six Sigma is not confined just to manufacturing industry, rather it is equally applicable to service industry, especially the healthcare and financial sectors. The application of Six Sigma in the UK health sector is relatively new and the purpose of the paper is to increase the awareness of this powerful business strategy in healthcare discipline.

  3. A Lean Six Sigma program in higher education

    KAUST Repository

    Svensson, Carsten


    Purpose The objective of this paper is to contribute to the body of Lean Six Sigma knowledge within the field of higher education institutions. The paper will review the initial phase of an implementation and highlight future challenges of applying the Lean Six Sigma method in a complex transactional environment. Design/methodology/approach The observations presented in this paper originate from rolling out a large Lean Six Sigma implementation at a recently established university. The paper is supported with secondary data from literature. Findings The implementation of Lean Six Sigma methodology at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) has resulted in improvements in business processes and efficiency. This has been achieved through project execution and training programs. Approximately 350 staff members have completed awareness training, 50 yellow belts and 150 green belts have been trained, and the first round of seven black belts have completed training of which two have completed certification. Research limitations/implications This paper is based on an empirical study of a single instance and the authors’ experiences as practitioners. Originality/value This paper is the first description of what is believed to be one of the largest implementations of Lean Six Sigma in higher education.

  4. Sistem Informasi Kinerja Layanan Laboratorium Medis dengan Metode Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Kusumastuti Dewi


    Full Text Available Medical Laboratory currently holds a very important role in medicine. Evaluation of laboratory quality plays a very important to maintain accurate laboratory results. This study aims to design an information system performance based on the same perception of medical laboratory services from customers using Six Sigma methods and frameworks using ServQual questionnaire. Selection of Six Sigma itself is based on this method can measure the extent to which each process deviates from its purpose as well as to reduce the variation of each of the attributes.  Six Sigma DMAIC namely (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control preferred because the end result will not yield new products, but only improvements on existing processes. The results of this calculation will be presented in the form of a dashboard for easier management in understanding the results of the evaluation. From the system can be obtained an average value of consumer perceptions terhdap performance today is 2,883, consumer expectations on the performance of 3.3768, the gap between the perceptions and expectations of consumers is -0.4936, customer satisfaction will be the performance of the current 85.37%, the value of 423 360 DPMO and sigma value there at the 2.07664 level.   Keywords: Laboratory Performance; Six Sigma; Servqual; Dashboard


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Emilasari


    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the Six Sigma methods is used in order to improve quality in manufacturing company that produce stationary product. DMAIC approach is utilized to analyze and improve 'Pocket Clear File' product since this product has more variability and defects. Quality improvement also monitor the process that influenced pocket defect in Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, and Pocket after Karidome Inspections section. Determining of Six Sigma project is based in process and defect type in each section. FMEA also gave the recommendation for quality improvement we need to evaluate the final result of the improvement since some of them were not working properly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini menggambarkan bagaimana aplikasi metode Six Sigma digunakan untuk melakukan perbaikan kualitas pada perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi produk stationary. Pendekatan DMAIC dipakai untuk menganalisa dan melakukan perbaikan produk 'Pocket Clear File' karena tingginya variabilitas dan cacat dibanding produk lain. Perbaikan kualitas juga memperhatikan proses yang mempengaruhi terjadinya cacat pocket pada section Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, dan Pocket after Karidome Inspection. Penentuan proyek Six Sigma didasarkan atas proses dan jenis cacat pada setiap section. Pendekatan FMEA mampu memberi rekomendasi perbaikan kualitas. Evaluasi dari hasil perbaikan penting untuk dilakukan karena beberapa implementasi perbaikan kualitas tidak berjalan sesuai dengan rencana. kata kunci: six sigma, DMAIC, perusahaan stationary.

  6. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability (United States)

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael


    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus paplitimas hospitalizavimo laikotarpiu


    Maželienė, Žaneta; Kaukėnienė, Renata; Antuševas, Aleksandras; Pavilonis, Alvydas


    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among hospitalized patients at the beginning of their hospitalization and during their treatment and the resistance of strains to antibiotics, and to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of these strains. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients treated at the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery were examined. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains was performed using plasmacoagulase and DNase ...

  8. Sliding mode control the delta-sigma modulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt


    This monograph presents a novel method of sliding mode control for switch-regulated nonlinear systems. The Delta Sigma modulation approach allows one to implement a continuous control scheme using one or multiple, independent switches, thus effectively merging the available linear and nonlinear controller design techniques with sliding mode control.   Sliding Mode Control: The Delta-Sigma Modulation Approach, combines rigorous mathematical derivation of the unique features of Sliding Mode Control and Delta-Sigma modulation with numerous illustrative examples from diverse areas of engineering. In addition, engineering case studies demonstrate the applicability of the technique and the ease with which one can implement the exposed results. This book will appeal to researchers in control engineering and can be used as graduate-level textbook for a first course on sliding mode control.

  9. Quasicomplex N=2, d=1 Supersymmetric Sigma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Ivanov


    Full Text Available We derive and discuss a new type of N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical sigma models which appear when the superfield action of the (1,2,1 multiplets is modified by adding an imaginary antisymmetric tensor to the target space metric, thus completing the latter to a non-symmetric Hermitian metric. These models are not equivalent to the standard de Rham sigma models, but are related to them through a certain special similarity transformation of the supercharges. On the other hand, they can be obtained by a Hamiltonian reduction from the complex supersymmetric N=2 sigma models built on the multiplets (2,2,0 and describing the Dolbeault complex on the manifolds with proper isometries. We study in detail the extremal two-dimensional case, when the target space metric is defined solely by the antisymmetric tensor, and show that the corresponding quantum systems reveal a hidden N=4 supersymmetry.

  10. Sigma factors in a thousand E. coli genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Helen Victoria; Ussery, David


    , 2013), only less than half (983) are of sufficient quality to use in comparative genomic work. Unfortunately, even some of the ‘complete’ E. coli genomes are in pieces, and a few ‘draft’ genomes are good quality. Six of the seven known sigma factors in E. coli strain K‐12 are extremely well conserved......; the iron‐regulating sigma factor FecI (σ19) is missing in most genomes. Surprisingly, the E. coli strain CFT073 genome does not encode a functional RpoD (σ70), which is obviously essential, and this is likely due to poor genome assembly/annotation. We find a possible novel sigma factor present in more than...

  11. Influence of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin on mutation rate and transposition of IS256 in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Reuter, Tina; Jansen, Andrea; Szekat, Christiane; Bierbaum, Gabriele


    In Staphylococcus aureus, the development of intermediate resistance to vancomycin is due to an accumulation of mutations. To elucidate the mechanisms involved here, a standard laboratory strain (S. aureus HG001) and a clinical MRSA mutator strain (S. aureus SA1450/94, which is characterized by a spontaneous insertion of IS256 into the gene of the mismatch repair enzyme MutS) were incubated at subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Ciprofloxacin increased the mutation rates of both strains, but this effect was inhibited when the SOS response was blocked by the presence of a non-cleavable variant of the LexA repressor. In the presence of vancomycin, the mutation rate was slightly elevated in the mutator strain, and this increase also depended on the strain's ability to induce the SOS response. Furthermore, treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of both antibiotics resulted in an activation of transposition frequency of the insertion element IS256 in S. aureus HG001. Transposition was dependent on the presence of a functional transposase, and the activation of transposition depended on the presence of the functional phosphatase RsbU, which activates SigB transcription activity. An in silico analysis indicated a putative antisense sigma B promoter sequence within the transposase gene. Scrambling of this promoter resulted in an about 20-fold activation of transposition activity of IS256. These data indicate that sigma B is involved in the regulation of IS256 activity by generation of an antisense RNA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A two-plasmid system for identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing extracytoplasmic stress response sigma(E) in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Rezuchova, B; Kormanec, J


    We have previously established a two-plasmid system in Escherichia coli for identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing a heterologous sigma factor. Attempts to optimize this system for identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing E. coli extracytoplasmic stress response sigma(E) failed owing to high toxicity of the expressed rpoE. A new system for identification of sigma(E)-cognate promoters was established, and verified using the two known sigma(E)-dependent promoters, rpoEp2 and degPp. Expression of the sigma(E)-encoding rpoE gene was under the control of the AraC-dependent P(BAD) promoter. A low level of arabinose induced a non-toxic, however, sufficient level of sigma(E) to interact with the core enzyme of RNA polymerase. Such an RNA polymerase holoenzyme recognized both known sigma(E)-dependent promoters, rpoEp2 and degPp, which were cloned in the compatible promoter probe plasmid, upstream of a promoterless lacZ alpha reporter gene. This new system has proved to be useful for identification of E. coli sigma(E)-cognate promoters. Moreover, the system could be used for identification of ECF sigma-cognate promoters from other bacteria.

  13. Mapping of the Rsd contact site on the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. (United States)

    Jishage, M; Dasgupta, D; Ishihama, A


    Rsd (regulator of sigma D) is an anti-sigma factor for the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase sigma(70) subunit. The contact site of Rsd on sigma(70) was analyzed after mapping of the contact-dependent cleavage sites by Rsd-tethered iron-p-bromoacetamidobenzyl EDTA and by analysis of the complex formation between Ala-substituted sigma(70) and Rsd. Results indicate that the Rsd contact site is located downstream of the promoter -35 recognition helix-turn-helix motif within region 4, overlapping with the regions involved in interaction with both core enzyme and sigma(70) contact transcription factors.

  14. Aplicação da metodologia Lean Six Sigma para melhoria de um processo produtivo


    Augusto Schaffer


    O Lean Six Sigma é a metodologia originada a partir da integração das metodologias Lean e Six Sigma. O Lean Six Sigma procura eliminar as perdas e reduzir os defeitos, agregando os benefícios de cada uma das duas metodologias que a dão origem. O objetivo deste trabalho é aplicar a metodologia Lean Six Sigma para melhoria de um processo produtivo. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as metodologias Lean e Six Sigma, buscando a compreensão das origens do Lean Six Sigma,...

  15. CMOS sigma-delta converters practical design guide

    CERN Document Server

    De la Rosa, Jose M


    A comprehensive overview of Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and a practical guide to their design in nano-scale CMOS for optimal performance. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive compilation of sigma-delta converter operating principles, the new advances in architectures and circuits, design methodologies and practical considerations - going from system-level specifications to silicon integration, packaging and measurements, with emphasis on nanometer CMOS implementation. The book emphasizes practical design issues - from high-level behavioural modelling i

  16. Brackets, sigma models and integrability of generalized complex structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, Sebastian [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)


    It is shown how derived brackets naturally arise in sigma-models via Poisson- or antibracket, generalizing a recent observation by Alekseev and Strobl. On the way to a precise formulation of this relation, an explicit coordinate expression for the derived bracket is obtained. The generalized Nijenhuis tensor of generalized complex geometry is shown to coincide up to a de-Rham closed term with the derived bracket of the structure with itself and a new coordinate expression for this tensor is presented. The insight is applied to two known two-dimensional sigma models in a background with generalized complex structure.

  17. Barriers in green lean six sigma product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan


    In today’s competitive globalised business environment, production cost cutting is a primary issue before operation managers. As a research area, green lean six sigma (GLS) is proposed to have strategic importance in product development towards cutting costs, contributing to optimisation......, and achieving sustainability. This research requirement has been realised to draw benefits out of three recent and involved approaches (green, lean and six sigma). In this research, an attempt has been made to address barriers in GLS product development (GLSPD) from an extensive literature review and from...

  18. Lean Six Sigma en las administraciones públicas


    Chiaburu, Gheorghe


    RESUMEN: El objetivo principal de este trabajo es realizar un estudio sobre la metodología Six Sigma y la metodología Lean, evaluando su posible implementación en las Administraciones públicas. Como se muestra más adelante la unión de estas dos metodologías es más que un sistema de calidad, es una filosofía de trabajo que busca la perfección continua de los procesos. La implementación de la Six Sigma se ha realizado principalmente en industrias manufactureras y de producción y de mane...

  19. Delta-Sigma Digital Current Sensor Based On GMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhili; Qian Zhenghong; Huang Xiaowei, E-mail: [Center for Integrated Spintronic Devices, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)


    This paper presents an integrated delta-sigma digital current sensor. With high sensitivity and good linearity, GMR sensor is a good choice for current measurement application. In this design, a GMR sensor which is configured as a Wheatstone bridge of four spin-valve sensing elements is integrated with CMOS signal processing circuit together, and the output signal is converted to digital domain by an on-chip 10-bit delta-sigma ADC. The whole circuit is designed and simulated using CSMC standard 0.5 {mu}m process.

  20. Picroside II Shows Protective Functions for Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats by Preventing NF-κB-Dependent Autophagy (United States)

    Piao, Xuehua; Guo, Lianyi; Meng, Fanji; Gao, Leming


    Picroside II, from the herb Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its function on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and molecular mechanism remains unknown. The effects of picroside II on the SAP induced by cerulean were investigated. SAP rats were treated with picroside II (25 mg/kg). The severity of SAP was evaluated by using biochemical and histological analyses. Pancreatic cancer cell PANC-1 was transfected with ptfLC3 (an indicator of autophagic activity), pcDNA3.1-NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), and pTZU6+1-NF-κB-shRNA and then treated with picroside II. Relative molecules related with NF-κB-dependent autophagy were detected by using Western blot. Autophagic activities were observed by phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopes. Acetylated LC3 was detected by immunoprecipitation. The results showed that picroside II treatment reduced the level of ALT, AST, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and SIRT1 (NAD+-dependent deacetylase) and increased the level of SOD and GSH. The autophagic activity was reduced when NF-κB was silenced, and the levels of TNF-α and SIRT1 were reduced. In contrast, the overexpression of NF-κB increased autophagic activity and the level of TNF-α, which activated SIRT1. SIRT1 deacetylated LC3 and increased autophagic activities. Picroside II ameliorates SAP by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammtory activities of SAP models via NF-κB-dependent autophagy. PMID:28713490

  1. Picroside II Shows Protective Functions for Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats by Preventing NF-κB-Dependent Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Piao


    Full Text Available Picroside II, from the herb Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its function on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and molecular mechanism remains unknown. The effects of picroside II on the SAP induced by cerulean were investigated. SAP rats were treated with picroside II (25 mg/kg. The severity of SAP was evaluated by using biochemical and histological analyses. Pancreatic cancer cell PANC-1 was transfected with ptfLC3 (an indicator of autophagic activity, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B, and pTZU6+1-NF-κB-shRNA and then treated with picroside II. Relative molecules related with NF-κB-dependent autophagy were detected by using Western blot. Autophagic activities were observed by phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopes. Acetylated LC3 was detected by immunoprecipitation. The results showed that picroside II treatment reduced the level of ALT, AST, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and SIRT1 (NAD+-dependent deacetylase and increased the level of SOD and GSH. The autophagic activity was reduced when NF-κB was silenced, and the levels of TNF-α and SIRT1 were reduced. In contrast, the overexpression of NF-κB increased autophagic activity and the level of TNF-α, which activated SIRT1. SIRT1 deacetylated LC3 and increased autophagic activities. Picroside II ameliorates SAP by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammtory activities of SAP models via NF-κB-dependent autophagy.

  2. Apelin attenuates postburn sepsis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent mechanism: A randomized animal study. (United States)

    Luo, Keqin; Long, Huibao; Xu, Bincan; Luo, Yanling


    This study aims to investigate whether apelin would regulate inflammatory response and promote survival in an experimental burn sepsis model through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway. Male BALB/c mice were divided into the following groups: sham, burn, burn sepsis, burn sepsis treated with apelin, burn sepsis treated with apelin plus LY294002, and burn sepsis treated with LY294002 alone. Apelin level and inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay. Apelin/APJ (apelin receptor, gene symbol APLNR) mRNA expression in spleen and adhesion molecules levels in lung was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Neutrophil infiltration in lung was determined by myeloperoxidase assay. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B in lung was determined by western blot. Mortality rate was monitored. Burn sepsis induced decreased apelin/APJ mRNA expression in spleen and reduced apelin level in plasma, which were both restored by exogenous apelin treatment. Burn sepsis treated with apelin resulted in decreased interleukin-6, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin -1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in plasma. Mice with apelin treatment also showed decreased neutrophil infiltration and adhesion molecules expression, accompanied by a remarkable increased protein kinase B phosphorylation in lung tissue. The mortality rate in apelin treated animals was also significantly reduced. Importantly, the above effects of apelin were abolished by LY294002 treatment. Apelin regulates inflammatory response, diminishes inflammatory remote organ damage and improves survival in an experimental model of burn sepsis, which is at least partly mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Dynamic Protein-Protein Coupling Between the TonB-dependent Transporter FhuA and TonB. (United States)

    Sarver, Jessica; Zhang, Michael; Liu, Lishan; Nyenhuis, David; Cafiso, David S


    Bacterial outer membrane TonB-dependent transporters function by executing cycles of binding and unbinding to the inner membrane protein TonB. In the vitamin B12 transporter BtuB and the ferric citrate transporter FecA, substrate binding increases the periplasmic exposure of the Ton box, an energy-coupling segment. This increased exposure appears to enhance the affinity of the transporter for TonB. Here, continuous wave and pulse EPR spectroscopy were used to examine the state of the Ton box in the Escherichia coli ferrichrome transporter, FhuA. In its apo state, the Ton box of FhuA samples a broad range of positions and multiple conformational substates. When bound to ferrichrome, the Ton box does not extend further into the periplasm, although the structural states sampled by the FhuA Ton box are altered. When bound to a soluble fragment of TonB, the TonB-FhuA complex remains heterogeneous and dynamic, indicating that TonB does not make strong, specific contacts with either the FhuA barrel or the core region of the transporter. This result differs from that seen in the crystal structure of the TonB-FhuA complex. These data indicate that unlike BtuB and FecA, the periplasmic exposure of the Ton box in FhuA does not change significantly in the presence of substrate and that allosteric control of transporter-TonB interactions functions by a different mechanism than that seen in either BtuB or FecA. Moreover, the data indicate that models involving a rotation of TonB relative to the transporter are unlikely to underlie the mechanism that drives TonB-dependent transport.

  4. Theoretical study of the AlO blue-green (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) band system (United States)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Lengsfield, B. H., III; Liu, B.


    Two independent, extensive theoretical calculations are reported for the relative band strengths of the AlO (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) blue-green system and for the radiative lifetimes of the lowest few vibrational levels of the B2Sigma(+) state. The theoretical lifetimes, which include a small (less than -.5 percent) contribution from bound-bound transitions into the A2Pi state, are in excellent agreement with laser fluorescence studies. The theoretical lifetimes increase monotonically and very slowly with increasing vibrational quantum number. The relative band strengths for the blue-green system derived from the two theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement, but differ systematically from the relative band strengths of Linton and Nicholls (1969). The present results suggest that their self-absorption corrections are not large enough, resulting in relative intensities that are too large, especially for the weak bands with r centroids less than 1.5 A.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique H. Limoli


    Full Text Available While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa and/or S. aureus adopts phenotypes that allow coexistence during infection. We compared competitive interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates from mono- or coinfected CF patients employing in vitro coculture models. P. aeruginosa isolates from monoinfected patients were more competitive toward S. aureus than P. aeruginosa isolates from coinfected patients. We also observed that the least competitive P. aeruginosa isolates possessed a mucoid phenotype. Mucoidy occurs upon constitutive activation of the sigma factor AlgT/U, which regulates synthesis of the polysaccharide alginate and dozens of other secreted factors, including some previously described to kill S. aureus. Here, we show that production of alginate in mucoid strains is sufficient to inhibit anti-S. aureus activity independent of activation of the AlgT regulon. Alginate reduces production of siderophores, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-N-oxide (HQNO, and rhamnolipids—each required for efficient killing of S. aureus. These studies demonstrate alginate overproduction may be an important factor driving P. aeruginosa coinfection with S. aureus.

  6. Rsd family proteins make simultaneous interactions with regions 2 and 4 of the primary sigma factor. (United States)

    Yuan, Andy H; Gregory, Brian D; Sharp, Josh S; McCleary, Katherine D; Dove, Simon L; Hochschild, Ann


    Bacterial anti-sigma factors typically regulate sigma factor function by restricting the access of their cognate sigma factors to the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme. The Escherichia coli Rsd protein forms a complex with the primary sigma factor, sigma(70), inhibits sigma(70)-dependent transcription in vitro, and has been proposed to function as a sigma(70)-specific anti-sigma factor, thereby facilitating the utilization of alternative sigma factors. In prior work, Rsd has been shown to interact with conserved region 4 of sigma(70), but it is not known whether this interaction suffices to account for the regulatory functions of Rsd. Here we show that Rsd and the Rsd orthologue AlgQ, a global regulator of gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, interact with conserved region 2 of sigma(70). We show further that Rsd and AlgQ can interact simultaneously with regions 2 and 4 of sigma(70). Our findings establish that the abilities of Rsd and AlgQ to interact with sigma(70) region 2 are important determinants of their in vitro and in vivo activities.

  7. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of {sigma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Jianxin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Pan [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Feng Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Han Xiaodong; Mao Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)


    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM micrograph of {sigma} phase; (b) HRTEM image of {sigma}/{gamma} interface corresponding to the area of the white frame in (a); (c) an enlarged image of area from the white frame in (b). The combination of {sigma}/{gamma} interface appears very well, and a two-atomic-layer step is shown on the {sigma}/{gamma} interface. In addition, {sigma} phase has the orientation relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental characteristic of {sigma} phase is studied by HAADF techniques and EDS analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial characteristics of {sigma}/{gamma} interface are revealed by HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An atomic structural {sigma}/{gamma} interface with a two-atomic-layer step has been proposed. - Abstract: By means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field image technique (HAADF), morphological of plate-shaped {sigma} phase and interfacial characteristics between plate-shaped {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys have been studied. On the basis of HRTEM observations, an atomic structural interface between {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase with a step has been proposed. {sigma} Phase has the relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma},} (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. The compositional characteristics of the {sigma} phase which

  8. The Bacillus subtilis sigma(X) protein is an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor contributing to survival at high temperature.


    Huang, X; Decatur, A; Sorokin, A.; Helmann, J D


    The sigX gene, identified as part of the international effort to sequence the Bacillus subtilis genome, has been proposed to encode an alternative sigma factor of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) subfamily. The sigX gene is cotranscribed with a downstream gene, ypuN, during logarithmic and early stationary phases of growth. We now report that strains lacking sigma(X) are impaired in the ability to survive at high temperature whereas a ypuN mutant has increased thermotolerance. We overprodu...

  9. Post-transcriptional regulation of the Streptomyces coelicolor stress responsive sigma factor, SigH, involves translational control, proteolytic processing, and an anti-sigma factor homolog. (United States)

    Viollier, Patrick H; Weihofen, Andreas; Folcher, Marc; Thompson, Charles J


    The sigH gene encodes a sigma factor whose transcription is controlled by stress regulatory systems and the developmental program in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we describe developmentally regulated post-transcriptional control systems for SigH. sigH is expressed as three primary translation products, SigH-sigma(37), SigH-sigma(51), and SigH-sigma(52). In vitro, SigH-sigma(52) was comparable to SigH-sigma(37) in its ability to associate with RNA polymerase core enzyme and specifically initiate transcription in vitro. While SigH-sigma(51/52) were the primary gene products observed throughout early phases of growth, their abundance decreased during later stages in liquid or solid phase cultures while levels of shorter, C-terminally encoded products increased. These included SigH-sigma(37), a product of the downstream translational initiation site, as well as two proteolytic derivatives of SigH-sigma(51/52) (34kDa and 38kDa). Accumulation of SigH-sigma(37) and processing of SigH-sigma(51/52) into these stable 34kDa and 38kDa derivatives correlated with morphological changes on solid medium and physiological maturation in liquid medium. SigH-sigma(51/52) processing did not occur on medium non-permissive for aerial mycelium formation or in one particular developmental mutant (brgA). The proteolytic activity could be detected in vitro using crude extracts of stationary phase cultures, but was absent from exponential phase cultures. prsH, the gene upstream of sigH having sequence similarity to known anti-sigma factors, was able to bind to, and thus presumably inactivate SigH-sigma(52), SigH-sigma(51), and SigH-sigma(37). We have shown elsewhere that prsH was conditionally required for colonial development. Thus, while at least one transcriptional regulator is known to bring about the accumulation of sigH mRNA at different times and different locations in colonies, the post-transcriptional processes described here regulate the activity of different SigH isoforms and

  10. SIGMA Release v1.2 - Capabilities, Enhancements and Fixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grindeanu, Iulian R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ray, Navamita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, Danqing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    In this report, we present details on SIGMA toolkit along with its component structure, capabilities, and feature additions in FY15, release cycles, and continuous integration process. These software processes along with updated documentation are imperative to successfully integrate and utilize in several applications including the SHARP coupled analysis toolkit for reactor core systems funded under the NEAMS DOE-NE program.

  11. Application of Six Sigma methodology to a diagnostic imaging process. (United States)

    Taner, Mehmet Tolga; Sezen, Bulent; Atwat, Kamal M


    This paper aims to apply the Six Sigma methodology to improve workflow by eliminating the causes of failure in the medical imaging department of a private Turkish hospital. Implementation of the design, measure, analyse, improve and control (DMAIC) improvement cycle, workflow chart, fishbone diagrams and Pareto charts were employed, together with rigorous data collection in the department. The identification of root causes of repeat sessions and delays was followed by failure, mode and effect analysis, hazard analysis and decision tree analysis. The most frequent causes of failure were malfunction of the RIS/PACS system and improper positioning of patients. Subsequent to extensive training of professionals, the sigma level was increased from 3.5 to 4.2. The data were collected over only four months. Six Sigma's data measurement and process improvement methodology is the impetus for health care organisations to rethink their workflow and reduce malpractice. It involves measuring, recording and reporting data on a regular basis. This enables the administration to monitor workflow continuously. The improvements in the workflow under study, made by determining the failures and potential risks associated with radiologic care, will have a positive impact on society in terms of patient safety. Having eliminated repeat examinations, the risk of being exposed to more radiation was also minimised. This paper supports the need to apply Six Sigma and present an evaluation of the process in an imaging department.

  12. Modulational-instability sigma-resonator fiber laser. (United States)

    Honzatko, P; Peterka, P; Kanka, J


    A modulational-instability laser with a resonator in a sigma configuration has been developed. The importance of a suitable intracavity filter for removing the autocorrelation background of the output signal is shown. A pulse train with a repetition rate of 107 GHz determined by the Fabry-Perot etalon used in the resonator was obtained at 1.56mum .

  13. An optimal monitor of the electroencephalographic sigma sleep state. (United States)

    Kemp, B; Jaspers, P; Franzen, J M; Janssen, A J


    A model has been proposed for a Markov-jumping sleep depth that modulates a white-noise driven structure generating the sigma rhythm in the electroencephalogram. The corresponding maximum likelihood monitor, that continuously detects the current sleep stage from the observed electroencephalogram, has been derived and implemented. Simulations show high detection performances.

  14. High Speed and Wide Bandwidth Delta-Sigma ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolatkale, M.


    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a high-speed, high-performance continuous-time delta-sigma (CT??) ADC for applications such as medical imaging, high-definition video processing, and wireline and wireless communications. In order to achieve a GHz clocking speed, this

  15. Nonlinearities in SC Delta-Sigma A/D Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper


    The effects of using nonlinear low-gain opamps in switched-capacitor delta-sigma modulators are analyzed. Using unconventional topologies, the state variables are made essentially uncorrelated with the input signal, hence opamp nonlinearity will cause very little harmonic distortion. Nonlinearity...

  16. Practical Design of Delta-Sigma Multiple Description Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt


    It was recently shown that delta-sigma quantization (DSQ) can be used for optimal multiple description (MD) coding of Gaussian sources. The DSQ scheme combined oversampling, prediction, and noise-shaping in order to trade off side distortion for central distortion in MD coding. It was shown...

  17. Multiplexed noise shaping structures for Delta-Sigma modulators (United States)

    Czarnul, Z.; Yesilyurt, A. G.; Temes, G. C.


    A new structure for realizing a multiplexed noise-shaping A/D convertor is proposed. It improves the performance of first- or second-order Delta-Sigma modulators by employing additional feedback paths for suppressing the quantizer error. The structure, its theoretical analysis, and simulations confirming the improved resolution are presented.

  18. Analysis of the Distortion Mechanism in Delta-Sigma Beamforming. (United States)

    Kaald, Rune


    Dynamic receive beamforming on a Delta-Sigma modulator's low-resolution output bit-stream suffers from a severely increased noise floor, rendering the promising method infeasible. This paper addresses the mechanism behind the increased noise floor. By using multirate theory and bifrequency analysis, we show that the increased noise floor is caused by aliasing/imaging of the powerful quantization noise from specific frequency regions according to the focus depth. We analyze both the conventional delay-and-sum method and the previously proposed insert zero compensation method. For the latter technique, we show that the alias/image bands have the first-order suppression because of a zero at the origin. This finding leads to the proposal of an architecture combining a cascaded integrator-comb filter with the insert zero compensation method. Backed by simulations of beamformed Delta-Sigma modulated sequences and point spread functions, we compare this architecture to different compensation methods and the ideal Delta-Sigma beamformer. The proposed technique is shown to have low implementation cost and achieve levels of dynamic range comparable to those of the ideal Delta-Sigma beamformer.

  19. Sigma-delta modulator: loop filters and quantization noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub V. S.


    Full Text Available In this paper the sigma-delta modulator was analyzed with the use of simulation. In particular, the author studied dependence of the quantization noise on the loop filtration. The obtained results explain certain operation features of the modulator and make it possible to give advice as to its application.

  20. Cubature/ Unscented/ Sigma Point Kalman Filtering with Angular Measurement Models (United States)


    Cubature/ Unscented/ Sigma Point Kalman Filtering with Angular Measurement Models David Frederic Crouse Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Ave...measurement and process non- linearities, such as the cubature Kalman filter, can perform ex- tremely poorly in many applications involving angular... Kalman filtering is a realization of the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) that evaluates certain integrals for expected values using different forms

  1. Application of Six Sigma methodology to a cataract surgery unit. (United States)

    Taner, Mehmet Tolga


    The article's aim is to focus on the application of Six Sigma to minimise intraoperative and post-operative complications rates in a Turkish public hospital cataract surgery unit. Implementing define-measure-analyse-improve and control (DMAIC) involves process mapping, fishbone diagrams and rigorous data-collection. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), pareto diagrams, control charts and process capability analysis are applied to redress cataract surgery failure root causes. Inefficient skills of assistant surgeons and technicians, low quality of IOLs used, wrong IOL placement, unsystematic sterilisation of surgery rooms and devices, and the unprioritising network system are found to be the critical drivers of intraoperative-operative and post-operative complications. Sigma level was increased from 2.60 to 3.75 subsequent to extensive training of assistant surgeons, ophthalmologists and technicians, better quality IOLs, systematic sterilisation and air-filtering, and the implementation of a more sophisticated network system. This article shows that Six Sigma measurement and process improvement can become the impetus for cataract unit staff to rethink their process and reduce malpractices. Measuring, recording and reporting data regularly helps them to continuously monitor their overall process and deliver safer treatments. This is the first Six Sigma ophthalmology study in Turkey.

  2. A rational reconstruction of Six Sigma's Breakthrough Cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a consistent and crystallized exposition of Six-Sigma's methodology for improvement projects, which could serve as a basis for subsequent scientific research of the method. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows that reformulation of imprecise

  3. Using Six-Sigma To Change and Measure Improvement. (United States)

    Feld, Karl G.; Stone, William K.


    Explains why Honeywell's Market Research Department replaced its traditional data collection and paper-based tabulation with blended modes, including electronic interviewing and real-time reporting. Describes how the Six-Sigma quality control process demonstrated that a hybrid approach with blended modes and Web-based reporting tools could deliver…

  4. Strategically Focused Training in Six Sigma Way: A Case Study (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish


    Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to examine the utility of Six Sigma interventions as a performance measure and explore its applicability for making the training design and delivery operationally efficient and strategically effective. Design/methodology/approach: This is a single revelatory case study. Data were collected from multiple…

  5. Gustav Naan ja Sigma Tau / Arvo Pesti, Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Arvo, 1956-2010


    Füüsik, kosmoloog ja ühiskonnategelane Gustav Naanist. Merle Karusoo dokumentaallavastusest "Sigma Tau-C705", mis põhineb Enn Vetemaa ja Erki Aule näidendil "Gustav Naani hiilgus ja viletsus". Esietendus 16. märtsil 2008 Eesti Draamateatris

  6. Semiclassical approximations in non-linear. sigma. omega. models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centelles, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M. (Dept. ECM, Univ. Barcelona (Spain)); Marcos, S. (Dept. de Fisica Moderna, Univ. de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)); Lombard, R.J. (Div. de Physique Theorique, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France))


    Extended Thomas-Fermi calculations up to second order in {Dirac h} have been performed for relativistic non-linear {sigma}{omega} models and compared with the corresponding Hartree calculations. In several respects, the relativistic phenomenology quite resembles the one previously found in the non-relativistic context using Skyrme forces. (orig.).

  7. Applying Lean and Six Sigma in financial service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.; Anthony, J.; Kumar, M.


    Abstract Lean and Six Sigma have gone through parallel developments in recent years. Originally applied to a small range of industries, both approaches are now also used widely in healthcare, administration and service. A recent development is the integration of the two approaches. In this paper we

  8. Measurements of the masses and widths of the $\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0/++}$ and $\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0/++}$ baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S -H; Won, E; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bansal, V; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hoshi, Y; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, B H; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Moll, A; Mori, T; Mussa, R; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Peng, T; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Sibidanov, A; Sohn, Y -S; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Steder, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Uno, S; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A


    We present measurements of the masses and decay widths of the baryonic states $\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0/++}$ and $\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0/++}$ using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 711 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^{+}e^{-}$ asymmetric-energy collider operating at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance. We report the mass differences with respect to the $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ baryon $M(\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0})-M(\\Lambda_{c}^{+}) = 167.29\\pm0.01\\pm0.02$ MeV/$c^{2}$, $M(\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{++})-M(\\Lambda_{c}^{+}) = 167.51\\pm0.01\\pm0.02$ MeV/$c^{2}$, $M(\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0})-M(\\Lambda_{c}^{+}) = 231.98\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$ MeV/$c^{2}$, $M(\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{++})-M(\\Lambda_{c}^{+}) = 231.99\\pm0.10\\pm0.02$ MeV/$c^{2}$, and the decay widths $\\Gamma(\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{0}) = 1.76\\pm0.04^{+0.09}_{-0.21}$ MeV/$c^{2}$, $\\Gamma(\\Sigma_{c}(2455)^{++}) = 1.84\\pm0.04^{+0.07}_{-0.20}$ MeV/$c^{2}$, $\\Gamma(\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{0}) = 15.41\\pm0.41^{+0.20}_{-0.32}$ MeV/$c^{2}$, $\\Gamma(\\Sigma_{c}(2520)^{++}) = 14...

  9. IceBridge Sigma Space Prototype L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Sigma Space Prototype L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data set (ILSSP0) contains time-of-flight data captured over Antarctica using the Sigma Space Photon...

  10. Environmental Professional’s Guide to Lean and Six Sigma: Executive Summary (United States)

    Introduction to the guide that describes how Lean and Six Sigma relate to the environment and provides guidance on how environmental professionals can connect with Lean and Six Sigma activities to generate better environmental and operational results.

  11. IceBridge Sigma Space Prototype L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Sigma Space Prototype L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data set (ILSSP0) contains time-of-flight data captured over Antarctica using the Sigma Space Photon...

  12. IceBridge Sigma Space Lidar L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Sigma Space Lidar L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data (ILSIG0) contain raw time-of-flight values for Antarctica and Greenland using the Sigma Space Lidar....

  13. Genetic analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis Macromolecular Synthesis Operon: Serp1129 is an ATP binding protein and sigA transcription is regulated by both σA- and σB-dependent promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichs Steven H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly conserved macromolecular synthesis operon (MMSO contains both dnaG (primase and sigA (primary sigma factor. However, in previously evaluated gram-positive species, the MMSO is divergent upstream of dnaG. The MMSO of Bacillus subtilis contains three open reading frames (ORFs that are differentially regulated by multiple promoters. In conjunction with studies to determine the expression profile of dnaG, the MMSO of Staphylococus epidermidis was characterized. Results The ORFs of S. epidermidis were compared to the previously described MMSO of B. subtilis and two additional ORFs in S. epidermidis, serp1129 and serp1130, were identified. The largest transcript, 4.8 kb in length, was expressed only in exponential growth and encompassed all four ORFs (serp1130, serp1129, dnaG, and sigA. A separate transcript (1.5 kb comprising serp1130 and serp1129 was expressed in early exponential growth. Two smaller transcripts 1.3 and 1.2 kb in size were detected with a sigA probe in both exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Western blot analysis correlated with the transcriptional profile and demonstrated that Serp1129 was detected only in the exponential phase of growth. Computational analysis identified that Serp1130 contained a CBS motif whereas Serp1129 contained an ATP/GTP binding motif. Functional studies of Serp1129 demonstrated that it was capable of binding both ATP and GTP. Comparisons with a sigB:dhfr mutant revealed that the 1.3 kb sigA transcript was regulated by a σB-dependent promoter. Conclusions These studies demonstrated that the S. epidermidis 1457 MMSO contains two ORFs (serp1129 and serp1130 not described within the B. subtilis MMSO and at least three promoters, one of which is σβ-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of sigA by σB provides evidence that the staphylococcal σB-dependent response is controlled at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The conservation of

  14. Single-Path Sigma from a Huge Dataset in Taiwan (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Hsuan; Lee, Chyi-Tyi


    Ground-motion variability, which was used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in computing annual exceedence probability, is composed of random variability (aleatory uncertainty) and model uncertainty (epistemic uncertainty). Finding random variability of ground motions has become an important issue in PSHA, and only the random variability can be used in deriving the annual exceedence probability of ground-motion. Epistemic uncertainty will be put in the logic tree to estimate the total uncertainty of ground-motion. In the present study, we used about 18,859 records from 158 shallow earthquakes (Mw > 3.0, focal depth ≤ 35 km, each station has at least 20 records) form the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) network to analyse the random variability of ground-motion. First, a new ground-motion attenuation model was established by using this huge data set. Second, the residuals from the median attenuation were analysed by direct observation on inter-event variability and site-specific variability. Finally, the single-path variability was found by a moving-window method on either single-earthquake residuals or single-station residuals. A variogram method was also used to find minimum variability for intra-event residuals and inter-event residuals, respectively. Results reveal that 90% of the single-path sigma σSP are ranging from 0.219 to 0.254 (ln unit) and are 58% to 64% smaller than the total sigma (σT =0.601). The single-site sigma (σSS) are also 39%-43% smaller. If we use only random variability (single-path sigma) in PSHA, then the resultant hazard level would be 28% and 25% lower than the traditional one (using total sigma) in 475-year and in 2475-year return period, respectively, in Taipei.

  15. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.


    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation ( Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation ( Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  16. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan, E-mail:; Chen, Hongzhuan, E-mail:


    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  17. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus]. (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A


    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  18. Loop calculations in quantum-mechanical non-linear sigma models sigma models with fermions and applications to anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jan de; Peeters, Bas; Skenderis, Kostas; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van


    We construct the path integral for one-dimensional non-linear sigma models, starting from a given Hamiltonian operator and states in a Hilbert space. By explicit evaluation of the discretized propagators and vertices we find the correct Feynman rules which differ from those often assumed. These

  19. Factors determining Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to photoantimicrobial chemotherapy: RsbU activity, staphyloxanthin level and membrane fluidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kossakowska-Zwierucho


    Full Text Available Photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT constitutes a particular type of stress condition, in which bacterial cells induce a pleiotropic and as yet unexplored effect. In light of this, the key master regulators are of putative significance to the overall phototoxic outcome. In Staphylococcus aureus, the alternative sigma factor σB controls the expression of genes involved in the response to environmental stress. We show that aberration of any sigB operon genes in S. aureus USA300 isogenic mutants causes a pronounced sensitization (>5 log10 reduction in CFU drop to PACT with selected photosensitizers, namely protoporphyrin diarginate, zinc phthalocyanine and rose bengal. This effect is partly due to aberration-coupled staphyloxanthin synthesis inhibition. We identified frequent mutations in RsbU, a σB activator, in PACT-vulnerable clinical isolates of S. aureus, resulting in σB activity impairment. Locations of significant changes in protein structure (IS256 insertion, early STOP codon occurrence, substitutions A230T and A276D were shown in a theoretical model of S. aureus RsbU. As a phenotypic hallmark of PACT-vulnerable S. aureus strains, we observed an increased fluidity of bacterial cell membrane, which is a result of staphyloxanthin content and other yet unidentified factors. Our research indicates σB as a promising target of adjunctive antimicrobial therapy and suggests that enhanced cell membrane fluidity may be an adjuvant strategy in photoantimicrobial chemotherapy.

  20. Transcriptional organization and in vivo role of the Escherichia coli rsd gene, encoding the regulator of RNA polymerase sigma D. (United States)

    Jishage, M; Ishihama, A


    The regulator of sigma D (Rsd) was identified as an RNA polymerase sigma70-associated protein in stationary-phase Escherichia coli with the inhibitory activity of sigma70-dependent transcription in vitro (M. Jishage and A. Ishihama, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:4953-4958, 1998). Primer extension analysis of rsd mRNA indicated the presence of two promoters, sigmaS-dependent P1 and sigma70-dependent P2 with the gearbox sequence. To get insight into the in vivo role of Rsd, the expression of a reporter gene fused to either the sigma70- or sigmaS-dependent promoter was analyzed in the absence of Rsd or the presence of overexpressed Rsd. In the rsd null mutant, the sigma70- and sigmaS-dependent gene expression was increased or decreased, respectively. On the other hand, the sigma70- or sigmaS-dependent transcription was reduced or enhanced, respectively, after overexpression of Rsd. The repression of the sigmaS-dependent transcription in the rsd mutant is overcome by increased production of the sigmaS subunit. Together these observations support the prediction that Rsd is involved in replacement of the RNA polymerase sigma subunit from sigma70 to sigmaS during the transition from exponential growth to the stationary phase.

  1. A Framework for Six Sigma Project Selection in Higher Educational Institutions, Using a Weighted Scorecard Approach (United States)

    Holmes, Monica C.; Jenicke, Lawrence O.; Hempel, Jessica L.


    Purpose: This paper discusses the importance of the Six Sigma selection process, describes a Six Sigma project in a higher educational institution and presents a weighted scorecard approach for project selection. Design/Methodology/Approach: A case study of the Six Sigma approach being used to improve student support at a university computer help…

  2. sigma54-Mediated control of the mannose phosphotransferase sytem in Lactobacillus plantarum impacts on carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M.J.A.; Molenaar, D.; Jong, de A.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.


    Sigma factors direct specific binding of the bacterial RNA polymerase to the promoter. Here we present the elucidation of the sigma(54 ) regulon in Lactobacillus plantarum. A sequence-based regulon prediction of sigma(54)-dependent promoters revealed an operon encoding a mannose phosphotransferase

  3. sigma(54)-mediated control of the mannose phosphotransferase sytem in Lactobacillus plantarum impacts on carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Marc J. A.; Molenaar, Douwe; de Jong, Anne; De Vos, Willem M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Sigma factors direct specific binding of the bacterial RNA polymerase to the promoter. Here we present the elucidation of the sigma(54) regulon in Lactobacillus plantarum. A sequence-based regulon prediction of sigma(54)-dependent promoters revealed an operon encoding a mannose phosphotransferase

  4. Strategic Assessment of Lean Six Sigma Practicality in the Turkish Army (United States)


    PRODUCTION ............................................................................20 H. LEAN SIX SIGMA...14 Figure 5. Turkey Country Comparison .....................................................................30 Figure 6. Turkey in Comparison...implementation in Turkey’s service sector. The best implementations of Six Sigma in Turkey are in manufacturing, where the success of Six Sigma is

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of both community and hospital acquired bacterial infection. There is strong correlation between S aureus nasal carriage and disease progress. Nasal carriage is high among health care workers. Inappropriate usage of antibiotic may

  6. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus transmission : clinical and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, A.L.A.


    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in nosocomial infections. Up to 30% of UCI related infections are caused by S. aureus. In this thesis we explore both clinical and molecular aspects of patient-to-patient transmission of S. aureus. We performed a European ICU study exploring infection

  8. Vancomycin Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA), resistant to all antibiotics including Vancomycin, has been reported in Japan, USA, Canada and Brazil. Hence, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of Vancomycin resistant or intermediate S.aureus in Karachi. A total of 850 ...

  9. The N-terminal Domain of a TonB-dependent Transporter Undergoes a Reversible Stepwise Denaturation† (United States)

    Flores Jiménez, Ricardo H.; Cafiso, David S.


    Gram-negative bacteria contain a family of outer membrane transport proteins that function in the uptake of rare nutrients, such as iron and vitamin B12. These proteins are termed TonB-dependent because transport requires an interaction with the inner membrane protein TonB. Using a combination of site-directed spin labeling and chemical denaturation, we examined the site-specific unfolding of regions of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter, BtuB. The data indicate that a portion of the N-terminal region of the protein, which occupies the lumen of the BtuB barrel, denatures prior to the unfolding of the barrel and that the free energy of folding for the N-terminus is less than that typically seen for globular proteins. Moreover, the data indicate that the N-terminal domain does not unfold in a single event, but unfolds in a series of independent steps. The unfolding of the N-terminus is reversible and removal of denaturant restores the native fold of the protein. These data are consistent with proposed transport mechanisms that involve a transient rearrangement or unfolding of the protein N-terminus, and they provide evidence for a specific protein conformation that might be an intermediate accessed during transport. PMID:22497281

  10. Calcium/calcineurin synergizes with prostratin to promote NF-κB dependent activation of latent HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K Chan

    Full Text Available Attempts to eradicate HIV have been thwarted by the persistence of a small pool of quiescent memory CD4 T cells that harbor a transcriptionally silent, integrated form of the virus that can produce infectious virions following an anamnestic immune response. Transcription factors downstream of T-cell receptor activation, such as NF-κB/Rel and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT transcription members, are considered important regulators of HIV transcription during acute HIV infection. We now report studies exploring their precise role as antagonists of HIV latency using cell and primary CD4 T cell models of HIV-1 latency. Surprisingly, RNA interference studies performed in J-Lat CD4 T cells suggested that none of the NFATs, including NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFAT5, played a key role in the reactivation of latent HIV. However, cyclosporin A markedly inhibited the reactivation response. These results were reconciled when calcium signaling through calcineurin was shown to potentiate prostratin induced activation of NF-κB that in turn stimulated the latent HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. Similar effects of calcineurin were confirmed in a primary CD4 T cell model of HIV latency. These findings highlight an important role for calcineurin in NF-κB-dependent induction of latent HIV transcription. Innovative approaches exploiting the synergistic actions of calcineurin and prostratin in the absence of generalized T-cell activation merit exploration as a means to attack the latent viral reservoir.

  11. Six Sigma: not for the faint of heart. (United States)

    Benedetto, Anthony R


    Six Sigma is an excellent quality and performance improvement tool. Like any tool, the results of using it are highly dependent on whether you use it with competence and on the right problem. This article will help you decide if your problem is well-suited for a Six Sigma approach and will suggest the optimum approach for planning and implementing Six Sigma methodology. Performance improvement methods can be grouped into two broad categories, based on the problem to be addressed. When the problem is relatively minor and localized, "evolutionary" methods may be suitable (e.g., quality circles, problem-solving staff meetings, continuous quality improvement [CQI], total quality management [TQM]). These tools work best when modest incremental improvements are sought, when major process redesign is not thought to be necessary, and when the avoidance of workplace disruption is desired. Reengineering and Six Sigma are the best-known examples of the "revolutionary" performance improvement methods. These methods should be used when major (drastic, do or die, etc.) improvements are needed. Problems that cross departmental boundaries need these methods. When a process is so dysfunctional that you feel like you need to tear up the standard operating procedure (SOP) and start all over again, you need a revolutionary method. A Six Sigma project requires a major expenditure of money and employee time, and a willingness to make some hard decisions about jobs, employee retention and relationships among stakeholders. An institution's culture should be considered as part of the decision about using Six Sigma. If the institution has a history of making data-driven decisions, or at least has displayed openness to operating in that manner, Six Sigma has a good chance of success. A radiology-driven Six Sigma project should not be undertaken until a comprehensive written description of the scope of the project is approved by the radiology department leadership team and by the appropriate

  12. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne


    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  13. Evidence for the rare decay $\\Sigma^+ \\to p \\mu^+ \\mu^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu Faye; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Yilong; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano


    A search for the rare decay $\\Sigma^+ \\to p \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ is performed using $pp$ collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ and $8$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3 fb^{-1}$. An excess of events is observed with respect to the background expectation, with a signal significance of 4.0 standard deviations. No significant structure is observed in the dimuon invariant mass distribution, in contrast with a previous result from the HyperCP experiment. The measured $\\Sigma^+ \\to p \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ branching fraction is $(2.1\\,^{+\\,1.6}_{-\\,1.2})\\times 10^{-8}$, where statistical and systematic uncertainties are included, which is consistent with the Standard Model prediction.

  14. Multi-Agent Modeling in Managing Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Chau


    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent model is proposed for considering the human resources factor in decision making in relation to the six sigma project. The proposed multi-agent system is expected to increase the acccuracy of project prioritization and to stabilize the human resources service level. A simulation of the proposed multiagent model is conducted. The results show that a multi-agent model which takes into consideration human resources when making decisions about project selection and project team formation is important in enabling efficient and effective project management. The multi-agent modeling approach provides an alternative approach for improving communication and the autonomy of six sigma projects in business organizations.

  15. Applying a Hybrid MCDM Model for Six Sigma Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a project-driven methodology; the projects that provide the maximum financial benefits and other impacts to the organization must be prioritized. Project selection (PS is a type of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem. In this study, we present a hybrid MCDM model combining the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL technique, analytic network process (ANP, and the VIKOR method to evaluate and improve Six Sigma projects for reducing performance gaps in each criterion and dimension. We consider the film printing industry of Taiwan as an empirical case. The results show that our study not only can use the best project selection, but can also be used to analyze the gaps between existing performance values and aspiration levels for improving the gaps in each dimension and criterion based on the influential network relation map.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tolga Taner


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how a private eye care center in Turkey developed a Six Sigma infrastructure to investigate the root causes of complications occuring during strabismus surgeries. To analyze the collected data, main tools of Six Sigma’s Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC improvement cycle such as SIPOC table, Fishbone Diagram and, Failure, Mode and Effect Analysis were implemented. Patient’s eye anatomy, experience of the anesthesiologist, experience/attention of the strabismus surgeon was identified to be Critical-to-Quality (CTQ factors for a successful strabismus surgery. The most frequent complications of strabismus surgeries were found to be X, Y and Z. The process sigma level was found to be 3.2025.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim SAHBAZ


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how a public eye care center in Turkey initiated Six Sigma principles to reduce the number of complications encountered during and after phacoemulsification cataract surgeries. To analyze the 3-year data, main tools of Six Sigma’s Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC improvement cycle such as SIPOC table, Fishbone Diagram and, Failure, Mode and Effect Analysis were implemented. Experience of the ophthalmic surgeon, patient’s anatomy, cooperation of patient during the surgery, sterilization and hygiene, attention of assistant surgeon, calibration of equipment and quality/chemical composition of intraocular material were identified to be Critical-to-Quality (CTQ factors for a successful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The most frequently occurring complication was found to be iris atrophy. The process sigma level for the process was found to be 3.958.

  18. Digital pixel sensor array with logarithmic delta-sigma architecture. (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan


    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  19. The coupling of Poisson sigma models to topological backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Dario [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)


    We extend the coupling to the topological backgrounds, recently worked out for the 2-dimensional BF-model, to the most general Poisson sigma models. The coupling involves the choice of a Casimir function on the target manifold and modifies the BRST transformations. This in turn induces a change in the BRST cohomology of the resulting theory. The observables of the coupled theory are analyzed and their geometrical interpretation is given. We finally couple the theory to 2-dimensional topological gravity: this is the first step to study a topological string theory in propagation on a Poisson manifold. As an application, we show that the gauge-fixed vectorial supersymmetry of the Poisson sigma models has a natural explanation in terms of the theory coupled to topological gravity.

  20. Six sigma for organizational excellence a statistical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Muralidharan, K


    This book discusses the integrated concepts of statistical quality engineering and management tools. It will help readers to understand and apply the concepts of quality through project management and technical analysis, using statistical methods. Prepared in a ready-to-use form, the text will equip practitioners to implement the Six Sigma principles in projects. The concepts discussed are all critically assessed and explained, allowing them to be practically applied in managerial decision-making, and in each chapter, the objectives and connections to the rest of the work are clearly illustrated. To aid in understanding, the book includes a wealth of tables, graphs, descriptions and checklists, as well as charts and plots, worked-out examples and exercises. Perhaps the most unique feature of the book is its approach, using statistical tools, to explain the science behind Six Sigma project management and integrated in engineering concepts. The material on quality engineering and statistical management tools of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit Ray


    Full Text Available Abstract: Six-Sigma is an improvement strategy for achieving customer satisfaction by reducing variation and thus producing products and services better, faster and cheaper. This study presents a Six-Sigma project of an automotive plant illustrating how the DMAIC methodology and statistical techniques were applied to resolve the issue of manufacturing process capability. This project has substantially benefit ted the organization by reducing the variation of bore size of crank case, achieving zero rejection and improving the on time delivery. By using appropriate qualitative and quantitative tools in different phases of the DMAIC methodology, the critical output, key process inputs and root causes were identified, analyzed and validated. This project methodology can be used in general to reduce process variation for any other manufacturing processes as well, which will help in improving customer satisfaction.

  2. Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma. (United States)

    Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D


    Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high.

  3. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma (United States)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar


    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  4. Ward Identity and Scattering Amplitudes for Nonlinear Sigma Models. (United States)

    Low, Ian; Yin, Zhewei


    We present a Ward identity for nonlinear sigma models using generalized nonlinear shift symmetries, without introducing current algebra or coset space. The Ward identity constrains correlation functions of the sigma model such that the Adler's zero is guaranteed for S-matrix elements, and gives rise to a subleading single soft theorem that is valid at the quantum level and to all orders in the Goldstone decay constant. For tree amplitudes, the Ward identity leads to a novel Berends-Giele recursion relation as well as an explicit form of the subleading single soft factor. Furthermore, interactions of the cubic biadjoint scalar theory associated with the single soft limit, which was previously discovered using the Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of tree amplitudes, can be seen to emerge from matrix elements of conserved currents corresponding to the generalized shift symmetry.

  5. Lean six sigma implementation in a yarn textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayra Rodrigues Nogueira


    Full Text Available Due to fierce competition from companies in achieving larger market share, there is an increasing interest regarding cost reduction, efficiency in business and processes, increase in quality and continuous improvement. Given these situations, companies are adopting some practices which seek to improve their strategies, increase understanding of the needs of their customers and promote business growth, the Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma programs were adopted in order to enable businesses to succeed in achieving continuous improvement in their business. This paper presents a case study of a textile yarn industry which, in order to increase the sales of the business and the elimination of waste, used the methodology of Lean Six Sigma Program based on DMAIC method to assist in achieving these goals.

  6. EWS-FLI1 inhibits TNF{alpha}-induced NF{kappa}B-dependent transcription in Ewing sarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagirand-Cantaloube, Julie, E-mail: [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France); Laud, Karine, E-mail: [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris (France); Lilienbaum, Alain, E-mail: [EA300 Universite Paris 7, Stress et pathologies du cytosquelette, Paris (France); Tirode, Franck, E-mail: [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris (France); Delattre, Olivier, E-mail: [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris (France); Auclair, Christian, E-mail: [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France); Kryszke, Marie-Helene, E-mail: [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)


    Research highlights: {yields} EWS-FLI1 interferes with TNF-induced activation of NF{kappa}B in Ewing sarcoma cells. {yields} EWS-FLI1 knockdown in Ewing sarcoma cells increases TNF-induced NF{kappa}B binding to DNA. {yields} EWS-FLI1 reduces TNF-stimulated NF{kappa}B-dependent transcriptional activation. {yields} Constitutive NF{kappa}B activity is not affected by EWS-FLI1. {yields} EWS-FLI1 physically interacts with NF{kappa}B p65 in vivo. -- Abstract: Ewing sarcoma is primarily caused by a t(11;22) chromosomal translocation encoding the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. To exert its oncogenic function, EWS-FLI1 acts as an aberrant transcription factor, broadly altering the gene expression profile of tumor cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF{kappa}B) is a tightly regulated transcription factor controlling cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, as well as tumorigenesis. NF{kappa}B activity is very low in unstimulated Ewing sarcoma cells, but can be induced in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We wondered whether NF{kappa}B activity could be modulated by EWS-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma. Using a knockdown approach in Ewing sarcoma cells, we demonstrated that EWS-FLI1 has no influence on NF{kappa}B basal activity, but impairs TNF-induced NF{kappa}B-driven transcription, at least in part through inhibition of NF{kappa}B binding to DNA. We detected an in vivo physical interaction between the fusion protein and NF{kappa}B p65, which could mediate these effects. Our findings suggest that, besides directly controlling the activity of its primary target promoters, EWS-FLI1 can also indirectly influence gene expression in tumor cells by modulating the activity of key transcription factors such as NF{kappa}B.

  7. Plant carbohydrate scavenging through tonB-dependent receptors: a feature shared by phytopathogenic and aquatic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servane Blanvillain

    Full Text Available TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs are outer membrane proteins mainly known for the active transport of iron siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the genome of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, predicts 72 TBDRs. Such an overrepresentation is common in Xanthomonas species but is limited to only a small number of bacteria. Here, we show that one Xcc TBDR transports sucrose with a very high affinity, suggesting that it might be a sucrose scavenger. This TBDR acts with an inner membrane transporter, an amylosucrase and a regulator to utilize sucrose, thus defining a new type of carbohydrate utilization locus, named CUT locus, involving a TBDR for the transport of substrate across the outer membrane. This sucrose CUT locus is required for full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis, showing its importance for the adaptation to host plants. A systematic analysis of Xcc TBDR genes and a genome context survey suggested that several Xcc TBDRs belong to other CUT loci involved in the utilization of various plant carbohydrates. Interestingly, several Xcc TBDRs and CUT loci are conserved in aquatic bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Saccharophagus degradans, Shewanella spp., Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudoalteromonas spp., which share the ability to degrade a wide variety of complex carbohydrates and display TBDR overrepresentation. We therefore propose that TBDR overrepresentation and the presence of CUT loci designate the ability to scavenge carbohydrates. Thus CUT loci, which seem to participate to the adaptation of phytopathogenic bacteria to their host plants, might also play a very important role in the biogeochemical cycling of plant-derived nutrients in marine environments. Moreover, the TBDRs and CUT loci identified in this study are clearly different from those characterized in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which allow glycan foraging

  8. Species differential regulation of COX2 can be described by an NFκB-dependent logic AND gate. (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan K; Cavadas, Miguel A S; Kholodenko, Boris N; Frank, Till D; Cheong, Alex


    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a key regulatory enzyme of the prostaglandin/eicosanoid pathway, is an important target for anti-inflammatory therapy. It is highly induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in a Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-dependent manner. However, the mechanisms determining the amplitude and dynamics of this important pro-inflammatory event are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is significant difference between human and mouse COX2 expression in response to the inflammatory stimulus tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Here, we report the presence of a molecular logic AND gate composed of two NFκB response elements (NREs) which controls the expression of human COX2 in a switch-like manner. Combining quantitative kinetic modeling and thermostatistical analysis followed by experimental validation in iterative cycles, we show that the human COX2 expression machinery regulated by NFκB displays features of a logic AND gate. We propose that this provides a digital, noise-filtering mechanism for a tighter control of expression in response to TNFα, such that a threshold level of NFκB activation is required before the promoter becomes active and initiates transcription. This NFκB-regulated AND gate is absent in the mouse COX2 promoter, most likely contributing to its differential graded response in promoter activity and protein expression to TNFα. Our data suggest that the NFκB-regulated AND gate acts as a novel mechanism for controlling the expression of human COX2 to TNFα, and its absence in the mouse COX2 provides the foundation for further studies on understanding species-specific differential gene regulation.

  9. Effects of conformational distributions on sigma profiles in COSMO theories. (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Stubbs, John M; Siepmann, J Ilja; Sandler, Stanley I


    The charge density or sigma profile of a solute molecule is an essential component in COSMO (conductor-like screen model) based solvation theories, and its generation depends on the molecular conformation used. The usual procedure is to determine the conformation of an isolated molecule, and assume that this is unchanged when the molecule is placed in solution. In this paper, the conformations of 1-hexanol and 2-methoxy-ethanol in both the liquid and vapor phases obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulation and from an isolated-molecule quantum DFT optimization are used to determine the effect of realistic conformation differences on COSMO-based properties predictions. In particular, the vapor pressure at the normal boiling temperature and the binary mixture VLE (vapor-liquid equilibrium) predictions obtained using different conformations are investigated. The results show that the sigma profile for 1-hexanol varies only slightly using the different conformations, while the sigma profile of 2-methoxy-ethanol shows a significant difference between the liquid and vapor phases. Consequently, the vapor pressure predictions for 1-hexanol are similar regardless of the manner in which the conformation population was obtained, while there is a larger difference for 2-methoxy-ethanol depending on whether the liquid or vapor conformations from simulation or the DFT-optimized structure is used. These differences in predictions are seen to be largely due to differences in the ideal solvation energy term. In mixture VLE calculations involving 1-hexanol, we again see that there is little difference in the phase equilibrium predictions among the different conformations, while for the mixture with 2-methoxy-ethanol, the differences in the sigma profiles lead to a more noticeable, though not significant, difference in the phase equilibrium predictions.

  10. Identification of sigma and chi phases in duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca-Isern, Núria, E-mail: [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti-Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); López-Luque, Héctor, E-mail: [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti-Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); López-Jiménez, Isabel, E-mail: [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti-Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biezma, Maria Victoria, E-mail: [Department of Earth, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Cantabria - UC, Gamazo, 1, 39004 Santander (Spain)


    The aim of this work is to find out the most suitable method for detecting and analyzing accurately the formation conditions of secondary phases, particularly Sigma-phase (σ-phase) and Chi-phase (χ-phase) in duplex stainless steels (UNS S32205 and UNS S32750). The microstructure was characterized after a solution annealing at 1080 °C followed by an isothermal heating at 830 °C for different time ranges, ranging from 1 min to 9 h, in order to enlighten the controversial point concerning the mechanism of χ-phase nucleation in relation with the σ-phase. Etched samples were observed using optical microscopy (MO), and scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with a backscattered electron detector (BSE) was used on unetched samples. Compositional microanalysis (EDS) was carried out for identifying the different phases present in the steels. Sigma phase was easily observed using different etching procedures, whereas χ-phase was only clearly detected with FESEM–BSE on unetched samples. The compositional analyses showed that the molybdenum content in χ-phase almost doubles the content of this element in σ-phase, and as a result the kinetics of nucleation and growth were also found to be remarkably faster when the alloy content in the steel is higher. In addition, chromium nitrides and carbides were also observed to precipitate as a result of the heat treatments and, in the case of the chromium nitrides, they act as a favorable site for the nucleation of σ-phase and χ-phase. - Highlights: • Microscopy was used on heat treated duplex steels for microstructure identification. • FESEM–BSE observation on unetched samples provided the best contrast between phases. • Analyses of carbides, nitrides, chi and sigma phases were possible by EDS and WDS. • Chromium nitrides act as favorable site for the nucleation of chi and sigma phases. • Secondary phases nucleation kinetics are faster in superduplex than in duplex steels.

  11. A community hospital's journey into Lean Six Sigma. (United States)

    Stuenkel, Kurt; Faulkner, Taunya


    The implementation of Lean Six Sigma and 100-day workouts throughout the 304-bed Floyd Medical Center community hospital organization has led to sustainable results and a marked change in culture. The organization-wide learning of such an effort is deep and intehse, and to remain focused and successful it must be a priority of top management. The workout methodology can assist the organization to carry projects to completion and to achieve rapid implementation of desired improvements.

  12. The innovative use of Six Sigma in home care. (United States)

    Elberfeld, Adrienne; Bennis, Sandra; Ritzius, Jeannie; Yhlen, David


    The Prospective Payment System had significant impact on home healthcare agencies throughout the nation. Virtua Home Care, located in Southern New Jersey, realized the need for process improvement in order to remain viable. Six Sigma was introduced to the agency and the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control processes were initiated to achieve sustainable results, and within 9 months, Virtua Home Care improved regulatory compliance, experienced a deficiency-free survey, and recognized a 1.2 million dollars financial gain.

  13. Isolation Amplifier Based On Sigma-Delta Modulation (United States)

    Harres, Daniel N.


    Improved isolation amplifier transmits dc or low-frequency analog signal by use of digital pulses. Relatively imprecise digital pulses convey analog signal with relatively high precision. Amplifier implements sigma-delta modulation scheme. Circuit used wherever conventional amplifier needed. Includes medical instrumentation, switching-type power supplies, and other applications in which input voltages must be measured in presence of large common-mode voltages.

  14. Electromagnetic axial anomaly in a generalized linear sigma model (United States)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata


    We construct the electromagnetic anomaly effective term for a generalized linear sigma model with two chiral nonets, one with a quark-antiquark structure, the other one with a four-quark content. We compute in the leading order of this framework the decays into two photons of six pseudoscalars: π0(137 ), π0(1300 ), η (547 ), η (958 ), η (1295 ) and η (1760 ). Our results agree well with the available experimental data.

  15. A Lean Six Sigma Analysis of Student In-Processing (United States)


    Rehabilitation Program SIPOC: Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers TOC: Theory of Constraints TQM : Total Quality Management VA: Value...has its origins in total quality management ( TQM ) and statistical process control (Maleyeff, 2007, p.9). Made famous by Motorola, the process is...20First%20Hour.pdf Arnheiter, E., & Maleyeff, J. (2005). The integration of lean management and Six Sigma. The TQM Magazine, 17(1), 5–18. Carretero, J

  16. 2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonezzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)


    In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.

  17. Obtaining {sigma}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} Width from Nucleon Polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Bernabeu, Jose [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Apt. de Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)


    We propose a new method that fixes the coupling to two photons of the recently found lightest QCD resonance, the {sigma}. This coupling provides crucial information for discriminating the yet unknown nature of this special state. Our method uses available data on the nucleon polarizabilities together with analyticity and unitarity. Taking into account all the uncertainties, our result is {gamma}{sub pole}=1.2{+-}0.4keV.

  18. Does the {sigma}(1580)((3)/(2)){sup -} resonance exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmsted, J.; Prakhov, S.; Manley, D.M.; Allgower, C.E.; Bekrenev, V.S.; Briscoe, W.J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J.R.; Craig, K.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Knecht, N.; Koetke, D.D.; Kozlenko, N.G.; Kruglov, S.; Kulbardis, A.A.; Lolos, G.; Lopatin, I.V.; Manweiler, R.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.C.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J.W.; Ramirez, A.F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H.M.; Strakovsky, I.I.; Supek, I.; Tippens, W.B


    Precise new data for the reaction K{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{lambda} are presented in the c.m. energy range 1565 to 1600 MeV. Our analysis of these data sheds new light on claims for the {sigma}(1580)((3)/(2)){sup -} resonance, which (if it exists with the specified quantum numbers) must be an exotic baryon because of its very low mass. Our results show no evidence for this state.

  19. Does the Sigma(1580)3/2- resonance exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Olmsted, J A; Manley, D M; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V S; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D P; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D D; Kozlenko, N G; Kruglov, S; Kulbardis, A A; Lolos, G J; Lopatin, I V; Manweiler, R; Marusic, A; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M K; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D C; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Ramírez, A F; Sadler, M E; Shafi, A; Spinka, H M; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A S; Staudenmaier, H M; Strakovsky, I I; Supek, I; Tippens, W B; Tippens, and W.B.


    Precise new data for the reaction $K^- p \\to \\pi^0 \\Lambda$ are presented in the c.m. energy range 1565 to 1600 MeV. Our analysis of these data sheds new light on claims for the $\\Sigma(1580){3/2}^-$ resonance, which (if it exists with the specified quantum numbers) must be an exotic baryon because of its very low mass. Our results are decisive and show no evidence for this state.

  20. A Signal-Interleaving Complex Bandpass Sigma-Delta Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Paul Emmanuel


    Complex or quadrature Sigma-Delta converters operate on complex signals, i.e. signals consisting of a real and an imaginary component, whereas conventional converters operate only on real signals. The advantage of complex signal processing in the discrete-time domain is that the entire sampling f...... than conventional converters, and a new signal-interleaving switched-capacitor architecture is derived for these complex converters.......Complex or quadrature Sigma-Delta converters operate on complex signals, i.e. signals consisting of a real and an imaginary component, whereas conventional converters operate only on real signals. The advantage of complex signal processing in the discrete-time domain is that the entire sampling...... frequency bandwidth - not just half of it - is available, and that network zeros and poles can be placed anywhere without having to appear in complex conjugate pairs. This paper demonstrates how these properties can be used to design complex bandpass Sigma-Delta converters with a better noise performance...

  1. Precision measurement of the {Sigma}{sup 0} hyperon mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.H.L.S.; Hartouni, E.P.; Kreisler, M.N. [and others


    The research that is described in this paper is part of a program to study strong interaction mechanisms in proton proton collisions. The program consists of two experiments: Brookhaven E766 in which we studied the reactions pp {yields} p+ all charged particles with 27.5 GeV/c incident protons and Fermilab E690 in which we studied the reactions pp {yields} p+ all charged particles with 800 GeV/c incident protons. In these experiments, we employed state-of-the-art data acquisition sys- tems and acquired large samples of data: at Brookhaven we amassed 300 million high multiplicity events and at Fermilab, 5.5 billion events. Our uncertainty in the {Sigma}{sup 0} mass is more than 7 times smaller than the best previous result and was based on 16 times the statistics. Likewise, the {Sigma}{sup 0} - {Lambda}{sup 0} mass difference is more than 14 times more accurate than the previous best result. Finally, we note that this measurement is the first direct measurement of the {Sigma}{sup 0} mass.

  2. Electron correlation in the 3 (1)Sigma(g)+ and 2 (1)Sigma(u)+ excited state lithium molecule. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Ugalde, Jesus M


    Electron correlation effects in the two excited states of Li(2), 3 (1)Sigma(g) (+) and 2 (1)Sigma(u) (+), one with a shelf shape and another with double minima in their potential energy curves, have been studied with the aid of the calculated electron pair density distribution as a function of the internuclear distance and the analysis of the natural orbitals. Both states show increased electron pair densities at intermediate interelectronic distances around the second minimum of their potential energy curves. Since the bond breaks homolitically this observation runs contrary to regular expectations. Analysis of the electron pair density distributions and the natural orbitals provides mechanisms to account for this abnormal behavior.

  3. Quasifree Lambda, Sigma^0, and Sigma^- electroproduction from 1,2H, 3,4He, and Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Dohrmann; A. Ahmidouch; C.S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D.S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; J. Crowder; S. Danagoulian; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; H. Fenker; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; K. Garrow; D.F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Hafidi; W. Hinton; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; Y. Liang; J.H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; P. Markowitz; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; S.K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; B.A. Raue; P.E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; R.E. Segel; A. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosyan; S. Tajima; L. Tang; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; L. Yuan; B. Zeidman; M. Zeier; B. Zihlmann


    Kaon electroproduction from light nuclei and hydrogen, using 1H, 2H, 3He, 4He, and Carbon targets has been measured at Jefferson Laboratory. The quasifree angular distributions of Lambda and Sigma hyperons were determined at Q^2= 0.35(GeV/c)^2 and W= 1.91GeV. Electroproduction on hydrogen was measured at the same kinematics for reference.

  4. Exploring the role of sigma factor gene expression on production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: sigma factor H and FMN as example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori eTaniguchi


    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to cope with environmental changes by using alternative sigma factors binding to RNA polymerase core enzyme. Sigma factor is one of the targets to modify transcription regulation in bacteria and to influence production capacities. In this study, the effect of overexpressing each annotated sigma factor gene in C. glutamicum WT was assayed using an IPTG inducible plasmid system and different IPTG concentrations. It was revealed that growth was severely decreased when sigD or sigH were overexpressed with IPTG concentrations higher than 50 μM. Overexpression of sigH led to an obvious phenotypic change, a yellow-colored supernatant. HPLC analysis revealed that riboflavin was excreted to the medium when sigH was overexpressed and DNA microarray analysis confirmed increased expression of riboflavin biosynthesis genes. In addition, genes for enzymes related to the pentose phosphate pathway and for enzymes dependent on FMN, FAD or NADPH as cofactor were upregulated when sigH was overexpressed. To test if sigH overexpression can be exploited for production of riboflavin-derived FMN or FAD, the endogenous gene for bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenyltransferase was co-expressed with sigH from a plasmid. Balanced expression of sigH and ribF improved accumulation of riboflavin (19.8 ± 0.3 μM and allowed for its conversion to FMN (33.1 ± 1.8 μM in the supernatant. While a proof-of-concept was reached, conversion was not complete and titers were not high. This study revealed that inducible and gradable overexpression of sigma factor genes is an interesting approach to switch gene expression profiles and to discover untapped potential of bacteria for chemical production.

  5. Sigma-1 Receptor Imaging in the Brain : Cerebral sigma-1 receptors and cognition: Small-animal PET studies using 11C-SA4503

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzhuppilly Ramakrishnan, Nisha


    The sigma-1 receptor is a unique orphan receptor, strongly expressed in neurons and glia. Sigma-1 receptors are involved in several central nervous system (CNS) disorders like depression, anxiety, psychosis, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, addiction and neuropathic pain.

  6. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.


    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  7. Vibrationally resolved photoionization of the 1{sigma}{sub g} and 1{sigma}{sub u} shells of N{sub 2} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, S K [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, 190000 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkov, N A [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, 190000 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsumoto, M [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fujiwara, K [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ueda, K [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kukk, E [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014, Turku (Finland); Tahara, F [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Sunami, T [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yoshida, H [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanaka, T [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Nakagawa, K [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kitajima, M [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Tanaka, H [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); De Fanis, A [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    Theoretical and experimental study of vibrationally resolved partial photoionization cross sections and angular asymmetry parameter {beta} for the 1{sigma}{sub g} and 1{sigma}{sub u} shells of N{sub 2} molecule in the region of the {sigma}* shape resonance is reported. The measurements were made at the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 in Japan. The calculations in the random phase approximation have been performed using the relaxed core Hartree-Fock wavefunctions with the fractional charge of the ion core equal to 0.7. With its help, the role of interchannel coupling between the closely spaced 1{sigma}{sub g} and 1{sigma}{sub u} shells was studied. The experiment demonstrates the existence of a correlational maximum in the 1{sigma}{sub u} shell photoionization cross section induced by the {sigma}* shape resonance in the 1{sigma}{sub g} shell. This maximum reveals itself even more clearly in the angular asymmetry parameter {beta} for the v' = 0 and v' = 1 vibrational states of the ion. The calculation in the random phase approximation gives a consistent interpretation of the experimental data.

  8. Identification of sigma factor SigmaB-controlled genes and their impact on acid stress, high hydrostatic pressure, and freeze survival in Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, H.H.; Wouters, J.A.; Leeuw, de P.P.L.A.; Hain, T.; Chakraborty, T.; Abee, T.


    The gene encoding the alternative sigma factor sigma(B) in Listeria monocytogenes is induced upon exposure of cells to several stresses. In this study, we investigated the impact of a sigB null mutation on the survival of L. monocytogenes EGD-e at low pH, during high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment,

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection. (United States)

    Limoli, Dominique H; Whitfield, Gregory B; Kitao, Tomoe; Ivey, Melissa L; Davis, Michael R; Grahl, Nora; Hogan, Deborah A; Rahme, Laurence G; Howell, P Lynne; O'Toole, George A; Goldberg, Joanna B


    While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa and/or S. aureus adopts phenotypes that allow coexistence during infection. We compared competitive interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates from mono- or coinfected CF patients employing in vitro coculture models. P. aeruginosa isolates from monoinfected patients were more competitive toward S. aureus than P. aeruginosa isolates from coinfected patients. We also observed that the least competitive P. aeruginosa isolates possessed a mucoid phenotype. Mucoidy occurs upon constitutive activation of the sigma factor AlgT/U, which regulates synthesis of the polysaccharide alginate and dozens of other secreted factors, including some previously described to kill S. aureus Here, we show that production of alginate in mucoid strains is sufficient to inhibit anti-S. aureus activity independent of activation of the AlgT regulon. Alginate reduces production of siderophores, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-N-oxide (HQNO), and rhamnolipids-each required for efficient killing of S. aureus These studies demonstrate alginate overproduction may be an important factor driving P. aeruginosa coinfection with S. aureusIMPORTANCE Numerous deep-sequencing studies have revealed the microbial communities present during respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are diverse, complex, and dynamic. We now face the challenge of determining

  10. Influenza A virus inhibits type I IFN signaling via NF-kappaB-dependent induction of SOCS-3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-K Pauli


    Full Text Available The type I interferon (IFN system is a first line of defense against viral infections. Viruses have developed various mechanisms to counteract this response. So far, the interferon antagonistic activity of influenza A viruses was mainly observed on the level of IFNbeta gene induction via action of the viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1. Here we present data indicating that influenza A viruses not only suppress IFNbeta gene induction but also inhibit type I IFN signaling through a mechanism involving induction of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3 protein. Our study was based on the observation that in cells that were infected with influenza A virus and subsequently stimulated with IFNalpha/beta, phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1 (STAT1 was strongly reduced. This impaired STAT1 activation was not due to the action of viral proteins but rather appeared to be induced by accumulation of viral 5' triphosphate RNA in the cell. SOCS proteins are potent endogenous inhibitors of Janus kinase (JAK/STAT signaling. Closer examination revealed that SOCS-3 but not SOCS-1 mRNA levels increase in an RNA- and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB-dependent but type I IFN-independent manner early in the viral replication cycle. This direct viral induction of SOCS-3 mRNA and protein expression appears to be relevant for suppression of the antiviral response since in SOCS-3 deficient cells a sustained phosphorylation of STAT1 correlated with elevated expression of type I IFN-dependent genes. As a consequence, progeny virus titers were reduced in SOCS-3 deficient cells or in cells were SOCS-3 expression was knocked-down by siRNA. These data provide the first evidence that influenza A viruses suppress type I IFN signaling on the level of JAK/STAT activation. The inhibitory effect is at least in part due to the induction of SOCS-3 gene expression, which results in an impaired antiviral response.

  11. The Escherichia coli regulator of sigma 70 protein, Rsd, can up-regulate some stress-dependent promoters by sequestering sigma 70. (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennie E; Oshima, Taku; Piper, Sarah E; Webster, Christine L; Westblade, Lars F; Karimova, Gouzel; Ladant, Daniel; Kolb, Annie; Hobman, Jon L; Busby, Stephen J W; Lee, David J


    The Escherichia coli Rsd protein forms complexes with the RNA polymerase sigma(70) factor, but its biological role is not understood. Transcriptome analysis shows that overexpression of Rsd causes increased expression from some promoters whose expression depends on the alternative sigma(38) factor, and this was confirmed by experiments with lac fusions at selected promoters. The LP18 substitution in Rsd increases the Rsd-dependent stimulation of these promoter-lac fusions. Analysis with a bacterial two-hybrid system shows that the LP18 substitution in Rsd increases its interaction with sigma(70). Our experiments support a model in which the role of Rsd is primarily to sequester sigma(70), thereby increasing the levels of RNA polymerase containing the alternative sigma(38) factor.

  12. Mammalian motoneuron axon targeting requires receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases sigma and delta. (United States)

    Uetani, Noriko; Chagnon, Mélanie J; Kennedy, Timothy E; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Tremblay, Michel L


    The leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), LAR, RPTP-sigma, and RPTP-delta, regulate neuroendocrine development, axonal regeneration, and hippocampal long-term potentiation in mammals. In Drosophila, RPTPs are required for appropriate axon targeting during embryonic development. In contrast, deletion of any one of the three LAR-RPTP family members in mammals does not result in gross axon targeting defects. Both RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta are highly expressed in the developing mammalian nervous system, suggesting they might be functionally redundant. To test this hypothesis, we generated RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta (RPTP-sigma/delta) double-mutant mice. Although embryonic day 18.5 RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta single-mutant embryos were viable, RPTP-sigma/delta double mutants were paralyzed, were never observed to draw a breath, and died shortly after cesarean section. RPTP-sigma/delta double mutants exhibit severe muscle dysgenesis and severe loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord. Detailed analysis of the projections of phrenic nerves in RPTP-sigma/delta double mutants indicated that these motoneuron axons emerge normally from the cervical spinal cord, but stall on reaching the diaphragm. Our results demonstrate that RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta complement each other functionally during mammalian development, and reveal an essential contribution of RPTP-sigma and RPTP-delta to appropriate motoneuron axon targeting during mammalian axonogenesis.

  13. The Evaluation of Analytical Performance of Immunoassay Tests by Using Six-Sigma Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nar Rukiye


    Full Text Available Background: The Six-Sigma Methodology is a quality measurement method in order to evaluate the performance of the laboratory. In the present study, it is aimed to evaluate the analytical performance of our laboratory by using the internal quality control data of immunoassay tests and by calculating process sigma values. Methods: Biological variation database (BVD are used for Total Allowable Error (TEa. Sigma values were determined from coefficient of variation (CV and bias resulting from Internal Quality Control (IQC results for 3 subsequent months. If the sigma values are ≥6, between 3 and 6, and 6 was found for TPSA and TSH for the both levels of IQC for 3 months. When the sigma values were analyzed by calculating the mean of 3 months, folate, LH, PRL, TPSA, TSH and vitamin B12 were found >6. The mean sigma values of CA125, CA15-3, CA19-9, CEA, cortisol, ferritin, FSH, FT3, PTH and testosteron were >3 for 3-months. However, AFP, CA125 and FT4 produced sigma values <3 for varied months. Conclusion: When the analytical performance was evaluated according to Six-Sigma levels, it was generally found as good. It is possible to determine the test with high error probability by evaluating the fine sigma levels and the tests that must be quarded by a stringent quality control regime. In clinical chemistry laboratories, an appropriate quality control scheduling should be done for each test by using Six-Sigma Methodology.

  14. Role of NF-κB-dependent signaling in the growth capacity of mesenchymal progenitor cells under the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor. (United States)

    Zyuz'kov, G N; Danilets, M G; Ligacheva, A A; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Chaikovskii, A V; Simanina, E V; Mova, E S Trofi; Minakova, M Yu; Losev, E A; Udut, V V; Dygai, A M


    We studied the in vitro role of NF-κB-dependent signaling in the growth capacity of mesenchymal progenitor cells upon stimulation by basic fibroblast growth factor. Proliferative activity of progenitor cells was suppressed by specifi c inhibitors of this transcription factor (NF-κB), oridonin and aurothiomalate. These inhibitors had no effect on differentiation of fibroblast CFU.



    G. Giacinti; Amatiste, S.; A. Tammaro; D. Sagrafoli; G. Giangolini; R. Rosati


    A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%). The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%). Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC) was recorded in 6 (60%) and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in 4 (40%) staphylococcal isolates. Raw m...

  16. Using Six Sigma to improve the film library. (United States)

    Benedetto, Anthony R; Dunnington, Joel S; Oxford-Zelenske, Deborah


    The film library of a film-based radiology department is a mission-critical component of the department that is frequently underappreciated and under-staffed. A poorly performing film library causes operational problems for not only the radiology department, but for the institution as a whole. Since Six Sigma techniques had proved successful in an earlier CT throughput improvement project, the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Division of Diagnostic Imaging decided to use Six Sigma techniques to dramatically improve the performance of its film library. Nine mini-project teams were formed to address the basic operating functions of the film library. The teams included film library employees, employees from other sections of radiology, employees from stakeholders outside of radiology, and radiologists and referring physicians, as appropriate to the team's mission. Each Six Sigma team developed a process map of the current process, reviewed or acquired baseline quantitative data to assess the current level of performance, and then modified the process map to incorporate their recommendations for improving the process. An overall project steering committee reviewed recommendations from each Six Sigma team to assure that all of the teams' efforts were coordinated and aligned with the overall project goals. The steering committee also provided advice on implementation strategies, particularly for changes that would have an immediate effect on stakeholders outside of the radiology department. After implementation of recommendations, quantitative data were collected again to determine if the changes were having the desired effect. Improvement in both quantitative metrics and in employee morale have been experienced. We continue to collect data as assurance that the improvements are being sustained over the long haul. Six Sigma techniques, which are as quantitatively-based as possible, are useful in a service-oriented organization, such as a film library. The

  17. Improving ED specimen TAT using Lean Six Sigma. (United States)

    Sanders, Janet H; Karr, Tedd


    Lean and Six Sigma are continuous improvement methodologies that have garnered international fame for improving manufacturing and service processes. Increasingly these methodologies are demonstrating their power to also improve healthcare processes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a case study for the application of Lean and Six Sigma tools in the reduction of turnaround time (TAT) for Emergency Department (ED) specimens. This application of the scientific methodologies uncovered opportunities to improve the entire ED to lab system for the specimens. This case study provides details on the completion of a Lean Six Sigma project in a 1,000 bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Six Sigma's Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control methodology is very similar to good medical practice: first, relevant information is obtained and assembled; second, a careful and thorough diagnosis is completed; third, a treatment is proposed and implemented; and fourth, checks are made to determine if the treatment was effective. Lean's primary goal is to do more with less work and waste. The Lean methodology was used to identify and eliminate waste through rapid implementation of change. The initial focus of this project was the reduction of turn-around-times for ED specimens. However, the results led to better processes for both the internal and external customers of this and other processes. The project results included: a 50 percent decrease in vials used for testing, a 50 percent decrease in unused or extra specimens, a 90 percent decrease in ED specimens without orders, a 30 percent decrease in complete blood count analysis (CBCA) Median TAT, a 50 percent decrease in CBCA TAT Variation, a 10 percent decrease in Troponin TAT Variation, a 18.2 percent decrease in URPN TAT Variation, and a 2-5 minute decrease in ED registered nurses rainbow draw time. This case study demonstrated how the quantitative power of Six Sigma and the speed of Lean worked in harmony to improve

  18. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li


    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  19. S. aureus colonization at ICU admission as a risk factor for developing S. aureus ICU pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paling, Fleur P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413968669; Wolkewitz, Martin; Bode, Lonneke G M; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33706864X; Ong, David S Y; Depuydt, Pieter; de Bus, Liesbet; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Bonten, Marc J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; Kluijtmans, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323262139

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and its association with S. aureus colonization at ICU admission. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of two cohort studies in critically ill patients. The primary

  20. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen


    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving patient satisfaction with pain management using Six Sigma tools. (United States)

    DuPree, Erin; Martin, Lisa; Anderson, Rebecca; Kathuria, Navneet; Reich, David; Porter, Carol; Chassin, Mark R


    Patient satisfaction as a direct and public measure of quality of care is changing the way hospitals address quality improvement. The feasibility of using the Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) methodology to improve patient satisfaction as it relates to pain management was evaluated. This project used the DMAIC methodology to improve patients' overall satisfaction with pain management on two inpatient units in an urban academic medical center. Pre- and postintervention patient surveys were conducted. The DMAIC methodology provided a data-driven structure to determine the optimal improvement strategies, as well as a long-term plan for maintaining any improvements. In addition, the Change Acceleration Process (CAP) was used throughout the project's various DMAIC stages to further the work of the team by creating a shared need to meet the objectives of the project. Overall satisfaction with pain management "excellent" ratings increased from 37% to 54%. Both units surpassed the goal of at least 50% of responses in the "excellent" category. Several key drivers of satisfaction with pain management were uncovered in the Analyze phase of the project, and each saw rating increases from the pre-intervention to postintervention surveys. Ongoing monitoring by the hospital inpatient satisfaction survey showed that the pain satisfaction score improved in subsequent quarters as compared with the pre-intervention period. The Six Sigma DMAIC methodology can be used successfully to improve patient satisfaction. The project led to measurable improvements in patient satisfaction with pain management, which have endured past the duration of the Six Sigma project. The Control phase of DMAIC allows the improvements to be incorporated into daily operations.

  2. [Improving inpatient pharmacoterapeutic process by Lean Six Sigma methodology]. (United States)

    Font Noguera, I; Fernández Megía, M J; Ferrer Riquelme, A J; Balasch I Parisi, S; Edo Solsona, M D; Poveda Andres, J L


    Lean Six Sigma methodology has been used to improve care processes, eliminate waste, reduce costs, and increase patient satisfaction. To analyse the results obtained with Lean Six Sigma methodology in the diagnosis and improvement of the inpatient pharmacotherapy process during structural and organisational changes in a tertiary hospital. 1.000 beds tertiary hospital. prospective observational study. The define, measure, analyse, improve and control (DMAIC), were deployed from March to September 2011. An Initial Project Charter was updated as results were obtained. 131 patients with treatments prescribed within 24h after admission and with 4 drugs. safety indicators (medication errors), and efficiency indicators (complaints and time delays). Proportion of patients with a medication error was reduced from 61.0% (25/41 patients) to 55.7% (39/70 patients) in four months. Percentage of errors (regarding the opportunities for error) decreased in the different phases of the process: Prescription: from 5.1% (19/372 opportunities) to 3.3% (19/572 opportunities); Preparation: from 2.7% (14/525 opportunities) to 1.3% (11/847 opportunities); and administration: from 4.9% (16/329 opportunities) to 3.0% (13/433 opportunities). Nursing complaints decreased from 10.0% (2119/21038 patients) to 5.7% (1779/31097 patients). The estimated economic impact was 76,800 euros saved. An improvement in the pharmacotherapeutic process and a positive economic impact was observed, as well as enhancing patient safety and efficiency of the organization. Standardisation and professional training are future Lean Six Sigma candidate projects. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of Production Quality by using Six Sigma Technique:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan Ali


    Full Text Available As a result of lack of conformity of the outer diameter of the filling piston of plastic syringe to the specifications set out in the design map and the increased demand for its  products from the Medical syringes factory – Babylon. The research conducts the necessary investigations and  analysis of the production process as most of the units rejected by fact that the outer diameter of the filling piston is smaller than the minimum specification and units returned to work  due to the fact that  the outer diameter larger than the upper limit of the specification.13The research aims firstly to examine the outer diameter of the filling piston through the use of the control chart of the variables represented by the average , and its impact on the production process capability because the increase in diameter specification leads to an increase in the pressure imposed on the lining of the cylinder, causing difficulty in piston movement and a decrease in diameter specification which leads to loose the process capability to prevent leakage of fluid, causing air to enter as well as to speed the movement of the piston, which negatively affects human life in both cases. Secondly, study the possibility of improving the production process capability by using advanced levels of the sigma.The results showed that the production process in the case of a disciplined and follows a normal distribution, the pointer of  the production process capability is equal to (0.55 and the factory works within the level of Sigma equal to (1.65. The proportion of a damaged product is (15.8 % and rework (0.99 %.In order to  reduce the proportion of damaged product, this paper introduces a quality plan depending on ( ±0.025 as tolerance limits instead of ( ±0.05 to increase sigma level by 202%.

  4. Some Practical Issues in the Application of Lean Six Sigma to Service Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Thong-Ngee


    Full Text Available Six Sigma as a quality improvement framework has gained considerable popularity in the past two decades. Its extension Lean Six Sigma has also been embraced by many organizations for improvement of quality and business competitiveness. One important factor for the popularity of Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma is their potential for improving service systems, in contrast to the conventional perceptions that only manufacturing systems can benefit from statistics-based methodologies. There are however a number of issues related to the nature of service systems that must be resolved before the full benefits of Lean Six Sigma can be realized. In this paper, these issues are discussed from a practical point of view from three angles: analytical, organizational, and personal. Awareness of the existence of such issues, if not the answers to all of them, is a pre-requisite to effective adoption of Lean Six Sigma tools.

  5. Sterile neutrinos: the necessity for a 5 sigma definitive clarification

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Pietropaolo, Francesco; Sala, Paola


    Several different experiments have hinted to the existence of "anomalies" in the neutrino sector, implying the possible presence of additional sterile neutrinos or of other options. A definitive experimental search, capable to clarify either in favour or against all these anomalies at the appropriate > 5 sigma level has been proposed by the ICARUS-NESSIE Collaboration. The technique is based on two innovative concepts, namely (1) a large mass Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) now in full operation at LNGS and (2) the search for spectral differences in two identical detectors at different distances along the (anti-)neutrino line(s).

  6. Applying Lean Six Sigma to improve medication management. (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Fetrick, Ann; Nguyen, Anh T


    A significant proportion of veterans use dual care or health care services within and outside the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). In this study conducted at a VHA medical center in the USA, the authors used Lean Six Sigma principles to develop recommendations to eliminate wasteful processes and implement a more efficient and effective process to manage medications for dual care veteran patients. The purpose of this study is to: assess compliance with the VHA's dual care policy; collect data and describe the current process for co-management of dual care veterans' medications; and draft recommendations to improve the current process for dual care medications co-management. Input was obtained from the VHA patient care team members to draw a process map to describe the current process for filling a non-VHA prescription at a VHA facility. Data were collected through surveys and direct observation to measure the current process and to develop recommendations to redesign and improve the process. A key bottleneck in the process that was identified was the receipt of the non-VHA medical record which resulted in delays in filling prescriptions. The recommendations of this project focus on the four domains of: documentation of dual care; veteran education; process redesign; and outreach to community providers. This case study describes the application of Lean Six Sigma principles in one urban Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) in the Mid-Western USA to solve a specific organizational quality problem. Therefore, the findings may not be generalizable to other organizations. The Lean Six Sigma general principles applied in this project to develop recommendations to improve medication management for dual care veterans are applicable to any process improvement or redesign project and has valuable lessons for other VAMCs seeking to improve care for their dual care veteran patients. The findings of this project will be of value to VA providers and policy makers and health

  7. A Design of Sigma-Delta ADC Using OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss. Niveditha Yadav M


    Full Text Available Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC, is widely used in portable electronic products. An operational transconductance amplifier (OTA is one of the most important components of ADC. This paper presents a new design of two stages OTA. The design incorporates Sleep insertion technique and leakage feedback current approach for improving design parameters such as gain, and power as compared to earlier work. The design is simulated in 0.18µm CMOS technology with supply voltage 1.8V.

  8. $\\sigma(600)$ and background in $\\pi\\pi$ scattering


    Kaloshin, A. E.; Persikov, V. M.; Vall, A. N.


    We suggest a simple analytical description of the S-wave isoscalar $\\pi\\pi$ amplitude, which corresponds to a joint dressing of the bare resonance and background contributions. The amplitude describes well the experimental data on the $\\delta^0_0$ phase shift in the energy region below 900 MeV and has two poles in the $Re s > 0$ half-plane. Besides the well-known pole of $\\sigma(600)$-meson with $Re s \\sim m_{\\pi}^2$, there exists a more distant pole with $Re s \\sim 0.6 GeV^2$. Our analysis i...

  9. Information metric on instanton moduli spaces in nonlinear sigma models. (United States)

    Yahikozawa, Shigeaki


    We study the information metric on instanton moduli spaces in two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models. In the CP1 model, the information metric on the moduli space of one instanton with the topological charge Q=k(k > or =1) is a three-dimensional hyperbolic metric, which corresponds to Euclidean anti-de Sitter space-time metric in three dimensions, and the overall scale factor of the information metric is 4k(2)/3; this means that the sectional curvature is -3/4k(2). We also calculate the information metric in the CP2 model.

  10. Use of the Six Sigma by the 500 Largent Companies in Portugal


    Mendes da Conceição, Ana Cristina; Martins Ferreira Major, Maria João


    The Six Sigma had its genesis in big industrial companies that have implemented it as a tool for reducing defects. The initial success encouraged its application in other areas and we see today successful implementation in other sectors such as services, and within their own organizations in other areas beyond production, setting; this has contributed to Six Sigma being recognized as a new management model. In order to determine the extent to which Six Sigma is present in Portuguese companies...

  11. Predissociation dynamics of N(2)O(+) at the A (2)Sigma(+) state: Three pathways to form NO(+)((1)Sigma(+)) revealed from ion velocity imaging. (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Liu, Shilin; Jiang, Bo; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming


    The predissociation dynamics of nitrous oxide ion (N(2)O(+)) at its first excited state A (2)Sigma(+) has been investigated with ion velocity imaging by probing the NO(+) fragments. The parent ion N(2)O(+), prepared at the ground state X (2)Pi(000) through (3+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of jet-cooled N(2)O molecules at 360.55 nm, was excited to different vibrational levels of the A (2)Sigma(+) state in a wavelength range of 280-320 nm, and then predissociated to form NO(+) and N fragments. The internal energy distribution of the NO(+) fragment was determined from its ion velocity images. With the help of potential energy surfaces (PESs) of N(2)O(+), three dissociation pathways have been proposed to interpret the three kinds of NO(+) fragments with different internal state distributions: (1) the A (2)Sigma(+) state couples to a dissociative 1 (4)Sigma(-) state via a bound 1 (4)Pi state to form the NO(+)+N((4)S) channel, where NO(+) fragment is rotationally hot; (2) the A (2)Sigma(+) state couples to dissociative states (2)Sigma(-)/(2)Delta via the 1 (4)Pi state to form the NO(+)+N((2)D) channel, where NO(+) fragment is also rotationally hot; (3) the A (2)Sigma(+) state couples to the high energy region of the ground state X (2)Pi and then dissociates to form the NO(+)+N((2)D) channel, where NO(+) is rotationally cold.

  12. Quality assurance and management in microelectronics companies: ISO 9000 versus Six Sigma (United States)

    Lupan, Razvan; Kobi, Abdessamad; Robledo, Christian; Bacivarov, Ioan; Bacivarov, Angelica


    A strategy for the implementation of the Six Sigma method as an improvement solution for the ISO 9000:2000 Quality Standard is proposed. Our approach is focused on integrating the DMAIC cycle of the Six Sigma method with the PDCA process approach, highly recommended by the standard ISO 9000:2000. The Six Sigma steps applied to each part of the PDCA cycle are presented in detail, giving some tools and training examples. Based on this analysis the authors conclude that applying Six Sigma philosophy to the Quality Standard implementation process is the best way to achieve the optimal results in quality progress and therefore in customers satisfaction.

  13. Formalin-induced pain is reduced in sigma(1) receptor knockout mice. (United States)

    Cendán, Cruz Miguel; Pujalte, José Miguel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Montoliu, Lluís; Baeyens, José M


    The role of sigma1 receptors in non-acute pain has not been explored. In this study we show that both phases of formalin-induced pain were reduced by approximately 55% in sigma1 receptor knockout mice in comparison to wild-type animals. These results suggest that the tonic pain induced by formalin is altered in mice lacking sigma1 receptors, and highlight the potential usefulness of further studies of the role of sigma1 receptors in models of non-acute pain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Ditahardiyani


    Full Text Available The implementation of Six Sigma has become a common theme in many organizations. This paper presents the Six Sigma methodology and its implementation in a primer packaging process of Cranberry drink. DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control approach is used to analyze and to improve the primer packaging process, which have high variability and defects output. After the improvement, the results showed that there was an increasing sigma level. However, it is not significantly and has not achieved the world standard quality, yet. Therefore, the implementation of Six Sigma in primer packaging process of Cranberry drink still has a room for doing a further research.

  15. Application of six sigma DMAIC methodology to reduce service resolution time in a service organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Narula


    Full Text Available The popularity of Six Sigma, as a means for improving quality, has grown exponentially in recent years. It is a proven methodology to achieve breakthrough improvement in process performance that generates significant savings to bottom line of an organization. This paper illustrates how Six Sigma methodology may be used to improve service processes. The purpose of this paper is to develop Six Sigma DMAIC methodologies that would help service organizations look into their processes. In addition, it demonstrates the vital linkages between process improvement and process variation. The study identifies critical process parameters and suggests a team structure for Six Sigma project in service operations.

  16. Six Sigma Quality Management System and Design of Risk-based Statistical Quality Control. (United States)

    Westgard, James O; Westgard, Sten A


    Six sigma concepts provide a quality management system (QMS) with many useful tools for managing quality in medical laboratories. This Six Sigma QMS is driven by the quality required for the intended use of a test. The most useful form for this quality requirement is the allowable total error. Calculation of a sigma-metric provides the best predictor of risk for an analytical examination process, as well as a design parameter for selecting the statistical quality control (SQC) procedure necessary to detect medically important errors. Simple point estimates of sigma at medical decision concentrations are sufficient for laboratory applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Under the knife: a national survey of six sigma programs in US healthcare organizations. (United States)

    Feng, Qianmei; Manuel, Chris M


    Medical and policy literature reports many six sigma applications at specific healthcare organizations. However, there is a lack of studies that investigate the broader status of six sigma in US healthcare systems. The purpose of this paper is to present the results from a national survey of six sigma programs in US healthcare organizations. Through the design, distribution, and analysis of a nationwide survey, this paper assesses the implementation of six sigma in healthcare facilities. Two sets of surveys were designed based on whether an organization has adopted six sigma or not. Findings from this paper indicate the common six sigma projects implemented in healthcare organizations, typical implementation durations, cost benefits, and major barriers in implementation, and so on. This paper is limited by the low-response rate owing to time and budget constraints. Through the dissemination of this paper, it is hoped that more organizations will become interested in this subject and participate in future studies. This work is the first study to investigate the implementation status of six sigma in US healthcare systems. It will share experiences amongst six sigma institutions and promote its application in many institutions. The findings will provide instructive information to six sigma practitioners and researchers, and particularly to health care management.

  18. An exploratory analysis for Lean and Six Sigma implementation in hospitals: Together is better? (United States)

    Lee, Jung Young; McFadden, Kathleen L; Gowen, Charles R


    Despite the increasing interest for Lean and Six Sigma implementations in hospitals, there has been little empirical evidence that goes beyond descriptive case studies to address the current status and the effectiveness of the implementations. The aim of this study was to explore existing patterns of Lean and Six Sigma implementation in U.S. hospitals and compare the performance of the different patterns. We collected data from 215 U.S. hospitals via a survey that includes measurement items developed from related literature. Using the cross-sectional data, we conducted a cluster analysis, followed by t tests, chi-square tests, and regression analyses for cluster verification. The cluster analysis identifies two clusters, a Moderate Six Sigma group and a Lean Six Sigma group. Results show that the Lean Six Sigma group outperforms the Moderate Six Sigma group across many performance dimensions: responsiveness capability, patient safety, and possibly cost saving. In addition, the Lean Six Sigma group tends to be composed of larger, private teaching hospitals located in more urban areas, and they employ more resources for quality improvement. Our research contributes to the quality management literature by supporting the possible complementary relationship between Lean and Six Sigma in hospitals. Our study encourages practitioners and managers to pay more attention to Lean implementation. Although Lean seems to be conducted in a limited fashion in many hospitals, it should be expanded and combined with Six Sigma for better results.

  19. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus


    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong


    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  20. Measurement of the polarization of $\\Lambda^{0}$, $\\overline{\\Lambda}^{0}$, $\\Sigma^{+}$ and $\\Xi^{-}$ produced in a $\\Sigma^{-}$ beam of 330 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Yu A; Barberis, D; Bérat, C; Beusch, Werner; Brenzinger, K H; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Brunengo, A; Buénerd, M; Charignon, F; Chauvin, J; Chudakov, E A; Dameri, M; Dropmann, F; Engelfried, J; Faller, F; French, Bernard R; Gerassimov, S G; Godbersen, M; Grafström, P; Hostachy, J Y; Hurst, R B; Kallakowsky, T; Kluth, S; Lauber, H M; Lennert, P; Ljungfelt, S; Martens, K; Martin, P; Michaels, R; Müller, U; Newsom, C R; Osculati, B; Paul, S; Povh, B; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Rieseberg, H; Röhrich, K; Rosner, G; Rossi, L; Rudolph, H; Scheel, C V; Schmitt, L; Siebert, Hans-Wolfgang; Simon, A; Trombini, A; Touillon, R; Volkemer, B; Walcher, T; Wälder, G; Wenzel, A; Zavertyaev, M V


    The polarization of Lambda0 , AntiLambda0 , Sigma+ and Xi- inclusively produced in Sigma- induced interactions at 330 GeV has been measured in the experiment WA89 at CERN. This is the first measurement of polarization of baryons produced by a hyperon beam. No polarization of AntiLambda is observed, as was also the case in proton beam data. At transverse momenta of about 1~GeV/c Lambda0 and Sigma+ show little polarization, significantly lower than in the proton beam data, while Xi- have a polarization comparable to the polarization of Lambda0 produced in proton beams.

  1. Ab initio studies of low-lying 3Sigma(-), 3Pi, and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. I - Potential curves and dipole moment functions (United States)

    Goldfield, Evelyn M.; Kirby, Kate P.


    Configuration interaction wave functions, potential energy curves, and dipole moment functions have been calculated for the four lowest 3Sigma(-) and the three lowest 3Pi states and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. The electronic wave functions were constructed to give a balanced description of valence-Rydberg interactions. Two repulsive states have been identified as important photodissociation pathways. Spectroscopic constants are presented for the bound states, and results are compared to other theoretical and experimental work. The possible predissociation of the A 3Pi state by the 1 5Sigma(-) state is discussed.

  2. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line (United States)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René


    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  3. High speed and wide bandwidth delta-sigma ADCs

    CERN Document Server

    Bolatkale, Muhammed; Makinwa, Kofi A A


    This book describes techniques for realizing wide bandwidth (125MHz) over-sampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in nanometer-CMOS processes.  The authors offer a clear and complete picture of system level challenges and practical design solutions in high-speed Delta-Sigma modulators.  Readers will be enabled to implement ADCs as continuous-time delta-sigma (CT∆Σ) modulators, offering simple resistive inputs, which do not require the use of power-hungry input buffers, as well as offering inherent anti-aliasing, which simplifies system integration. The authors focus on the design of high speed and wide-bandwidth ΔΣMs that make a step in bandwidth range which was previously only possible with Nyquist converters. More specifically, this book describes the stability, power efficiency, and linearity limits of ΔΣMs, aiming at a GHz sampling frequency.   • Provides overview of trends in Wide Bandwidth and High Dynamic Range analog-to-digital converters (ADCs); • Enables the design of a wide band...

  4. Semi-doubled sigma models for five-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tetsuji [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)


    We study two-dimensional N=(2,2) gauge theory and its dualized system in terms of complex (linear) superfields and their alternatives. Although this technique itself is not new, we can obtain a new model, the so-called “semi-doubled” GLSM. Similar to doubled sigma model, this involves both the original and dual degrees of freedom simultaneously, whilst the latter only contribute to the system via topological interactions. Applying this to the N=(4,4) GLSM for H-monopoles, i.e., smeared NS5-branes, we obtain its T-dualized systems in quite an easy way. As a bonus, we also obtain the semi-doubled GLSM for an exotic 5{sub 2}{sup 3}-brane whose background is locally nongeometric. In the low energy limit, we construct the semi-doubled NLSM which also generates the conventional string worldsheet sigma models. In the case of the NLSM for 5{sub 2}{sup 3}-brane, however, we find that the Dirac monopole equation does not make sense any more because the physical information is absorbed into the divergent part via the smearing procedure. This is nothing but the signal which indicates that the nongeometric feature emerges in the considering model.


    Ciulla, Thomas A; Tatikonda, Mohan V; ElMaraghi, Yehya A; Hussain, Rehan M; Hill, Amanda L; Clary, Julie M; Hattab, Eyas


    Ophthalmologists serve an increasing volume of a growing elderly population undergoing increasingly complex outpatient medical care, including extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. The resulting prolonged patient visit times ("patient flow times") limit quality, patient and employee satisfaction, and represent waste. Lean Six Sigma process improvement was used in a vitreoretinal practice to decrease patient flow time, demonstrating that this approach can yield significant improvement in health care. Process flow maps were created to determine the most common care pathways within clinic. Three months' visits from the electronic medical record system, which tracks patient task times at each process step in the office were collected. Care tasks and care pathways consuming the greatest time and variation were identified and modified. Follow-up analysis from 6 weeks' visits was conducted to assess improvement. Nearly all patients took one of five paths through the office. Patient flow was redesigned to reduce waiting room time by having staff members immediately start patients into one of those five paths; staffing was adjusted to address high demand tasks, and scheduling was optimized around derived predictors of patient flow times. Follow-up analysis revealed a statistically significant decline in mean patient flow time by 18% and inpatient flow time SD by 4.6%. Patient and employee satisfaction scores improved. Manufacturing industry techniques, such as Lean and Six Sigma, can be used to improve patient care, minimize waste, and enhance patient and staff satisfaction in outpatient clinics.

  6. Applying Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce cesarean section rate. (United States)

    Chai, Ze-Ying; Hu, Hua-Min; Ren, Xiu-Ling; Zeng, Bao-Jin; Zheng, Ling-Zhi; Qi, Feng


    This study aims to reduce cesarean section rate and increase rate of vaginal delivery. By using Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology, the cesarean section rate was investigated and analyzed through a 5-phase roadmap consisting of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The principal causes of cesarean section were identified, improvement measures were implemented, and the rate of cesarean section before and after intervention was compared. After patients with a valid medical reason for cesarean were excluded, the main causes of cesarean section were maternal request, labor pain, parturient women assessment, and labor observation. A series of measures was implemented, including an improved parturient women assessment system, strengthened pregnancy nutrition guidance, implementation of painless labor techniques, enhanced midwifery team building, and promotion of childbirth-assist skills. Ten months after introduction of the improvement measures, the cesarean section rate decreased from 41.83% to 32.00%, and the Six Sigma score (ie, Z value) increased from 1.706 to 1.967 (P < .001). LSS is an effective way to reduce the rate of cesarean section. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development of Six Sigma methodology for CNC milling process improvements (United States)

    Ismail, M. N.; Rose, A. N. M.; Mohammed, N. Z.; Rashid, M. F. F. Ab


    Quality and productivity have been identified as an important role in any organization, especially for manufacturing sectors to gain more profit that leads to success of a company. This paper reports a work improvement project in Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA Kuantan. It involves problem identification in production of “Khufi” product and proposing an effective framework to improve the current situation effectively. Based on the observation and data collection on the work in progress (WIP) product, the major problem has been identified related to function of the product which is the parts can’t assemble properly due to dimension of the product is out of specification. The six sigma has been used as a methodology to study and improve of the problems identified. Six Sigma is a highly statistical and data driven approach to solving complex business problems. It uses a methodical five phase approach define, measure, analysis, improve and control (DMAIC) to help understand the process and the variables that affect it so that can be optimized the processes. Finally, the root cause and solution for the production of “Khufi” problem has been identified and implemented then the result for this product was successfully followed the specification of fitting.

  8. Relative prevalence of methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our region, although methicillin resistance increased in S. aureus strains, because of the unavailability and the high cost of alternative antibiotics, gentamycin is still suggested as an alternative for treatment of S. aureus infections. These results however indicate that vancomycin seemed to be the only antimicrobial agent ...

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus have an important role in its dissemination. The colonization rates of S. aureus in anterior nose nares from 210 healthy volunteers (70 from the non-hospital adult personnel in the community, 68 from clinical students and 72 from healthcare workers “HCWs” in 6 hospitals) in the eastern ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  11. (allium sativum) on staphylococcus aureus conjunctivites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Bacterial conjunctivitis is common usually self-limiting. The most common causative organisms are staphylococcus epidermis and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Bacterial conjunctivitis is rarely sight threatening. However, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment at the primary level is important as it ...

  12. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it is the main bacterial organism responsible for diseases caused by exotoxin production and direct invasion with systemic dissemination. In poultry, S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, ...

  14. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. Methods: a cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 ...

  15. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)


    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects

  16. Nasal carriage of Meticillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  17. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 11 (Number 1). June, 2013. 51 ... Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many ..... enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight catering employees. Journal of Food. Protection, 11, 1487–1491. Hill JE ...

  18. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population. Clinical isolates of S. aureus strains were collected from Medical Microbiology Unit of University College Hospital, Ibadan between May and October, 2012. The isolates were confirmed through growth on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and tube coagulase test.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817716


    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O


    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P

  1. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Bröker


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacinti


    Full Text Available A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%. The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC was recorded in 6 (60% and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA in 4 (40% staphylococcal isolates. Raw milk products are vulnerable to contamination by S. aureus. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of S. aureus in bulk milk are of particular importance on farms where milk is used for raw milk products.

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi RNA Induces Type I and III Interferons via Toll-Like Receptor 7 and Contributes to Production of NF-κB-Dependent Cytokines


    Love, Andrea C.; Schwartz, Ira; Petzke, Mary M.


    Borrelia burgdorferi elicits a potent cytokine response through activation of multiple signaling receptors on innate immune cells. Spirochetal lipoproteins initiate expression of NF-κB-dependent cytokines primarily via TLR2, whereas type I interferon (IFN) production is induced through the endosomal receptors TLR7 and TLR9 in human dendritic cells and TLR8 in monocytes. We demonstrate that DNA and RNA are the B. burgdorferi components that initiate a type I IFN response by human peripheral bl...

  4. Characterization of Bax-sigma, a cell death-inducing isoform of Bax. (United States)

    Schmitt, E; Paquet, C; Beauchemin, M; Dever-Bertrand, J; Bertrand, R


    The Ced-9/Bcl-like family of genes codes for proteins that have antiapoptotic and proapoptotic activity. Several Bax isoproteins have been detected by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and a novel human member, designated as Bax-sigma, has been identified and cloned from human cancer promyelocytic cells. Bax-sigma contains BH-3, BH-1, and BH-2 domains, putative alpha-5 and alpha-6 helices, and the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain but lacks amino acids 159 to 171 compared to Bax-alpha. mRNA expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RNase protection assays have revealed that Bax-sigma is expressed in a variety of human cancer cell lines and normal tissues. To investigate the potential role of Bax-sigma in apoptosis, first its effects were compared to those of Bax-alpha by transient expression in human B lymphoma Namalwa cells. Both Bax-sigma and Bax-alpha promoted apoptosis, as detected by DNA fragmentation and morphological analysis by electron microscopy. The apoptosis induced by Bax-sigma and Bax-alpha was correlated with their expression, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. In a yeast two-hybrid system, Bax-sigma interacted with several Ced-9/Bcl family members but had no affinity for the human Egl-1 homologs Bik and Bad and the Ced-4 homolog Apaf-1. In human cells, Bax-sigma function was counteracted by Bcl-xL overexpression, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Bax-sigma was associated with Bcl-xL. Furthermore, Bax-sigma overexpression increased cell death induced by various concentrations of genotoxic agents with the most pronounced effect occurring at low camptothecin and vinblastine dose levels. Our results suggest that Bax-sigma, a novel variant of Bax, encodes a protein with a proapoptotic effect and mode of action similar to those of Bax-alpha. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. The role of alternative sigma factors of RNA polymerase in regulation of gene expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum


    Šilar, Radoslav


    Abstract Regulation of transcription by extracytoplasmic-function (ECF) sigma factors of RNA polymerase is an efficient way of cell adaptation to diverse environmental stresses. Amino acid-producing gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum codes for seven sigma factors: the primary sigma factor SigA, the primary-like sigma factor SigB and five ECF stress- responsive sigma factors (SigC, SigD, SigE, SigH and SigM). The sigH gene encoding SigH sigma factor is located in a gene cluster...

  6. Operon structure of Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    ten Broeke-Smits, Nicole J P; Pronk, Tessa E; Jongerius, Ilse; Bruning, Oskar; Wittink, Floyd R; Breit, Timo M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Fluit, Ad C; Boel, C H Edwin


    In bacteria, gene regulation is one of the fundamental characteristics of survival, colonization and pathogenesis. Operons play a key role in regulating expression of diverse genes involved in metabolism and virulence. However, operon structures in pathogenic bacteria have been determined only by in silico approaches that are dependent on factors such as intergenic distances and terminator/promoter sequences. Knowledge of operon structures is crucial to fully understand the pathophysiology of infections. Presently, transcriptome data obtained from growth curves in a defined medium were used to predict operons in Staphylococcus aureus. This unbiased approach and the use of five highly reproducible biological replicates resulted in 93.5% significantly regulated genes. These data, combined with Pearson's correlation coefficients of the transcriptional profiles, enabled us to accurately compile 93% of the genome in operon structures. A total of 1640 genes of different functional classes were identified in operons. Interestingly, we found several operons containing virulence genes and showed synergistic effects for two complement convertase inhibitors transcribed in one operon. This is the first experimental approach to fully identify operon structures in S. aureus. It forms the basis for further in vitro regulation studies that will profoundly advance the understanding of bacterial pathophysiology in vivo.

  7. Non destructive method to follow the phase sigma in a duplex stainless steel; Metodologia nao destrutiva para acompanhamento da fase sigma, em um aco inoxidavel duplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.M.; Andrade, A.L.S. Souza; Fialho, W.M.L.; Araujo, B.R., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia da Paraiba (IFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, J.H.R.; Leite, Josinaldo P.; Silva, Eloy M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara (IFCE), CE (Brazil); Leite, Joao P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)


    Duplex stainless steels are subject to embrittlement due to the formation of sigma phase, which is one with the greatest effect of weakening because they are rich in chromium and deplete the matrix of this element. In this paper, a non-destructive methodology based on measurements of Hall voltage, is presented for monitoring the formation of sigma phase at temperatures of 800 deg C and 900 deg C. Different field intensities are generated by an electromagnet and the flow of field lines is detected by a Hall effect sensor. Hall voltage measurements are proportional to the formation of sigma phase generated by different times of aging methods. The results are correlated with results of microscopic, hardness and X-ray diffraction. It was showed that exist a correlation between the Hall voltage and the amount of sigma phase. The formation of this phase influences the signal voltage by reducing the voltage. (author)

  8. Cyclohexylpiperazine derivative PB28, a sigma2 agonist and sigma1 antagonist receptor, inhibits cell growth, modulates P-glycoprotein, and synergizes with anthracyclines in breast cancer. (United States)

    Azzariti, Amalia; Colabufo, Nicola A; Berardi, Francesco; Porcelli, Letizia; Niso, Mauro; Simone, Grazia M; Perrone, Roberto; Paradiso, Angelo


    sigma Ligands have recently been shown to have cytotoxic activity, to induce ceramide-dependent/caspase-independent apoptosis, and to down-regulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA levels in some mouse and human models. In this study, we verified whether a mixed sigma(2) agonist/sigma(1) antagonist, PB28, was able to have antitumor activity and to enhance anthracycline efficacy in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MCF7 ADR, both characterized by significant sigma(2) receptor expression, by high and low sigma(1) receptor expression, and low and high P-gp expression, respectively. In both cell lines, PB28 showed high sigma(2) receptor affinity and low sigma(1) receptor affinity; furthermore, it inhibited cell growth with a clear effect at 48 hours (IC(50) in nanomolar range), a consistent time exposure-independent increase of G(0)-G(1)-phase fraction (of approximately 20% of both cell lines) and caspase-independent apoptosis (15% increased after 1-day drug exposure). PB28 also reduced P-gp expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner ( approximately 60% in MCF7 and 90% in MCF7 ADR). We showed also a strong synergism between PB28 and doxorubicin by adopting either simultaneous or sequential schedules of the two drugs. We suggest that this synergism could depend on PB28-induced increase of intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin ( approximately 50% in MCF7 and 75% in MCF7 ADR by flow cytometry analysis). In conclusion, we suggest that the sigma(2) agonist PB28 could be an interesting antitumor agent either in monotherapy or in combination with conventional drugs.

  9. Lean Six Sigma in Healthcare: Combating the Military’s Escalating Pharmacy Costs (United States)


    SYSTEM CMOP CONSOLIDATED MAIL ORDER PHARMACY CTQ CRITICAL TO QUALITY DLA DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY DLI DEFENSE LANGUAGE INSTITUTE DMAIC DEFINE...standard improvement procedure in Six Sigma is DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control). DMAIC is a structured, disciplined, rigorous...and techniques prescribed in the DMAIC methodology (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) of Lean Six Sigma. To better understand the

  10. Activation of sigma-1 receptor chaperone in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and its clinical implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER protein sigma-1 receptor represents unique chaperone activity in the central nervous system, and it exerts a potent influence on a number of neurotransmitter systems. Several lines of evidence suggest that activation of sigma-1 receptor plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as in the mechanisms of some therapeutic drugs and neurosteroids. Preclinical studies showed that some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, excitalopram, donepezil, and ifenprodil act as sigma-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, sigma-1 receptor agonists could improve the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP-induced cognitive deficits in mice. A study using positron emission tomography have demonstrated that an oral administration of fluvoxamine or donepezil could bind to sigma-1 receptor in the healthy human brain, suggesting that sigma-1 receptor might be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of these drugs. Moreover, case reports suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists, including fluvoxamine, and ifenprodil, may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, delirium in elderly people, and flashbacks in post-traumatic stress disorder. In this review article, the author would like to discuss the clinical implication of sigma-1 receptor agonists, including endogenous neurosteroids, in the neuropsychiatric diseases.

  11. Observation of the decay psi -> Lambda(Sigma)over-bar(+/-) pi(-/+) + c.c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Fuks, O.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X. T.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Johansson, T.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kloss, B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, H. L.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, G. G.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. B.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.


    Using a sample of 1:06 X 10(8) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, we present the first observation of the decays of psi(3686) -> Lambda(Sigma) over bar (+) pi(-) + c.c. and psi(3686) -> Lambda(Sigma) over bar (-) pi(+) + c.c. The branching fractions are measured to be B(psi(3686)

  12. Tripod sigma: results of a pro-active work stress-survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, R.; Wiezer, N.; Vaas, F.; Gort, J.; Groeneweg, J.


    Work related stress is an important causes of disability and absenteeism. TNO Work and Employment has developed an instrument, called Tripod Sigma, that identifies risks to work stress and provides tools for remedying these risks. The Tripod Sigma model is developed analogous to the Tripod

  13. Differential modulation by cations of sigma and phencyclidine binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S.; Zhou, G.Z.; Katki, A.G.; Rodbard, D. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    The present investigation attempted to differentiate haloperidol-sensitive sigma sites (sigma H) from phencyclidine (PCP) binding sites in rat brain membranes. We studied the effects of several cations at physiologically relevant concentrations on the binding of radioligands selective for sigma H sites ((3H)haloperidol, (3H)(+)3-PPP**), and (3H)(+)SKF10,047, or for PCP sites ((3H)PCP and (3H)TCP). The PCP sites displayed a markedly greater sensitivity to cations than sigma H sites. This property was reflected by a greater extent of inhibition of the binding of PCP-selective relative to sigma H-selective ligands at a given cation concentration, as well as by lower IC50's and by steeper slopes of the cation dose-response curves. Divalent cations were approximately 100 times more potent than monovalent cations. All cations were inhibitory, except Sr2+ and Ba2+ which, at micromolar concentrations, enhanced PCP binding but not sigma H binding. Thus, PCP-selective sites appeared to be distinct from sigma H sites with regards to several aspects of cation modulation. This is consistent with the view that PCP and sigma H sites are distinct molecular entities. Further, the marked cation sensitivity of the PCP site is consistent with the current hypothesis according to which the PCP site is linked to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-cation channel complex.

  14. Improved stability and performance from sigma-delta modulators using 1-bit vector quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars


    A novel class of sigma-delta modulators is presented. The usual scalar 1-b quantizer in a sigma-delta modulator is replaced by a 1-b vector quantizer with a N-dimensional input state-vector from the linear feedback filter. Generally, the vector quantizer changes the nonlinear dynamics...

  15. Maturational Patterns of Sigma Frequency Power Across Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Campbell, Ian G; Feinberg, Irwin


    To further evaluate adolescent brain maturation by determining the longitudinal trajectories of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sigma (11-15 Hz) power across childhood-adolescence. The maturational trend for sigma (11-15 Hz) power was evaluated in an accelerated longitudinal study of three overlapping age cohorts (n = 92) covering ages 6 to 18 y. Semiannually, sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from participants sleeping at home in their normal sleep environment while keeping their current school night schedules. Sigma frequencies became faster with age. The frequency of the 11-15 Hz spectral peak increased linearly. Sigma frequency power (SFP) declined with age, but its trajectory was complex (cubic). Power in a group of low sigma subfrequencies declined with age. Power in a group of high sigma frequencies increased with age. Power in subfrequencies within 11-15 Hz also showed different trends across the night, with lower frequencies increasing across NREM periods and higher frequencies decreasing across NREM periods. The upper and lower boundaries for the sigma frequencies that changed across NREMPs shifted upward with age. We hypothesize that these maturational brain changes result from synaptic elimination which decreases sleep depth and streamlines circuits. SFP displays a maturational trajectory different from both delta and theta power. Theories on the function of sigma must be reconciled with its maturational trajectory. These findings further demonstrate the value of sleep EEG for studying noninvasively the complex developmental brain changes of adolescence. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Multibit oversampled Sigma-Delta A/D convertor with nonuniform quantisation (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Temes, G. C.


    Nonuniformly quantized multibit oversampled Sigma-Delta A/D convertors are proposed which achieve high SNR over a wide dynamic range. Simulation results are presented for first- and second-order 4 bit Sigma-Delta A/D convertors with companding internal quantizers.

  17. A 3rd Order Low Power Switched Current Sigma-Delta Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Herald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur


    This paper presents a 3rd order switched current Sigma-Delta modulator. The Sigma-Delta modulator operates at a sampling rate of 600kHz and the signal band is 5.5kHz, i.e. an oversampling factor of 54.5 is used. Multiple input signals are used to reduce the internal signal swings which results...

  18. Bandpass Delta Sigma A/D convertor using two-path multibit structure (United States)

    Zhang, Z. X.; Temes, G. C.; Czarnul, Z.


    The concept of an N-path bandpass Delta Sigma A/D convertor is introduced. A multibit sixth-order SC implementation is described. The new scheme appears to be very effective for the realization of the narrowband bandpass delta-sigma modulators needed for communication applications.

  19. Altered Sigma-1 Receptor Expression in Two Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzhuppilly Ramakrishnan, Nisha; Marosi, Krisztina; Nyakas, Csaba J.; Kwizera, Chantal; Elsinga, Philip H.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Luiten, Paul G M; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van Waarde, Aren

    PURPOSE: Sigma-1 receptors are involved in learning and memory processes. We assessed sigma-1 receptor expression and memory function in two animal models of cognitive impairment. PROCEDURES: Male Wistar-Hannover rats were either lesioned by unilateral injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in the

  20. The Treatment of Six Sigma in Introductory Operations Management Textbooks: Clearing Up the Confusion (United States)

    Ravinder, Handanhal; Misra, Ram B.


    This paper critically examines the treatment of the statistical basis for Six Sigma and process capability in popular operations management textbooks. It discusses areas of confusion and suggest ways of treating the topic that make sense to instructors as well as students. Even though Six Sigma was introduced almost 30 years ago, misconceptions…

  1. Improving Self Service the Six Sigma Way at Newcastle University Library (United States)

    Kumi, Susan; Morrow, John


    Purpose: To report on the collaborative project between Newcastle University Library and 3M which aimed to increase self-issue levels using six sigma methodology. Design/methodology/approach: The six-month long project is outlined and gives an insight into the process improvement methodology called six sigma. An explanation of why we ran the…

  2. Using Six Sigma for Performance Improvement in Business Curriculum: A Case Study (United States)

    Kukreja, Anil; Ricks, Joe M., Jr.; Meyer, Jean A.


    During the last few decades, a number of quality improvement methodologies have been used by organizations. This article provides a brief review of the quality improvement literature related to academia and a case study using Six Sigma methodology to analyze students' performance in a standardized examination. We found Six Sigma to be an effective…

  3. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation (United States)

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young


    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  4. Facilitating Teamwork with Lean Six Sigma and Web-Based Technology (United States)

    Krause, Tim


    In this article, the author outlines a variety of ways of defining, making explicit, and supporting effective team-based projects through the basic tenets of Lean Six Sigma and the use of Web-based technologies. A combination of Lean Six Sigma and a handful of project management technologies not only help in fostering the communication central to…

  5. IBIS UvA: research and consultancy in Lean Six Sigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.


    Lean Six Sigma is an advanced process improvement methodology. Initially, Six Sigma focused on the reduction of the number of defects in manufacturing. It was introduced at Motorola in 1986, and it incorporates previous methodologies, such as Statistical Process Control, Total Quality Management,

  6. Applying lean Six Sigma to reduce linen loss in an acute care hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying lean Six Sigma to reduce linen loss in an acute care hospital. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... This paper describes a case study in an acute care hospital that formed a cross-functional team to apply the Lean Six Sigma problem solving methodology and tools to improve the linen ...

  7. Interaction of the chlorine atom with water: ESR and ab initio MO evidence for three-electron ({sigma}{sup 2}{sigma}{sup *1}) bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Summerfield, S.; Eliezer, I.; Rak, J. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Symons, M.C.R. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom)


    The specific interaction of chlorine atoms with water has been investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and molecular orbital theory. Chlorine atoms are formed by attack of hydroxyl radicals on chloride ions in frozen aqueous solutions at low temperatures. A variety of frozen aqueous systems were irradiated at 77 K and investigated by ESR spectroscopy, and results obtained suggest a localized three-electron bond ({sigma}{sup 2}{sigma}{sup *1}) between {sup .}Cl and H{sub 2}O or less likely with OH{sup -}. Chlorine atom interactions with both species were investigated by both ab initio and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations. A series of isolated chlorine-water radical species consisting of hydrated chlorine atoms as well as chloride anions with hydroxyl radicals were considered. Best agreement with experiment is found for chlorine atom-water interactions, H{sub 2}O-Cl(H{sub 2}O){sub n}. Full optimization of {sup .}OH-Cl{sup -} aquated systems shows that energetic ion dipole forces overcome weaker {sigma}{sigma}{sup *} interactions and result in full spin localization on the hydroxyl radical. Poor agreement with experiment is found even when the Cl{sup .}OH{sup -} structure is held in position to promote {sigma}{sigma}{sup *} bonding. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p + C --> [Y$^{0}$K$^{+}$] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) --> $\\Sigma$(1385)$^{0}$K$^{+}$ and X(2000) --> $\\Sigma^{0}$K$^{+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Golovkin, S V; Kozhevnikov, A A; Kubarovskii, V P; Kulyavtsev, A I; Kurshetsov, V F; Kushnirenko, A Yu; Landsberg, G L; Molchanov, V V; Mukkin, V A; Solyanik, V I; Vavilov, D V; Victorov, V A; Balats, M Ya; Dzubenko, G B; Kamenskii, A D; Kliger, G K; Kolganov, V Z; Lakaev, V S; Lomkatsi, G S; Nilov, A P; Smolyankin, V T; Vishniakov, V V


    Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p + C --> [Y$^{0}$K$^{+}$] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) --> $\\Sigma$(1385)$^{0}$K$^{+}$ and X(2000) --> $\\Sigma^{0}$K$^{+}$


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tolga Taner


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how a tertiary care center in Turkey operating mainly in cardiology initiated Six Sigma principles to reduce the number of complications occuring during coronary stent insertion process. A Six Sigma’s Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC model for coronary stent insertion is suggested. Data were collected for 24-months. Twenty-two Critical-to-Quality (CTQ factors were identified for successful coronary stent insertion. The most frequent causes of complications in the process were found to be patients with previous bypass surgery or PCI, inexperience of staff members, highly damaged vessel structure, thin and/or long vessel diameter, inappropriate selection of stent type, inappropriate selection of balloon type and poor image quality.

  10. Nanometer CMOS Sigma-Delta Modulators for Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, Alonso; Rosa, José M


    This book presents innovative solutions for the implementation of Sigma-Delta Modulation (SDM) based Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), required for the next generation of wireless hand-held terminals. These devices will be based on the so-called multistandard transceiver chipsets, integrated in nanometer CMOS technologies. One of the most challenging and critical parts in such transceivers is the analog-digital interface, because of the assorted signal bandwidths and dynamic ranges that can be required to handle the A/D conversion for several operation modes.   This book describes new adaptive and reconfigurable SDM ADC topologies, circuit strategies and synthesis methods, specially suited for multi-standard wireless telecom systems and future Software-defined-radios (SDRs) integrated in nanoscale CMOS. It is a practical book, going from basic concepts to the frontiers of SDM architectures and circuit implementations, which are explained in a didactical and systematic way. It gives a comprehensive overview...

  11. Interference Resilient Sigma Delta-Based Pulse Oximeter. (United States)

    Shokouhian, Mohsen; Morling, Richard; Kale, Izzet


    Ambient light and optical interference can severely affect the performance of pulse oximeters. The deployment of a robust modulation technique to drive the pulse oximeter LEDs can reduce these unwanted effects and increases the resilient of the pulse oximeter against artificial ambient light. The time division modulation technique used in conventional pulse oximeters can not remove the effect of modulated light coming from surrounding environment and this may cause huge measurement error in pulse oximeter readings. This paper presents a novel cross-coupled sigma delta modulator which ensures that measurement accuracy will be more robust in comparison with conventional fixed-frequency oximeter modulation technique especially in the presence of pulsed artificial ambient light. Moreover, this novel modulator gives an extra control over the pulse oximeter power consumption leading to improved power management.

  12. Low-voltage switched-current delta-sigma modulator (United States)

    Tan, Nianxiong; Eriksson, Sven


    This paper presents the design of a fully differential switched-current delta-sigma modulator using a single 3.3-V power-supply voltage. At system level, we tailor the modulator structure considering the similarity and difference of switched-capacitor and switched-current realizations. At circuit level, we propose a new switched-current memory cell and integrator with improved common mode feedback, without which low power-supply-voltage operation would not be possible. The whole modulator was implemented in a 0.8- micron double-metal digital CMOS process. It occupies an active area of 0.53 x 0.48 mm(sup 2) and consumes a current of 0.6 mA from a single 3.3-V power supply. The measured dynamic range is over 10 b.

  13. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Cesar [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson,Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)


    We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to a worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

  14. Sigma-1 Receptors Fine-Tune the Neuronal Networks. (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yi Anne; Su, Tsung-Ping


    The endoplasmic reticular (ER) protein sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been implicated in CNS disorders including but not limited to neurodegenerative diseases, depression , amnesia, and substance abuse. Sig-1Rs are particularly enriched in the specific domain where ER membranes make contacts with the mitochondria (MAM). Within that specific domain, Sig-1Rs play significant roles governing calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species homeostasis to maintain proper neuronal functions. Studies showed that the Sig-1R is pivotal to regulate neuroplasticity and neural survival via multiple aspects of mechanism. Numerous reports have been focusing on Sig-1R's regulatory effects in ER stress, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and protein chaperoning. In this book chapter, we will discuss the emerging role of Sig-1R in balancing the populations of neuron and glia and their implications in CNS diseases.

  15. Six Sigma: Problems, Limitations, Critical Success Factors and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mazieiro Pohlmann


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a business strategy based on objective decision making and problem solving in order to achieve, maintain and maximize business success through understanding and meeting the needs of customers. The visualization of this methodology as a powerful tool in reducing variability and improving quality led to the interest in performing this bibliographical study, whose purpose was to assess the critical success factors and future prospects of this managerial system. A survey was conducted in order to discover the main critical success factors of the implementation of the methodology in organizations, among which stood out the proper selection of projects, connecting the project with the business strategy, customer focus, financial, human and infrastructure resources, the involvement of senior management, professional training, and cultural change.

  16. The sigma-1 receptor: roles in neuronal plasticity and disease. (United States)

    Kourrich, Saïd; Su, Tsung-Ping; Fujimoto, Michiko; Bonci, Antonello


    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) have been implicated in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. Sig-1Rs are intracellular chaperones that reside specifically at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion interface, referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). Here, Sig-1Rs regulate ER-mitochondrion Ca(2+) signaling. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Sig-1R functions. Based on this, we suggest that the key cellular mechanisms linking Sig-1Rs to neurological disorders involve the translocation of Sig-1Rs from the MAM to other parts of the cell, whereby Sig-1Rs bind and modulate the activities of various ion channels, receptors, or kinases. Thus, Sig-1Rs and their associated ligands may represent new avenues for treating aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.

  18. Study of {Sigma}(1385) and {Xi}(1321) hyperon and antihyperon production in deep inelastic muon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Schmidt, A. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Alekseev, M.G.; Birsa, R.; Bravar, A.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Gobbo, B.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F. [Trieste Section of INFN, Trieste (Italy); Alexakhin, V.Y.; Alexeev, G.D.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Y.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Rodionov, V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, I.A.; Shevchenko, O.Y.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Bertini, R.; Chiosso, M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Parsamyan, B.; Piragino, G.; Sosio, S. [University of Turin, Department of Physics (Italy); Torino Section of INFN, Turin (Italy); Austregesilo, A.; Bicker, K. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Badelek, B. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Barth, J.; Bieling, J.; Goertz, S.; Klein, F.; Panknin, R.; Pretz, J.; Windmolders, R. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Baum, G. [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Bielefeld (Germany); Bedfer, Y.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ferrero, A.; Hose, N. d' ; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Morreale, A.; Neyret, D.; Platchkov, S.; Thibaud, F.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Wollny, H. [CEA IRFU/SPhN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berlin, A.; Gautheron, F.; Hess, C.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Wang, L. [Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Bernhard, J.; Harrach, D. von; Jasinski, P.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ostrick, M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P.D.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Schmiden, H. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Bordalo, P.; Franco, C.; Nunes, A.S.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Silva, L.; Stolarski, M. [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Duic, V.; Elia, C.; Giorgi, M.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P. [University of Trieste, Department of Physics (Italy); Trieste Section of INFN, Trieste (Italy); Buechele, M.; Fischer, H.; Guthoerl, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Koenigsmann, K.; Nerling, F.; Nowak, W.D.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schopferer, S.; Sirtl, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Chung, S.U.; Friedrich, J.M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grube, B.; Haas, F.; Hoeppner, C.; Huber, S.; Ketzer, B.; Kraemer, M.; Mann, A.; Nagel, T.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Uhl, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Trieste Section of INFN, Trieste (Italy); Dasgupta, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, L. [Matrivani Institute of Experimental Research and Education, Calcutta (India); Denisov, O.Y.; Maggiora, A.; Takekawa, S. [Torino Section of INFN, Turin (Italy); Donskov, S.V.; Filin, A.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Y.A.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Lednev, A.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Doshita, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.; Matsuda, H.; Michigami, T.; Miyachi, Y.; Suzuki, H. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Duennweber, W.; Faessler, M.; Geyer, R.; Schlueter, T.; Uman, I. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dziewiecki, M.; Kurjata, R.P.; Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Novy, J. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Du Fresne von Hohenesche, N. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Frolov, V.; Mallot, G.K.; Rocco, E.; Schoenning, K.; Schott, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerassimov, S.; Konorov, I. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Horikawa, N. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Jary, V.; Virius, M. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Sulej, R.; Sznajder, P.; Wislicki, W. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Kouznetsov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); CEA IRFU/SPhN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lichtenstadt, J. [Tel Aviv University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Makke, N. [CEA IRFU/SPhN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); University of Trieste, Department of Physics (IT); Trieste Section of INFN, Trieste (IT); Matsuda, T. [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (JP); Panzieri, D. [University of Eastern Piedmont, Alessandria (IT); Polak, J. [Technical University in Liberec, Liberec (CZ); University of Trieste, Department of Physics (IT); Trieste Section of INFN, Trieste (IT); Srnka, A. [AS CR, Institute of Scientific Instruments, Brno (CZ); Sulc, M. [Technical University in Liberec, Liberec (CZ); Zavertyaev, M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)


    Large samples of {Lambda}, {Sigma}(1385) and {Xi}(1321) hyperons produced in the deep-inelastic muon scattering off a {sup 6}LiD target were collected with the COMPASS experimental setup at CERN. The relative yields of {Sigma}(1385){sup +}, {Sigma}(1385){sup -}, anti {Sigma}(1385){sup -}, anti {Sigma}(1385){sup +}, {Xi}(1321){sup -}, and anti {Xi}(1321){sup +} hyperons decaying into {Lambda}(anti {Lambda}){pi} were measured. The ratios of heavy-hyperon to {Lambda} and heavy-antihyperon to anti {Lambda} were found to be in the range 3.8 % to 5.6 % with a relative uncertainty of about 10 %. They were used to tune the parameters relevant for strange particle production of the LEPTO Monte Carlo generator. (orig.)

  19. Electromagnetic Decay of the $\\Sigma^{0}(1385)$ to $\\Lambda\\gamma$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Dustin; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moscov; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, J P; Ball, Jacques; Battaglieri, Marco; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bennett, Robert; Biselli, Angela; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, Wilbert; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Crede, Volker; D& #x27; Angelo, Annalisa; Daniel, AJI; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Dey, Biplap; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; Egiyan, Hovanes; El Alaoui, Ahmed; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Forest, Tony; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Gohn, Wesley; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Guidal, Michel; Guegan, Baptiste; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Khetarpal, Puneet; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Konczykowski, Piotr; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; McAndrew, Josephine; KcKinnon, Bryan; Meyer, Curtis; Micherdzinska, Anna; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrison, Brian; Moutarde, Herve; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Ni, Andrey; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, Kijun; Park, Sungkyun; Pasyuk, Eugene; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Pereira, Sergio; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Seraydaryan, Heghine; Sharabian, Youri; Smith, Elton; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Taylor, Charles; Vernarsky, Brian; Vineyard, Michael; Voutier, Eric; Weinstein, Lawrence; Watts, Daniel; Wood, Michael; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhao, Bo


    The electromagnetic decay $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda \\gamma$ was studied using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A real photon beam with a maximum energy of 3.8 GeV was incident on a proton target, producing an exclusive final state of $K^+\\Sigma^{*0}$. We report the decay widths ratio $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda\\gamma$/ $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda\\pi^0$ = $1.42 \\pm 0.12(\\text{stat})_{-0.07}^{+0.11}(\\text{sys})$%. This ratio is larger than most theoretical predictions by factors ranging from 1.5-3, but is consistent with the only other experimental measurement. From the reported ratio we calculate the partial width and electromagnetic transition magnetic moment for $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda\\gamma$.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayah Amar


    Full Text Available This paper attempt to analyze frameworks related to Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma. The basis of analysis the frameworks is the diffusion of innovation theory. Several criteria was used to analyze the frameworks e.g. relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, communication channels, nature of the social system/culture and extent of change agent.    Based on framework analysis, there is only one framework fits to Rogers’ theory on diffusion of innovation. The framework is a Lean Six Sigma framework which consists elements such owner/manager commitment and involvement, employee involvement, training, culture change and external support. Even though the elements have similarity to other Six Sigma frameworks but they put more attention on culture change and external support. Generally speaking, the culture change and external support are the most important elements to the implementation of Six Sigma or other soft approaches particularly for small organizations.

  1. A healthcare Lean Six Sigma System for postanesthesia care unit workflow improvement. (United States)

    Kuo, Alex Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Lee, Te-Shu


    The aim of this article is to propose a new model called Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System that integrates Lean and Six Sigma methodologies to improve workflow in a postanesthesia care unit. The methodology of the proposed model is fully described. A postanesthesia care unit case study is also used to demonstrate the benefits of using the Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System model by combining Lean and Six Sigma methodologies together. The new model bridges the service gaps between health care providers and patients, balances the requirements of health care managers, and delivers health care services to patients by taking the benefits of the Lean speed and Six Sigma high-quality principles. The full benefits of the new model will be realized when applied at both strategic and operational levels. For further research, we will examine how the proposed model is used in different real-world case studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayah Amar


    Full Text Available This paper attempt to analyze frameworks related to Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma. The basis of analysis the frameworks is the diffusion of innovation theory. Several criteria was used to analyze the frameworks e.g. relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, communication channels, nature of the social system/culture and extent of change agent. Based on framework analysis, there is only one framework fits to Rogers’ theory on diffusion of innovation. The framework is a Lean Six Sigma framework which consists elements such owner/manager commitment and involvement, employee involvement, training, culture change and external support. Even though the elements have similarity to other Six Sigma frameworks but they put more attention on culture change and external support. Generally speaking, the culture change and external support are the most important elements to the implementation of Six Sigma or other soft approaches particularly for small organizations.

  3. The low-lying 2-sigma-minus states of OH (United States)

    Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Langhoff, S. R.; Dalgarno, A.


    The configuration-interaction method is used to determine the electronic wave functions of the two lowest 2-sigma-minus states of OH using four different atomic orbital basis sets. Potential energy curves, transition moments, oscillator strengths, and photodissociation cross sections are obtained. Electronic transition dipole moments connecting the excited 1 2-sigma-minus and 2(D)2-sigma-minus states with each other and with the ground chi-2-pi state are presented as functions of internuclear distance. The theoretical absorption oscillator strengths for the D-2-sigma-minus(v prime = 0) from chi-2-pi(v double prime = 0) transition are in good agreement with the empirical value derived from astronomical measurement. The photodissociation cross sections for absorption from the v prime = 0, 1, and 2 levels of the ground state into the continuum of the 1 2-sigma-minus state are calculated, and the interstellar and cometary photodissociation rates are derived.

  4. Comments on Nonlinear Sigma Models Coupled to Supergravity arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio


    N=1 , D=4 nonlinear sigma models, parametrized by chiral superfields, usually describe Kählerian geometries, provided that Einstein frame supergravity is used. The sigma model metric is no longer Kähler when local supersymmetry becomes nonlinearly realized through the nilpotency of the supergravity auxiliary fields. In some cases the nonlinear realization eliminates one scalar propagating degree of freedom. This happens when the sigma model conformal-frame metric has co-rank 2. In the geometry of the inflaton, this effect eliminates its scalar superpartner. We show that the sigma model metric remains semidefinite positive in all cases, due the to positivity properties of the conformal-frame sigma model metric.

  5. CT of acute sigma diverticulitis; Computertomographie der akuten Sigmadivertikulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung; Wypior, H.J. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung; Stark, V. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung; Rath, M. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung


    To study the ranking of CT in the diagnosis of sigma diverticulitis. Comparison of results of the colon monocontrast enema with those obtained via CT and histopathology as gold standard. 32 patients were included who were operated on for sigma diverticulitis. In 30 patients both CT and monocontrast enema were performed and in two patients CT only. Acute inflammatory wall alterations are identified by CT with a sensitivity of 89.7% vs 96.3% via contrast enema. Pericolic reactions of the environment were seen via CT with 89.7% sensitivity. In case of covered perforations CT yielded a sensitivity of 76.5% vs 46.7% via contrast enema. Sensitivity for abscesses and fistulas was in each case 100% with CT. CT may help to identify extraluminal inflammatory changes and complications in diverticulitis. The degree of the inflammation can be classified and the surgical approach suitably influenced, respectively modified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Retrospektiv sollte die Wertigkeit der Computertomographie bei der Diagnostik der Sigmadivertikulitis untersucht werden. Ergebnisse des Kolon-Monokontrasteinlaufes werden mit denen in der CT und der Histopathologie als Goldstandard verglichen. 32 Patienten, die operativ an einer Sigmadivertikulitis versorgt wurden, gehen in die Studie ein. 30 Patienten erhielten sowohl ein CT als auch einen Kolon-Monokontrasteinlauf und zwei Patienten nur ein CT. Akut entzuendliche Wandalterationen liessen sich in der CT mit einer Sensitivitaet von 89,7% gegenueber 96,3% im Kontrasteinlauf erfassen. Perikolische Umgebungsreaktionen waren in der CT mit einer Sensitivitaet von 89,7% nachzuweisen. Bei gedeckten Perforationen errechnete sich fuer die CT eine Sensitivitaet von 76,5% gegenueber 46,7% im Kontrasteinlauf. Die Sensitivitaet fuer Abszesse und Fisteln betrug in der CT je 100%. Mittels der CT koennen extraluminale Entzuendungsveraenderungen und Komplikationen der Divertikulitis aufgezeigt werden. Das Entzuendungsausmass kann klassifiziert und die

  6. EBSD spatial resolution for detecting sigma phase in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordín, S. Fernandez; Limandri, S. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, CONICET. M. Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Ranalli, J.M. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castellano, G. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, CONICET. M. Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina)


    The spatial resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction signal is explored by Monte Carlo simulation for the sigma phase in steel at a typical instrumental set-up. In order to estimate the active volume corresponding to the diffracted electrons, the fraction of the backscattered electrons contributing to the diffraction signal was inferred by extrapolating the Kikuchi pattern contrast measured by other authors, as a function of the diffracted electron energy. In the resulting estimation, the contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size and the software capability to deconvolve patterns were included. A strong influence of the beam size on the lateral resolution was observed, resulting in 20 nm for the aperture considered. For longitudinal and depth directions the resolutions obtained were 75 nm and 16 nm, respectively. The reliability of this last result is discussed in terms of the survey of the last large-angle deflection undergone by the backscattered electrons involved in the diffraction process. Bearing in mind the mean transversal resolution found, it was possible to detect small area grains of sigma phase by EBSD measurements, for a stabilized austenitic AISI 347 stainless steel under heat treatments, simulating post welding (40 h at 600 °C) and aging (284 h at 484 °C) effects—as usually occurring in nuclear reactor pressure vessels. - Highlights: • EBSD spatial resolution is studied by Monte Carlo simulation for σ-phase in steel. • The contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size was included. • A stabilized austenitic stainless steel under heat treatments was measured by EBSD. • With the transversal resolution found, small area σ-phase grains could be identified.

  7. Guiding inpatient quality improvement: a systematic review of Lean and Six Sigma. (United States)

    Glasgow, Justin M; Scott-Caziewell, Jill R; Kaboli, Peter J


    Two popular quality improvement (QI) approaches in health care are Lean and Six Sigma. Hospitals continue to adopt these QI approaches-or the hybrid Lean Sigma approach-with little knowledge on how well they produce sustainable improvements. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine whether Lean, Six Sigma, or Lean Sigma have been effectively used to create and sustain improvements in the acute care setting. Databases were searched for articles published in the health care, business, and engineering literatures. Study inclusion criteria required identification of a Six Sigma, Lean, or Lean Sigma project; QI efforts focused on hospitalized patients; descriptions of project improvements; and reported results. Depending on the quality of data reported, articles were classified as summary reports, pre-post observational studies, or time-series reports. Database searches identified 539 potential articles. After review of titles, abstracts, and full text, 47 articles met inclusion criteria--10 articles summarized multiple projects, 12 reported Lean projects, 20 reported Six Sigma projects, and 5 reported Lean Sigma projects. Generally, the studies provided limited data, with only 15 articles providing any sort of follow-up data; of the 15, only 3 report a follow-up period greater than two years. Lean, Six Sigma, and Lean Sigma as QI approaches can aid institutions in tackling a wide variety of problems encountered in acute care. However, the true impact of these approaches is difficult to judge, given that the lack of rigorous evaluation or clearly sustained improvements provides little evidence supporting broad adoption. There is still a need for future work that will improve the evidence base for understanding more about QI approaches and how to achieve sustainable improvement.

  8. Sigma1 Targeting to Suppress Aberrant Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Thomas, Jeffrey D; Longen, Charles G; Oyer, Halley M; Chen, Nan; Maher, Christina M; Salvino, Joseph M; Kania, Blase; Anderson, Kelsey N; Ostrander, William F; Knudsen, Karen E; Kim, Felix J


    Suppression of androgen receptor (AR) activity in prostate cancer by androgen depletion or direct AR antagonist treatment, although initially effective, leads to incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) via compensatory mechanisms including resurgence of AR and AR splice variant (ARV) signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that Sigma1 (also known as sigma-1 receptor) is a unique chaperone or scaffolding protein that contributes to cellular protein homeostasis. We reported previously that some Sigma1-selective small molecules can be used to pharmacologically modulate protein homeostasis pathways. We hypothesized that these Sigma1-mediated responses could be exploited to suppress AR protein levels and activity. Here we demonstrate that treatment with a small-molecule Sigma1 inhibitor prevented 5α- dihydrotestosterone-mediated nuclear translocation of AR and induced proteasomal degradation of AR and ARV, suppressing the transcriptional activity and protein levels of both full-length and splice-variant AR. Consistent with these data, RNAi knockdown of Sigma1 resulted in decreased AR levels and transcriptional activity. Furthermore, Sigma1 physically associated with ARV7 and ARv567es as well as full-length AR. Treatment of mice xenografted with ARV-driven CRPC tumors with a drug-like small-molecule Sigma1 inhibitor significantly inhibited tumor growth associated with elimination of AR and ARV7 in responsive tumors. Together, our data show that Sigma1 modulators can be used to suppress AR/ARV-driven prostate cancer cells via regulation of pharmacologically responsive Sigma1-AR/ARV interactions, both in vitro and in vivoCancer Res; 77(9); 2439-52. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Mass spectrometry of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: interactions of the core enzyme with sigma70 and Rsd protein. (United States)

    Ilag, Leopold L; Westblade, Lars F; Deshayes, Caroline; Kolb, Annie; Busby, Stephen J W; Robinson, Carol V


    The E. coli RNA polymerase core enzyme is a multisubunit complex of 388,981 Da. To initiate transcription at promoters, the core enzyme associates with a sigma subunit to form holo RNA polymerase. Here we have used nanoflow electrospray mass spectrometry, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, to probe the interaction of the RNA polymerase core enzyme with the most abundant sigma factor, sigma70. The results show remarkably well-resolved spectra for both the core and holo RNA polymerases. The regulator of sigma70, Rsd protein, has previously been identified as a protein that binds to free sigma70. We show that Rsd also interacts with core enzyme. In addition, by adding increasing amounts of Rsd, we show that sigma70 is displaced from holo RNA polymerase, resulting in complexes of Rsd with core and sigma70. The results argue for a model in which Rsd not only sequesters sigma70, but is also an effector of core RNA polymerase.

  10. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand C-11-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; de Jong, Johan R.; de Vries, Erik F.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; van Waarde, Aren

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined

  11. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  12. Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of a Novel Sigma Receptor Ligand with Improved Metabolic Stability and Antagonistic Effects Against Methamphetamine


    Seminerio, Michael J.; Robson, Matthew J.; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Jamalapuram, Seshulatha; Avery, Bonnie A.; Christopher R. McCurdy; Matsumoto, Rae R.


    Methamphetamine interacts with sigma receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations suggesting a potential site for pharmacologic intervention. In the present study, a previous sigma receptor ligand, CM156, was optimized for metabolic stability, and the lead analog was evaluated against the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the lead analog, AZ66, displayed high nanomolar affinity for both sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors (2.4 ± 0.63 and 0....

  13. The sigma-2 receptor as a therapeutic target for drug delivery in triple negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makvandi, Mehran; Tilahun, Estifanos D.; Lieberman, Brian P.; Anderson, Redmond-Craig; Zeng, Chenbo; Xu, Kuiying; Hou, Catherine; McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Pryma, Daniel A.; Mach, Robert H., E-mail:


    Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high relapse rates and increased mortality when compared with other breast cancer subtypes. In contrast to receptor positive breast cancers, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. Identifying biomarkers for TNBC is of high importance for the advancement of patient care. The sigma-2 receptor has been shown to be overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer in vivo and has been characterized as a marker of proliferation. The aim of the present study was to define the sigma-2 receptor as a target for therapeutic drug delivery and biomarker in TNBC. Methods: Three TNBC cell lines were evaluated: MDA-MB-231, HCC1937 and HCC1806. Sigma-2 compounds were tested for pharmacological properties specific to the sigma-2 receptor through competitive inhibition assays. Sigma-2 receptor expression was measured through radioligand receptor saturation studies. Drug sensitivity for taxol was compared to a sigma-2 targeting compound conjugated to a cytotoxic payload, SW IV-134. Cell viability was assessed after treatments for 2 or 48 h. Sigma-2 blockade was assessed to define sigma-2 mediated cytotoxicity of SW IV-134. Caspase 3/7 activation induced by SW IV-134 was measured at corresponding treatment time points. Results: SW IV-134 was the most potent compound tested in two of the three cell lines and was similarly effective in all three. MDA-MB-231 displayed a statistically significant higher sigma-2 receptor expression and also was the most sensitive cell line evaluated to SW IV-134. Conclusion: Targeting the sigma-2 receptor with a cytotoxic payload was effective in all the three cell lines evaluated and provides the proof of concept for future development of a therapeutic platform for the treatment of TNBC. - Highlights: • TNBC cells are sensitive to sigma-2 receptor targeted drug conjugate SW IV-134. • MDA-MB-231 displayed the highest amount of sigma-2 receptors and corresponded well with

  14. Sigma-1 Receptor Plays a Negative Modulation on N-type Calcium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhang


    Full Text Available The sigma-1 receptor is a 223 amino acids molecular chaperone with a single transmembrane domain. It is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. By chaperone-mediated interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules, the sigma-1 receptor performs broad physiological and pharmacological functions. Despite sigma-1 receptors have been confirmed to regulate various types of ion channels, the relationship between the sigma-1 receptor and N-type Ca2+ channel is still unclear. Considering both sigma-1 receptors and N-type Ca2+ channels are involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis and neurotransmission, we undertake studies to explore the possible interaction between these two proteins. In the experiment, we confirmed the expression of the sigma-1 receptors and the N-type calcium channels in the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs in rat striatum by using single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (scRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. N-type Ca2+ currents recorded from ChIs in the brain slice of rat striatum was depressed when sigma-1 receptor agonists (SKF-10047 and Pre-084 were administrated. The inhibition was completely abolished by sigma-1 receptor antagonist (BD-1063. Co-expression of the sigma-1 receptors and the N-type calcium channels in Xenopus oocytes presented a decrease of N-type Ca2+ current amplitude with an increase of sigma-1 receptor expression. SKF-10047 could further depress N-type Ca2+ currents recorded from oocytes. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assays and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP demonstrated that sigma-1 receptors and N-type Ca2+ channels formed a protein complex when they were co-expressed in HEK-293T (Human Embryonic Kidney -293T cells. Our results revealed that the sigma-1 receptors played a negative modulation on N-type Ca2+ channels. The mechanism for the inhibition of sigma-1 receptors on

  15. Teicoplanin Stress-Selected Mutations Increasing ςB Activity in Staphylococcus aureus (United States)

    Bischoff, Markus; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte


    A natural rsbU mutant of Staphylococcus aureus, unable to activate the alternative transcription factor ςB via the RsbU pathway and therefore forming unpigmented colonies, produced first-step teicoplanin-resistant mutants upon selection for growth in the presence of teicoplanin, of which the majority were of an intense orange color. By using an asp23 promoter-luciferase fusion as an indicator, the pigmented mutants were shown to express increased ςB activity. Increased ςB activity was associated with point mutations in rsbW, releasing ςB from sequestration by the anti-sigma factor RsbW, or to promoter mutations increasing the ςB/RsbW ratio. Genetic manipulations involving the sigB operon suggested that the mutations within the operon were associated with the increase in teicoplanin resistance. The upregulation of ςB suggests that a ςB-controlled gene(s) is directly or indirectly involved in the development of teicoplanin resistance in S. aureus. Carotenoids do not contribute to teicoplanin resistance, since inactivation of the dehydrosqualene synthase gene crtM abolished pigment formation without affecting teicoplanin resistance. The relevant ςB-controlled target genes involved in teicoplanin resistance remain to be identified. PMID:11353616

  16. Environmental Stress Affects the Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Tolerant to Antibiotics. (United States)

    Kubistova, Lucie; Dvoracek, Lukas; Tkadlec, Jan; Melter, Oto; Licha, Irena


    The ability to form persisters has been observed in many microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, mainly in the context of chronic infections and the pathogenicity of these microbes. In our research, we have demonstrated that salt or oxidative stress could play a role in the formation of S. aureus persisters outside the host's intracellular interface. We pre-exposed planktonic growing bacterial culture to an oxidative or salt stress and monitored the dynamics of persister formation after ciprofloxacin and gentamicin treatment. In parallel, using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach, we determined the expression level of the stress sigma factor SigB. The pre-exposure of bacteria to salt stress caused a 1-2.5 order of magnitude increase in persister formation in the bacterial population after antibiotic exposure, depending on the type and concentration of the antibiotic used. In contrast, oxidative stress only minimally influenced the formation of persisters, without correlation to the antibiotic type and concentration. We have demonstrated that both stress and antibiotic exposure increase the expression of sigB in bacterial populations from very early on. And that the expression level of sigB differs with the type of antibiotic and stress, but no correlation was observed between persister formation and sigB expression. The method used could be helpful in testing the ability that strains can have, to form persisters.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (United States)

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Most staph germs are spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or ...

  18. Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Keizerweerd, Gabriella D.; de Gans, Jan; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik


    We present 9 patients with community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Foci of infection outside the central nervous system were present in 8 (89%) patients, mostly endocarditis and pneumonia. Cardiorespiratory complications occurred frequently and 6 patients died (67%). Identification and

  19. Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 ...

  20. Interaction of a partially disordered antisigma factor with its partner, the signaling domain of the TonB-dependent transporter HasR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idir Malki

    Full Text Available Bacteria use diverse signaling pathways to control gene expression in response to external stimuli. In Gram-negative bacteria, the binding of a nutrient is sensed by an outer membrane transporter. This signal is then transmitted to an antisigma factor and subsequently to the cytoplasm where an ECF sigma factor induces expression of genes related to the acquisition of this nutrient. The molecular interactions involved in this transmembrane signaling are poorly understood and structural data on this family of antisigma factor are rare. Here, we present the first structural study of the periplasmic domain of an antisigma factor and its interaction with the transporter. The study concerns the signaling in the heme acquisition system (Has of Serratia marcescens. Our data support unprecedented partially disordered periplasmic domain of an anti-sigma factor HasS in contact with a membrane-mimicking environment. We solved the 3D structure of the signaling domain of HasR transporter and identified the residues at the HasS-HasR interface. Their conservation in several bacteria suggests wider significance of the proposed model for the understanding of bacterial transmembrane signaling.

  1. [Reducing patient waiting time for the outpatient phlebotomy service using six sigma]. (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Song, Kyung Eun; Lee, Won Kil


    One of the challenging issues of the outpatient phlebotomy services at most hospitals is that patients have a long wait. The outpatient phlebotomy team of Kyungpook National University Hospital applied six sigma breakthrough methodologies to reduce the patient waiting time. The DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) model was employed to approach the project. Two hundred patients visiting the outpatient phlebotomy section were asked to answer the questionnaires at inception of the study to ascertain root causes. After correction, we surveyed 285 patients for same questionnaires again to follow-up the effects. A defect was defined as extending patient waiting time so long and at the beginning of the project, the performance level was 2.61 sigma. Using fishbone diagram, all the possible reasons for extending patient waiting time were captured, and among them, 16 causes were proven to be statistically significant. Improvement plans including a new receptionist, automatic specimen transport system, and adding one phlebotomist were put into practice. As a result, the number of patients waited more than 5 min significantly decreased, and the performance level reached 3.0 sigma in December 2007 and finally 3.35 sigma in July 2008. Applying the six sigma, the performance level of waiting times for blood drawing exceeding five minutes were improved from 2.61 sigma to 3.35 sigma.

  2. Topography of Slow Sigma Power during Sleep is Associated with Processing Speed in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Doucette


    Full Text Available Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG, little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10–13 Hz and fast (13.25–17 Hz sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years. Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV2; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV2. Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from −0.6 to −0.8, such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities.

  3. Projeto Seis Sigma para a implementação de software de programação Six Sigma project for scheduling software implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Cerávolo Calia


    Full Text Available O artigo visa analisar a eficácia organizacional da metodologia Seis Sigma na gestão de projetos para a redução de atrasos e redução de estoques na manufatura, por meio da implementação de um software com algoritmos da Teoria das Restrições. Inicialmente, é apresentada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a gestão de projetos na perspectiva da gestão da mudança organizacional nos processos de negócios. Em seguida, são revistos os conceitos sobre a metodologia Seis Sigma para a gestão de projetos e sobre os algoritmos da Teoria das Restrições. Então, são descritos os estudos de caso em dois projetos de implementação do software da Teoria das Restrições, sendo que apenas uma das implementações utilizou-se da metodologia Seis Sigma para a gestão do projeto. Na análise dos resultados, busca-se compreender os motivos de o projeto com a metodologia Seis Sigma ter reduzido inventário três vezes mais rápido do que o projeto sem o Seis Sigma.The article aims to analyze the organizational effectiveness of the Six Sigma methodology for project management to reduce delays and to reduce inventory in manufacture, by the implementation of software with Theory of Constraints algorithms. Initially, the article presents a bibliographic revision on project management and its impact on the organizational change management for improving business processes. Then, the article revises the concepts about the Six Sigma methodology for project management and about the Theory of Constraints algorithms. It follows, the case studies descriptions on two implementation projects of the Theory of Constraints software, in which only one of these implementations adopted the Six Sigma methodology in the project management. In the results analyzes, the article discusses the reasons why the project with the Six Sigma methodology was three times faster than the other project.


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    Ahmad Mukti Almansur


    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze waste or loss using the 7-waste approach and value added/non value added activities in the production process at PT. XYZ. This research also aims to evaluate the production process capability and sigma values at PT. XYZ and used DMAIC technique (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control from Lean Six-sigma with an analysis using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. The results of the research obtained the values of Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE of 47.29%, CTQ (Critical to Quality and process capability value in the form of Cpm (Capability Index for each process stage and yield. Line-5 has DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities value of 29,632,607 with a Sigma Score 3.39, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis analysis resulted in recommendations for improvement at each process stage.Keywords: process cycle efficiency, biscuit, lean six-sigma, CTQ, CpmABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan melakukan analisis tingkat pemborosan (waste/loss dengan menggunakan pendekatan 7 waste dan value added/non value added activity dalam proses produksi di PT. XYZ. Selanjutnya, melakukan evaluasi terhadap nilai kapabilitas proses produksi dan nilai sigma di PT. XYZ. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control dari Lean Six Sigma dengan Analisis menggunakan menggunakan alat Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Hasil Penelitian mendapati nilai Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE 47.29%, CTQ (Critical to Quality dan nilai kapabilitas proses berupa Cpm (Capability Index setiap tahapan proses dan Yield. Line-5 memiliki DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunities sebesar 29632.607 dengan Sigma Score 3.39 Sigma, analisis FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis menghasilkan rekomendasi perbaikan di setiap tahapan proses.Kata kunci: process cycle efficiency, biskuit, lean six sigma, CTQ, Cpm

  5. Sigma-2 ligands induce tumour cell death by multiple signalling pathways. (United States)

    Zeng, C; Rothfuss, J; Zhang, J; Chu, W; Vangveravong, S; Tu, Z; Pan, F; Chang, K C; Hotchkiss, R; Mach, R H


    The sigma-2 receptor has been identified as a biomarker of proliferating cells in solid tumours. In the present study, we studied the mechanisms of sigma-2 ligand-induced cell death in the mouse breast cancer cell line EMT-6 and the human melanoma cell line MDA-MB-435. EMT-6 and MDA-MB-435 cells were treated with sigma-2 ligands. The modulation of multiple signaling pathways of cell death was evaluated. Three sigma-2 ligands (WC-26, SV119 and RHM-138) induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP-1 cleavage. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK partially blocked DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity caused by these compounds. These data suggest that sigma-2 ligand-induced apoptosis and caspase activation are partially responsible for the cell death. WC-26 and siramesine induced formation of vacuoles in the cells. WC-26, SV119, RHM-138 and siramesine increased the synthesis and processing of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, an autophagosome marker, and decreased the expression levels of the downstream effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6K and 4EBP1, suggesting that sigma-2 ligands induce autophagy, probably by inhibition of the mTOR pathway. All four sigma-2 ligands decreased the expression of cyclin D1 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, WC-26 and SV119 mainly decreased cyclin B1, E2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb); RHM-138 mainly decreased cyclin E2; and 10 μM siramesine mainly decreased cyclin B1 and pRb. These data suggest that sigma-2 ligands also impair cell-cycle progression in multiple phases of the cell cycle. Sigma-2 ligands induce cell death by multiple signalling pathways.


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    Full Text Available The paper underlines the importance in combining the Six Sigma methodology with BPM technology. Companies are just discovering the benefits of combining BPM and Six Sigma. Ideal for enhancing the longterm performance of business processes, the BPM/Six Sigma union helps companies better characterize, understand, and manage entire value chains. It also helps companies improve control and predictability of corporate business processes and generate sustainable enterprise improvements in performance levels.The study starts with the concept of Six Sigma which was powered by principles governed by continuous improvement. In pure terms, Six Sigma helps manufacturing organizations reduce the number of errors or reduce the number of defective products manufactured by them. This is achieved by a regular sharpening of the process and constant monitoring on processes and how they can be improved. This approach had been truly effective in ensuring quality in a manufacturing environment and was later adopted by the services industry during the 90s. However, as the Six Sigma framework relied heavily on the collection and analysis of data of individual processes, synchronizing them between departments was ignored. This resulted in improvement benefits being limited to specific functions only, without taking into consideration the integration with other processes. Another weakness of the Six Sigma methodology is the lack of control used to sustain improvements achieved. This stems from the fact Six Sigma utilizes manual processes to do this, an approach that lacks effectiveness. In this sense, Business Process Management (BPM initiatives address areas that Six Sigma falls short of, in line with the purpose of achieving excellence in organizations. These two methodologies complement each other to compensate for areas of weaknesses. Although BPM addresses process enhancements and monitoring from a holistic viewpoint, it fails to address the analytical requirements

  7. Studi Implementasi Six Sigma pada Tahap Fabrikasi dalam Proses Pembangunan Kapal Baru

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    Jauhary Tsulastsy Yanuar


    Full Text Available Proses produksi pada tahap fabrikasi dalam proses pembangunan kapal baru masih memiliki masalah defect pada output proses produksi berupa defect dimension yang menyebabkan rework (pekerjaan tambahan. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk menentukan besarnya sigma proses tahap fabrikasi dari sebuah galangan kapal yang menjadi studi kasus, mengidentifikasi penyebab yang mempengaruhi defect, dan menentukan upaya-upaya yang dilakukan untuk meminimasi defect menggunakan metode six sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve dan Control. Berdasarkan perhitungan menggunakan lembar kerja perhitungan sigma yang dikeluarkan oleh pivotal resources, komponen plate mengalami defect dimension sebesar 0,36% untuk hasil marking dan 0,48% untuk hasil proses cutting menghasilkan nilai sigma 2,2074, komponen bracket mengalami defect dimension sebesar 0,28% untuk hasil marking dan 0,40% untuk hasil cutting menghasilkan nilai sigma 2,3429, komponen stiffener mengalami defect dimension sebesar 0,20% untuk hasil marking dan 0,24% untuk hasil cutting menghasilkan nilai sigma 2,6771, dan  komponen clip (collar plate mengalami defect dimension sebesar 0,28% untuk hasil marking dan 0,36% untuk hasil cutting menghasilkan nilai sigma 2,4171. Berdasarkan hasil analisa, nilai sigma tersebut masih jauh dari nilai yang seharusnya dapat dicapai oleh suatu perusahaan (6σ disebabkan oleh faktor antara lain keterampilan SDM yang belum memadai saat ini, PMS (Planned Maintenance System yang berjalan tidak sesuai prosedur, dan tidak dilakukannya pendokumentasian/kontrol pada setiap komponen hasil tahap fabrikasi. Dengan menggunakan metode FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis yang dikorelasikan dengan berbagai analisa, diperoleh solusi antara lain diperlukannya training/pelatihan untuk meningkatkan skill/kemampuan SDM baru, dijalankannya PMS sesuai prosedur, dan menghidupkan kembali tim QC yang tergabung dalam keorganisasian bengkel fabrikasi. Implementasi six sigma dilakukan secara

  8. Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Virulence* (United States)

    Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara


    Silkworm hemolymph inhibits hemolysin production by Staphylococcus aureus. We purified a factor in the silkworm hemolymph responsible for this inhibitory activity. The final fraction with the greatest specific activity contained 220- and 74-kDa proteins. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the 220- and 74-kDa proteins were apolipophorin I and apolipophorin II, respectively, indicating that the factor was apolipophorin (ApoLp). The purified ApoLp fraction showed decreased expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin, hlb encoding β-hemolysin, saeRS, and RNAIII, which activate the expression of these hemolysin genes. Injection of an anti-ApoLp antibody into the hemolymph increased the sensitivity of silkworms to the lethal effect of S. aureus. Hog gastric mucin, a mammalian homologue of ApoLp, decreased the expression of S. aureus hla and hlb. These findings suggest that ApoLp in the silkworm hemolymph inhibits S. aureus virulence and contributes to defense against S. aureus infection and that its activity is conserved in mammalian mucin. PMID:21937431

  9. The Escherichia coli gapA gene is transcribed by the vegetative RNA polymerase holoenzyme E sigma 70 and by the heat shock RNA polymerase E sigma 32. (United States)

    Charpentier, B; Branlant, C


    Escherichia coli D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is produced by the gapA gene and is structurally related to eukaryotic GAPDHs. These facts led to the proposal that the gapA gene originated by a horizontal transfer of genetic information. The yields and start sites of gapA mRNAs produced in various fermentation conditions and genetic contexts were analyzed by primer extension. The transcriptional regulatory region of the gapA gene was found to contain four promoter sequences, three recognized by the vegetative RNA polymerase E sigma 70 and one recognized by the heat shock RNA polymerase E sigma 32. Transcription of gapA by E sigma 32 is activated in the logarithmic phase under conditions of starvation and of heat shock. Using a GAPDH- strain, we found that GAPDH production has a positive effect on cell growth at 43 degrees C. Thus, E. coli GAPDH displays some features of heat shock proteins. One of the gapA promoter sequences transcribed by E sigma 70 is subject to catabolic repression. Another one has growth phase-dependent efficiency. This complex area of differentially regulated promoters allows the production of large amounts of gapA transcripts in a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the basis of these data, the present view of E sigma 32 RNA polymerase function has to be enlarged, and the various hypotheses on E. coli gapA gene origin have to be reexamined.

  10. The Staphylococcus aureus response to unsaturated long chain free fatty acids: survival mechanisms and virulence implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Kenny

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important human commensal and opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections. Long chain unsaturated free fatty acids represent a barrier to colonisation and infection by S. aureus and act as an antimicrobial component of the innate immune system where they are found on epithelial surfaces and in abscesses. Despite many contradictory reports, the precise anti-staphylococcal mode of action of free fatty acids remains undetermined. In this study, transcriptional (microarrays and qRT-PCR and translational (proteomics analyses were applied to ascertain the response of S. aureus to a range of free fatty acids. An increase in expression of the sigma(B and CtsR stress response regulons was observed. This included increased expression of genes associated with staphyloxanthin synthesis, which has been linked to membrane stabilisation. Similarly, up-regulation of genes involved in capsule formation was recorded as were significant changes in the expression of genes associated with peptidoglycan synthesis and regulation. Overall, alterations were recorded predominantly in pathways involved in cellular energetics. In addition, sensitivity to linoleic acid of a range of defined (sigB, arcA, sasF, sarA, agr, crtM and transposon-derived mutants (vraE, SAR2632 was determined. Taken together, these data indicate a common mode of action for long chain unsaturated fatty acids that involves disruption of the cell membrane, leading to interference with energy production within the bacterial cell. Contrary to data reported for other strains, the clinically important EMRSA-16 strain MRSA252 used in this study showed an increase in expression of the important virulence regulator RNAIII following all of the treatment conditions tested. An adaptive response by S. aureus of reducing cell surface hydrophobicity was also observed. Two fatty acid sensitive mutants created during this study were also shown to diplay altered

  11. Wavelet-based detection of transcriptional activity on a novel Staphylococcus aureus tiling microarray

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    Segura Víctor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density oligonucleotide microarray is an appropriate technology for genomic analysis, and is particulary useful in the generation of transcriptional maps, ChIP-on-chip studies and re-sequencing of the genome.Transcriptome analysis of tiling microarray data facilitates the discovery of novel transcripts and the assessment of differential expression in diverse experimental conditions. Although new technologies such as next-generation sequencing have appeared, microarrays might still be useful for the study of small genomes or for the analysis of genomic regions with custom microarrays due to their lower price and good accuracy in expression quantification. Results Here, we propose a novel wavelet-based method, named ZCL (zero-crossing lines, for the combined denoising and segmentation of tiling signals. The denoising is performed with the classical SUREshrink method and the detection of transcriptionally active regions is based on the computation of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT. In particular, the detection of the transitions is implemented as the thresholding of the zero-crossing lines. The algorithm described has been applied to the public Saccharomyces cerevisiae dataset and it has been compared with two well-known algorithms: pseudo-median sliding window (PMSW and the structural change model (SCM. As a proof-of-principle, we applied the ZCL algorithm to the analysis of the custom tiling microarray hybridization results of a S. aureus mutant deficient in the sigma B transcription factor. The challenge was to identify those transcripts whose expression decreases in the absence of sigma B. Conclusions The proposed method archives the best performance in terms of positive predictive value (PPV while its sensitivity is similar to the other algorithms used for the comparison. The computation time needed to process the transcriptional signals is low as compared with model-based methods and in the same range to those

  12. Design and Simulation of 1-bit Sigma Delta ADC in 0.18um CMOS Technology


    Jaydip H. Chaudhari


    This paper presents the design of a first order single bit Sigma-Delta ADC which is realized using CMOS technology. In this paper, a first Order Sigma-Delta ADC is implemented in a standard 0.18um CMOS technology. The Design and Simulation of the Modulator is done using Mentor Graphics Tool. First order single bit Sigma Delta ADC Modulator is implemented using ±1.8 power supply and simulation results are plotted using Mentor Graphics Tool. This paper firstly elaborate about ADC types and Clas...

  13. On connection of strain wave sigma/sub 0/ value between Hall-Petch equation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakulenko, I.A.; Pirogov, V.A.; Babich, V.K.

    sigma/sub 0/ dependence on structure and temperature of metal loading is investigated. Wire samples, 1 mm in diameter, made of steels with carbon content from 0.06 up to 0.75% mas., served as a material. It is shown, that values of sigma/sub 0/, obtained from the strain curve analysis, apart from crystal lattice friction stress, depend on the solid solution state, nucleation and evolution of plastic strain up to the onset of macroyield. The reduction of intergrain boundary length facilitates to the increase of friction stress and solid solution hardening effect on sigma/sub 0/.

  14. lambda. and. sigma. single-particle potentials with density-dependent effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, Michio


    Single-particle potentials experienced by the ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. in nuclei are calculated in a parameter-free way, using a microscopic density-dependent effective hyperon-nucleon interaction. The mean field becomes non-local because of the Majorana exchange character of the effective force. For the ..lambda.., single particle spectra are similar to those obtained from a standard Woods-Saxon potential, while the r.m.s. radii are systematically larger due to non-locality effects. For the ..sigma.., the calculated potential is much weaker. No bound p-state is predicted in light ..sigma.. hypernuclear systems.

  15. On the realization of switched-capacitor integrators for sigma-delta modulators


    Berglund, Krister; Matteusson, Oskar


    The sigma-delta techniques for analog-to-digital conversion have for long been utilized when high precision is needed. Despite the fact that these have been realized by a numerous of different structures, the theory of how to construct a sigma-delta ADC is not very extensive. This thesis will assume that an SFG description of the CRFB sigma-delta modulator has been designed and presents a structured method to obtain a circuit realization of the integrators in a specific modulator. The first a...

  16. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H


    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  17. Optimizing The DSSC Fabrication Process Using Lean Six Sigma (United States)

    Fauss, Brian

    Alternative energy technologies must become more cost effective to achieve grid parity with fossil fuels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an innovative third generation photovoltaic technology, which is demonstrating tremendous potential to become a revolutionary technology due to recent breakthroughs in cost of fabrication. The study here focused on quality improvement measures undertaken to improve fabrication of DSSCs and enhance process efficiency and effectiveness. Several quality improvement methods were implemented to optimize the seven step individual DSSC fabrication processes. Lean Manufacturing's 5S method successfully increased efficiency in all of the processes. Six Sigma's DMAIC methodology was used to identify and eliminate each of the root causes of defects in the critical titanium dioxide deposition process. These optimizations resulted with the following significant improvements in the production process: 1. fabrication time of the DSSCs was reduced by 54 %; 2. fabrication procedures were improved to the extent that all critical defects in the process were eliminated; 3. the quantity of functioning DSSCs fabricated was increased from 17 % to 90 %.

  18. A lean six sigma approach to improve municipal service processes

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    Engelbert Zefaj


    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the current state of process management for municipal subsidies and is proposing to improve the process by reducing motion, deadlines and excessive actions and to eliminate duplication of processes and overproduction. Time spent and process effi ciency is the subject tackled in this research. Several areas of action that affect the overall process as departments, regulations, time, experts, movements, materials and procedures have been explored. Lean six sigma/DMAIC model is used as an adequate mechanism for the implementation of this project which aims to improve the quality of service. The result of the research is not limited to only one specific process, the applied model in this study can be used to improve many processes in municipalities. Currently, in order to receive a fi nal response from municipal authorities for subsidies allocation, 41hr of process time, 160 hr of calendar time and 232 hr of wait time are needed. The process effi ciency is only 10%.

  19. Why all this fuss over a few Sigma?

    CERN Multimedia


    Most experiments at CERN look for evidence for -or against - scientific hypotheses. To pick an example at random, that could be the existence of a new particle - the Higgs boson perhaps. After collecting a lot of data to search for the Higgs boson, the question is how to link the numbers that emerge to the existence of the hypothetical particle? What is needed is a way to give meaning to the result by converting the data into a probability that expresses the evidence that the particle exists. Physicists talk about probability because the most interesting results in experimental physics are often close to the limit of what is observable with existing technology, so conclusions can seldom be reached with absolute certainty. Moreover, it is important to communicate the results of an experiment in such a way that other researchers can judge how strong the experimental evidence is for - or against - the hypothesis under test. Sigma, the standard deviation, is the quantity used most often by physicists to express t...

  20. Dynamical Generation of the Gauged SU(2) Linear Sigma Model (United States)

    Delbourgo, R.; Scadron, M. D.

    The fermion and meson sectors of the quark-level SU(2) linear sigma model are dynamically generated from a meson-quark Lagrangian, with the quark (q) and meson (σ, π) fields all treated as elementary, having neither bare masses nor expectation values. In the chiral limit, the masses are predicted to be mq = fπg, mπ = 0, mσ = 2mq, and we also find that the quark-meson coupling is g =2π /√ {Nc}, the three-meson coupling is g' =mσ 2 /2fπ =2gmq and the four-meson coupling is λ = 2g2 = g‧/fπ, where fπ ≃ 90 MeV is the pion decay constant and Nc = 3 is the color number. By gauging this model one can generate the couplings to the vector mesons ρ and A1, including the quark-vector coupling constant gρ = 2π, gρππ, gA1ρπ and the masses mρ 700 MeV, mA1˜= √ {3} mρ ; of course the vector and axial currents remain conserved throughout.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi Wicaksono


    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia (PT. CCAI merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang minuman ringan dalam kemasan. Perusahaan ini menjadi pusat produksi produk Coca-Cola regional Jawa Tengah. Berbagai macam produk seperti Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite, Minute Maid dan Frestea diproduksi demi memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan. Produk-produk tersebut tentunya tidak terlepas dari permasalahan produk cacat, dimana dalam produksinya terdapat produk yang tidak sesuai dengan standar ketetapan produk. Secara umum, produk cacat PT.CCAI dibagi menjadi tiga tipe, yakni cap, cap quality, dan underfill. Dari hasil analisis yang dilakukan, produk Coca-Cola 1000 ml memiliki jumlah cacat yang paling besar, yakni 0,49%. Penyebab terbesar dari terjadinya cacat produk pada produk Coca-Cola 1000 ml adalah underfill, dimana volume dari produk yang dihasilkan tidak sesuai dengan batas minimal. Permasalahan tersebut diselesaikan menggunakan konsep Lean Six Sigma dengan menggunakan tools diagram Pareto dan diagram tulang ikan. Dari hasil analisis menggunakan tools tersebut, PT. CCAI Semarang  disarankan untuk memberikan pelatihan-pelatihan mengenai manajemen waktu pada karyawan-karyawannya, terutama pada karyawan-karyawan baru. Selain itu, PT. CCAI Semarang harus  juga melakukan pengecekan mesin yang lebih rutin dan lebih memperhatikan lingkungan area produksi.

  2. A High Performance Delta-Sigma Modulator for Neurosensing. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Zhao, Menglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Islam, Md Kafiul; Yang, Zhi


    Recorded neural data are frequently corrupted by large amplitude artifacts that are triggered by a variety of sources, such as subject movements, organ motions, electromagnetic interferences and discharges at the electrode surface. To prevent the system from saturating and the electronics from malfunctioning due to these large artifacts, a wide dynamic range for data acquisition is demanded, which is quite challenging to achieve and would require excessive circuit area and power for implementation. In this paper, we present a high performance Delta-Sigma modulator along with several design techniques and enabling blocks to reduce circuit area and power. The modulator was fabricated in a 0.18-µm CMOS process. Powered by a 1.0-V supply, the chip can achieve an 85-dB peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and an 87-dB dynamic range when integrated over a 10-kHz bandwidth. The total power consumption of the modulator is 13 µW, which corresponds to a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 45 fJ/conversion step. These competitive circuit specifications make this design a good candidate for building high precision neurosensors.

  3. Modified Polar Sigma-Delta Transmitter for Multiradio Applications

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    Maršálek Roman


    Full Text Available Radio transmitters capable of transforming variable envelope signals into constant envelope signals can be associated with high-efficiency switched mode power amplifiers. One of the techniques providing this conversion is Polar Sigma-Delta ( architecture. This approach provides efficient solution for high-dynamic signals, and, moreover, it offers flexibility in a multiradio environment. The overall concept of the polar transmitter is presented here along with novel modifications and improvements. Namely, when recombining the envelope and the phase signals, it is suggested to replace the analog mixing by a digital mixing. The impact of a frequency synthesizer with a switched loop bandwidth and its imperfections on the overall polar architecture is investigated as well. The Mobile WiMAX standard has been chosen for validation due to very high requirements in terms of power dynamics and the variable channel bandwidth. Simulation results are presented in this paper, and advantages and drawbacks of this novel approach are pointed here as well.

  4. Process Improvement of Reactive Dye Synthesis Using Six Sigma Concept (United States)

    Suwanich, Thanapat; Chutima, Parames


    This research focuses on the problem occurred in the reactive dye synthesis process of a global manufacturer in Thailand which producing various chemicals for reactive dye products to supply global industries such as chemicals, textiles and garments. The product named “Reactive Blue Base” is selected in this study because it has highest demand and the current chemical yield shows a high variation, i.e. yield variation of 90.4% - 99.1% (S.D. = 2.405 and Cpk = -0.08) and average yield is 94.5% (lower than the 95% standard set by the company). The Six Sigma concept is applied aiming at increasing yield and reducing variation of this process. This approach is suitable since it provides a systematic guideline with five improvement phases (DMAIC) to effectively tackle the problem and find the appropriate parameter settings of the process. Under the new parameter settings, the process yield variation is reduced to range between 96.5% - 98.5% (S.D. = 0.525 and Cpk = 1.83) and the average yield is increased to 97.5% (higher than the 95% standard set by the company).

  5. The conversion probability and emission ratio of charged Sigma - hyperons following K/sup -/ meson capture at rest in carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Velde-Wilquet, C; Sacton, J; Wickens, J H


    A study has been made of K/sup -/ meson interactions at rest in the CERN 1.1 m/sup 3/ heavy liquid bubble chamber filled with a mixture of hydrocarbons. The data are used to determine (i) the internal conversion probability, C( Sigma /sup -/), of Sigma /sup -/ hyperons produced in association with pi /sup +/ mesons by K/sup -/ meson interactions in carbon nuclei, (ii) the relative emission frequencies of ( Sigma /sup +/ pi /sup +/) and ( Sigma /sup -/ pi /sup +/) pairs, E( Sigma /sup +/ pi /sup +// Sigma /sup -/ pi /sup +/), and the emission frequency E( Sigma /sup +or-/ pi /sup -or+//K/sup -/), of ( Sigma /sup +or-/ pi /sup -or+/) pairs per K/sup -/ meson absorption in carbon, (iii) the branching fraction, P( Sigma /sup -/ pi /sup +//K /sup -/), for the primary process K/sup -/+p to Sigma /sup -/+ pi /sup +/ in carbon and (iv) the trapping probability, T( Lambda /sup 0/), for Lambda /sup 0/ hyperons produced by Sigma /sup -/ hyperon interactions in carbon nuclei. (26 refs).

  6. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramírez


    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior

  7. Attenuation by a sigma1 (sigma1) receptor agonist of the learning and memory deficits induced by a prenatal restraint stress in juvenile rats. (United States)

    Meunier, Johann; Gué, Michèle; Récasens, Max; Maurice, Tangui


    1. Stress during pregnancy results in complex neurochemical and behavioral alterations throughout the offspring lifetime. We here examined the impact of prenatal stress (PS) on memory functions in male and female offspring and report the efficacy of a selective sigma(1) (sigma(1)) receptor agonist, igmesine, in alleviating the observed deficits. 2. Dams received an unpredictable 90-min duration restraint stress from gestational day E17 to E20. Learning was examined in offspring between day P24 and P36 using spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, delayed alternation in the T-maze, water-maze learning and passive avoidance. 3. Both male and female PS rats showed impairments of spontaneous and delayed alternation performances. Acquisition of a fixed platform position in the water-maze was unchanged in PS rats, but the probe test revealed a diminution of time spent in the training quadrant. Acquisition of a daily changing platform position demonstrated impaired working memory for male and female PS rats. Finally, passive avoidance deficits were observed. 4. Pretreatment with the selective sigma(1) agonist igmesine (1-10 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) reversed the PS-induced learning deficits in offspring rats for each test. The sigma(1) antagonist BD1063 failed to affect performances alone but blocked the igmesine effect, confirming the involvement of the sigma(1) receptor. 5. PS thus induces delayed memory deficits, affecting spatial and nonspatial, short- and long-term memories in juvenile male and female offspring rats. Activation of the sigma(1) neuromodulatory receptor allows a significant recovery of the memory functions in PS rats.

  8. Comparative proteome analysis reveals conserved and specific adaptation patterns of Staphylococcus aureus after internalization by different types of human non-professional phagocytic host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eSurmann


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549, and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293. Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen´s proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2x106 bacteria, roughly 1,450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreases in levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increases in amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive genes or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sigma-Theta (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a problem-solving methodology. In fact, it’s the most effective problem-solving methodology available for improving business and organizational performance. Bill Smith from Motorola first developed in 1986 the specific elements of Six Sigma. At the beginning, it was a set of practices which have been used in the manufacturing processes in order to eliminate the defects but, as time passed, the concept has been extended so as to be used in other types of businesses, too. The 6th Sigma level corresponds to a 99,9997% performance, respectively 3,4 defects per a million of occasions. A Six Sigma process is a redesigned business process and has three basic elements: Process Improvement; Designing/redesigning the process; The Process Management.

  11. Human scalp recorded sigma activity is modulated by slow EEG oscillations during deep sleep. (United States)

    Fell, Jürgen; Elfadil, Hakim; Röschke, Joachim; Burr, Wieland; Klaver, Peter; Elger, Christian E; Fernández, Guillén


    The EEG during deep sleep exhibits a distinct cortically generated slow oscillation of around and below 1 Hz which can be distinguished from other delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) activity. Intracranial studies showed that this slow oscillation triggers and groups cortical network firing. In the present study, we examined whether the phases of the slow oscillation during sleep stage 4 are correlated with the magnitude of sigma (12-16 Hz) and gamma (> 20 Hz) scalp activity. For this purpose, 10-min segments of uninterrupted stage 4 sleep EEG from 9 subjects were analyzed by applying wavelet techniques. We found that scalp recorded sigma, but not gamma, activity is modulated by the phases of the slow oscillation during deep sleep. Enhancement of sigma activity was observed to be triggered by the peak of the surface positive slow wave component, whereas reduction of sigma activity started around the peak of the negative component.

  12. Gulf of Maine - Water Salinity, Temperature and Sigma t (density) data from 1912 to 1930 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table contains water salinity, temperature and sigma t (density) data from 1912 to 1930 binned at 10 meter depth intervals (from 300 meters up to 0 meters) for...

  13. Gulf of Maine - Water Salinity, Temperature and Sigma t (density) data from 1981 to 2005 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table contains water salinity, temperature and sigma t (density) data from 1981 to 2005 binned at 10 meter depth intervals (from 300 meters up to 0 meters) for...

  14. Gulf of Maine - Water Salinity, Temperature and Sigma t (density) data from 1956 to 1980 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table contains water salinity, temperature and sigma t (density) data from 1956 to 1980 binned at 10 meter depth intervals (from 300 meters up to 0 meters) for...

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fonseca


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a disciplined approach for dramatically reducing defects and producing measurable financial results (Anand, 2006; Linderman et al., 2003. It should not be a simple statistical tool, but rather a strategic management approach by supporting key projects aligned with the business goals and customer requirements. Although associated with considerable Return on Investments, there is not enough evidence of Six Sigma application within Portuguese companies. It is the aim of this exploratory research to study Six Sigma utilization by Portuguese Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The descriptive analysis and the statistical tests carried out, point to lack of knowledge with this Methodology (Higher at Top Management level and a sense of comfort with the existing management systems (mainly ISO 9001. The authors recommend increasing Six Sigma training and education and additional studies to gather further knowledge and contribute to more competitive and sustainable organizations.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    In the last decades, sustainable development have increasingly gained importance to service industry and lean/Six Sigma approaches are becoming more and more outstanding in order to improve sustainability performance...

  18. The importance of training for sustainable growth: Example of Six Sigma implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nastasic, Aleksandra; Kostic, Manojlo; Banjevic, Koviljka


    .... Implementation of Six Sigma (6σ) concept and appropriate techniques and tools for quality management contribute to the efficiency and effectiveness of the business as a whole, in a manner that organization achieves and maintains...

  19. Lean and Six Sigma Methodologies in NHS Scotland: An Empirical Study and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiju Antony


    Full Text Available In recent years, the healthcare industry is constantly concerned to provide better quality of patient care with less waste of resources through application of continuous improvement (CI initiatives such as Lean and Six Sigma. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the status of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies in the National Health Service (NHS Scotland. Data was collected using survey instrument to determine the status of these strategies within the NHS. Although the personnel of NHS do seem to have the basic skills to successfully implement Lean Six Sigma, there appears to be a failure on the part of senior management to successfully communicate the desires and needs of these powerful CI initiatives with personnel. Moreover, a lack of encouragement and motivation, resistance to change and blame culture are quite prevalent across the sector which prevents Lean and Six Sigma strategies from being utilized in a systematic manner.

  20. Combating the Military's Escalating Pharmacy Costs: A Lean Six Sigma Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuce, James; Robinson, Lydia; Sikora, Tom


    The pharmacy operations of three military, Medical Treatment Facilities (MTF) were observed, to determine possible process improvements and cost saving mechanisms that may be achieved through Lean Six Sigma methodologies...

  1. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology. (United States)

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto


    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality.

  2. Implementation of Six Sigma Method to Maintain The Quality of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Latief


    Full Text Available Six sigma (6-sigma is a method that widely developed in the world, especially in manufacturing industry to decrease failures in achieving good quality in construction projects. The objective of this research is to explore the existing condition of quality management and the aplication of 6-sigma method in maintaining quality of construction projects. Structured interviews to experienced experts and people who were recommended by their companies were conducted. Non-parametric analysis using frequencies distribution procedures were used for analysis. The result shows that existing condition in quality management of construction project in Indonesia have been implemented 6-sigma method approach, that concern with is how to adapt with either from internal or external condition of that project.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živko Kondić


    Full Text Available The article discusses Six Sigma Methodology as business philosophy assuring excellent product or service quality and continuous process improving to realise highest customer satisfaction level. There are analysed methodology advantages allowing defects and costs reduction and customer satisfaction improvement. Also, authors discuss methodology successful implementation according to gathering data on business processes regulation indicators values variation, and issued products or services performances. The results of implementation process of the Six Sigma Methodology in business system depend on prompt and correct data needed for statistical analysis, and its accessibility via organisation’ information system. Correlation between implementation of Six Sigma Methodology and information system development is so strong that non-conformances could cause the Six Sigma Methodology implementation fall.

  4. Three-body {lambda}NN force due to {lambda}-{sigma} coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, Khin Swe [Mandalay Univ., Mandalay (Myanmar); Akaishi, Yoshinori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Inst. of Particle and Nuclear Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The {lambda}NN three - body force due to coherent {lambda} - {sigma} Coupling effect was derived from realistic Nijmegen model D potential. Repulsive and attractive three - body {lambda}NN forces were reconcilably accounted. For {sup 5}He, within one - channel description, {lambda}NN force is largely repulsive and its origin comes from Pauli forbidden terms. Within two - channel description, attractive Pauli allowed terms exist and resulting three - body force is always attractive. Large attractive {lambda}NN force effect due to coherent {lambda} - {sigma} coupling effect is predicted in neutron - rich nuclei. The attractive coherent {lambda} - {sigma} coupling effect is largely enhanced at high density neutron matter. The attractive three - body {lambda}NN force effect is essential dynamics of {lambda} - {sigma} coupling while the repulsive Nogami three - body effect arises from Pauli forbidden diagrams. (Y. Kazumata)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Considering the N = 1 supersymmetry transformations of supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in 1 + 1 dimensions we construct explicitly conserved Noether currents associated with supersymmetry transformations and derive the associated conserved charges in terms of the basic fields. We compare this

  6. Differential Photoproduction Cross Sections of the Sigma0(1385), Lambda(1405), and Lambda(1520)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Kei [Indiana U.; Schumacher, Reinhard A. [Carnegie Mellon U.


    We report the exclusive photoproduction cross sections for the Sigma(1385), Lambda(1405), and Lambda(1520) in the reactions gamma + p -> K+ + Y* using the CLAS detector for energies from near the respective production thresholds up to a center-of-mass energy W of 2.85 GeV. The differential cross sections are integrated to give the total exclusive cross sections for each hyperon. Comparisons are made to current theoretical models based on the effective Lagrangian approach and fitted to previous data. The accuracy of these models is seen to vary widely. The cross sections for the Lambda(1405) region are strikingly different for the Sigma+pi-, Sigma0 pi0, and Sigma- pi+ decay channels, indicating the effect of isospin interference, especially at W values close to the threshold.

  7. Gulf of Maine - Water Salinity, Temperature and Sigma t (density) data from 1931 to 1955 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table contains water salinity, temperature and sigma t (density) data from 1931 to 1955 binned at 10 meter depth intervals (from 300 meters up to 0 meters) for...

  8. Genome-scale reconstruction of the sigma factor network in Escherichia coli: topology and functional states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Donghyuk; Knight, Eric M.


    and negative regulation by alternative s-factors. Comparison with sigma-factor binding in Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that transcriptional regulation of conserved genes in closely related species is unexpectedly divergent. Conclusions: The reconstructed network reveals the regulatory complexity...

  9. Delta-Sigma Modulated Photodetection Method to Reduce Laser Power Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This delta-sigma technique may be thought of as a form of analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The proposed network offers a means of processing electronic signals...

  10. Modelo de referência para estruturar o Seis Sigma nas organizações Reference model to structure the Six Sigma in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Barbosa Santos


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o modelo de referência para estruturar o Seis Sigma, o qual é resultante da incorporação de teorias que contribuem para aumentar o potencial estratégico do Seis Sigma no sentido de incrementar o desempenho organizacional. Em sua proposta, o modelo de referência engloba um direcionamento sobre certos requisitos primordiais para o sucesso do programa Seis Sigma. A base teórica de sustentação do modelo de referência foi construída a partir de estudos sobre a influência dos seguintes fatores: orientação estratégica e alinhamento estratégico; medição e gerenciamento do desempenho organizacional; uso de estatística (pensamento estatístico; capacitação/especialização de pessoas; implementação e gerenciamento de projetos; e uso de tecnologia de informação. Complementando a proposição do modelo, o artigo traz evidências empíricas acerca da contribuição dos fatores identificados na formulação do modelo de referência, expondo resultados decorrentes de estudos de caso realizados em quatro subsidiárias brasileiras de multinacionais de grande porte. A análise dos dados forneceu evidências positivas de que os fatores mencionados influenciam de forma efetiva o sucesso e a consolidação do Seis Sigma nas empresas estudadas.This paper introduces the reference model to structure Six Sigma. This model is a result of theory incorporation that contributes to increase the strategic power of Six Sigma for improving businesses performance. Reference model proposal points out certain primordial requirements for de Six Sigma program success. The theoretical basis to sustain the reference model was supported in studies about the influence of critical factors such as: strategic orientation and strategic alignment; business performance measurement; statistical approach (statistical thinking; people training; project implementation; and information technology use. Complementing the model proposition, this paper

  11. On the {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}) ratio in the k{sub t}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We address the puzzle of {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}) ratio at the collider and fixed-target experiments. We consider several factors that can affect the predicted ratio of the production rates. In particular, we discuss the effect of {chi}{sub cJ} polarization, the effect of including next-to-leading order contributions, and the effect of probably different {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} wave functions. (orig.)

  12. Assessing precision, bias and sigma-metrics of 53 measurands of the Alinity ci system. (United States)

    Westgard, Sten; Petrides, Victoria; Schneider, Sharon; Berman, Marvin; Herzogenrath, Jörg; Orzechowski, Anthony


    Assay performance is dependent on the accuracy and precision of a given method. These attributes can be combined into an analytical Sigma-metric, providing a simple value for laboratorians to use in evaluating a test method's capability to meet its analytical quality requirements. Sigma-metrics were determined for 37 clinical chemistry assays, 13 immunoassays, and 3 ICT methods on the Alinity ci system. Analytical Performance Specifications were defined for the assays, following a rationale of using CLIA goals first, then Ricos Desirable goals when CLIA did not regulate the method, and then other sources if the Ricos Desirable goal was unrealistic. A precision study was conducted at Abbott on each assay using the Alinity ci system following the CLSI EP05-A2 protocol. Bias was estimated following the CLSI EP09-A3 protocol using samples with concentrations spanning the assay's measuring interval tested in duplicate on the Alinity ci system and ARCHITECT c8000 and i2000 SR systems, where testing was also performed at Abbott. Using the regression model, the %bias was estimated at an important medical decisions point. Then the Sigma-metric was estimated for each assay and was plotted on a method decision chart. The Sigma-metric was calculated using the equation: Sigma-metric=(%TEa-|%bias|)/%CV. The Sigma-metrics and Normalized Method Decision charts demonstrate that a majority of the Alinity assays perform at least at five Sigma or higher, at or near critical medical decision levels. More than 90% of the assays performed at Five and Six Sigma. None performed below Three Sigma. Sigma-metrics plotted on Normalized Method Decision charts provide useful evaluations of performance. The majority of Alinity ci system assays had sigma values >5 and thus laboratories can expect excellent or world class performance. Laboratorians can use these tools as aids in choosing high-quality products, further contributing to the delivery of excellent quality healthcare for patients


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Background: Six Sigma is related to product’s characteristics and parameters of actions, needed to obtain these products. On the other hand, it is a multi-step, cyclic process aimed at the improvements leading to global standard, closed to the perfection. There is a growing interest in Six Sigma methodology among smaller organizations but there are still too little publications presented such events in the sector of small and medium enterprises, especially based on good empirical results. It was already noticed at the phase of the preliminary researches, that only small part of companies from this sector in Pomerian region use elements of this methodology. Methods: The companies were divided into groups by the type of their activities as well as the employment size. The questionnaires were sent to 150 randomly selected organizations in two steps and were addressed to senior managers. The questionnaire contained the questions about basic information about a company, the level of the knowledge and the practical application of Six Sigma methodology, opinions about improvements of processes occurring in the company, opinions about trainings in Six Sigma methodology. Results: The following hypotheses were proposed, statistically verified and received the answer: The lack of the adequate knowledge of Six Sigma methodology in SMEs limits the possibility to effectively monitor and improve processes - accepted. The use of statistical tools of Six Sigma methodology requires the broad action to popularize this knowledge among national SMEs - accepted. The level of the awareness of the importance as well as practical use of Six Sigma methodology in manufacturing SMEs is higher than in SMEs providing services - rejected, the level is equal. The level of the knowledge and the use of Six Sigma methodology in medium manufacturing companies is significantly higher than in small manufacturing companies - accepted. The level of the knowledge and the application

  14. A negative feedback loop that limits the ectopic activation of a cell type-specific sporulation sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Serrano, Mónica; Real, Gonçalo; Santos, Joana; Carneiro, Jorge; Moran, Charles P; Henriques, Adriano O


    Two highly similar RNA polymerase sigma subunits, σ(F) and σ(G), govern the early and late phases of forespore-specific gene expression during spore differentiation in Bacillus subtilis. σ(F) drives synthesis of σ(G) but the latter only becomes active once engulfment of the forespore by the mother cell is completed, its levels rising quickly due to a positive feedback loop. The mechanisms that prevent premature or ectopic activation of σ(G) while discriminating between σ(F) and σ(G) in the forespore are not fully comprehended. Here, we report that the substitution of an asparagine by a glutamic acid at position 45 of σ(G) (N45E) strongly reduced binding by a previously characterized anti-sigma factor, CsfB (also known as Gin), in vitro, and increased the activity of σ(G) in vivo. The N45E mutation caused the appearance of a sub-population of pre-divisional cells with strong activity of σ(G). CsfB is normally produced in the forespore, under σ(F) control, but sigGN45E mutant cells also expressed csfB and did so in a σ(G)-dependent manner, autonomously from σ(F). Thus, a negative feedback loop involving CsfB counteracts the positive feedback loop resulting from ectopic σ(G) activity. N45 is invariant in the homologous position of σ(G) orthologues, whereas its functional equivalent in σ(F) proteins, E39, is highly conserved. While CsfB does not bind to wild-type σ(F), a E39N substitution in σ(F) resulted in efficient binding of CsfB to σ(F). Moreover, under certain conditions, the E39N alteration strongly restrains the activity of σ(F) in vivo, in a csfB-dependent manner, and the efficiency of sporulation. Therefore, a single amino residue, N45/E39, is sufficient for the ability of CsfB to discriminate between the two forespore-specific sigma factors in B. subtilis.

  15. A negative feedback loop that limits the ectopic activation of a cell type-specific sporulation sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Serrano


    Full Text Available Two highly similar RNA polymerase sigma subunits, σ(F and σ(G, govern the early and late phases of forespore-specific gene expression during spore differentiation in Bacillus subtilis. σ(F drives synthesis of σ(G but the latter only becomes active once engulfment of the forespore by the mother cell is completed, its levels rising quickly due to a positive feedback loop. The mechanisms that prevent premature or ectopic activation of σ(G while discriminating between σ(F and σ(G in the forespore are not fully comprehended. Here, we report that the substitution of an asparagine by a glutamic acid at position 45 of σ(G (N45E strongly reduced binding by a previously characterized anti-sigma factor, CsfB (also known as Gin, in vitro, and increased the activity of σ(G in vivo. The N45E mutation caused the appearance of a sub-population of pre-divisional cells with strong activity of σ(G. CsfB is normally produced in the forespore, under σ(F control, but sigGN45E mutant cells also expressed csfB and did so in a σ(G-dependent manner, autonomously from σ(F. Thus, a negative feedback loop involving CsfB counteracts the positive feedback loop resulting from ectopic σ(G activity. N45 is invariant in the homologous position of σ(G orthologues, whereas its functional equivalent in σ(F proteins, E39, is highly conserved. While CsfB does not bind to wild-type σ(F, a E39N substitution in σ(F resulted in efficient binding of CsfB to σ(F. Moreover, under certain conditions, the E39N alteration strongly restrains the activity of σ(F in vivo, in a csfB-dependent manner, and the efficiency of sporulation. Therefore, a single amino residue, N45/E39, is sufficient for the ability of CsfB to discriminate between the two forespore-specific sigma factors in B. subtilis.

  16. High-resolution IF-to-baseband sigma delta ADC for car radios

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Paulo G R


    High-Resolution IF-to-Baseband SigmaDelta ADC for Car Radios addresses the theory, system level design and circuit implementation of a high-resolution continuous-time IF-to-baseband quadrature SigmaDelta ADC. The target application of this ADC is in AM/FM/IBOC car radios. The ADC achieves a dynamic range of 118dB, which eliminates the need for an IF VGA or AM channel filter in car radios.



    Ahmad Mukti Almansur; Sukardi Sukardi; Machfud Machfud


    This research aims to analyze waste or loss using the 7-waste approach and value added/non value added activities in the production process at PT. XYZ. This research also aims to evaluate the production process capability and sigma values at PT. XYZ and used DMAIC technique (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control) from Lean Six-sigma with an analysis using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The results of the research obtained the values of Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE) of...

  18. Customer Satisfaction Measurement and Analysis Using Six Sigma in Telecom Sector of Pakistan


    Muhammad Imran Qureshi; Nazia Bashir; Khalid Zaman; Nadia Sajjad; Shazia Fakhr


    Six Sigma has been considered as a powerful business strategy that employs a well structured continuous improvementmethodology to reduce process variability and waste within the business processes along with an effective application of statistical tools andtechniques. The objective of the study measures the customer satisfaction in Telecom sector of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa (KPK) province ofPakistan by using the six sigma methodology. The study further elaborates a mixture of tools and techniques...

  19. Six Sigma arises from the ashes of TQM with a twist. (United States)

    Black, Ken; Revere, Lee


    This paper sets out to analyse the use of the Six Sigma methodology to improve quality in healthcare. It looks at how Six Sigma grew out of the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM). Six Sigma is a quality improvement methodology that has been widely adopted by companies since the early 1990s and has grown exponentially in the healthcare industry during the past five years. Some of the main tenets of Six Sigma have emerged from the principles of TQM, including the notion that the entire organization must support the quality effort; that there should be a vigorous education effort; and that a quality improvement process should emphasize root cause analysis. In spite of its early success, TQM "crashed and burned" for several reasons including the fact that financial benefits were difficult to assign to TQM efforts, root cause was not always determined resulting in recurring errors, there was no common metric to measure the level of quality attained, and quality efforts were sometimes aimed at processes or operations that were not critical to the customer. Six Sigma filled the vacuums created by these TQM failures in several ways. Under the Six Sigma methodology, quality improvement projects are carefully defined so that they can be successfully completed within a relatively short time frame. Financials are applied to each completed project so that management knows how much the project saves the institution. On each project, intense study is used to determine root cause analysis; and in the end, a metric known as "sigma level" can be assigned to signify the level of quality. Six Sigma has a "critical to quality" dimension that keeps the quality effort focused on improving only those things that really matter to the customer.

  20. Comparison of Sigma-Point and Extended Kalman Filters on a Realistic Orbit Determination Scenario (United States)

    Gaebler, John; Hur-Diaz. Sun; Carpenter, Russell


    Sigma-point filters have received a lot of attention in recent years as a better alternative to extended Kalman filters for highly nonlinear problems. In this paper, we compare the performance of the additive divided difference sigma-point filter to the extended Kalman filter when applied to orbit determination of a realistic operational scenario based on the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission. For the scenario studied, both filters provided equivalent results. The performance of each is discussed in detail.

  1. Use of Six Sigma for eliminating missed opportunities for prevention services. (United States)

    Gittner, LisaAnn S; Husaini, Baqar A; Hull, Pamela C; Emerson, Janice S; Tropez-Sims, Suzanne; Reece, Michelle C; Zoorob, Roger; Levine, Robert S


    Delivery of primary care preventative services can be significantly increased utilizing Six Sigma methods. Missed preventative service opportunities were compared in the study clinic with the community clinic in the same practice. The study clinic had 100% preventative services, compared with only 16.3% in the community clinic. Preventative services can be enhanced to Six Sigma quality when the nurse executive and medical staff agree on a single standard of nursing care executed via standing orders.

  2. Practical support for Lean Six Sigma software process definition using IEEE software engineering standards

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Susan K; Walz, John W


    Practical Support for Lean Six Sigma Software Process Definition: Using IEEE Software Engineering Standards addresses the task of meeting the specific documentation requirements in support of Lean Six Sigma. This book provides a set of templates supporting the documentation required for basic software project control and management and covers the integration of these templates for their entire product development life cycle. Find detailed documentation guidance in the form of organizational policy descriptions, integrated set of deployable document templates, artifacts required in suppo

  3. The Applicability of Lean and Six Sigma Techniques to Clinical and Translational Research (United States)

    Schweikhart, Sharon A.; Dembe, Allard E


    Background Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside of the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma to improve the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the NIH Roadmap for Biomedical Research and the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program. Methods This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methodologies used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Results Examples are provided of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current CTSA site, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particularly translational research phases. Conclusions Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methodologies are well suited to help achieve NIH’s goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice. PMID:19730130

  4. A Novel Sigma-Delta Modulator with Fractional-Order Digital Loop Integrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes using a fractional-order digital loop integrator to improve the robust stability of Sigma-Delta modulator, thus extending the integer-order Sigma-Delta modulator to a non-integer-order (fractional-order one in the Sigma-Delta ADC design field. The proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator has reasonable noise characteristics, dynamic range, and bandwidth; moreover the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is improved remarkably. In particular, a 2nd-order digital loop integrator and a digital PIλDμ controller are combined to work as the fractional-order digital loop integrator, which is realized using FPGA; this will reduce the ASIC analog circuit layout design and chip testing difficulties. The parameters of the proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator are tuned by using swarm intelligent algorithm, which offers opportunity to simplify the process of tuning parameters and further improve the noise performance. Simulation results are given and they demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator.

  5. The applicability of Lean and Six Sigma techniques to clinical and translational research. (United States)

    Schweikhart, Sharon A; Dembe, Allard E


    Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma in improving the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research and the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Award program. This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methods used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Examples of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current Clinical and Translational Science Award site are provided, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particular translational research phases. Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods are well suited to help achieve NIH's goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice.

  6. Interest and limits of the six sigma methodology in medical laboratory. (United States)

    Scherrer, Florian; Bouilloux, Jean-Pierre; Calendini, Ors'Anton; Chamard, Didier; Cornu, François


    The mandatory accreditation of clinical laboratories in France provides an incentive to develop real tools to measure performance management methods and to optimize the management of internal quality controls. Six sigma methodology is an approach commonly applied to software quality management and discussed in numerous publications. This paper discusses the primary factors that influence the sigma index (the choice of the total allowable error, the approach used to address bias) and compares the performance of different analyzers on the basis of the sigma index. Six sigma strategy can be applied to the policy management of internal quality control in a laboratory and demonstrates through a comparison of four analyzers that there is no single superior analyzer in clinical chemistry. Similar sigma results are obtained using approaches toward bias based on the EQAS or the IQC. The main difficulty in using the six sigma methodology lies in the absence of official guidelines for the definition of the total error acceptable. Despite this drawback, our comparison study suggests that difficulties with defined analytes do not vary with the analyzer used.

  7. Using Six Sigma methodology to reduce patient transfer times from floor to critical-care beds. (United States)

    Silich, Stephan J; Wetz, Robert V; Riebling, Nancy; Coleman, Christine; Khoueiry, Georges; Abi Rafeh, Nidal; Bagon, Emma; Szerszen, Anita


    In response to concerns regarding delays in transferring critically ill patients to intensive care units (ICU), a quality improvement project, using the Six Sigma process, was undertaken to correct issues leading to transfer delay. To test the efficacy of a Six Sigma intervention to reduce transfer time and establish a patient transfer process that would effectively enhance communication between hospital caregivers and improve the continuum of care for patients. The project was conducted at a 714-bed tertiary care hospital in Staten Island, New York. A Six Sigma multidisciplinary team was assembled to assess areas that needed improvement, manage the intervention, and analyze the results. The Six Sigma process identified eight key steps in the transfer of patients from general medical floors to critical care areas. Preintervention data and a root-cause analysis helped to establish the goal transfer-time limits of 3 h for any individual transfer and 90 min for the average of all transfers. The Six Sigma approach is a problem-solving methodology that resulted in almost a 60% reduction in patient transfer time from a general medical floor to a critical care area. The Six Sigma process is a feasible method for implementing healthcare related quality of care projects, especially those that are complex. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  8. Reduction in Chemotherapy Mixing Errors Using Six Sigma: Illinois CancerCare Experience. (United States)

    Heard, Bridgette; Miller, Laura; Kumar, Pankaj


    Chemotherapy mixing errors (CTMRs), although rare, have serious consequences. Illinois CancerCare is a large practice with multiple satellite offices. The goal of this study was to reduce the number of CTMRs using Six Sigma methods. A Six Sigma team consisting of five participants (registered nurses and pharmacy technicians [PTs]) was formed. The team had 10 hours of Six Sigma training in the DMAIC (ie, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) process. Measurement of errors started from the time the CT order was verified by the PT to the time of CT administration by the nurse. Data collection included retrospective error tracking software, system audits, and staff surveys. Root causes of CTMRs included inadequate knowledge of CT mixing protocol, inconsistencies in checking methods, and frequent changes in staffing of clinics. Initial CTMRs (n = 33,259) constituted 0.050%, with 77% of these errors affecting patients. The action plan included checklists, education, and competency testing. The postimplementation error rate (n = 33,376, annualized) over a 3-month period was reduced to 0.019%, with only 15% of errors affecting patients. Initial Sigma was calculated at 4.2; this process resulted in the improvement of Sigma to 5.2, representing a 100-fold reduction. Financial analysis demonstrated a reduction in annualized loss of revenue (administration charges and drug wastage) from $11,537.95 (Medicare Average Sales Price) before the start of the project to $1,262.40. The Six Sigma process is a powerful technique in the reduction of CTMRs.

  9. Chronic exercise increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, pancreatic islet size, and insulin tolerance in a TrkB-dependent manner. (United States)

    Jiménez-Maldonado, Alberto; de Álvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces; Montero, Sergio; Melnikov, Valery; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Rodríguez-Hernández, Alejandrina; Lemus, Mónica; Murguía, Jesús Muñiz


    Physical exercise improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances insulin activity in diabetic rodents. Because physical exercise modifies BDNF production, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on plasma BDNF levels and the possible effects on insulin tolerance modification in healthy rats. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control (sedentary, C); moderate- intensity training (MIT); MIT plus K252A TrkB blocker (MITK); high-intensity training (HIT); and HIT plus K252a (HITK). Training comprised 8 weeks of treadmill running. Plasma BDNF levels (ELISA assay), glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and immunohistochemistry for insulin and the pancreatic islet area were evaluated in all groups. In addition, Bdnf mRNA expression in the skeletal muscle was measured. Chronic treadmill exercise significantly increased plasma BDNF levels and insulin tolerance, and both effects were attenuated by TrkB blocking. In the MIT and HIT groups, a significant TrkB-dependent pancreatic islet enlargement was observed. MIT rats exhibited increased liver glycogen levels following insulin administration in a TrkB-independent manner. Chronic physical exercise exerted remarkable effects on insulin regulation by inducing significant increases in the pancreatic islet size and insulin sensitivity in a TrkB-dependent manner. A threshold for the induction of BNDF in response to physical exercise exists in certain muscle groups. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results to reveal a role for TrkB in the chronic exercise-mediated insulin regulation in healthy rats.

  10. Lymphotoxin-alpha 1 beta 2 and LIGHT induce classical and noncanonical NF-kappa B-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in vascular endothelial cells. (United States)

    Madge, Lisa A; Kluger, Martin S; Orange, Jordan S; May, Michael J


    Activation of the classical and noncanonical NF-kappaB pathways by ligation of the lymphotoxin (LT)-beta receptor (LTbetaR) plays a crucial role in lymphoid organogenesis and in the generation of ectopic lymphoid tissue at sites of chronic inflammation. Within these microenvironments, LTbetaR signaling regulates the phenotype of the specialized high endothelial cells. However, the direct effects of LTbetaR ligation on endothelial cells remain unclear. We therefore questioned whether LTbetaR ligation could directly activate endothelial cells and regulate classical and noncanonical NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. We demonstrate that the LTbetaR ligands LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 activate both NF-kappaB pathways in HUVECs and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). Classical pathway activation was less robust than TNF-induced signaling; however, only LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 and not TNF activated the noncanonical pathway. LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 induced the expression of classical NF-kappaB-dependent genes in HUVEC, including those encoding the adhesion molecules E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Consistent with this stimulation, LTbetaR ligation up-regulated T cell adhesion to HUVEC. Furthermore, the homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was up-regulated by LIGHT and LTalpha1beta2 but not TNF in both HUVEC and HDMEC. Using HUVEC retrovirally transduced with dominant negative IkappaB kinase alpha, we demonstrate that CXCL12 expression is regulated by the noncanonical pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings therefore demonstrate that LTbetaR ligation regulates gene expression in endothelial cells via both NF-kappaB pathways and we identify CXCL12 as a bona fide noncanonical NF-kappaB-regulated gene in these cells.

  11. Interleukin-1β modulates smooth muscle cell phenotype to a distinct inflammatory state relative to PDGF-DD via NF-κB-dependent mechanisms. (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew R; Murgai, Meera; Moehle, Christopher W; Owens, Gary K


    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation in atherosclerosis and in response to PDGF in vitro involves repression of differentiation marker genes and increases in SMC proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis. However, SMCs within atherosclerotic plaques can also express a number of proinflammatory genes, and in cultured SMCs the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β represses SMC marker gene expression and induces inflammatory gene expression. Studies herein tested the hypothesis that IL-1β modulates SMC phenotype to a distinct inflammatory state relative to PDGF-DD. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of IL-1β- or PDGF-DD-treated SMCs revealed that although both stimuli repressed SMC differentiation marker gene expression, IL-1β distinctly induced expression of proinflammatory genes, while PDGF-DD primarily induced genes involved in cell proliferation. Promoters of inflammatory genes distinctly induced by IL-1β exhibited over-representation of NF-κB binding sites, and NF-κB inhibition in SMCs reduced IL-1β-induced upregulation of proinflammatory genes as well as repression of SMC differentiation marker genes. Interestingly, PDGF-DD-induced SMC marker gene repression was not NF-κB dependent. Finally, immunofluorescent staining of mouse atherosclerotic lesions revealed the presence of cells positive for the marker of an IL-1β-stimulated inflammatory SMC, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), but not the PDGF-DD-induced gene, regulator of G protein signaling 17 (RGS17). Results demonstrate that IL-1β- but not PDGF-DD-induced phenotypic modulation of SMC is characterized by NF-κB-dependent activation of proinflammatory genes, suggesting the existence of a distinct inflammatory SMC phenotype. In addition, studies provide evidence for the possible utility of CCL20 and RGS17 as markers of inflammatory and proliferative state SMCs within atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.

  12. Chronic exercise increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, pancreatic islet size, and insulin tolerance in a TrkB-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical exercise improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF enhances insulin activity in diabetic rodents. Because physical exercise modifies BDNF production, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on plasma BDNF levels and the possible effects on insulin tolerance modification in healthy rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control (sedentary, C; moderate- intensity training (MIT; MIT plus K252A TrkB blocker (MITK; high-intensity training (HIT; and HIT plus K252a (HITK. Training comprised 8 weeks of treadmill running. Plasma BDNF levels (ELISA assay, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and immunohistochemistry for insulin and the pancreatic islet area were evaluated in all groups. In addition, Bdnf mRNA expression in the skeletal muscle was measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic treadmill exercise significantly increased plasma BDNF levels and insulin tolerance, and both effects were attenuated by TrkB blocking. In the MIT and HIT groups, a significant TrkB-dependent pancreatic islet enlargement was observed. MIT rats exhibited increased liver glycogen levels following insulin administration in a TrkB-independent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic physical exercise exerted remarkable effects on insulin regulation by inducing significant increases in the pancreatic islet size and insulin sensitivity in a TrkB-dependent manner. A threshold for the induction of BNDF in response to physical exercise exists in certain muscle groups. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results to reveal a role for TrkB in the chronic exercise-mediated insulin regulation in healthy rats.

  13. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin


    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  14. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A


    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  15. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus


    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis in diverse host environments (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Divya; Harper, Lamia; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J.


    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an eminent human pathogen that can colonize the human host and cause severe life-threatening illnesses. This bacterium can reside in and infect a wide range of host tissues, ranging from superficial surfaces like the skin to deeper tissues such as in the gastrointestinal tract, heart and bones. Due to its multifaceted lifestyle, S. aureus uses complex regulatory networks to sense diverse signals that enable it to adapt to different environments and modulate virulence. In this minireview, we explore well-characterized environmental and host cues that S. aureus responds to and describe how this pathogen modulates virulence in response to these signals. Lastly, we highlight therapeutic approaches undertaken by several groups to inhibit both signaling and the cognate regulators that sense and transmit these signals downstream. PMID:28104617

  17. Upsilon NU: Our chapter in Sigma Theta Tau Internacional Upsilon NU: nuestro capítulo en Sigma Theta Tau International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ALa Sociedad de Honor de Enfermería, Sigma Theta Tau Internacional, es una organización que nace y vive para desarrollar el conocimiento y la ciencia de enfermería como fundamentos del liderazgo y la búsqueda de la excelencia en el cuidado de la persona, la familia y la comunidad.

  18. Characterization and in vivo regulon determination of an ECF sigma factor and its cognate anti-sigma factor in Nostoc punctiforme. (United States)

    Bell, Nicole; Lee, Jamie J; Summers, Michael L


    Based on primary sequence comparisons and genomic context, Npun_F4153 (SigG)/Npun_F4154 (SapG) of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme were hypothesized to encode an ECF sigma factor/anti-sigma factor pair. Transcription of sigG increased in heterocysts and akinetes, and after EDTA treatment. Interaction between SigG and the predicted cytoplasmic domain of SapG was observed in vitro. A SigG-GFP translational fusion protein localized to the periphery of vegetative cells in vivo, but lost this association following heat stress. A sigG mutant was unable to survive envelope damage caused by heat or EDTA, but was able to form functional heterocysts. Akinetes in the mutant strain appeared normal, but these cultures were less resistant to lysozyme and cold treatments than those of the wild-type strain. The SigG in vivo regulon was determined before and during akinete differentiation using DNA microarray analysis, and found to include multiple genes with putative association to the cell envelope. Mapped promoters common to both arrays enabled identification of a SigG promoter-binding motif that was supported in vivo by reporter studies, and in vitro by run-off transcription experiments. These findings support SigG/SapG as a sigma/anti-sigma pair involved in repair of envelope damage resulting from exogenous sources or cellular differentiation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso


    Full Text Available Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador encarregado de fazer o diagnóstico de gestação nas coelhas. Histologicamente, havia formação de múltiplos abscessos, presença de bactérias gram positivas em vasos sangüíneos e linfáticos, além de êmbolos bacterianos nos tecidos. Nas mamas, observou-se tecido glandular normal associado a abscessos multifocais delimitados.At a commercial rabbitry which was composed of 1800 New Zealand White rabbits, 30% of the does had presented mastitis and purulent cutaneal lesions. The age of the animals ranged from 10 to 12 months and were at the second parturition. At necropsy, microabscesses were observed in several organs. Bacteriological samples collected from affected animals resulted Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus.. Additionally, the same agent has been isolated from a nasal swab collected from the person responsible for the pregnancy diagnosis. Histologically, there were multiple abscesses, gram positive bacteria within blood and lymphatic vessels, and bacterial emboli scattered in the tissues. In the mammas, normal glandular tissue associated with multifocal abscesses were observed.

  20. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 ear and nasal swab samples collected from 35 persons, 16-hospital population and 19 non-hospital population was examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Eighty percent of the population studied were found to be carriers of S. aureus. Of the 28 positive cases, 35.7% were carriers of S. aureus. in ...

  1. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the anterior nares of healthy pupils and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. 116 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were biochemically characterized as coagulase positive S. aureus. Susceptibility profile of the isolates revealed that 15(14.85%) ...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and provides...

  3. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...

  4. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 30, 2008 ... Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We investigated the frequency of nasal S. aureus carriage in patients with perennial ...

  5. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three Hundred and Sixty fresh cow milk samples were collected from settled Fulani herds in Kaduna State and examined for S. aureus and their antibiotic resistance. Fifty five samples (15.3%) were positive for S. aureus. The occurrence of S. aureus was statistically significant (P<0.005) based on locations. Statistical ...

  7. Measurement of the $\\Sigma \\pi$ photoproduction line shapes near the $\\Lambda(1405)$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Anderson, M D; Anefalos Pereira, S; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bellis, M; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crede, V; D& #x27; Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Dey, B; Djalali, C; Doughty, R; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Fleming, J A; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J. D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McCracken, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Munevar, E; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Nepali, C S; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, E; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pivnyuk, N; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatio, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, S; Taylor, C E; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S; Torayev, B; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P


    The reaction {gamma} + p -> K{sup +} + {Sigma} + {p}i was used to determine the invariant mass distributions or "line shapes" of the {Sigma}{sup +} {pi}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} final states, from threshold at 1328 MeV/c^2 through the mass range of the {Lambda}(1405) and the {Lambda}(1520). The measurements were made with the CLAS system at Jefferson Lab using tagged real photons, for center-of-mass energies 1.95 < W < 2.85 GeV. The three mass distributions differ strongly in the vicinity of the I=0 {Lambda}(1405), indicating the presence of substantial I=1 strength in the reaction. Background contributions to the data from the {Sigma}{sup 0}(1385) and from K* {Sigma} production were studied and shown to have negligible influence. To separate the isospin amplitudes, Breit-Wigner model fits were made that included channel-coupling distortions due to the Nkbar threshold. A best fit to all the data was obtained after including a phenomenological I=1, J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} amplitude with a centroid at 1394\\pm20 MeV/c^2 and a second I=1 amplitude at 1413\\pm10 MeV/c^2. The centroid of the I=0 {Lambda}(1405) strength was found at the {Sigma} {pi} threshold, with the observed shape determined largely by channel-coupling, leading to an apparent overall peak near 1405 MeV/c^2.

  8. Evaluation of Preanalytical Quality Indicators by Six Sigma and Pareto`s Principle. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sweta; Ramesh, R; Srinivasan, A R; Silvia, C R Wilma Delphine


    Preanalytical steps are the major sources of error in clinical laboratory. The analytical errors can be corrected by quality control procedures but there is a need for stringent quality checks in preanalytical area as these processes are done outside the laboratory. Sigma value depicts the performance of laboratory and its quality measures. Hence in the present study six sigma and Pareto principle was applied to preanalytical quality indicators to evaluate the clinical biochemistry laboratory performance. This observational study was carried out for a period of 1 year from November 2015-2016. A total of 1,44,208 samples and 54,265 test requisition forms were screened for preanalytical errors like missing patient information, sample collection details in forms and hemolysed, lipemic, inappropriate, insufficient samples and total number of errors were calculated and converted into defects per million and sigma scale. Pareto`s chart was drawn using total number of errors and cumulative percentage. In 75% test requisition forms diagnosis was not mentioned and sigma value of 0.9 was obtained and for other errors like sample receiving time, stat and type of sample sigma values were 2.9, 2.6, and 2.8 respectively. For insufficient sample and improper ratio of blood to anticoagulant sigma value was 4.3. Pareto`s chart depicts out of 80% of errors in requisition forms, 20% is contributed by missing information like diagnosis. The development of quality indicators, application of six sigma and Pareto`s principle are quality measures by which not only preanalytical, the total testing process can be improved.

  9. Design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma Modulator using SC Technique for Vibration Sensor Output Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlik


    Full Text Available The work deals with the design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma modulator using switched capacitors (SC technique. The modulator serves to vibration sensor output processing. The first part describes the Delta-Sigma modulator parameters definition. Results of the proposed topology ideal model were presented as well. Next, the Delta-Sigma modulator circuitry on the transistor level was done. The ONSemiconductor I2T100 0.7 um CMOS technology was used for design. Then, the Delta-Sigma modulator nonidealities were simulated and implemented into the MATLAB ideal model of the modulator. The model of real Delta-Sigma modulator was derived. Consequently, modulator coefficients were optimized. Finally, the corner analysis of the Delta-Sigma modulator with the optimized coefficients was simulated. The value of SNDR = 82.2 dB (ENOB = 13.4 bits was achieved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javedhusen Malek


    Full Text Available In today's ever-changing customer driven market, industries are needed to improve their products and processes to satisfy customer requirements. The Six Sigma approach has set a new paradigm of business excellence. Six Sigma as a process driven improvement methodology has been adopted successfully by many industries. From the review of various literatures, it is revealed that Six Sigma is well adopted in large scale enterprise but having less evidence of adoption in Indian SMEs. This paper is focused on providing path to Indian SMEs for initiating Six Sigma approach in their industries. The paper discusses the real life case where Six Sigma has been successfully applied at one of the Indian small-scale unit to improve rejection/rework rate in manufacturing products by pressure die casting process. This paper describes phase wise application of all the phases of define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC which also shows impact of Six Sigma in quality improvement.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika


    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  13. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there was no bacterial growth after 48hrs incubation recorded for group one, only 5(13.9%) samples yielded growth of Staphylococcus aureus for group two with 31(86.1%) yielding no bacterial growth. All group three samples yielded profuse growth of which 11(36.7%) yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  15. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected ...

  16. Profiling the surfacome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; Hempel, Kristina; Buist, Girbe; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Doerte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide variety of life-threatening diseases. Especially for the colonization of human tissues and the development of invasiveness, surface-exposed proteins are of major importance. In the present studies, we optimized a

  17. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples collected from patients in Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance to quinolones by the agar disk diffusion susceptibility test and the agar ...

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui


    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a mainly acquired hospital infection is responsible for many suppurative lesions and has demonstrated the ability of developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents leading to life threatening infections and long hospital stay. Objective: To determined the prevalence and antibiotic ...

  1. Polyclonal antibodies production against Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 1, 2010 ... The main aim of this project is to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against the Staphylococcus aureus protein A and their use to appreciate bacteriological analysis of milk quality. In this context, an immunization produce was set up to test and detect in a batch of animals the convenient responder to.

  2. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  3. Staphylococcus aureus infections; Lead by the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)


    textabstractAn overview and the latest insights regarding S. aureus nasal carriage, associated risks of developing infections and possible preventive measures, will be given in Chapter 2. Since mupirocin efficacy studies in preventing nosocomial infections have only been performed in surgical and

  4. Microbial population of Staphyloccous aureus from inanimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High frequency of S. aureus was observed in toilet seat with perecentage distribution of 78%, followed by floor with percentage distribution of 70% and locker with percentage distribution of 65% and the lowest frequency occurence was observed in switch with percentage distribution of 30%. Frequency occurrence of S.

  5. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes a sustained LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent expression of CD55 in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Izban

    Full Text Available The vitamin D3 system imposes immunosuppressive effects on monocytic cells, in part, by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent expression of proinflammatory mediators. CD55, a cell surface complement regulatory protein that promotes protective and anti-inflammatory properties, is reportedly an NF-κB target gene transiently induced in monocytic cells by the bacterial endotoxin LPS. CD55 is elevated on white cells in women experiencing preterm labor (a pathophysiology commonly associated with bacterial infection and failure to maintain CD55 was associated with subsequent preterm delivery. We examined the influence of vitamin D3 signaling on LPS-induced expression of CD55 in human monocytic THP-1 cells using quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, and NF-κB activation pathway inhibitors. Non-NF-κB targets CD14 and CD11b, which modulate bacterial surveillance and eradication, respectively, were also examined. LPS produced a rapid transient 1.6-fold increase in CD55 mRNA. 1,25-D3 alone did not affect CD55 mRNA expression within the first 48 h. However, in 1,25-D3 pretreated cells, LPS produced a >4-fold immediate and sustained increase in CD55 mRNA and protein expression, which was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors. Our results unexpectedly suggest that vitamin D3 signaling may promote an anti-inflammatory response through an NF-κB-dependent increase in CD55 expression. As expected, LPS or 1,25-D3 alone led to sustained increases in CD14 and CD11b expression. In 1,25-D3 pretreated cells, LPS differentially regulated protein expression - CD14 (21-fold increase and CD11b (a transient 2-fold decrease - principally at the posttranscriptional level. The coordinated temporal expression of CD55, CD14 and CD11b would contribute to an anti-inflammatory response by providing protection against complement-mediated cell lysis during pathogen recognition and eradication. Overall, the vitamin D3 system may play a role coordinating an anti-inflammatory response

  6. Programa Seis Sigma: aspectos sinérgicos com outras abordagens de gerenciamento da qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Boarin Pinto


    Full Text Available Diversas abordagens de gestão da qualidade têm sido adotadas em todos os continentes há décadas. Uma das mais recentes, o programa Seis Sigma, vem sendo implementado por um número crescente de empresas. O Seis Sigma surge no atual cenário, em que as organizações realizam grandes investimentos na implementação de programas de melhoria da qualidade e se deparam com situações críticas como a mensuração do retorno sobre o capital investido, bem como a análise criteriosa dos benefícios alcançados. A proposta deste artigo é identificar as principais características do Seis Sigma, discutir quais os fatores críticos na sua implementação, as ferramentas e técnicas que suportam este processo, bem como sua relação com outros consagrados programas de melhoria da qualidade. A abordagem metodológica utilizada foi o estudo de múltiplos casos, desenvolvido em dez grandes empresas brasileiras de diferentes setores industriais. A pesquisa concluiu que existe sinergia entre o Seis Sigma e os demais programas e as organizações que adotaram o Seis Sigma obtiveram benefícios financeiros e de qualidade.

  7. Six sigma: program characteristics in eleven companies located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Terezinha Martins Correa Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Six Sigma combines managerial factors with statistical tools and is deployed in many enterprises today. Rio Grande do Sul is a Brazilian state that has a great industrialization, especially in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. Some of these industries have deployed the Six Sigma program. The aim of this paper is to present characteristics of the Six Sigma program in companies located in this region, through an exploratory study. A literature review subsidized the development of the questionnaire. Eleven companies participated of research in July and August 2008. It used statistical tools and qualitative analysis to analyze the results. Most of the companies that participated is classified as large and uses the DMAIC method to implement Six Sigma. The principal cause of program implementation was process improvement. In only one company the Six Sigma is implemented in all sectors, including administrative areas. Another result is the lack of clearly criteria for defining the career of Belts and the discrepancy of academic formation of these specialists.

  8. Quality specifications of routine clinical chemistry methods based on sigma metrics in performance evaluation. (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Su-Feng; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Lie


    Sigma metrics were applied to evaluate the performance of 20 routine chemistry assays, and individual quality control criteria were established based on the sigma values of different assays. Precisions were expressed as the average coefficient variations (CVs) of long-term two-level chemistry controls. The biases of the 20 assays were obtained from the results of trueness programs organized by National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL, China) in 2016. Four different allowable total error (TEa) targets were chosen from biological variation (minimum, desirable, optimal), Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments (CLIA, US), Analytical Quality Specification for Routine Analytes in Clinical Chemistry (WS/T 403-2012, China) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NECP). The sigma values from different TEa targets varied. The TEa targets for ALT, AMY, Ca, CHOL, CK, Crea, GGT, K, LDH, Mg, Na, TG, TP, UA and Urea were chosen from WS/T 403-2012; the targets for ALP, AST and GLU were chosen from CLIA; the target for K was chosen from desirable biological variation; and the targets for HDL and LDL were chosen from the NECP. Individual quality criteria were established based on different sigma values. Sigma metrics are an optimal tool to evaluate the performance of different assays. An assay with a high value could use a simple internal quality control rule, while an assay with a low value should be monitored strictly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Boundary conditions and the generalized metric formulation of the double sigma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Te Ma


    Full Text Available Double sigma model with strong constraints is equivalent to the ordinary sigma model by imposing a self-duality relation. The gauge symmetries are the diffeomorphism and one-form gauge transformation with the strong constraints. We consider boundary conditions in the double sigma model from three ways. The first way is to modify the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions with a fully O(D,D description from double gauge fields. We perform the one-loop β function for the constant background fields to find low-energy effective theory without using the strong constraints. The low-energy theory can also have O(D,D invariance as the double sigma model. The second way is to construct different boundary conditions from the projectors. The third way is to combine the antisymmetric background field with field strength to redefine an O(D,D generalized metric. We use this generalized metric to reconstruct a consistent double sigma model with the classical and quantum equivalence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the last decades, sustainable development have increasingly gained importance to service industry and lean/Six Sigma approaches are becoming more and more outstanding in order to improve sustainability performance. In the post-modern era the integration between those approaches are necessary in order to aid organisations to balance the need for operational efficiency in their production and service systems with environmental commitment and social fairness. Because of that, Lean Six Sigma practices are progressively becoming widespread in studies about service, as way to improve quality, efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of services. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the Lean and Lean Six Sigma (L6σ methodologies and highlight their importance to achieve sustainable development in service industry. To do this, a systematic literature review (SLR of the subjects under investigation was conducted. We examine the compatibility and divergences of the green, lean and Six Sigma concepts and implications regarding its sustainable implementation in service industry. The study has two major contributions. First, it is one of the first researches that investigate the potential benefits of integrating green, lean and Six Sigma in service sector. Second, it supports and expands current literature, providing both academicians and practitioners a better panorama to understand the present status of L6σ for achieving sustainability in service sector.

  11. Polarized structure function sigma_lt' for kaon electroproduction in the nucleon resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhsha Nasseripour; B. Raue; Daniel Carman; Pawel Ambrozewicz


    The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05~GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00~GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate $s$-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$~GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.

  12. The $A^{1}\\Sigma^{+}_{u}$ + (1)$^1\\Pi_u$ system of Mg$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Knöckel, Horst; Tiemann, Eberhard


    The $A^1\\Sigma^+_u$ - $X^1\\Sigma^+_g$ UV spectrum of Mg$_2$ has been investigated with high resolution employing Fourier-transform spectroscopy and laser excitation. Computer simulation and fit of line positions to the overlapping structures in the spectra yield precise transition frequencies. Starting with the well characterized ground state $X^1\\Sigma^+_g$ from former work we derived excited energy levels and report on the evaluation of the $A^1\\Sigma^+_u$ excited state, which is found to interact with another electronic state, which we identify as the lower part of the (1)$^1\\Pi_u$ state. A coupled channels fit to the level energies of the upper state yields a reliable potential energy curve for the $A^1\\Sigma^+_u$ for the range of vibrational levels 1 $\\le$ $v'$ $\\le$ 46. A potential energy curve for the (1)$^1\\Pi_u$ state is proposed, but the (1)$^1\\Pi_u$ state is only characterized by its coupling to the A state, and no direct transition to a level of the (1)$^1\\Pi_u$ could be uniquely identified due to...

  13. The Impact of Lean Six Sigma on the Overall Results of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lean Six Sigma represents a management approach for driving innovating processes inside a company in order to achieve superior results. It involves a practical analysis based on facts, aiming the innovation and growth, not only the efficiency of processes. It is a long term process of gradual and continuous improvement. The application of Lean Six Sigma in companies led to attaining superior financial performance by addressing new needs, by differentiating the products and services or by adjusting the business lines to new processes. Quality is more than making things without errors. It is about making a product or service meet the individual perception of a customer about the quality or value. Therefore, in what regards Lean Six Sigma, the concern is not only to "do the things right" but also to "do the right things right". We focus on the impact of implementing the Lean Six Sigma approach on companies, seeking for what changes and benefits it brings. The key elements it aims at are achieving the best quality, the lowest cost, getting the shortest lead-time, stressing on waste elimination. The requirements of a company for its implementation and the strategy to obtain the maximum practical outcome are investigated. Furthermore, we conduct a comparison analysis with the other methods of the total quality management and see why Lean Six Sigma is a more desirable approach.

  14. Unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation in the general non-linear $\\sigma$ model

    CERN Document Server

    De Boer, J


    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction T=L^{ab}J_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where L^{ab} is the inverse inertia tensor and D^a is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field L^{ab} to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution L_G^{ab}, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model w...

  15. The Sigma Cognitive Architecture and System: Towards Functionally Elegant Grand Unification (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Paul S.; Demski, Abram; Ustun, Volkan


    Sigma (Σ) is a cognitive architecture and system whose development is driven by a combination of four desiderata: grand unification, generic cognition, functional elegance, and sufficient efficiency. Work towards these desiderata is guided by the graphical architecture hypothesis, that key to progress on them is combining what has been learned from over three decades' worth of separate work on cognitive architectures and graphical models. In this article, these four desiderata are motivated and explained, and then combined with the graphical architecture hypothesis to yield a rationale for the development of Sigma. The current state of the cognitive architecture is then introduced in detail, along with the graphical architecture that sits below it and implements it. Progress in extending Sigma beyond these architectures and towards a full cognitive system is then detailed in terms of both a systematic set of higher level cognitive idioms that have been developed and several virtual humans that are built from combinations of these idioms. Sigma as a whole is then analyzed in terms of how well the progress to date satisfies the desiderata. This article thus provides the first full motivation, presentation and analysis of Sigma, along with a diversity of more specific results that have been generated during its development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Rahardjo


    Full Text Available The article describes the quality improvement program in a speaker company%2C through the implementation of six sigma philosophy; design a quality control system to support the result of the philosophy implementation%2C helped by the house of quality. The improvement of the quality level to 6ƒã is done by knowing the speaker¡¦s critical to quality (CTQ. The CTQ improved by minimized the highest defect. There are an analysis to six sigma indicator and the quality cost. The result is a quality improvement through the two type of speaker%2C 12¡¨ C-1230 PA ACR Pro New and 12¡¨ 30H120 SRW-38B ACR Pro New. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini membahas program peningkatan kualitas di sebuah perusahaan speaker melalui implementasi filosofi six sigma%2C perancangan perbaikan sistem pengendalian kualitas guna mendukung hasil implementasi%2C dengan bantuan rumah mutu. Peningkatan level kualitas ke arah 6ƒã dilakukan dengan mengetahui karakteritik kritis konsumen terhadap produk speaker%2C yang kemudian diperbaiki dengan meminimalkan kecacatan tertinggi. Analisa dilakukan terhadap indikator keberhasilan six sigma dan biaya kualitas. Perbandingan indikator keberhasilan menyatakan adanya peningkatan kualitas terhadap kedua tipe speaker yaitu 12¡¨ C-1230 PA ACR Pro New dan 12¡¨ 30H120 SRW-38B ACR Pro New. Six sigma%2C house of quality%2C critical to quality%2C quality cost.

  17. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the oral cavity. (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Slini, Theodora; Konstantinidis, Antonios


    To assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in plaque and tongue samples from systemically healthy subjects with periodontal health, gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 systemically healthy participants were ultimately enrolled in the current study. Subgingival samples were taken from the first molars and the tongue and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus and MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. In addition, samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. Statistical analysis was performed by applying non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis for clinical parameters, and z-test with Bonferroni corrections for distributions of assessed parameters). All comparisons were set at the 0.05 significance level. S. aureus was detected in 18% of all participants and in 10% of the samples tested. No significant differences were found in its distribution among the three investigated groups (z-test for proportions with Bonferroni corrections, p>0.05). The mecA gene was not present in any of the S. aureus found. S. aureus can be found in the oral environment regardless of the periodontal conditions and therefore should be considered as a member of the transient flora not participating in periodontal pathology. Subgingival sites and tongue surfaces seem to be an unusual habitat of MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Canonical functions, differential graded symplectic pairs in supergeometry, and Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky sigma models with boundaries (United States)

    Ikeda, Noriaki; Xu, Xiaomeng


    Consistent boundary conditions for Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) sigma models and the corresponding boundary theories are analyzed. As their mathematical structures, we introduce a generalization of differential graded symplectic manifolds, called twisted QP manifolds, in terms of graded symplectic geometry, canonical functions, and QP pairs. We generalize the AKSZ construction of topological sigma models to sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms and show that all the twisted Poisson-like structures known in the literature can actually be naturally realized as boundary conditions for AKSZ sigma models.

  19. Intranasal PRGF-Endoret enhances neuronal survival and attenuates NF-κB-dependent inflammation process in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pascual, Consuelo; Pérez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Orive, Gorka; Carro, Eva


    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown pathogenesis characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress, microglial activation and inflammatory responses seem to contribute to the pathogenesis. Recent data showed that growth factors mediate neuroprotection in rodent models of Parkinson's disease, modulating pro-inflammatory processes. Based on our recent studies showing that plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) mediates neuroprotection as inflammatory moderator in Alzheimer's disease, in the present study we examined the effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse as a translational therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease. We found substantial neuroprotection by PRGF-Endoret in our model of Parkinson's disease, which resulted in diminished inflammatory responses and improved motor performance. Additionally, these effects were associated with robust reduction in nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression in the substantia nigra. We propose that PRGF-Endoret can prevent dopaminergic degeneration via an NF-κB-dependent signaling process. As the clinical safety profile of PRGF-Endoret is already established, these data suggest that PRGF-Endoret provides a novel neuroprotective strategy for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β induced by 14-3-3ζ actively antagonizes cell apoptosis in a NF-κB dependent manner. (United States)

    Gao, Xuejuan; He, Yujiao; Gao, Ling-Mei; Feng, Junxia; Xie, Yingying; Liu, Xiaohui; Liu, Langxia


    The activity of glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β) is mainly regulated by its Ser9 phosphorylation. It has been believed for a long time that Ser9 phosphorylation regulates the functions of GSK3β through inhibition of its kinase activity. In this study, we have confirmed the interaction of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β with 14-3-3ζ by using GST pull-down assays. We show that 14-3-3ζ enhances Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK3β by PKC. Surprisingly, using a NF-κB luciferase reporter system, we find that Ser9-phosphorylation of GSK3β promoted by 14-3-3ζ is critical for the activation of NF-κB pathway, which may thwart the pro-apoptotic activity of GSK3β. Inhibition of either NF-κB or GSK3β significantly abolishes the anti-apoptotic effect of 14-3-3ζ and Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β, suggesting that Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β actively antagonizes cell apoptosis in a NF-κB dependent manner.