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Sample records for aureus mrsa infection

  1. Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection – 21st Century Lepers

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    Mozzillo, Kristin L.; Ortiz, Nancy; Miller, Loren G.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, especially community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections. Many media descriptions of MRSA are sensational and focus on its potential for severe disease and contagiousness.

  2. Long-term risk for readmission, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, and death among MRSA-colonized veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada Joaquin, Nestor M; Diekema, Daniel J; Perencevich, Eli N; Bailey, George; Winokur, Patricia L; Schweizer, Marin L

    2013-03-01

    While numerous studies have assessed the outcomes of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization over the short term, little is known about longer-term outcomes after discharge. An assessment of long-term outcomes could provide information about the utility of various MRSA prevention approaches. A matched-cohort study was performed among Veterans Affairs (VA) patients screened for MRSA colonization between the years 2007 and 2009 and followed to evaluate outcomes until 2010. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to evaluate the association between MRSA colonization and long-term outcomes, such as infection-related readmission and crude mortality. A total of 404 veterans were included, 206 of whom were MRSA carriers and 198 of whom were noncarriers. There were no culture-proven MRSA infections on readmission among the noncarriers, but 13% of MRSA carriers were readmitted with culture-proven MRSA infections on readmission (P MRSA carriers were significantly more likely to be readmitted, to be readmitted more than once due to proven or probable MRSA infections, and to be readmitted within 90 days of discharge than noncarriers (P MRSA carriers than among noncarriers after statistically adjusting for potential confounders. Among a cohort of VA patients, MRSA carriers are at high risk of infection-related readmission, MRSA infection, and mortality compared to noncarriers. Noncarriers are at very low risk of subsequent MRSA infection. Future studies should address whether interventions such as nasal or skin decolonization could result in improved outcomes for MRSA carriers.

  3. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Epidemiology, diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

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    Heeg, Peter; Schröppel, Klaus

    2009-06-15

    The increasing number of complicated soft-tissue or invasive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent reason for elaborate treatment regimens. Unidentified MRSA carriers may be the origin of endemic spread to other patients and medical staff. Recently, community-associated cMRSA with particular virulence factors were isolated from persons without the typical history of hospital contacts. Molecular tools for the timely detection of the mecA resistance gene for the identification of MRSA in medical test specimens have become a standard approach in MRSA-related diagnostic procedures. The actual therapy of MRSA infections requires consideration of both the appropriate spectrum of activity and the adequate pharmacological properties of a chosen antimicrobial. Preventive strategies rely on the consistent application of standard hygiene precautions, which have to be supplemented with increased barriers for the isolation of identified MRSA patients.

  4. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  5. Frequency of the Occurence of Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Infections in Hyderabad, Pakistan

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    Nazir Ahmed Brohi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a potential pathogen of hospital and community related infections. It secretes toxins or the enzymes as virulence factor of mild to severe infections and show resistance to beta-lactam antibiotic including penicillin, methicillin, oxacillin and now vancomycin that could alarm of equal risk factors of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections in the patients. The survey report of 381 patients of Hyderabad, Pakistan was collected from March 2013 to June 2014 in which 176 cases were reported for Staphylococcus aureus in both genders of different age groups of 3-15 y kids, 16-45 y adults and 45-70 y olds, which showed 208 and 132 specimens Staphylococcus infection and 16 and 4 cases of MRSA infections in male and female patients, respectively whereas other 31 cases showed no infection. The laboratory diagnosis of the 200 samples from various hospitalized patients revealed the highest percentage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in pus and post-operative wounds (17% followed by skin swabs (10%, sputum (7% and blood (0%. The observations revealed greater prevalence of MRSA infection in elderly age 16-45 years males than the females and other age groups. Antibiotic susceptibility test of 26 antibiotics revealed resistance (R-53%, sensitive (S-39 and variable (V-7% sensitivity zones (mm. Amplification of mecA gene was done using PCR reaction that revealed mecA gene bands up to 150-200 base pairs by test resistant strains.

  6. Risk factors for developing clinical infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) amongst hospital patients initially only colonized with MRSA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J.R. Glynn (Judith); J. J. Picazo; J. Fereres; C. Gaspar

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn hospital outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) many patients are initially colonized without infection. The reasons why some progress to infection while others do not are not known. A cohort of 479 hospital patients, initially only colonized with MRSA, was

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Department of Defense (DOD): Annual Summary Report 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    NAVY AND MARINE CORPS PUBUC IEAI.TI CINTIR PREVENTION AND PROTECTION START HERE Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus IMRSAJ Infections in...Methicit li~esistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Department of Defense (000): Annual Summary Report 2014 Jessica Spencer. Uzo...Distribution is not limited. NUMBER NMCPHC-EOC-TR-499-2015 NUMBER($) NMCPHC-EDC-TR-499-201 5 Metticitrin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

  8. An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection in dermatology indoor patients

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    Sachdev D

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen. Indiscriminate and increased use of systemic antibiotics has led to the emergence of MRSA. Infected or colonized ward patients are the main reservoir of infection. Once colonized, the risk of subsequent local and systemic infections is high, especially in the elderly, and in debilitated and immunosuppressed patients. Methods: We report an outbreak of MRSA in the dermatology ward of a tertiary care hospital and describe measures taken to control it. Results: Ten patients were found to be MRSA positive over a span of three months while screening swabs from wet lesions in indoor patients. On the basis of risk assessment, they were treated with appropriate systemic and topical therapy. One patient died while the remaining nine patients showed a good response to therapy. All the MRSA isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Conclusion: This is the first case report of MRSA infection in dermatology indoor patients in India.

  9. Risk factors for mortality of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection: with investigation of the potential role of community-associated MRSA strains.

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    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Weng, Chia-Min; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2010-12-01

    The difference in the outcomes of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains and healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains remains unclear. From January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008, all adult patients hospitalized at National Taiwan University Hospital with nosocomial MRSA BSI were analyzed. Available MRSA isolates were submitted for subsequent microbiologic studies to determine whether they belonged to CA-MRSA strains. In total, 308 patients were enrolled and 253 MRSA isolates were available. Forty-seven isolates belonged to CA-MRSA strains. The all-cause mortality rates on Day 14 and Day 30 were 19.8% and 30.5%, respectively, and were not different between those caused by CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains. The independent risk factors for Day 14 mortality were septic shock, thrombocytopenia, and an inadequate serum trough level of vancomycin (p = nosocomial MRSA BSI were not different between that caused by CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MRSA Infection

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    ... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. NEW CEPHALOSPORIN AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR TREATMENT OF INFECTIONS BY METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA

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    Bruna Gerardon Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The increased incidence of multiresistant microorganisms allied with the emergence of new mechanisms of bacterial resistance has ted treatment-related health care infections. Staphylococcus aureus has shown therapeutic limitations due to high prevalence of isolates resistant to methicillin (MRSA. The constant evolution of microorganisms in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and rapid dissemintaion requires the introduction of new drugs in clinical practice to control infections caused by multiresistant microorganisms. In recent years, it has developed a limited number of new antimicrobial agents, among them are the 5th generation cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftarolina, which have proven effective against MRSA isolates. The aim of this study was to review the literature about the characteristics and evolution of resistance in S. aureus, and about new antimicrobials used in clinical practice, featuring the main advantages and limitations of current treatment options. Methods: A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE and Scielo with papers published until the year 2014 survey was grouped according to the thematic focus following: cephalosporins, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, combined modality therapy. Results: This study included nine scientific papers published in national and international journals for review. The articles included in this review were selected according to the information that is desired to be obtained, as follows regarding the use of antimicrobials in new anti-MRSA therapy, the main features and the advantages and limitations of current alternatives vailable. Conclusion: It is concluded that cephalosporins 5th generation is a viable therapeutic option due to the satisfactory results reported in different studies to the treatment of infections, with each hospital, determine and adapt in their clinical practice, the use of new options treatment of MRSA infections

  12. Acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in contacts of patients newly identified as colonized or infected with MRSA in the immediate postexposure and postdischarge periods.

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    Williams, Victoria R; Callery, Sandra; Vearncombe, Mary; Simor, Andrew E

    2017-03-01

    The acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) after exposure to patients colonized or infected with MRSA was assessed. Among contacts with complete surveillance screening, the rate of acquisition was 5.7% and was lower in those identified postdischarge (17/683, 2.5%) compared with those tested in the immediate postexposure period (62/706, 8.8%). Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections among Children Found to be Staphylococcus aureus MRSA USA300 Carriers

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    Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Jain, Shabnam; Ray, Susan M.; Mayberry, Robert; Satola, Sarah; Parker, Trisha Chan; Yuan, Keming; Mohammed, Anaam; Jerris, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. Methods We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). We further categorized S. aureus carriers into MRSA USA300 carriers or non-MRSA USA300 carriers. Results We found the MRSA USA300 carriage rate was higher in children less than two years of age, those with an SSTI, children with recent antibiotic use, and those with a family history of SSTI. MRSA USA300 carriers were also more likely to have lower income compared to non-MRSA USA300 carriers and no S. aureus carriers. Rates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were higher in MRSA carriage isolates with an SSTI, compared to MRSA carriage isolates of patients without an SSTI. There was an association between MRSA USA300 carriage and presence of PVL in those diagnosed with an abscess. Conclusion Children younger than two years were at highest risk for MRSA USA300 carriage. Lower income, recent antibiotic use, and previous or family history of SSTI were risk factors for MRSA USA300 carriage. There is a high association between MRSA USA300 nasal/axillary carriage and presence of PVL in those with abscesses. PMID:28210352

  14. Clinical outcomes and treatment approach for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in Israel.

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    Berla-Kerzhner, E; Biber, A; Parizade, M; Taran, D; Rahav, G; Regev-Yochay, G; Glikman, D

    2017-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are increasingly documented worldwide. We recently identified two major CA-MRSA clones in Israel: USA300 and t991. Here, we assessed clinical outcomes by CA-MRSA clones and the physicians' treatment approach to CA-MRSA infections. All community-onset, clinical MRSA isolates detected during 2011-2013 by Maccabi Healthcare Services were collected and characterized phenotypically and genotypically; data were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Of 309 patients with MRSA infections, 64 were identified as CA-MRSA (21 %). Of the CA-MRSA infections, 72 % had skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 38 % were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+, the major clone being USA300 (n = 13, 54 %). Of PVL- isolates (n = 40, 62 %), t991 was the major clone. Age was the only predictor for PVL+ CA-MRSA infection (p MRSA had higher incidence of SSTI recurrences (1.061 vs. 0.647 events per patient/per year, p MRSA. USA300 was more common among adults, while t991 was more common among children (p = 0.002). The physician's referral to culture results and susceptibility were the only predictors of appropriate antibiotic therapy (p MRSA isolates caused significantly more recurrences of SSTIs and increased the need for drainage compared with PVL- isolates. Physicians' awareness of CA-MRSA as a cause of SSTIs in the community was suboptimal. Culturing of pus-producing SSTIs is crucial for providing adequate antimicrobials and elucidating MRSA epidemiology.

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Department of Defense (DOD): Annual Summary 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    treatments recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). iii iii MRSA Infections in the DOD: Annual Report 2013...the bloodstream, resulting in bacteremia that can lead to endocarditis , sepsis, or other invasive infections, which may be fatal. 9 Efforts to... Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) published updated clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of MRSA infections according to the

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Most staph germs are spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or ...

  17. Knowing prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonization status increases the empirical use of glycopeptides in MRSA bacteraemia and may decrease mortality.

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    Robinson, J O; Phillips, M; Christiansen, K J; Pearson, J C; Coombs, G W; Murray, R J

    2014-06-01

    To compare the management and outcome of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia in patients known to be MRSA-colonized/infected (C-patients) with the management and outcome in those not known to be colonized/infected (NC-patients), we conducted a 10-year retrospective review of MRSA bacteraemia in an adult tertiary hospital. Clinical data were obtained by chart review, and mortality data from linked databases. Prior MRSA colonization/infection status was available to treating clinicians at the time of the bacteraemia as a 'Micro-Alert' tag on the patient's labels, in medical charts, and in electronic information systems. C-patients accounted for 35.4% of all MRSA bacteraemia episodes. C-patients were more likely to be indigenous, to be diabetic, or to have a history of previous S. aureus infection. Markers of illness severity (Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS)-II, need for admission to the intensive-care unit, length of stay, and metastatic seeding) were similar in both groups. Empirical therapy included a glycopeptide in 49.3% of C-patients vs. 18.9% of NC-patients (p MRSA isolate tested susceptible in vitro in 56.7% of C-patients vs. 45.1% of NC-patients (p 0.13). All-cause 7-day and 30-day mortality were 7.5% vs. 18.9% (p 0.04), and 22.4% vs. 31.1% (p 0.20), in the C-patient and NC-patient groups, respectively. Knowing MRSA colonization status was significantly associated with lower 30-day mortality in Cox regression analysis (p MRSA bacteraemia is lower in C-patients, which may reflect the earlier use of glycopeptides. The low use of empirical glycopeptides in septic patients known to be previously MRSA-colonized/infected may represent a missed opportunity for infection control to positively impact on clinical management. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Being Met as marked - patients' experiences of being infected with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

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    Skyman, Eva; Lindahl, Berit; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Sjöström, Harrieth Thunberg; Åhrén, Christina

    2016-12-01

    It is known that patients who acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals suffer and feel as plague. Moreover, the patient interaction with nurses and physicians is described as frightening. Little is known about patient experiences after having acquired CA-MRSA concerning care and everyday life. To reveal and interpret otherwise healthy patients' lived experiences of receiving care and their everyday life after having acquired community MRSA (CA-MRSA). A phenomenological hermeneutic approach guided by Ricouer was conducted. Interviews with twelve patients were transcribed verbatim into a text. The text was analysed in three phases: naive understanding, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding to reveal a possible being in the world. In this study, this referred to what it means to be infected with CA-MRSA. The findings indicate that patients who acquired MRSA experience a changed body image. They suffer from ignorant and frightened behavior from healthcare workers, social contacts, and also of being bullied by colleagues. Despite this, patients assume great responsibility for protecting others. However, knowledgeable staff alleviate suffering and bring peace of mind to the patients. Preventing patient's feelings of being a pest, an outsider living with fear, requires urgent education and understanding about resistant bacteria and how to meet an infected patient. The results describing patients, affected with MRSA, may contribute and touch the readers to better understanding of patient's changed body image and suffering and how to mitigate these feelings. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as causes of human infection and colonization in Germany.

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    Robin Köck

    Full Text Available Pigs, cattle and poultry are colonized with MRSA and the zoonotic transmission of such MRSA to humans via direct animal contact, environmental contaminations or meat are a matter of concern. Livestock-associated (LA MRSA are mostly belonging to clonal complex (CC 398 as defined by multilocus sequence typing. However, MRSA of other clonal lineages including CC5, CC9 and CC97 have also been detected in livestock animals in Germany. Within the framework of a Dutch-German network project (EUREGIO, 14,036 MRSA isolated from clinical and screening specimens (January 2008 - June 2012 derived from human patients in hospitals as well as general or specialized practices in a German region characterized by a high density of livestock production, were subjected to S. aureus protein A (spa sequence typing. The prevalence of putative LA-MRSA among the human MRSA isolates was determined by analyzing the detection of livestock-indicator (LI spa types which had already been reported in German livestock. Overall, 578 spa types were detected among the MRSA isolates. LI spa types t011, t034, t108, t1451, t2011, t571, t1456, t1250, t1255, t1580, t2970, t2346, t1344, t2576, t2330 and t2510 (all of which are indicative for LA-MRSA CC398 accounted for 18.6% of all human isolates. The LI spa types t1430 (CC9, t3992 (CC97, t002 (CC5 and t007 (CC30 were found in 0.14%, 0.01%, 1.01% and 0.04% of all human MRSA isolates, respectively. LI spa types associated with CC398 represented 23% of all MRSA from screening samples and a varying proportion among isolates from clinical specimens ranging between 0% in cerebrospinal fluid, 8% in blood cultures and 14% in deep respiratory fluids. Our findings indicate that LA-MRSA are a major cause for human infection and stress the need for close surveillance. Although LA-MRSA CC398 predominates, the occurrence of putative LA-MRSA from other clonal lineages should be monitored.

  20. Association of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Western Nepal: a matter of concern for community infections (a hospital based prospective study).

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    Bhatta, Dharm R; Cavaco, Lina M; Nath, Gopal; Kumar, Kush; Gaur, Abhishek; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dwij R

    2016-05-15

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for destruction of white blood cells, necrosis and apoptosis and as a marker of community acquired MRSA. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of PVL genes among MRSA isolates and to check the reliability of PVL as marker of community acquired MRSA isolates from Western Nepal. A total of 400 strains of S. aureus were collected from clinical specimens and various units (Operation Theater, Intensive Care Units) of the hospital and 139 of these had been confirmed as MRSA by previous study. Multiplex PCR was used to detect mecA and PVL genes. Clinical data as well as antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed and compared among PVL positive and negative MRSA isolates. Out of 139 MRSA isolates, 79 (56.8 %) were PVL positive. The majority of the community acquired MRSA (90.4 %) were PVL positive (Positive predictive value: 94.9 % and negative predictive value: 86.6 %), while PVL was detected only in 4 (7.1 %) hospital associated MRSA strains. None of the MRSA isolates from hospital environment was found positive for the PVL genes. The majority of the PVL positive strains (75.5 %) were isolated from pus samples. Antibiotic resistance among PVL negative MRSA isolates was found higher as compared to PVL positive MRSA. Our study showed high prevalence of PVL among community acquired MRSA isolates. Absence of PVL among MRSA isolates from hospital environment indicates its poor association with hospital acquired MRSA and therefore, PVL may be used a marker for community acquired MRSA. This is first study from Nepal, to test PVL among MRSA isolates from hospital environment.

  1. Peptidoglycan Cross-Linking Preferences of Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin-Binding Proteins Have Implications for Treating MRSA Infections.

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    Srisuknimit, Veerasak; Qiao, Yuan; Schaefer, Kaitlin; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2017-07-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a global public health problem. MRSA strains have acquired a non-native penicillin-binding protein called PBP2a that cross-links peptidoglycan when the native S. aureus PBPs are inhibited by β-lactams. It has been proposed that the native S. aureus PBPs can use cell wall precursors having different glycine branch lengths (penta-, tri-, or monoglycine), while PBP2a can only cross-link peptidoglycan strands bearing a complete pentaglycine branch. This hypothesis has never been tested because the necessary substrates have not been available. Here, we compared the ability of PBP2a and two native S. aureus transpeptidases to cross-link peptidoglycan strands bearing different glycine branches. We show that purified PBP2a can cross-link glycan strands bearing penta- and triglycine, but not monoglycine, and experiments in cells provide support for these findings. Because PBP2a cannot cross-link peptidoglycan containing monoglycine, this study implicates the enzyme (FemA) that extends the monoglycine branch to triglycine on Lipid II as an ideal target for small molecules that restore sensitivity of MRSA to β-lactams.

  2. Surveillance of Physician-Diagnosed Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Consistent With Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) among Nebraska High School Athletes, 2008-2012

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    Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide surveillance…

  3. Association of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Western Nepal: a matter of concern for community infections (a hospital based prospective study)

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    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for destruction of white blood cells, necrosis...... and apoptosis and as a marker of community acquired MRSA. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of PVL genes among MRSA isolates and to check the reliability of PVL as marker of community acquired MRSA isolates from Western Nepal. A total of 400 strains of S. aureus were collected from clinical...... specimens and various units (Operation Theater, Intensive Care Units) of the hospital and 139 of these had been confirmed as MRSA by previous study. Multiplex PCR was used to detect mecA and PVL genes. Clinical data as well as antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed and compared among PVL positive...

  4. Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people.

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    Hughes, Carmel; Tunney, Michael; Bradley, Marie C

    2013-11-19

    Nursing homes for older people provide an environment likely to promote the acquisition and spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), putting residents at increased risk of colonisation and infection. It is recognised that infection prevention and control strategies are important in preventing and controlling MRSA transmission. To determine the effects of infection prevention and control strategies for preventing the transmission of MRSA in nursing homes for older people. In August 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE (In-process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, Web of Science and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) website. Research in progress was sought through Current Clinical Trials, Gateway to Reseach, and HSRProj (Health Services Research Projects in Progress). All randomised and controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of infection prevention and control interventions in nursing homes for older people were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently reviewed the results of the searches. Another review author appraised identified papers and undertook data extraction which was checked by a second review author. For this third update only one study was identified, therefore it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 32 nursing homes evaluated the effect of an infection control education and training programme on MRSA prevalence. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and a change in infection control audit scores which measured adherence to infection control standards. At the end of the 12 month study, there was no change in MRSA

  5. Immunization protected well nourished mice but not undernourished ones from lung injury in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection

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    da Cunha Maria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA has been frequently isolated from endotracheal and lung puncture aspirates in malnourished children with pneumonia. In this work we evaluated the susceptibility of undernourished BALB/c mice and its ability to mount a protective immunity against MRSA with emphasis on the lung involvement. Results BALB/c mice submitted to a 20% dietary restriction during 20 days presented a significant decrease in body weight, lymphocyte number and also atrophy in thymus and intestinal epithelium. Determination of bacterial load by the number of colony forming units (CFU indicated a similar susceptibility whereas the findings of Gram stain clearly suggested a higher amount of bacteria in the lungs of normal mice than in the undernourished ones. Immunization reduced bacterial growth in the lungs of normal mice but not in the undernourished ones. Histopathological analysis showed that inflammation appeared in the lungs from normal mice only after infection and that immunization prevented this pulmonary inflammatory process. On the other hand, undernourished mice presented lung inflammation even before infection. In addition, the degree of this inflammatory process did not change with infection or previous immunization. Conclusion Our results indicated that lung injury during MRSA infection is prevented by previous immunization in well nourished but not in undernourished mice.

  6. Prevention and Control of MRSA Infection

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    藤田, 信一; 井上, 正樹; Shinichi, FUJITA; Masaki, INOUE; 金沢大学大学院医学系研究科; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University; Department of Reproductive Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University

    2003-01-01

    Many efficacious antimicrobial agents have beem developed in the latter half of the 20th century, and this has enabled us to overcome bacterial infections. However, various drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been emerging. MRSA strains used to be isolated not only from compromised patients with nosocomial infection but also from patients with community-acquired infection. MRSA infection is difficult to treat because of the strong pathogen...

  7. Nosocomial infection disease. ; What is MRSA. Innai kansensho. ; MRSA towa

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    Hiramatsu, K. (Juntendo University, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    The spread use of antibiotics has solved communicable diseases having strong toxicity and sacrificed a large number of people, except in some developing countries. However, recently a new type infection disease has been spreading among hospitalized patients whose infection resistance has become feeble, called the in-hospital infection. Strains resistant to penicillin and streptomycin have emerged and spread as an in-hospital infection bacteria. This is the MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). This refers not only methicillin, but also aureus which is resistant to almost all of {beta}-lactam based antibiotics. This paper describes features of MRSA infection, mechanism of the resistance in MRSA, methicillin resistant gene distribution and its significance. Reactions of MRSA with penicillin-binding protein (PBP) and {beta}-lactam antibiotics are shown. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly

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    T.-W. Wan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL−/spat5110/SCCmecV+ versus PVL+/spat159(etc./SCCmec−, but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  9. Prevalence of Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    resistance does not cause the organism to be more intrinsically virulent than strains of Staph. aureus that have no antibiotic resistance, but resistance does make MRSA infections more difficult to treat with standard types of antibiotics and thus more dangerous (Jenson and Lyon, 2009). MRSA is especially troublesome in ...

  10. Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at Jos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective surveillance of Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was carried out at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, over a one year period. This study highlights the continuos importance of MRSA in causing both hospital and to a less extent community acquired infections. Out of the 180 ...

  11. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  12. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia over a two-year period in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Pik San; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Idris, Nuryana; Sam, I-Ching; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Sulaiman, Helmi; Thong, Kwai Lin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela

    2017-04-13

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established pathogen that causes hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The prevalence rate of MRSA infections were reported to be the highest in Asia. As there is limited epidemiological study being done in Malaysia, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia. Two hundred and nine MRSA strains from year 2011 to 2012 were collected from a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. The strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Patient's demographic and clinical data were collected and correlated with molecular data by statistical analysis. Male gender and patient >50 years of age (p MRSA acquisition. Fifty-nine percent of MRSA strains were HA-MRSA that carried SCCmec type II, III, IV and V while 31% were CA-MRSA strains with SCCmec III, IV and V. The prevalence of PVL gene among 2011 MRSA strains was 5.3% and no PVL gene was detected in 2012 MRSA strains. All of the strains were sensitive to vancomycin. However, vancomycin MIC creep phenomenon was demonstrated by the increased number of MRSA strains with MIC ≥1.5 μg/mL (p = 0.008) between 2011 and 2012. Skin disease (p = 0.034) and SCCmec type III (p = 0.0001) were found to be significantly associated with high vancomycin MIC. Forty-four percent of MRSA strains from blood, were further subtyped by MLST and PFGE. Most of the bacteraemia cases were primary bacteraemia and the common comorbidities were diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. The predominant pulsotype was pulsotype C exhibited by SCCmec III-ST239. This is a first study in Malaysia that reported the occurrence of MRSA clones such as SCCmec V-ST5, untypeable-ST508, SCCmec IV-ST1

  13. Study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in a population of HIV-negative migrants and HIV-infected patients attending an outpatient clinic in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Lichtner, M; Mascellino, M T; Iannetta, M; Ialungo, A M; Tadadjeu Mewamba, S; Pavone, P; Mengoni, F; Mastroianni, C M; Vullo, V

    2013-01-01

    Migration and HIV infection are known risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage and infection. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in a high risk population of HIV-negative migrants and HIV-infected subjects. Secondary aim was to investigate over time MRSA carriage prevalence in HIV-infected subjects. During the study period (January-June 2008), nasal swabs were collected from 96 HIV-negative migrants and 63 HIV-infected patients. A group of 68 seropositive subjects was additionally screened for MRSA carriage in 2012. Subjects were evaluated for HIV status, previous antibiotic use or hospitalization, soft tissue and skin infections (SSI), nationality and work conditions. The swab specimens were plated and incubated for 24-h under static condition at 37 degrees and then identified as S. aureus by using standard methods. A total of 227 subjects, 131 HIV-infected adults (63 in 2008 and 68 in 2012) and 96 HIV-negative migrants, were analyzed. Overall, 71/227 (31.2%) were S. aureus carriers: 34 out of 131 (25.9%) among HIV infected subjects and 37 out of 96 (38.5%) among migrants. Two MRSA were detected in HIV-infected patients (2.8%). Between 2008 and 2012 there was an increase of MRSA carriage in HIV+ group (p=0.49). No statistically significant differences were found between S. aureus carriers and no-carriers in terms of CD4+ cell count, TMP/SMX prophylaxis, previous antibiotic use or hospitalization, nationality and duration of stay in Italy. Among HIV+ patients there was a higher prevalence of SSI in MSSA carriers compared with no carriers (25% vs 4%, p=0.028). In the migrants group, having a job based on a close human contact was significantly associated with S. aureus colonization (p=0.0038). Despite of the high prevalence of S. aureus isolation (31.2%), the present study showed the low rate of MRSA carriage in a high risk population. The main factor associated with S. aureus

  14. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation or infection in intensive care units and their reliability for predicting MRSA on ICU admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejo-Torre, Fernando; Eiros Bouza, Jose Maria; Olaechea Astigarraga, Pedro; Coma Del Corral, Maria Jesus; Palomar Martínez, Mercedes; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; López-Pueyo, Maria Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs) avoids inappropriate antimicrobial empirical treatment and enhances infection control. We describe risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA (MRSA-C/I) in critically ill patients once in the ICU and on ICU admission, and search for an easy-to-use predictive model for MRSA colonisation/infection on ICU admission. This multicentre cohort study included 69,894 patients admitted consecutively (stay>24h) in April-June in the five-year period 2006-2010 from 147 Spanish ICUs participating in the National Surveillance Study of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs (ENVIN-HELICS). Data from all patients included were used to identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I during ICU stays, from admission to discharge, using uni- and multivariable analysis (Poisson regression) to check that the sample to be used to develop the predictive models was representative of standard critical care population. To identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I on ICU admission and to develop prediction models, multivariable logistic regression analysis were then performed only on those admitted in 2010 (n=16950, 2/3 for analysis and 1/3 for subsequent validation). We found that, in the period 2006-2010, 1046 patients were MRSA-C/I. Independent risk factors for MRSA-C/I in ICU were: age>65, trauma or medical patient, high APACHE-II score, admitted from a long-term care facility, urinary catheter, previous antibiotic treatment and skin-soft tissue or post-surgical superficial skin infections. Colonisation with several different MDRs significantly increased the risk of MRSA-C/I. Risk factors on ICU admission were: male gender, trauma critical patient, urgent surgery, admitted from other ICUs, hospital ward or long-term facility, immunosuppression and skin-soft tissue infection. Although the best model to identify carriers of MRSA had a good discrimination (AUC-ROC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.82), sensitivity was 67% and

  15. Population-Based Estimates of Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) Infections among High School Athletes--Nebraska, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Mueller, Shawn W.; Theis, Max; Keyser, Alison; Safranek, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is an emerging cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among athletes. To determine statewide incidence among high school athletes, we surveyed all 312 Nebraska high schools regarding sport programs offered, program-specific participation numbers, number of athletes with…

  16. The Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeck, Robin; Mellmann, Alexander; Schaumburg, Frieder; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kipp, Frank; Becker, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: For decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of infection in hospitals and nursing homes (health care-associated MRSA, HA-MRSA). Beginning in the late 1990s, many countries have also experienced a rising incidence of MRSA infection outside of the

  17. Antibacterial Evaluation of Synthetic Thiazole Compounds In Vitro and In Vivo in a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Skin Infection Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Haroon; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including strains resistant to current antibiotics, has contributed to an increase in the number of skin infections reported in humans in recent years. New therapeutic options are needed to counter this public health challenge. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of thiazole compounds synthesized by our research group to be used topically to treat MRSA skin and wound infections. The broth microdilution method confirmed that the lead thiazole compound and four analogues are capable of inhibiting MRSA growth at concentrations as low as 1.3 μg/mL. Additionally, three compounds exhibited a synergistic relationship when combined with the topical antibiotic mupirocin against MRSA in vitro via the checkerboard assay. Thus the thiazole compounds have potential to be used alone or in combination with mupirocin against MRSA. When tested against human keratinocytes, four derivatives of the lead compound demonstrated an improved toxicity profile (were found to be non-toxic up to a concentration of 20 μg/mL). Utilizing a murine skin infection model, we confirmed that the lead compound and three analogues exhibited potent antimicrobial activity in vivo, with similar capability as the antibiotic mupirocin, as they reduced the burden of MRSA present in skin wounds by more than 90%. Taken altogether, the present study provides important evidence that these thiazole compounds warrant further investigation for development as novel topical antimicrobials to treat MRSA skin infections. PMID:26536129

  18. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2012-01-01

    decisions with regard to harmonisation of typing methods. A stratified, three-level organisation of testing laboratories was proposed: local; regional; and national. The functions of, and testing methodology used by, each laboratory were defined. The group consensus was to recommend spa and staphylococcal......This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  19. Co-therapy using lytic bacteriophage and linezolid: effective treatment in eliminating methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from diabetic foot infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chhibber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant pathogen in diabetic foot infections and prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA strains further complicates the situation. The incidence of MRSA in infected foot ulcers is 15-30% and there is an alarming trend for its increase in many countries. Diabetes acts as an immunosuppressive state decreasing the overall immune functioning of body and to worsen the situation, wounds inflicted with drug resistant strains represent a morbid combination in diabetic patients. Foot infections caused by MRSA are associated with an increased risk of amputations, increased hospital stay, increased expenses and higher infection-related mortality. Hence, newer, safer and effective treatment strategies are required for treating MRSA mediated diabetic foot infections. The present study focuses on the use of lytic bacteriophage in combination with linezolid as an effective treatment strategy against foot infection in diabetic population. METHODOLOGY: Acute hindpaw infection with S.aureus ATCC 43300 was established in alloxan induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy of a well characterized broad host range lytic bacteriophage, MR-10 was evaluated alone as well as in combination with linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw foot infection in diabetic mice. The process of wound healing was also investigated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A single administration of phage exhibited efficacy similar to linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw infection in diabetic animals. However, combination therapy using both the agents was much more effective in arresting the entire infection process (bacterial load, lesion score, foot myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological analysis. The entire process of tissue healing was also hastened. Use of combined agents has been known to decrease the frequency of emergence of resistant mutants, hence this approach can serve as an effective strategy in

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with low within-herd prevalence of intra-mammary infections in dairy cows: Genotyping of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luini, M; Cremonesi, P; Magro, G; Bianchini, V; Minozzi, G; Castiglioni, B; Piccinini, R

    2015-08-05

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common mastitis-causing pathogens worldwide. In the last decade, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) infections have been described in several species, included the bovines. Hence, this paper investigates the diffusion of MRSA within Italian dairy herds; the strains were further characterized using a DNA microarray, which detects 330 different sequences, including the methicillin-resistance genes mecA and mecC and SCCmec typing. The analysis of overall patterns allows the assignment to Clonal Complexes (CC). Overall 163 S. aureus isolates, collected from quarter milk samples in 61 herds, were tested. MRSA strains were further processed using spa typing. Fifteen strains (9.2%), isolated in 9 herds (14.75%), carried mecA, but none harboured mecC. MRSA detection was significantly associated (Paureus intra-mammary infections (IMI) ≤5%. Ten MRSA strains were assigned to CC398, the remaining ones to CC97 (n=2), CC1 (n=2) or CC8 (n=1). In 3 herds, MRSA and MSSA co-existed: CC97-MRSA with CC398-MSSA, CC1-MRSA with CC8-MSSA and CC398-MRSA with CC126-MSSA. The results of spa typing showed an overall similar profile of the strains belonging to the same CC: t127-CC1, t1730-CC97, t899 in 8 out of 10 CC398. In the remaining 2 isolates a new spa type, t14644, was identified. The single CC8 was a t3092. The SCCmec cassettes were classified as type IV, type V or type IV/V composite. All or most strains harboured the genes encoding the β-lactamase operon and the tetracycline resistance. Streptogramin resistance gene was related to CC398. Enterotoxin and leukocidin genes were carried only by CC1, CC8 and CC97-MRSA. The persistence of MRSA clones characterized by broader host range, in epidemiologically unrelated areas and in dairy herds with low prevalence of S. aureus IMI, might enhance the risk for adaptation to human species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 ...

  2. Disseminated MRSA infection with purulent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Pradeep Kumar; Cady, Beth; De Silva, Anajana; Alam, Mohammad

    2017-03-30

    The risk of developing pericarditis secondary to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the absence of preceding surgical procedure is extremely low. We present a case report of a 36-year-old woman who developed disseminated MRSA infection leading to purulent pericarditis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type 8, spa type t11469 causing infection and colonizing horses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfora, Virginia; Caprioli, Andrea; Grossi, Ilaria; Pepe, Marco; Alba, Patricia; Lorenzetti, Serena; Amoruso, Roberta; Sorbara, Luigi; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    A Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was isolated in Italy from a pathological sample of a mare presenting chronic purulent sinusitis and that had undergone frontal-sinus surgery three months before. Humans, horses, dogs and environmental samples were subsequently collected at the mare's stable and at the Veterinary Hospital, where the mare was operated/hospitalized, and screened for the presence of MRSA that was detected from other horses and from the environment at both sites. All the MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC)8, ST8-t11469-SCCmec-IVa, and showed similar phenotypic and genetic multidrug resistance patterns and macrorestriction-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. The only MRSA detected from humans was a CC1, ST1-t127-SCCmec-IVa. This paper represents the first report of a clinical MRSA infection in a horse in Italy. This study also supports the opinion that improper use of antibiotics and hospitalization/surgery can represent risk factors for MRSA colonization/infection in horses, and that the environment is among important sources for exposure. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus community-acquired (MRSA-CA in the pediatric population in two hospitals in Popayan, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieth Figueroa-Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of infections by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA in a pediatric population in two hospitals in Popayan, Colombia. Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in two hospitals (secondary and tertiary care. We included all children (1 month to 14 years who consulted to emergency services with suggestive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA between September 2009 and August 2010. Results: 205 children consulted with possible staphylococcal infections. 89 (43, 0% met all inclusion criteria. Of these children, 62 (69.7% had positive cultures for SA and 28 (45.1% were CA-MRSA. One third of the patients had risk factors: history of antibiotic use in the past two months, trauma in the past three weeks and hospitalization in the previous year. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of CA-MRSA and risk factors between the two institutions. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA infections is high and was similar to national and international studies.

  5. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. Methods: a cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 ...

  6. USA300-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone is the predominant cause of community and hospital MRSA infections in Colombian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ortiz, Ricaurte Alejandro; Álvarez-Olmos, Martha I; Escobar Pérez, Javier Antonio; Leal, Aura Lucia; Castro, Betsy Esperanza; Mariño, Ana Cristina; Barrero, Esther Rocio; Mujica, Sandra Celina; Gaines, Sebastián; Vanegas, Natasha

    2014-08-01

    Community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CG-MRSA) isolates are known to be more virulent and clinically aggressive in children. The goal of the present study was characterize the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates causing infections in Colombian children. An observational and prospective study was conducted between April 2009 and June 2011 at 15 hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia. A detailed epidemiological profile was made of 162 children infected with MRSA. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization including 21 virulence genes, SCCmec, spa and agr typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among all isolates included in the study, 85.8% were obtained from patients whose infectious process was initiated in the community; of these, 69,8% occurred in patients without healthcare-associated risk factors. The molecular characterization of the isolates showed a high proportion (95.1%) containing a community-genotype profile with a high prevalence of SCCmec type IV, PVL-positives, and also related to CC8. Most CG-MRSA isolates (143, 92.9%) were genetically related to the pandemic clone USA300, differing by the presence of SCCmec IVc and the absence of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME). An increase in the frequency of CG-MRSA infections has been reported worldwide. In this study we found that almost all MRSA infections in our pediatric population were caused by community-genotype isolates, supporting the success of the CG-MRSA clones. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences between "classical" risk factors for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by multiple clones of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV MRSA strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Paula M; Trindade, Priscila A; Garcia, Tamara O; Pacheco, Renata L; Costa, Silvia F; Reinert, Cristina; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Mamizuka, Elsa M; Garcia, Cilmara P; Levin, Anna S

    2009-02-01

    To identify risk factors associated with nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by multiple clones of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). An unmatched case-control study (at a ratio of 1:2) performed during the period from October 2002 through September 2003. A 2,000-bed tertiary care teaching hospital affiliated with the University of São Paulo in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients (n=30) were defined either as patients who had a bloodstream infection due to SCCmec type IV MRSA diagnosed at least 48 hours after hospital admission or as neonates with the infection who were born in the hospital. Control patients (n=60) were defined as patients with SCCmec type III MRSA infection diagnosed at least 48 hours after hospital admission. Genes encoding virulence factors were studied in the isolates recovered from case patients, and molecular typing of the SCCmec type IV MRSA isolates was also done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. In multivariate analysis, the following 3 variables were significantly associated with having a nosocomial bloodstream infection caused by SCCmec type IV strains of MRSA: an age of less than 1 year, less frequent use of a central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 0.07 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02-0.28]; p= .025), and female sex. A second analysis was performed that excluded the case and control patients from the neonatal unit, and, in multivariate analysis, the following variables were significantly associated with having a nosocomial bloodstream infection caused by SCCmec type IV strains of MRSA: less frequent use of a central venous catheter (OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.03-0.55]; p= .007), lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission (OR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03-0.61]; p= .009), less frequent surgery (OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.06-0.83]; p= .025), and female sex (OR, 5.70 [95% CI, 1.32-24.66]; p= .020). Of

  8. Videothoracoscopy in Pleural Empyema Following Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Lung Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study shows the different therapeutic procedures in 64 patients with pleural effusion due to MRSA pneumonia. The thoracostomy tube associated with pleural washing was decisive in 10 simple effusion patients. Video-assisted thoracic surgery allowed a complete resolution of the disease in 22 complex parapneumonic effusion patients. In 20 of 32 patients with frank pus in the pleural cavity, the videothoracoscopic insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2 before thoracotomy facilitated the dissection of the lung tissue. In 12 patients, this approach was not applied because of cardiac insufficiency. Videothoracoscopy and decortication after thoracotomy ensured the recovery of functions.

  9. In Vivo Assessment of Phage and Linezolid Based Implant Coatings for Treatment of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA Mediated Orthopaedic Device Related Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopaedic implant infections with two species respectively Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being the predominate etiological agents isolated. Further, with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, treatment of S. aureus implant infections has become more difficult, thus representing a devastating complication. Use of local delivery system consisting of S.aureus specific phage along with linezolid (incorporated in biopolymer allowing gradual release of the two agents at the implant site represents a new, still unexplored treatment option (against orthopaedic implant infections that has been studied in an animal model of prosthetic joint infection. Naked wire, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC coated wire and phage and /or linezolid coated K-wire were surgically implanted into the intra-medullary canal of mouse femur bone of respective groups followed by inoculation of S.aureus ATCC 43300(MRSA. Mice implanted with K-wire coated with both the agents i.e phage as well as linezolid (dual coated wires showed maximum reduction in bacterial adherence, associated inflammation of the joint as well as faster resumption of locomotion and motor function of the limb. Also, all the coating treatments showed no emergence of resistant mutants. Use of dual coated implants incorporating lytic phage (capable of self-multiplication as well as linezolid presents an attractive and aggressive early approach in preventing as well as treating implant associated infections caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus strains as assessed in a murine model of experimental joint infection.

  10. Anatomical patterns of colonization of pets with staphylococcal species in homes of people with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin or soft tissue infection (SSTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, S A; Brazil, A M; Ferguson, J M; Nelson, K; Lautenbach, E; Rankin, S C; Morris, D O; Davis, M F

    2015-03-23

    Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), and other pathogenic staphylococci can cause infections in companion animals and humans. Identification of colonized animals is fundamental to research and practice needs, but harmonized methods have not yet been established. To establish the optimal anatomic site for the recovery of methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS), survey data and swabs were collected from 196 pets (dogs, cats, reptiles, birds, fish and pocket pets) that lived in households with an MRSA-infected person. Using broth-enrichment culture and PCR for speciation, S. aureus was identified in 27 of 179 (15%) pets sampled at baseline and 19 of 125 (15%) pets sampled at a three-month follow-up home visit. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 33 of 179 (18%) pets sampled at baseline and 21 of 125 (17%) of pets sampled at follow-up. The baseline MRSA and MRSP prevalence was 8% and 1% respectively from 145 mammalian pets. The follow-up MRSA and MRSP prevalence was 7% and pets. The mouth was the most sensitive single site sampled for isolation of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius in mammals. In a subset of pets, from which all available isolates were identified, dual carriage of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius was 22% at baseline and 11% at follow-up. These results identify the mouth as the most sensitive site to screen for pathogenic staphylococci and suggest that it should be included in sampling protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in India: Prevalence & susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR group, India

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is endemic in India and is a dangerous pathogen for hospital acquired infections. This study was conducted in 15 Indian tertiary care centres during a two year period from January 2008 to December 2009 to determine the prevalence of MRSA and susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates in India. Methods: All S. aureus isolates obtained during the study period in the participating centres were included in the study. Each centre compiled their data in a predefined template which included data of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, location of the patient and specimen type. The data in the submitted templates were collated and analysed. Results: A total of 26310 isolates were included in the study. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistance during the study period was 41 per cent. Isolation rates for MRSA from outpatients, ward inpatients and ICU were 28, 42 and 43 per cent, respectively in 2008 and 27, 49 and 47 per cent, respectively in 2009. The majority of S. aureus isolates was obtained from patients with skin and soft tissue infections followed by those suffering from blood stream infections and respiratory infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (53% and MRSA (21%. MSSA isolates showed a higher susceptibility to gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin and clindamycin as compared to MRSA isolates. No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. Interpretation & conclusions: The study showed a high level of MRSA in our country. There is a need to study epidemiology of such infections. Robust antimicrobial stewardship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance.

  12. Dissemination of multiple MRSA clones among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from Japanese children with impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisata, Ken; Ito, Teruyo; Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Jin, Jingxun; Li, Shanshuang; Watanabe, Shinya; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    The proportion of MRSA strains that cause skin and soft infections has recently increased. In 3 months we have characterized 17 MRSA strains isolated from children with impetigo at a Japanese hospital. Seventeen MRSA strains belonged to 7 clones defined by clonal complex (CC) in MLST genotype and type of SCCmec, which were rarely identified among healthcare-associated MRSA: CC 91-SCCmecIIb (4 strains); CC91-SCCmecIIn (2 strains); CC91-SCCmecIVa (2 strains); CC91-SCCmecV (4 strains); CC88-SCCmecIVg (3 strains); CC1-SCCmecIVc (1 strain); and CC5-SCCmecIVn (1 strain). Although one strain belonged to CC5, which has been commonly identified in healthcare-associated MRSA, it did not carry type II SCCmec, but carried type IV SCCmec. Fourteen of the 17 strains carried exfoliative toxin a or b gene, and none carried Panton-Valentine leukocidine gene. Furthermore, we determined the entire nucleotide sequences of two type V SCCmec elements carried by strains JCSC5952, a CC91 strain, and TSGH17, a Taiwanese CC59 strain. The structure of SCCmecJCSC5952 was more than 99% homologous in nucleotide identity with those of Taiwanese PVL-positive ST59 MRSA strains TSGH17 and PM1, which were designated as type V (5C2&5). Identification of multiple MRSA clones distinct from those disseminating at the hospital suggests that MRSA strains might be emerging in the community from MSSA strains by acquiring SCCmec elements on various occasions. Carriage of the similar type V(5C2&5) SCCmec element by strains of distinct genetic backgrounds, CC91 and CC59, suggested horizontal transfer of the SCCmec element.

  13. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia and complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI) in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayassal; Corman, Shelby L; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Stephens, Jennifer M

    The objectives of this retrospective medical chart review study were to document the inpatient incidence, treatment, and clinical outcomes associated with invasive fungal infections (IFI) due to Candida and Aspergillus species, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia and MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI) in the Middle East. This study evaluated 2011-2012 data from 5 hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon with a combined total of 207,498 discharges. Hospital medical chart data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type (102 patients - IFI, 93 patients - MRSA pneumonia, and 87 patients-MRSA cSSTI). Descriptive analysis found that incidence of IFI (per 1000 hospital discharges) was higher than MRSA cSSTI and MRSA pneumonia (IFI: 1.95 and 2.57; MRSA cSSTI: 2.01 and 0.48; and MRSA pneumonia 0.59 and 0.55 for Saudi Arabia and Lebanon, respectively). Median time from hospital admission to diagnosis and from admission to initiation of active therapy were 6 and 7 days, respectively, in IFI patients; median time from admission to diagnosis was 2days for both MRSA pneumonia and cSSTI, with a median of 4 and 2days from admission to MRSA-active antibiotic start, respectively. The mean hospital LOS was 32.4days for IFI, 32.4days for MRSA pneumonia and 26.3days for MRSA cSSTI. Inpatient mortality was higher for IFI (42%) and MRSA pneumonia (30%) than for MRSA cSSTI (8%). At discharge, 33% of patients with IFI and 27% and 9% of patients with MRSA pneumonia and cSSTI, respectively, were considered to have failed therapy. In conclusion, there is a significant burden of these serious infections in the Middle East, as well as opportunity for hospitals to improve the delivery of patient care for difficult-to-treat infections by promoting expedited diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic Characterization of USA300 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to Evaluate Intraclass Transmission and Recurrence of Skin and Soft Tissue Infection (SSTI) Among High-Risk Military Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Eugene V; Rice, Gregory K; Elassal, Emad M; Schlett, Carey D; Bennett, Jason W; Redden, Cassie L; Mor, Deepika; Law, Natasha N; Tribble, David R; Hamilton, Theron; Ellis, Michael W; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A

    2017-08-01

    Military trainees are at increased risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can refine our understanding of MRSA transmission and microevolution in congregate settings. We conducted a prospective case-control study of SSTI among US Army infantry trainees at Fort Benning, Georgia, from July 2012 to December 2014. We identified clusters of USA300 MRSA SSTI within select training classes and performed WGS on clinical isolates. We then linked genomic, phylogenetic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in order to evaluate intra- and interclass disease transmission. Furthermore, among cases of recurrent MRSA SSTI, we evaluated the intrahost relatedness of infecting strains. Nine training classes with ≥5 cases of USA300 MRSA SSTI were selected. Eighty USA300 MRSA clinical isolates from 74 trainees, 6 (8.1%) of whom had recurrent infection, were subjected to WGS. We identified 2719 single nucleotide variants (SNVs). The overall median (range) SNV difference between isolates was 173 (1-339). Intraclass median SNV differences ranged from 23 to 245. Two phylogenetic clusters were suggestive of interclass MRSA transmission. One of these clusters stemmed from 2 classes that were separated by a 13-month period but housed in the same barracks. Among trainees with recurrent MRSA SSTI, the intrahost median SNV difference was 7.5 (1-48). Application of WGS revealed intra- and interclass transmission of MRSA among military trainees. An interclass cluster between 2 noncontemporaneous classes suggests a long-term reservoir for MRSA in this setting.

  15. Photos of MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRSA MRSA in the General Community Clinicians School & Daycare Leaders Coaches, Athletic Directors, and Team Healthcare Providers ... Page last updated: April 15, 2016 Content Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for ...

  16. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netanya S Utay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to determine the immunologic perturbations that predispose HIV-infected people to MRSA SSTIs. Participants with or without HIV infection and with MRSA SSTI, MRSA colonization or negative for MRSA were enrolled. Peripheral blood and skin biopsies from study participants were collected. Flow cytometry, flow cytometry with microscopy, multiplex assays of cell culture supernatants and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the nature of the immune defect predisposing HIV-infected people to MRSA infections. We found deficient MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected people with MRSA SSTIs compared to MRSA-colonized participants and HIV-uninfected participants with MRSA SSTIs. These IFNγ+ CD4 T cells were less polyfunctional in HIV-infected participants with SSTIs compared to those without SSTIs. However, IFNγ responses to cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium antigens and MRSA-specific IL-17 responses by CD4 T cells were intact. Upon stimulation with MRSA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected participants produced less IL-12 and IL-15, key drivers of IFNγ production. There were no defects in CD8 T-cell responses, monocyte responses, opsonization, or phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Accumulation of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, IL-17+ cells, myeloperoxidase+ neutrophils and macrophage/myeloid cells to the skin lesions were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants based on immunohistochemistry. Together, these results indicate that MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses are essential for the control of initial and recurrent MRSA infections in HIV-infected

  17. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): screening and decolonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Barry; Bonten, Marc J M; Mackenzie, Fiona M; Skov, Robert L; Verbrugh, Henri A; Tacconelli, Evelina

    2011-03-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are of increasing importance to clinicians, public health agencies and governments. Prevention and control strategies must address sources in healthcare settings, the community and livestock. This document presents the conclusions of a European Consensus Conference on the role of screening and decolonisation in the control of MRSA infection. The conference was held in Rome on 5-6 March 2010 and was organised jointly by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC). In an environment where MRSA is endemic, universal or targeted screening of patients to detect colonisation was considered to be an essential pillar of any MRSA control programme, along with the option of decolonising carriers dependent on relative risk of infection, either to self or others, in a specific setting. Staff screening may be useful but is problematic as it needs to distinguish between transient carriage and longer-term colonisation. The consequences of identification of MRSA-positive staff may have important effects on morale and the ability to maintain staffing levels. The role of environmental contamination in MRSA infection is unclear, but screening may be helpful as an audit of hygiene procedures. In all situations, screening procedures and decolonisation carry a significant cost burden, the clinical value of which requires careful evaluation. European initiatives designed to provide further information on the cost/benefit value of particular strategies in the control of infection, including those involving MRSA, are in progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on Decolonization Procedures for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among HIV-Infected Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintrob, Amy; Bebu, Ionut; Agan, Brian; Diem, Alona; Johnson, Erica; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Wang, Xun; Bavaro, Mary; Ellis, Michael; Mende, Katrin; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    HIV-infected persons have increased risk of MRSA colonization and skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). However, no large clinical trial has examined the utility of decolonization procedures in reducing MRSA colonization or infection among community-dwelling HIV-infected persons. 550 HIV-infected adults at four geographically diverse US military HIV clinics were prospectively screened for MRSA colonization at five body locations every 6 months during a 2-year period. Those colonized were randomized in a double-blind fashion to nasal mupirocin (Bactroban) twice daily and hexachlorophene (pHisoHex) soaps daily for 7 days compared to placeboes similar in appearance but without specific antibacterial activity. The primary endpoint was MRSA colonization at 6-months post-randomization; secondary endpoints were time to MRSA clearance, subsequent MRSA infections/SSTI, and predictors for MRSA clearance at the 6-month time point. Forty-nine (9%) HIV-infected persons were MRSA colonized and randomized. Among those with 6-month colonization data (80% of those randomized), 67% were negative for MRSA colonization in both groups (p = 1.0). Analyses accounting for missing 6-month data showed no significant differences could have been achieved. In the multivariate adjusted models, randomization group was not associated with 6-month MRSA clearance. The median time to MRSA clearance was similar in the treatment vs. placebo groups (1.4 vs. 1.8 months, p = 0.35). There was no difference on subsequent development of MRSA infections/SSTI (p = 0.89). In a multivariable model, treatment group, demographics, and HIV-specific factors were not predictive of MRSA clearance at the 6-month time point. A one-week decolonization procedure had no effect on MRSA colonization at the 6-month time point or subsequent infection rates among community-dwelling HIV-infected persons. More aggressive or novel interventions may be needed to reduce the burden of MRSA in this population. Clinical

  19. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  20. Molecular typing of MRSA and of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iaşi, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.

  1. Blue Light Phototherapy Kills Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwemeka, Chukuka S.; Williams, Debora; Enwemeka, Sombiri K.; Hollosi, Steve; Yens, David

    2010-05-01

    Background: Methycillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria continue to defy most available antibiotics. As a result infections with MRSA remain a growing public health concern. As a paradigm shift and a significant departure from the on-going trend to develop stronger drug-based therapies, we studied the effect of 405 nm and 470 nm wavelengths of blue light on two strains of MRSA—US-300 strain of CA-MRSA and the IS853 strain of HA-MRSA—in vitro. Methods: We cultured and plated each strain, following which bacteria colonies were irradiated with 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 Jcm-2 energy densities—just once. Specimens were incubated at 35° C for 24 h. Then, digital images obtained were quantified to obtain colony counts and the aggregate area occupied by bacteria colonies. Results: Each wavelength produced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in both the number and the aggregate area of colonies formed by each bacteria strain (PMRSA and CA-MRSA in vitro; raising the prospect that phototherapy may be an effective clinical tool in the on-going effort to stem MRSA infections.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Key facts about MRSA infections in the United States, including schools and healthcare settings.  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/23/2007.

  3. The antibacterial effect of topical ozone on the treatment of MRSA skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingsheng; Zeng, Qinghai; Xiang, Yaping; Gao, Lihua; Huang, Jian; Huang, Jinhua; Wu, Kathy; Lu, Jianyun

    2018-01-01

    Skin can be infected by many types of microorganisms, most commonly by gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections, particularly that of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a challenge in clinical practice. Ozone therapy has proven to be one of the strongest antiseptics against the majority of microorganisms involved in skin infections. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the microbicidal effects of topical ozone therapy on S. aureus and MRSA, and determine the clinical efficacy of ozone therapy on patients with MRSA skin infection. Microbicidal effects of ozonated oil and ozonated water were determined by plating and Kirby Bauer methods. Clinical efficacy and safety of topical ozone were evaluated in two cases with skin MRSA infection. The killing rates of ozonated oil for S. aureus and MRSA were greater when compared with the control oil group. Almost 100% of S. aureus were eliminated by ozonated oil following 5 min. Almost 100% MRSA were eliminated by ozonated oil following 15 min. In addition, 100% S. aureus and 100% MRSA were eliminated by ozonated water in 1 min. The inhibition zone diameters of ozonated oil for S. aureus and MRSA were 17 and 13 mm, respectively, which were significantly larger than the control group. Both cases of skin MRSA infection were completely healed with ozone therapy. In conclusion, ozone therapy is a potential treatment for S. aureus and MRSA skin infection as it has great efficacy, few side effects and low-costs. PMID:29207120

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  5. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    2016. Multiple data sources were linked to assess descriptive and clinical factors related to MRSA. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted Composite...center/MRSA-2015. pdf . Published March 2017. Accessed 22 May 2017. 2. EpiData Center at the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center. 2015...site. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/epi/ pdf /2015-mrsa-annual-summary.pdf. Updated 28 February 2017. Accessed May 2017. 5. Boucher HW, Corey GR

  6. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on Decolonization Procedures for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA among HIV-Infected Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Weintrob

    Full Text Available HIV-infected persons have increased risk of MRSA colonization and skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI. However, no large clinical trial has examined the utility of decolonization procedures in reducing MRSA colonization or infection among community-dwelling HIV-infected persons.550 HIV-infected adults at four geographically diverse US military HIV clinics were prospectively screened for MRSA colonization at five body locations every 6 months during a 2-year period. Those colonized were randomized in a double-blind fashion to nasal mupirocin (Bactroban twice daily and hexachlorophene (pHisoHex soaps daily for 7 days compared to placeboes similar in appearance but without specific antibacterial activity. The primary endpoint was MRSA colonization at 6-months post-randomization; secondary endpoints were time to MRSA clearance, subsequent MRSA infections/SSTI, and predictors for MRSA clearance at the 6-month time point.Forty-nine (9% HIV-infected persons were MRSA colonized and randomized. Among those with 6-month colonization data (80% of those randomized, 67% were negative for MRSA colonization in both groups (p = 1.0. Analyses accounting for missing 6-month data showed no significant differences could have been achieved. In the multivariate adjusted models, randomization group was not associated with 6-month MRSA clearance. The median time to MRSA clearance was similar in the treatment vs. placebo groups (1.4 vs. 1.8 months, p = 0.35. There was no difference on subsequent development of MRSA infections/SSTI (p = 0.89. In a multivariable model, treatment group, demographics, and HIV-specific factors were not predictive of MRSA clearance at the 6-month time point.A one-week decolonization procedure had no effect on MRSA colonization at the 6-month time point or subsequent infection rates among community-dwelling HIV-infected persons. More aggressive or novel interventions may be needed to reduce the burden of MRSA in this population

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on Decolonization Procedures for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among HIV-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintrob, Amy; Bebu, Ionut; Agan, Brian; Diem, Alona; Johnson, Erica; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Wang, Xun; Bavaro, Mary; Ellis, Michael; Mende, Katrin; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected persons have increased risk of MRSA colonization and skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). However, no large clinical trial has examined the utility of decolonization procedures in reducing MRSA colonization or infection among community-dwelling HIV-infected persons. Methods 550 HIV-infected adults at four geographically diverse US military HIV clinics were prospectively screened for MRSA colonization at five body locations every 6 months during a 2-year period. Those colonized were randomized in a double-blind fashion to nasal mupirocin (Bactroban) twice daily and hexachlorophene (pHisoHex) soaps daily for 7 days compared to placeboes similar in appearance but without specific antibacterial activity. The primary endpoint was MRSA colonization at 6-months post-randomization; secondary endpoints were time to MRSA clearance, subsequent MRSA infections/SSTI, and predictors for MRSA clearance at the 6-month time point. Results Forty-nine (9%) HIV-infected persons were MRSA colonized and randomized. Among those with 6-month colonization data (80% of those randomized), 67% were negative for MRSA colonization in both groups (p = 1.0). Analyses accounting for missing 6-month data showed no significant differences could have been achieved. In the multivariate adjusted models, randomization group was not associated with 6-month MRSA clearance. The median time to MRSA clearance was similar in the treatment vs. placebo groups (1.4 vs. 1.8 months, p = 0.35). There was no difference on subsequent development of MRSA infections/SSTI (p = 0.89). In a multivariable model, treatment group, demographics, and HIV-specific factors were not predictive of MRSA clearance at the 6-month time point. Conclusion A one-week decolonization procedure had no effect on MRSA colonization at the 6-month time point or subsequent infection rates among community-dwelling HIV-infected persons. More aggressive or novel interventions may be needed to reduce the burden of MRSA in

  8. Potential for pet animals to harbor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) when residing with human MRSA patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel O.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Leckerman, Kateri; Edelstein, Paul H.; Rankin, Shelley C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may be persistent in people, and is horizontally transmissible. The scientific literature suggests that domestic pets may also participate in cross-transmission of MRSA within households. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA carriage by pets residing in households with an MRSA-infected person. From 66 households in which an MRSA infected patient resided, we screened 47 dogs and 52 cats using a swab protocol. Isolates from pets and humans were genotyped using two techniques, and compared for concordance. Human participants completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. Eleven of 99 pets (11.5%) representing 9 (13.6%) of households were MRSA-positive, but in only 6 of these households were the human and animal-source strains genetically concordant. Human infection by strain USA 100 was significantly associated with pet carriage [OR = 11.4 (95% C.I. 1.7, 76.9); p=0.013]. Yet, for each day of delay in sampling the pet after the person’s MRSA diagnosis, the odds of isolating any type of MRSA from the pet decreased by 13.9% [(95% C.I. 2.6%, 23.8%); p=0.017)]. It may be concluded that pets can harbor pandemic strains of MRSA while residing in a household with an infected person. However, the source of MRSA to the pet cannot always be attributed to the human patient. Moreover, the rapid attrition of the odds of obtaining a positive culture from pets over time suggests that MRSA carriage may be fleeting. PMID:22233337

  9. Structure of ThiM from Vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway of Staphylococcus aureus - Insights into a novel pro-drug approach addressing MRSA infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebes, Julia; Künz, Madeleine; Windshügel, Björn; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Müller, Ingrid B.; Eberle, Raphael J.; Oberthür, Dominik; Cang, Huaixing; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Wrenger, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are today known to be a substantial threat for global health. Emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria have created a substantial need to identify and discover new drug targets and to develop novel strategies to treat bacterial infections. A promising and so far untapped antibiotic target is the biosynthesis of vitamin B1 (thiamin). Thiamin in its activated form, thiamin pyrophosphate, is an essential co-factor for all organisms. Therefore, thiamin analogous compounds, when introduced into the vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway and further converted into non-functional co-factors by the bacterium can function as pro-drugs which thus block various co-factor dependent pathways. We characterized one of the key enzymes within the S. aureus vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway, 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole kinase (SaThiM; EC 2.7.1.50), a potential target for pro-drug compounds and analyzed the native structure of SaThiM and complexes with the natural substrate 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (THZ) and two selected substrate analogues.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus: Screening for Nasal Carriers in a Community Setting with Special Reference to MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukti Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergence of MRSA infections among previously healthy persons in community settings (without exposure to health care facilities has been noted recently. MRSA infections are now classified as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA infections. Its colonization is an important risk factor for subsequent MRSA infection. Aims and Objectives. The aim was to screen patients and health care workers for staphylococcal carriage, identify risk factors for MRSA colonization, and determine the sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods. A total of 200 subjects were screened for nasal carriage after obtaining verbal consent. These were both healthy subjects attending various outpatient departments and health care workers. Specimens were collected from the anterior nares using premoistened sterile cotton swabs and inoculated onto blood agar and mannitol salt agar and incubated at 37°C for 24–48 h. Results. Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was found to be 12% (n=24. MRSA was identified in 5% (n=10 which represents 41.66% of SA. A total of 10 strains of MRSA were isolated from 200 subjects, giving an overall positivity rate of 5%. Discussion. Staphylococcal colonization was found to be 12% (MRSA 5%. Fluoroquinolone resistance was remarkable whereas all strains were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin.

  11. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children with cystic fibrosis from a center with a high MRSA prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik, Nada S; Com, Gulnur; Tang, Xinyu; Melguizo Castro, Maria; Stemper, Mary E; Carroll, John L

    2016-04-01

    We describe the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) from the U.S. CF center with the highest MRSA prevalence. Medical records of children with CF were retrospectively reviewed from 1997-2009. MRSA clinical isolates from 2007-2009 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The prevalence of MRSA was 1% in 1997 and 49% in 2009. Fifty-five children (26%) had persistent MRSA infection. Sixty-eight percent of MRSA isolates were hospital-associated (HA) MRSA, of which 52% were pulsed-field type USA 100. Ninety-three percent of HA MRSA isolates were clindamycin resistant. Twelve children acquired MRSA before 1 year of age, 83% of whom were hospitalized prior to acquisition of MRSA. Ten of 11 sibling pairs carried indistinguishable MRSA strains. Children with persistent MRSA were hospitalized more often (P = .01), required inhaled medications more frequently (P = .01), and had higher rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa coinfection (P MRSA prevalence in children with CF is increasing, and most children are infected with HA MRSA. Exposure to health care facilities and gastrointestinal surgeries may facilitate early acquisition of MRSA. Siblings carry indistinguishable MRSA strains, indicating household transmission of MRSA. Children with persistent MRSA had worse pulmonary morbidity. Coinfection with MRSA and P aeruginosa is likely associated with further increased pulmonary morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inactivating Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Other Pathogens by Bacteriocins OR-7 and E 50-52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, reports document the increasing frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Other human pathogens are recognized as unresponsive to antibiotics of last resort. These previously treatable infections now account for increased numbers of human disease and de...

  13. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  14. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: One hundred and ninety-two (64%) out of 300 were carriers of Staph aureus, while 90 (30%) out of the 300 were positive for MRSA. The prevalence of MRSA among the health workers were Medical Doctors 24%, Medical Laboratory Scientists 34.1%, Nurses 28.8%, Ward Attendants 50.0%, and Cleaners 20.0%.

  15. New patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones, community-associated MRSA genotypes behave like healthcare-associated MRSA genotypes within hospitals, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Ana L; Gagetti, Paula; Lamberghini, Ricardo; Faccone, Diego; Lucero, Celeste; Vindel, Ana; Tosoroni, Dario; Garnero, Analía; Saka, Hector A; Galas, Marcelo; Bocco, José L; Corso, Alejandra; Sola, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) burden is increasing worldwide in hospitals [healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA] and in communities [community-associated (CA)-MRSA]. However, the impact of CA-MRSA within hospitals remains limited, particularly in Latin America. A countrywide representative survey of S. aureus infections was performed in Argentina by analyzing 591 clinical isolates from 66 hospitals in a prospective cross-sectional, multicenter study (Nov-2009). This work involved healthcare-onset infections-(HAHO, >48 hospitalization hours) and community-onset (CO) infections [including both, infections (HACO) in patients with healthcare-associated risk-factors (HRFs) and infections (CACO) in those without HRFs]. MRSA strains were genetically typed as CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA genotypes (CA-MRSAG and HA-MRSAG) by SCCmec- and spa-typing, PFGE, MLST and virulence genes profile by PCR. Considering all isolates, 63% were from CO-infections and 55% were MRSA [39% CA-MRSAG and 16% HA-MRSAG]. A significantly higher MRSA proportion among CO- than HAHO-S. aureus infections was detected (58% vs 49%); mainly in children (62% vs 43%). The CA-MRSAG/HA-MRSAG have accounted for 16%/33% of HAHO-, 39%/13% of HACO- and 60.5%/0% of CACO-infections. Regarding the epidemiological associations identified in multivariate models for patients with healthcare-onset CA-MRSAG infections, CA-MRSAG behave like HA-MRSAG within hospitals but children were the highest risk group for healthcare-onset CA-MRSAG infections. Most CA-MRSAG belonged to two major clones: PFGE-type N-ST30-SCCmecIVc-t019-PVL(+) and PFGE-type I-ST5-IV-SCCmecIVa-t311-PVL(+) (45% each). The ST5-IV-PVL(+)/ST30-IV-PVL(+) clones have caused 31%/33% of all infections, 20%/4% of HAHO-, 43%/23% of HACO- and 35%/60% of CACO- infections, with significant differences by age groups (children/adults) and geographical regions. Importantly, an isolate belonging to USA300-0114-(ST8-SCCmecIVa-spat008-PVL(+)-ACME(+)) was detected

  16. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  17. Utilization of the chromogenic agar MRSA ID in the surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low endemic unit for MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Squarzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections.Approximately 20% of patients undergoing surgical operations acquires at least one nosocomial infection. Nasal carriers of S. aureus have been identified as one of the populations at major risk to develop this type of infection, particularly, after operations, dialysis, transplants and admission in intensive care unit. Our study was conducted on patients who came from a Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit, where the incidence of MRSA is very low (8% and where it is very important to identify MRSA carriers in order to adopt measures to avoid transmission.The use of chromogenic agar MRSA ID allowed us to identify green colonies of MRSA within 24 hours and to make a timely and careful diagnosis.

  18. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from burn patients by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Effat Abbasi; Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Jolodar, Abbas; Ghaderpanah, Mozhgan; Azarpira, Samireh

    2015-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) as important human pathogens are causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Burn patients are at a higher risk of local and systemic infections with these microorganisms. A screening method for MRSA by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), mecA, and nuc genes was developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of this PCR assay for the detection of MRSA strains in samples from burn patients. During an 11-month period, 230 isolates (53.11%) of Staphylococcus spp. were collected from burn patients. The isolates were identified as S. aureus by using standard culture and biochemical tests. DNA was extracted from bacterial colonies and multiplex PCR was used to detect MRSA and MRCoNS strains. Of the staphylococci isolates, 149 (64.9%) were identified as S. aureus and 81 (35.21%) were described as CoNS. Among the latter, 51 (62.97%) were reported to be MRCoNS. From the total S. aureus isolates, 132 (88.6%) were detected as MRSA and 17 (11.4%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The presence of the mecA gene in all isolates was confirmed by using multiplex PCR as a gold standard method. This study presented a high MRSA rate in the region under investigation. The 16S rRNA-mecA-nuc multiplex PCR is a good tool for the rapid characterization of MRSA strains. This paper emphasizes the need for preventive measures and choosing effective antimicrobials against MRSA and MRCoNS infections in the burn units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Guidelines for the control and prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, J E; Duckworth, G J; Edwards, D I; Farrington, M; Fry, C; Humphreys, H; Mallaghan, C; Tucker, D R

    2006-05-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains endemic in many UK hospitals. Specific guidelines for control and prevention are justified because MRSA causes serious illness and results in significant additional healthcare costs. Guidelines were drafted by a multi-disciplinary group and these have been finalised following extensive consultation. The recommendations have been graded according to the strength of evidence. Surveillance of MRSA should be undertaken in a systematic way and should be fed back routinely to healthcare staff. The inappropriate or unnecessary use of antibiotics should be avoided, and this will also reduce the likelihood of the emergence and spread of strains with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides, i.e. vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus/glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (VISA/GISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Screening for MRSA carriage in selected patients and clinical areas should be performed according to locally agreed criteria based upon assessment of the risks and consequences of transmission and infection. Nasal and skin decolonization should be considered in certain categories of patients. The general principles of infection control should be adopted for patients with MRSA, including patient isolation and the appropriate cleaning and decontamination of clinical areas. Inadequate staffing, especially amongst nurses, contributes to the increased prevalence of MRSA. Laboratories should notify the relevant national authorities if VISA/GISA or VRSA isolates are identified.

  20. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Selma; Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Kamberović, Farah; Fiolić, Zlatko; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL), and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic characterization of MRSA was performed using spa-typing and the algorithm based upon repeat patterns (BURP). Double-disk-synergy test was used to screen for ESBLs. PCR was used to detect blaESBL alleles. Genetic relatedness of the strains was tested by PFGE. Seventeen in-patients with MRSA, 13 with ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria and three patients co-infected with both, were detected. Five MRSA and 16 ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria were found in outpatient samples. Klebsiella spp. was isolated in 11 in- and seven outpatients. MLST CC152 was the most prevalent MRSA. Seven (38.9%) Klebsiella spp. yielded amplicons with primers specific for SHV, TEM-1 and CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Eight K. pneumonia (44.4%) and 16 (64%) MRSA (including the in- and outpatient) strains were clonally related. The presence of MRSA and ESBL-producing organisms causing SSTIs in the community poses a substantial concern, due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with possible consequent hospital infections. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America , Europe and the Western Pacific Region for the...be approximately 22.7 cases per 100,000 persons in the general population, with a death rate of approximately 2.9 per 100,000 persons. 14 These...general population, with a death rate of 6.8 per 100,000 persons. 15 2 MRSA in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData

  2. Control of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a day-care institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Jensen, ET; Larsen, AR

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two institutions for multi-handicapped children in Copenhagen. The aim of the study was to determine whether it was possible to eradicate MRSA in a setting with multi-handicapped children and staff where...... there was a high degree of physical interaction. This was a prospective interventional uncontrolled cohort study that took place from January 2003 to March 2005. All individuals in close contact with the two institutions and/or in close contact with an MRSA-colonized subject from the outbreak were included...... in the study: 38 children, 60 staff members and 12 close relatives of colonized subjects. Infection control measures included screening all individuals. When MRSA infection or colonization was found, an attempt was made to eradicate MRSA, staff education was undertaken and attempts were made to determine...

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary surgical and trauma hospital in Benghazi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzaid, Najat; Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Taher, Ibrahim; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2011-10-13

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant organism that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide and causes a threat almost exclusively in hospitals and long-term care settings. This study investigated the prevalence of MRSA strains and their sensitivity patterns against various antibiotics used for treating hospitalized patients in a major tertiary surgical hospital in Benghazi, Libya. We investigated 200 non-duplicate S. aureus strains isolated from different clinical specimens submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Aljala Surgical and Trauma Hospital, Benghazi, Libya from April to July 2007. Isolates were tested for methicillin resistance by the oxacillin disc-diffusion assay according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. MRSA strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance (i.e., vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and fusidic acid) using commercial discs. Information on patient demographics and clinical disease was also collected. Of the isolates examined 31% (62/200) were MRSA. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus from females or males or from different age groups. Most MRSA were isolated from burns and surgical wound infections. Antibiotic resistance patterns of 62 patients with MRSA to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and erythromycin were 17.7%, 33.9%, 41.9%, 38.7% and 46.8% of cases, respectively. MRSA prevalence in our hospital was high and this may be the case for other hospitals in Libya. A sound surveillance program of nosocomial infections is urgently needed to reduce the incidence of infections due to MRSA and other antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in Libyan hospitals.

  4. Characterization of tetracycline and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in a Spanish hospital: is livestock-contact a risk factor in infections caused by MRSA CC398?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Daniel; Lozano, Carmen; Rezusta, Antonio; Ferrer, Isabel; Vasquez, Maria Alejandra; Ceballos, Sara; Zarazaga, Myriam; Revillo, Maria José; Torres, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Tetracycline-resistance (Tet(R)) has been postulated as a marker of the livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineage CC398. to determine the spa-types and assigned MLST clonal complexes (CCs) among all 98 MRSA-Tet(R) strains recovered during 2011-2012 (from different patients) in a Spanish Hospital, analyzing the possible correlation with livestock-contact of the patients. All 98 strains were assigned to 9 CCs: CC398 (60.2%), CC1 (19.4%), CC5 (12.2%), and other CCs (8.2%). The 98 patients were classified into three groups: (A) contact with livestock-animals (n=25); (B) no-contact with livestock-animals (n=42); (C) no information about animal contact (n=31). A significant higher percentage of CC398 strains was obtained in group A (76%) than in group B (50%) (pMRSA-Tet(R)-CC398 strains presented a multi-resistance phenotype, including erythromycin, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin, and the most prevalent detected genes were tet(M) and erm(C). Three strains presented the phenotype macrolide-susceptibility/lincosamide-resistance and contained the vga(A) gene. MRSA-CC1 strains showed higher percentages of erythromycin/clindamycin resistance (95%/89%) than MRSA-CC398 strains (58%/63%), and this resistance was usually mediated by erm(C) gene. Most of MRSA-CC5 strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, tobramycin/kanamycin and erythromycin. None of the strains presented the genes lukF/lukS-PV, tsst-1, eta, etb or etd. All MRSA-CC398 strains lacked the genes of the immune-evasion-cluster, but MRSA-CC1 strains carried these genes (type E). In conclusion, although MRSA CC398 is detected in a significant higher proportion in patients with livestock-contact; its detection in people without this type of contact also indicates its capacity for human-to-human transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. ST2249-MRSA-III: a second major recombinant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone causing healthcare infection in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, G R; Steen, J A; Monecke, S; Ehricht, R; Slickers, P; Thomas, J C; Appleton, S; Goering, R V; Robinson, D A; Coombs, G W

    2015-05-01

    Typing of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Australia in the 1970s revealed a novel clone, ST2249-MRSA-III (CC45), present from 1973 to 1979. This clone was present before the Australian epidemic caused by the recombinant clone, ST239-MRSA-III. This study aimed to characterize the genome of ST2249-MRSA-III to establish its relationship to other MRSA clones. DNA microarray analysis was conducted and a draft genome sequence of ST2249 was obtained. The recombinant structure of the ST2249 genome was revealed by comparisons to publicly available ST239 and ST45 genomes. Microarray analysis of genomic DNA of 13 ST2249 isolates showed gross similarities with the ST239 chromosome in a segment around the origin of replication and with ST45 for the remainder of the chromosome. Recombination breakpoints were precisely determined by the changing pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in the genome sequence of ST2249 isolate SK1585 compared with ST239 and ST45. One breakpoint was identified to the right of oriC, between sites 1014 and 1065 of the gene D484_00045. Another was identified to the left of oriC, between sites 1185 and 1248 of D484_01632. These results indicate that ST2249 inherited approximately 35.3% of its chromosome from an ST239-like parent and 64.7% from an ST45-like parent. ST2249-MRSA-III resulted from a major recombination between parents that resemble ST239 and ST45. Although only limited Australian archival material is available, the oldest extant isolate of ST2249 predates the oldest Australian isolate of ST239 by 3 years. It is therefore plausible that these two recombinant clones were introduced into Australia separately. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates from high risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhani S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available MRSA is an important hospital pathogen, the incidence of which is increasing every year especially in high risk groups. The present study was performed in high risk patients admitted in burns and orthopaedic units of LN hospital to study the infection rate of MRSA from these units. The proportion of MRSA amongst S. aureus isolates was found to be 51.6% and these isolates were multidrug resistant. Phage typing of these isolates gave a typeability of 41.8% using the MRSA set of phages. Biotyping of these isolates could divide them into four groups. The study shows a high incidence of MRSA from burns and orthopaedic units with a high level of antibiotic resistance amongst these isolates.

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage in a dermatology unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L. Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage in a dermatology unit. METHODS: This was a prospective and descriptive study. Over the course of 26 weeks, surveillance cultures were collected weekly from the anterior nares and skin of all patients hospitalized in a 20-bed dermatology unit of a tertiary-care hospital. Samples from healthcare workers (HCWS were cultured at the beginning and end of the study. Colonized patients were put under contact precautions, and basic infection control measures were enforced. Staphylococcus aureus colonization pressure was determined monthly. Colonized and non-colonized patients were compared, and isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec type, virulence factors, and type. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients evaluated, 64 (45% were colonized by MRSA (39% hospital acquired; 25% community acquired; 36% indeterminate. Despite isolation precautions, hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus occurred in addition to the continuous entry of Staphylococcus aureus from the community. Colonization pressure increased from 13% to 59%, and pemphigus and other bullous diseases were associated with MRSA colonization. Eleven out of 71 HCWs (15% were Staphylococcus aureus carriers, although only one worker carried a persistent clone. Of the hospital-acquired MRSA cases, 14/28 (50% were SCCmec type IV (3 PFGE types, 13 were SCCmec type III (46%, and one had an indeterminate type. These types were also present among the community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates. SSCmec type IV isolates were shown to be more susceptible than type III isolates. There were two cases of bloodstream infection, and the pvl and tst virulence genes were absent from all isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatology patients were colonized by community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus. Half of the nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus isolates were SCCmec type IV. Despite the identification of

  8. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in a dermatology unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Renata L.; Lobo, Renata D.; Oliveira, Maura S.; Farina, Elthon F.; Santos, Cleide R.; Costa, Silvia F.; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Garcia, Cilmara P.; Trindade, Priscila A.; Quitério, Ligia M.; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Mamizuka, Elsa M.; Levin, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in a dermatology unit. METHODS: This was a prospective and descriptive study. Over the course of 26 weeks, surveillance cultures were collected weekly from the anterior nares and skin of all patients hospitalized in a 20-bed dermatology unit of a tertiary-care hospital. Samples from healthcare workers (HCWS) were cultured at the beginning and end of the study. Colonized patients were put under contact precautions, and basic infection control measures were enforced. Staphylococcus aureus colonization pressure was determined monthly. Colonized and non-colonized patients were compared, and isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec type, virulence factors, and type. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients evaluated, 64 (45%) were colonized by MRSA (39% hospital acquired; 25% community acquired; 36% indeterminate). Despite isolation precautions, hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus occurred in addition to the continuous entry of Staphylococcus aureus from the community. Colonization pressure increased from 13% to 59%, and pemphigus and other bullous diseases were associated with MRSA colonization. Eleven out of 71 HCWs (15%) were Staphylococcus aureus carriers, although only one worker carried a persistent clone. Of the hospital-acquired MRSA cases, 14/28 (50%) were SCCmec type IV (3 PFGE types), 13 were SCCmec type III (46%), and one had an indeterminate type. These types were also present among the community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates. SSCmec type IV isolates were shown to be more susceptible than type III isolates. There were two cases of bloodstream infection, and the pvl and tst virulence genes were absent from all isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatology patients were colonized by community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus. Half of the nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus isolates were SCCmec type IV. Despite the identification of colonized

  9. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pinto Ferreira

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls. MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2% households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175. These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  10. CONTROL OF NOSOCOMIAL SPREAD OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Tomič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. This prospective cohort study presents the effectiveness and feasibility of a comprehensive control strategy to reduce nosocomial transmission of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in a highly endemic setting.Methods. All patients with MRSA carriage admitted to the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases over a period of 5 years (January 1998 through December 2002 were included and categorized into imported or hospitalacquired cases. In January 1999, an aggressive infection control program was implemented. It was focused on promoting alcohol hand rub, obtaining active surveillance cultures for MRSA, implementing strict barrier precautions and decolonizing MRSA carriers.Results. MRSA was recovered from 223 hospitalized patients; 142 cases were imported and 81 were acquired at our institution. After the introduction of an active surveillance program, the annual incidence of detected MRSA carriage per 1000 admissions first increased from 4.5 in 1998 to 8.0 in 1999 (p = 0.019, but remained stable thereafter. The proportion of patients detected through active surveillance cultures progressively increased from 23% in 1999 to 78% in 2002. Since 1999, the proportion of acquired MRSA cases in our institution has steadily decreased from 50% in 1999 to 6% in 2002 (p < 0.001, whereas the proportion of patients who acquired MRSA in other hospitals (p < 0.001 and nursing homes (p = 0.025 has increased.Conclusions. With a comprehensive infection control program it is possible to substantially reduce nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a highly endemic area. With good hand hygiene, early detection, isolation and decolonization strategy, containment of MRSA is achievable despite a high rate of transferred patients colonized or infected with MRSA from other healthcare facilities.

  11. Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in der Veterinärmedizin : ein "New Emerging Pathogen"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Friedrich, Alexander W; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2006-01-01

    The problem of nosocomial infections is of increasing importance in veterinary medicine. As an example, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a typical example, as these pathogens are the most important agents of nosocomial

  12. Compliance of hospital staff with guidelines for the active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its impact on rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoabi, Marwan; Keness, Yoram; Titler, Nava; Bisharat, Naiel

    2011-12-01

    The compliance of hospital staff with guidelines for the active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Israel has not been determined. To evaluate the compliance of hospital staff with guidelines for the active surveillance of MRSA and assess its impact on the incidence of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. We assessed compliance with MRSA surveillance guidelines by assessing adherence to the screening protocol and reviewing medical and nursing charts of patients colonized with MRSA, and observed hand hygiene opportunities among health care workers and colonized patients. Rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia and of adherence with hand hygiene among overall hospital staff were obtained from archived data for the period 2001-2010. Only 32.4% of eligible patients were screened for MRSA carriage on admission, and 69.9% of MRSA carriers did not receive any eradication treatment. The mean rate of adherence to glove use among nurses and doctors was 69% and 31% respectively (Pstaff with guidelines for active MRSA surveillance was poor. The encouraging increase in adherence to hand hygiene and concomitant decrease in nosocomial MRSA bacteremia is gratifying. The deficiencies in compliance with MRSA infection control policy warrant an adjusted strategy based on the hospital resources.

  13. DAYA HAMBAT SARI TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI STRAIN Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hilda Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infection can be treated with Methicilin, β lactam class of antibiotics that have drug targets in the cell wall. Bacteria S. aureus that is resistant to methicillin called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. One alternative that can be used in strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that have this is to use medicinal plants. This study aimed to know the ability of medicinal plant extracts inhibit the growth of bacterial strains of MRSA. This kind of research is experimental research. Medicinal plants tested were Garlic, Turmeric, Aloe Vera, Daun Salam, Curcuma, Ginger, Betel Leaf and Alpinia galanga. As a control, which is used Amphicillin, β lactam antibiotic class. The method used to determine the diameter of inhibition area of medicinal plant extracts is paper diffusion method. The results showed that all medicinal plants can inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains characterized by the inhibition zone formed on each treatment. The ability of garlic and turmeric extract better than Amphicillin and other medicinal plants to inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains. Kata kunci: inhibit,  growth, bacteria, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

  14. Bactericidal activity of three disinfectants on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Marchionatti Avancini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are involved in nosocomial infections (HA-MRSA, in community-associated infections (CA-MRSA, in companion animals- and in livestock-associated infections (LA-MRSA. In addressing the control of its transmission, the action on the causal agents present on the surfaces of the environments requires attention, the choice of disinfectants and antiseptic substances being decisive. This study’s objectives were: to evaluate the bactericidal activity, on 21 MRSA isolates and a control bacteria, of the following chemical compounds: sodium hypochlorite (SH, iodoform (I and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC - cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, routinely used in nosocomial environments and equally in those of production and animal health; and to test the hypothesis of the possibility of cross resistance between antibiotics and disinfectants. Methods: for the suspension test, using an initial population density of the inoculum at 107CFU/mL, the bactericidal activity of four successive dilutions of the disinfectants was assessed at contact times of five, 15 and 30 minutes. Results: it was observed that the disinfectants at the concentrations of SH 25 ppm, I 12.5 ppm and QAC 125 ppm, at five minutes of contact, were sufficient to inactivate the reference bacteria S.aureus ATCC 6538 and all the MRSA. Conclusion: the factors that influence the efficacy of the disinfectants being controlled for, sodium hypochlorite, iodoform and quaternary ammonium compounds are appropriate for controlling MRSA in the sources of infection, and that in the isolates resistant to methicillin antibiotic encountered, no relationship of resistance with these chemical compounds was observed. KEYWORDS: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfectants. Hygiene.

  15. Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Jridi, Taoufik; Nefzi, Adel; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Sebei, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections cause considerable patient mortality and morbidity. The annual frequency of deaths from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has surpassed those caused by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), plant essential oils (EOs) and their combinations have proven to be quite effective in killing a wide selection of bacterial pathogens including MRSA. This review summarizes the studies in the use of AMPs, plant EOs and their combinations for coping with MRSA bacteria, and to formulate new prospects for future studies on this topic. The sources of scientific literature such as PubMed, library search, Google Scholar, Science Direct and electronic databases such as 'The Antimicrobial Peptide Database', 'Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides' and 'YADAMP'. Physicochemical data of anti-MRSA peptides were determined by Scientific DataBase Maker software. Of the 118 peptides, 88 exhibited an activity against MRSA with the highest activity of minimum inhibitory concentration values. Various plant EOs have been effective against MRSA. Remarkably, lemongrass EOs completely inhibited all MRSA growth on the plate. Lemon myrtle, Mountain savory, Cinnamon bark and Melissa EOs showed a significant inhibition. Several of these AMPs, EOs and their combinations were effective against MRSA. Their activities have implications for the development of new drugs for medical use.

  16. Comparison of Chromogenic Media to BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nasal Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Larry J.; Lapsley, Linda; Fontecchio, Karen; Jacosalem, Dollie; Young, Carol; Hankerd, Rosemary; Newton, Duane W.

    2009-01-01

    To select a method for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal swabs, we compared BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR and various culture media (mannitol salt agar with cefoxitin, MRSASelect, CHROMagar MRSA, and Spectra MRSA). While PCR detection of MRSA was more rapid, MRSASelect and Spectra MRSA demonstrated performance equivalent to that of PCR with maximal detection at 24 h.

  17. Relationship between day 1 and day 2 Vancomycin area under the curve values and emergence of heterogeneous Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) by Etest® macromethod among patients with MRSA bloodstream infections: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosov, Dmitriy M; Bidell, Monique R; Pai, Manjunath P; Scheetz, Marc H; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Faragon, Corey; Malik, M; Mendes, R E; Jones, R N; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Lodise, Thomas P

    2017-08-02

    In vitro data suggests that suboptimal initial vancomycin exposure may select for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infections. However, no clinical studies have evaluated the relationship between initial vancomycin exposure and emergence of hVISA. This pilot study seeks to assess the relationship between day 1 and day 2 vancomycin area under the curve (AUC) and emergence of hVISA bloodstream infections (BSIs) by Etest® macromethod among patients with a non-hVISA BSI at baseline. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) BSIs at Albany Medical Center Hospital (AMCH) between January 2005 and June 2009. The vancomycin AUC exposure variables on day 1 (AUC0-24h) and day 2 (AUC24-48h) were estimated using the maximal a posteriori probability (MAP) procedure in ADAPT 5. There were 238 unique episodes of MRSA BSIs during the study period, 119 of which met inclusion criteria. Overall, hVISA emerged in 7/119 (5.9%) of patients. All 7 cases of hVISA involved patients who did not achieve area under the curve over broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC0-24h/MICBMD) ratio of 521 or an AUC24-48h/MICBMD ratio of 650. No associations between other day 1 and day 2 AUC variables and emergence of hVISA were noted. Although more data are needed to draw definitive conclusions, these findings suggest that hVISA emergence among patients with non-hVISA MRSA BSIs at baseline may be partially explained by suboptimal exposure to vancomycin in the first 1 to 2 days of therapy. At a minimum, these findings support further study of the relationship between initial vancomycin exposure and hVISA emergence among patients with MRSA BSIs in a well-powered, multi-center, prospective trial.

  18. Misidentification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims: To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 Staph System and retested for resistance to methicillin using the cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility test and PBP2a. D-tests and vancomycin E-tests (Van-E-tests were also performed for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Results: Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51% were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA. Fifteen (17% of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15% were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although disc-diffusion testing indicated that 23 (27% of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test. Conclusions: Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories of Libyan hospitals.

  19. Misidentification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O.; Abuzweda, Abdulbaset R.; Alghazali, Mohamed H.; Elramalli, Asma K.; Amri, Samira G.; Aghila, Ezzeddin Sh.; Abouzeed, Yousef M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 Staph System and retested for resistance to methicillin using the cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility test and PBP2a. D-tests and vancomycin E-tests (Van-E-tests) were also performed for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Results Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51%) were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA). Fifteen (17%) of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15%) were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although disc-diffusion testing indicated that 23 (27%) of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test. Conclusions Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories of Libyan hospitals. PMID:21483574

  20. Emergency (clonal spread) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum (ESBL)--and AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria infections at Pediatric Department, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Selma; Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Kamberović, Farah; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Delić-Bikić, Sabina; Sivec, Sara; Meštrović, Tomislav; Varda Brkić, Dijana; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2014-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria in children. Antibiotic susceptibility of MRSA and beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria was determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by the presence of mecA gene by PCR. The genetic characterization of S. aures was performed using spa-typing and the algorithm based upon repeat pattern (BURP). Double-disk synergy test was used to screen for ESBL production. PCR was used to detect bla ESBL alleles. Genetic relatedness of the strains was tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 23 MRSA, 12 (52.2 %) were obtained from newborns. MLST CC152 (spa-CC 355-595) (Balkan clone) was the most prevalent, 20 (87 %) cases. Among 24 beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria, 10 (41.7 %) were obtained from each newborns and one-year-old children; 14 (58.3 %) were from urine. Among 11 Klebsiella strains isolated from urine eight (73 %) produced CTX-M-15, and one CTX-M-3 beta-lactamase. Twenty (83 %) of CTX-M producers were coproduced by other types of beta-lactamases. Fifteen (65.2 %) MRSA isolates were clonally related. Five clones among 13 K. pneumoniae isolates were detected by PFGE suggesting clonal spread of β-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria. Pediatric infections caused by clonal spread of MRSA and beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are of major concern. Proper infection control measures should be implemented in order to avoid the transmission and major outbreaks.

  1. Selective Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) screening of a high risk population does not adequately detect MRSA carriers within a country with low MRSA prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wouters, Solange; Daxhelet, Jérémy; Kaminski, Ludovic; Thienpont, Emmanuel; Cornu, Olivier; Yombi, Jean Cyr

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has been widely recognized as a serious problem in hospital settings. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of MRSA colonization factors in the detection of MRSA carriers in an orthopedic ward. A systematic MRSA detection strategy was set up to assess the predictive value of MRSA colonization factors among 554 patients undergoing elective knee arthroplasty. In total 116 patients were found positive for Staphylococcus Aureus; among those 110/116 patients were found positive for Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) and 6/116 for MRSA. Only one patient out of six presented two risk factors according to MRSA risk factors. In this study, no correlation was found between the remaining conventional risk factors, according to Belgian guidelines, defined to target high-risk populations and to identify MRSA carriers. Established criteria for selective MRSA screening do not allow detecting MRSA carriers. The objective of detecting MRSA carriers is not correctly met by the actual applied criteria (Belgian consensus) for a selective screening policy. Future studies should aim at identifying the right risk factors, depending of the country's prevalence of MRSA, to improve the ability to predict the risk of MRSA carriage at hospital admission.

  2. methicilin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) at jos university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -patients. The highest rate of methicillin resistance (81%) was found in surgical wound infections while the special care baby unity. (SCBU) service recorded 4%. 85% of the MRSA were sensitive to Ofloxacilin while 46% were sensitive to.

  3. 29 original article methicillin resistant s. aureus (mrsa) and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    MRSA) presents with management difficulties in infected patients due to their resistance to a number of other frontline antibiotics and constitutes significant epidemiological problems. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ...

  4. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and their antibiotic sensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRSA) presents with management difficulties in infected patients due to their resistance to a number of other frontline antibiotics and constitutes significant epidemiological problems. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ...

  5. Discovery of bisindolyl-substituted cycloalkane-anellated indoles as novel class of antibacterial agents against S. aureus and MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mardia Telep; Suzen, Sibel; Altanlar, Nurten; Ohlsen, Knut; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ongoing problem in the treatment of bacterial diseases. Among the various antibacterial infections Staphylococcus aureus infections remain critical due to the increasing resistances, especially against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We discovered novel antibacterial compounds with activities against both S. aureus and MRSA types. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed and show that the activity depends on the ring size of the anellated cycloalkane. Moreover, first substituent effects have been investigated for both the cycloalkane and the indole residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Alarming proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in wound samples from companion animals, Germany 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Vincze

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus (S. aureus is an important cause of wound infections in companion animals, and infections with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA are of particular concern due to limited treatment options and their zoonotic potential. However, comparable epidemiological data on MRSA infections in dogs, cats and horses is scarce, also limiting the knowledge about possible links to MRSA isolates from human populations. To gain more knowledge about the occurrence and genotypic variation of MRSA among wound swabs of companion animal origin in Germany we performed a survey (2010-2012 including 5,229 samples from 1,170 veterinary practices. S. aureus was identified in 201 (5.8% canine, 140 (12.2% feline and 138 (22.8% equine swabs from a total of 3,479 canine, 1,146 feline and 604 equine wounds, respectively. High MRSA rates were identified with 62.7%, 46.4% and 41.3% in S. aureus of canine, feline and equine origin, respectively. Further genotyping including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST revealed a comparable distribution of spa types among canine and feline MRSA with CC22 (47.6%; 49.2% and CC5 (30.2%; 29.2% as predominant lineages followed by CC398 (13.5%; 7.7% and CC8 (4.0%; 9.2%. In contrast, the majority of equine MRSA belonged to CC398 (87.7%. Our data highlight the importance of S. aureus and MRSA as a cause of wound infections, particularly in cats and horses in Germany. While "human-associated" MRSA lineages were most common in dogs and cats, a remarkable number of CC398-MRSA was detected in horses, indicating a replacement of CC8-MRSA as the predominant lineage within horses in Germany. These data enforce further longitudinal epidemiological approaches to examine the diversity and temporal relatedness of MRSA populations in humans and animals to assess probable sources of MRSA infections. This would enable a sound risk assessment and establishment of intervention strategies to limit the additional spread of MRSA.

  8. Development and validation of a bedside risk score for MRSA among patients hospitalized with complicated skin and skin structure infections

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Chaudhari, Paresh; Nathanson, Brian H; Campbell, Rebecca S; Emons, Matthew F; Fiske, Suzanne; Hays, Harlen D; Shorr, Andrew F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately. Methods We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals) retrospective cohort stu...

  9. Risk factors and gene type for infections of MRSA in diabetic foot patients in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu-Hong; Chu, Yue-Jie; Wang, Peng-Hua; Jun, Xu; Min, Ding; Li, Xue-Mei

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to study risk factors and gene type of DF patients infected with MRSA. A total of 429 DF patients were recruited. The patients with S aureus infections were divided into MRSA and MSSA groups. MRSA were genotyped by SCCmec. pvl and lukE-lukD were detected. A total of 559 pathogens were isolated from them, with G+ bacteria firstly(59.0%), followed G- bacilli (37.7%) and true fungi (3.3%). The 3 most frequently isolated pathogens were S aureus (35.2%), S epidermidis (12.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.2%). SCCmec III MRSA and SCCmec IVa MRSA had the same antibacterial spectrum. mecA positive rate was 100%. lukE-lukD and pvl positive rates were 100% and 0%, respectively. 28 strains belonged to SCCmec III and the others belonged to SCCmec IVa. The G+ cocci were the main pathogens, S aureus and S epidermidis were predominant among them. Antibiotic usage in 6 months prior to hospitalization, long course of ulcer, osteomyelitis and hypoproteinemia are risk factors for MRSA. SCCmec IVa is high in proportion to MRSA isolates, suggesting that CA-MRSA has become major pathogen of DF infection. All the MRSA were harboring lukE-lukD, which has been reported to present poor leucotoxin compared to pvl, and may be a response to atypical local inflammatory reaction in DF infection.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebs, Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasingly prevalent pathogen, both in the community and in hospitalized patients. The virulence of MRSA, coupled with its resistance to many frequently prescribed antibiotics, requires increased vigilance in the assessment and diagnosis of skin and soft tissue infections. This article reviews the epidemiology of MRSA and focuses on treatment of MRSA when it is diagnosed during pregnancy.

  11. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Lack of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between apparently healthy dogs in a rescue kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Pfeiffer, D U; Lindsay, J A; Soares-Magalhaes, R; Lloyd, D H

    2010-02-24

    Although it is widely accepted that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be transmitted between humans and animals in both directions, little is known about the dynamics of animal-to-animal transfer. This study aimed to investigate aspects of dog-to-dog MRSA transfer in a rescue facility in the South-East of England during an MRSA outbreak. One hundred and twenty-nine apparently healthy dogs, mostly housed in pairs, were swabbed at nasal, oral, axillary and perianal sites. Swabs were enriched in selective broth and staphylococci identified using standard biological methods. MRSA isolates were confirmed by demonstration of the thermonuclease gene (nuc) and mecA. After initial swabbing, a dog excluded from the study design but housed at the same facility was discovered to have a wound infection due to MRSA. MRSA carriage was identified in 10/129 dogs (7.8%) and all isolates were of the same lineage as the one isolated from the infected dog. All carrier dogs lived in shared kennels and their 16 kennel partners sampled negative on two occasions. Concurrently with successful antimicrobial treatment of the infected patient, MRSA carriage resolved spontaneously in all dogs within two weeks. In conclusion, MRSA did not transmit readily between apparently healthy dogs, MRSA carriage was not supported for long periods in a regularly cleaned environment and exposure alone may not lead to MRSA acquisition by dogs without the presence of additional risk factors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Short communication: Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Joaquim, S F; Richini-Pereira, V B; Langoni, H

    2017-01-01

    Cows are probably the main source of contamination of raw milk with Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary glands with subclinical mastitis can shed large numbers of Staph. aureus in milk. Because of the risk of this pathogen to human health as well as animal health, the aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staph. aureus (OS-MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) on a dairy farm. Milk samples were obtained from all quarters, showing an elevated somatic cell count by the California Mastitis Test. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 53% (61/115) of the milk samples, with 60 isolates identified as Staph. aureus (98.4%) and 1 isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.6%). The presence of the mecA gene was verified in 48.3% of Staph. aureus isolates. Of the Staph. aureus isolates, 23.3% were MRSA and 25.0% were OS-MRSA. The total of mastitis cases infected with MRSA was 12.2%. The detection of this large percentage of mastitis cases caused by MRSA and OS-MRSA is of great concern for the animals' health, because β-lactams are still the most important antimicrobials used to treat mastitis. In addition, Staph. aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis represent a public health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Millions of indwelling devices are implanted in patients every year, and staphylococci (S. aureus, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA are responsible for a majority of infections associated with these devices, thereby leading to treatment failures. Once established, staphylococcal biofilms become resistant to antimicrobial treatment and host response, thereby serving as the etiological agent for recurrent infections. This study investigated the efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH for inhibiting biofilm synthesis and inactivating fully-formed staphylococcal biofilm on different matrices in the presence and absence of serum protein. Polystyrene plates and stainless steel coupons inoculated with S. aureus, MRSA or VRSA were treated with OH (zero, 0.5, one, 2 mM at 37 °C for the prevention of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibiofilm effect of OH (zero, 2.5, five, 10 mM on fully-formed staphylococcal biofilms on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters was investigated. OH was effective in rapidly inactivating planktonic and biofilm cells of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters in the presence and absence of serum proteins. The use of two and 10 mM OH completely inactivated S. aureus planktonic cells and biofilm (>6.0 log reduction on all matrices tested immediately upon exposure. Further, confocal imaging revealed the presence of dead cells and loss in biofilm architecture in the OH-treated samples when compared to intact live biofilm in the control. Results suggest that OH could be applied as an effective antimicrobial to control biofilms of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on appropriate hospital surfaces and indwelling devices.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Virulence Strategies of the Dominant USA300 Lineage of Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Lance R.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to worldwide health. Historically, MRSA clones have strictly been associated with hospital settings and most hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) disease resulted from a limited number of virulent clones. Recently, MRSA has spread into the community causing disease in otherwise healthy people with no discernible contact with healthcare environments. These community-associated (CA-MRSA) are phylogenetically distinct from traditional HA-MRSA clones and CA-MRSA strains seem to exhibit hyper virulence and more efficient host:host transmission. Consequently, CA-MRSA clones belonging to the USA300 lineage have become dominant sources of MRSA infections in North America. The rise of this successful USA300 lineage represents an important step in the evolution of emerging pathogens and a great deal of effort has been exerted to understand how these clones evolved. Here we review much of the recent literature aimed at illuminating the source of USA300 success and broadly categorize these findings into three main categories: newly acquired virulence genes, altered expression of common virulence determinants and alterations in protein sequence that increase fitness. We argue that none of these evolutionary events alone account for the success of USA300, but rather their combination may be responsible for the rise and spread of CA-MRSA. PMID:22309135

  17. Synergism between Medihoney and rifampicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Müller

    Full Text Available Skin and chronic wound infections caused by highly antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide, particularly with sharp increases in obesity and diabetes. New Zealand manuka honey has potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, has been shown to inhibit the growth of MRSA strains, and bacteria resistant to this honey have not been obtainable in the laboratory. Combinational treatment of chronic wounds with manuka honey and common antibiotics may offer a wide range of advantages including synergistic enhancement of the antibacterial activity, reduction of the effective dose of the antibiotic, and reduction of the risk of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Medihoney in combination with the widely used antibiotic rifampicin on S. aureus. Using checkerboard microdilution assays, time-kill curve experiments and agar diffusion assays, we show a synergism between Medihoney and rifampicin against MRSA and clinical isolates of S. aureus. Furthermore, the Medihoney/rifampicin combination stopped the appearance of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus in vitro. Methylglyoxal (MGO, believed to be the major antibacterial compound in manuka honey, did not act synergistically with rifampicin and is therefore not the sole factor responsible for the synergistic effect of manuka honey with rifampicin. Our findings support the idea that a combination of honey and antibiotics may be an effective new antimicrobial therapy for chronic wound infections.

  18. Understanding the antimicrobial activity of selected disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Bumah, Violet V; Masson-Meyers, Daniela S; Eells, Janis T; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Enwemeka, Chukuka S

    2017-01-01

    Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300. FTIR spectroscopy permits a detailed characterization of bacterial reactivity, allowing an understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action involved in the interaction between bacteria and disinfectants. The disinfectants studied were ethanol 70% (N = 5), isopropanol (N = 5), sodium hypochlorite (N = 5), triclosan (N = 5) and triclocarban (N = 5). Results showed less than 5% colony forming units growth of MRSA treated with triclocarban and no growth in the other groups. Nearly 70,000 mid-infrared spectra from the five treatments and the two control (untreated; N = 4) groups of MRSA (bacteria grown in TSB and incubated at 37°C (Control I) / at ambient temperature (Control II), for 24h) were pre-processed and analyzed using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). Clustering of strains of MRSA belonging to five treatments and the discrimination between each treatment and two control groups in MRSA (untreated) were investigated. PCA-LDA discriminatory frequencies suggested that ethanol-treated spectra are the most similar to isopropanol-treated spectra biochemically. Also reported here are the biochemical alterations in the structure of proteins, lipid membranes, and phosphate groups of MRSA produced by sodium hypochlorite, triclosan, and triclocarban treatments. These findings provide mechanistic information involved in the interaction

  19. Understanding the antimicrobial activity of selected disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Aboualizadeh

    Full Text Available Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300. FTIR spectroscopy permits a detailed characterization of bacterial reactivity, allowing an understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action involved in the interaction between bacteria and disinfectants. The disinfectants studied were ethanol 70% (N = 5, isopropanol (N = 5, sodium hypochlorite (N = 5, triclosan (N = 5 and triclocarban (N = 5. Results showed less than 5% colony forming units growth of MRSA treated with triclocarban and no growth in the other groups. Nearly 70,000 mid-infrared spectra from the five treatments and the two control (untreated; N = 4 groups of MRSA (bacteria grown in TSB and incubated at 37°C (Control I / at ambient temperature (Control II, for 24h were pre-processed and analyzed using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA. Clustering of strains of MRSA belonging to five treatments and the discrimination between each treatment and two control groups in MRSA (untreated were investigated. PCA-LDA discriminatory frequencies suggested that ethanol-treated spectra are the most similar to isopropanol-treated spectra biochemically. Also reported here are the biochemical alterations in the structure of proteins, lipid membranes, and phosphate groups of MRSA produced by sodium hypochlorite, triclosan, and triclocarban treatments. These findings provide mechanistic information involved in the

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated on three different geography locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Maja; Hukić, Mirsada

    2015-08-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Increased frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized patients and possibility of vancomycin resistance requires rapid and reliable characterization of isolates and control of MRSA spread in hospitals. Typing of isolates helps to understand the route of a hospital pathogen spread. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MRSA samples on three different geography locations. In addition, our aim was to evaluate three different methods of MRSA typing: spa-typing, agr-typing and GenoType MRSA.  We included 104 samples of MRSA, isolated in 3 different geographical locations in clinical hospitals in Zagreb, Mostar, and Heidelberg, during the period of six months. Genotyping and phenotyping were done by spa-typing, agr-typing and dipstick assay GenoType MRSA. We failed to type all our samples by spa-typing.  The most common spa-type in clinical hospital Zagreb was t041, in Mostar t001, and in Heidelberg t003.We analyzed 102/104 of our samples by agr-typing method. We did not find any agr-type IV in our locations. We analyzed all our samples by the dipstick assay GenoType MRSA. All isolates in our study were MRSA strains. In Zagreb there were no positive strains to PVL gene. In Mostar we have found 5/25 positive strains to PVL gene, in Heidelberg there was 1/49. PVL positive isolates were associated with spa-type t008 and agr-type I, thus, genetically, they were community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Dipstick assay GenoType MRSA has demonstrated sufficient specificity, sensibility, simple performance and low cost, so we could introduce it to work in smaller laboratories. Using this method may expedite MRSA screening, thus preventing its spread in hospitals.

  1. Prospective comparison of the clinical impacts of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-susceptible MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, K C; Howden, B P; Grabsch, E A; Graham, M; Ward, P B; Xie, S; Mayall, B C; Johnson, P D R; Grayson, M L

    2009-08-01

    Although methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (RVS-MRSA; including vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA] and heterogeneous VISA [hVISA]) have been linked with vancomycin treatment failure, it is unclear whether they are more pathogenic than vancomycin-susceptible MRSA (VS-MRSA). We prospectively assessed patients with clinical MRSA isolates during a 10-month period to determine clinical status (infection versus colonization) and therapeutic outcome before correlating these findings with the results of detailed in vitro assessment of vancomycin susceptibility, including population analysis profile (PAP) testing. hVISA and VISA were defined by standard PAP criteria (area-under-the-curve ratio compared to that of the reference hVISA strain Mu3 [>or=0.9]) and routine CLSI criteria (vancomycin MIC, 4 to 8 microg/ml), respectively. Among the 117 patients assessed, 58 had RVS-MRSA isolates (56 hVISA and 2 VISA) and 59 had VS-MRSA isolates; the patient demographics and comorbidities were similar. RVS-MRSA was associated with a lower rate of infection than VS-MRSA (29/58 versus 46/59; P = 0.003), including a lower rate of bacteremia (3/58 versus 20/59, respectively; P rates in RVS-MRSA and VS-MRSA groups were not statistically different (16/26 versus 31/42; P = 0.43), but the post hoc assessment of treatment regimes and study size made detailed conclusions difficult. The results of the macro method Etest correlated well with the PAP results (sensitivity, 98.3%, and specificity, 91.5%), but broth microdilution and our preliminary RVS-MRSA detection method correlated poorly. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. These data suggest that detailed prospective laboratory identification of RVS-MRSA isolates may be of limited value and that, instead, such in vitro investigation should be reserved for isolates from patients who are failing appropriate anti-MRSA therapy.

  2. Novel Quorum-Quenching Agents Promote Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Wound Healing and Sensitize MRSA to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, David; Yu, Guanping; Hoch, Wyatt; Gabay, Dean; Long, Lisa; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Nagy, Nancy; Harding, Clifford V.; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The dwindling repertoire of antibiotics to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) calls for novel treatment options. Quorum-quenching agents offer an alternative or an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy. Three biaryl hydroxyketone compounds discovered previously (F1, F12, and F19; G. Yu, D. Kuo, M. Shoham, and R. Viswanathan, ACS Comb Sci 16:85–91, 2014) were tested for efficacy in MRSA-infected animal models. Topical therapy of compounds F1 and F12 in a MRSA murine wound infection model promotes wound healing compared to the untreated control. Compounds F1, F12, and F19 afford significant survival benefits in a MRSA insect larva model. Combination therapy of these quorum-quenching agents with cephalothin or nafcillin, antibiotics to which MRSA is resistant in monotherapy, revealed additional survival benefits. The quorum-quenching agents sensitize MRSA to the antibiotic by a synergistic mode of action that also is observed in vitro. An adjuvant of 1 μg/ml F1, F12, or F19 reduces the MIC of nafcillin and cephalothin about 50-fold to values comparable to those for vancomycin, the antibiotic often prescribed for MRSA infections. These findings suggest that it is possible to resurrect obsolete antibiotic therapies in combination with these novel quorum-quenching agents. PMID:25534736

  3. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  5. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] colonization or carriage among health-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Nirmal A; Asogan, Harshini; Tejani, Sara; Al Mahruqi, Gaitha; Al Fakhri, Salma; Zafarulla, Roshna; Pathare, Anil V

    2016-01-01

    In Oman, the prevalence of health care associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [HA-MRSA] is unknown. Therefore, to estimate the prevalence of HA-MRSA, we collected nasal swabs and swabs from cell phones on sterile polyester swabs and immediately inoculated on the mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin from medical students and hospital health care providers. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was then performed using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Additionally, a brief survey questionnaire was used to acquire demographic data. Amongst the 311 participants enrolled, nasal colonization with HA-MRSA was found in 47 individuals (15.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=11.1%, 19.1%). HA-MRSA was also isolated from the cell phone surfaces in 28 participants (9.0%, 95% CI=8.6%, 9.3%). 5 participants (1.6%) showed positive results both from their nasal swabs and from their cell phones. Antibiotic resistance to erythromycin [48%] and clindamycin [29%] was relatively high. 9.3% HA-MRSA isolates were vancomycin resistant [6.6% nasal carriage]. There was no statistically significant correlation between HA-MRSA isolates and the demographic characteristics or the risk factors namely gender, underlying co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, skin/soft tissue infections, skin ulcers/wounds, recent exposure to antibiotics, or hospital visits (p>0.05, Chi-square test). Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk and outcomes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia among patients admitted with and without MRSA nares colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Natalie S; Bessesen, Mary T

    2016-04-01

    The risk of nosocomial methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with nasal colonization on admission is 3-fold higher than in patients who are not colonized. Limited data on this question have been reported for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). This is an observational cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary care medical center from October 1, 2007-September 30, 2013, who underwent active screening for nasal colonization with MRSA. There were 29,371 patients who underwent screening for nasal MRSA colonization; 3,262 (11%) were colonized with MRSA. There were 32 cases of MRSA bacteremia among colonized patients, for an incidence of 1%. Thirteen cases of bacteremia occurred in non-MRSA-colonized patients, for an incidence of 0.05%. The odds of developing MRSA bacteremia for patients who were nasally colonized with MRSA compared with those who were not colonized were 19.89. There was no difference between colonized and noncolonized subjects with bacteremia in all-cause mortality at 30 days or 1 year. In a setting with active screening for MRSA, the risk of MRSA bacteremia is 19.89-fold higher among colonized than noncolonized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Descriptive Analysis of Antibiotic-Resistant Patterns of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA st398 Isolated from Healthy Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Morcillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA such as the MRSA ST398 strain has spread all over the World and the most worrying aspect of this fact appears to be its capacity to easily spread to humans. The excessive use of antibiotics has made swine a reservoir of MRSA. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of MRSA samples isolated from healthy swine of the island of Tenerife (Spain. Methods: A total of 256 MRSA isolates from swine samples and five MRSA isolates from pig worker samples were investigated for MRSA antibiotic resistant patterns. Results: Analysis of the susceptibility status of MRSA pig isolates revealed that 39 isolates were resistant to one antibiotic, 71 isolates were resistant to two antibiotics and 96 isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. SCCmec typing revealed the presence of types IV and V. Isolates having SCCmec IV had an increased resistance to the antimicrobial agents tested than those having SCCmec V. We observed significant differences when comparing the most common resistance patterns and SCCmec type. Conclusions: MRSA isolated from humans showed similar resistance to those isolated from pigs, excepting erythromycin, since all the workers’ isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic. The evolution of new MRSA clones has emphasized the need for infection control practices in animals and humans in close contact.

  8. New antibacterial hydrophobic assay reveals Abies balsamea oleoresin activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Roger, Benoit; Legault, Jean

    2016-12-24

    Oleoresin of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. was used by Native Americans of the boreal forest of Canada and French Canadians to treat various infections, suggesting that oleoresin has antibacterial properties. In this study, the antibacterial activity of whole oleoresin from A. balsamea was investigated against E. coli, S. aureus and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains using a new sensitive assay developed to evaluate hydrophobic matrix and compounds. Antibacterial activity of oleoresin was first investigated using dilution and disk diffusion methods against E. coli and S. aureus, and compared to a new sensitive assay for hydrophobic matrix. Moreover, whole oleoresin was analyzed by GC-MS to characterize the composition and to identify the compounds responsible of the antibacterial activity. The results showed that whole oleoresin was inactive against Gram-negative E. coli (MIC90 >90µg/ml) but active against Gram-positive S. aureus and MRSA with MIC90 ranging from 18.2 to 30µg/ml. The oleoresin is mainly composed of monoterpene (28%), sesquiterpenes (2%), and diterpenes (45%). Resin acids were found, in part, responsible for the antibacterial activity of whole oleoresin. Isopimaric acid and levopimaric acid are the most active with a MIC90 of respectively 9.7µg/ml and 10µg/ml. This study supports the use of oleoresin of A. balsamea by the Native Americans and French Canadians to treat bacterial infections due to S. aureus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of MRSA infection in the airways of children with cystic fibrosis; a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cox, D W

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) has risen dramatically over the past 10 years. The clinical significance of MRSA in CF patients remains undetermined. We conducted a review of patients with CF infected with MRSA over a 10 year period at Our Lady\\'s Children\\'s Hospital, Crumlin between 1999 and 2009. We collected data from 24 patients infected with MRSA and 24 control patients without MRSA There was a significant difference between the two groups in the rate of decline in percentage FEV1 two years after MRSA infection (Difference: -17.4, 95% CI: -30.48, -4.31, p = 0.01). A similar trend was seen for FVC% and FEF25-75% predicted. This study suggests that persistent MRSA infection in the airways of children with CF is associated with diminished lung function two years post acquisition, when compared to a matched control cohort without MRSA.

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Slini, Theodora; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in plaque and tongue samples from systemically healthy subjects with periodontal health, gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 systemically healthy participants were ultimately enrolled in the current study. Subgingival samples were taken from the first molars and the tongue and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus and MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. In addition, samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. Statistical analysis was performed by applying non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis for clinical parameters, and z-test with Bonferroni corrections for distributions of assessed parameters). All comparisons were set at the 0.05 significance level. S. aureus was detected in 18% of all participants and in 10% of the samples tested. No significant differences were found in its distribution among the three investigated groups (z-test for proportions with Bonferroni corrections, p>0.05). The mecA gene was not present in any of the S. aureus found. S. aureus can be found in the oral environment regardless of the periodontal conditions and therefore should be considered as a member of the transient flora not participating in periodontal pathology. Subgingival sites and tongue surfaces seem to be an unusual habitat of MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MRSA – ‘Bug-Bear’ of a Surgical Practice: Reducing the Incidence of MRSA Surgical Site Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Andrea; Layer, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Adverse publicity (the ‘superbug') has demonstrated that the problem of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is prevalent in many of the country's most prestigious hospitals. The results of the mandatory UK Department of Health (DH) surveillance for early surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgery (SSIS) have been published recently for the period April 2004 to March 2005 when 41,242 operations were studied ( 28 October 2005). Infection rates were generally and gratifyingly...

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of recombinant lactoferrin during MRSA infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection remains a serious hazard to global health despite increases in public education and development of innovative treatment strategies. Use of immune modulatory therapy to combat infection is gaining interest as a novel treatment alternative. Lactoferrin (LF), an iron binding protein with multiple immune modulating properties, has the potential to modify the course of systemic MRSA infection. Specifically, LF is capable of limiting deleterious inflammatory responses while promoting development of antigen specific T-cell activity. The efficacy of a novel recombinant mouse LF (rmLF) to protect against MRSA infection was examined in a mouse peritonitis model. BALB/c mice were infected with a lethal dose of MRSA and treated at 2 hours post-infection with rmLF. The effects of rmLF on MRSA-infected primary monocytes and granulocytes were analyzed for inflammatory mediator production. The rmLF treated mice demonstrated only modest increase in survival by more than 24hrs, albeit with reduced bacteremia. Serum cytokines, IL-17 and IL-6, were significantly reduced post challenge in the rmLF treated mice. Treatment with rmLF led to a minor decrease in IL-1β, and a slight increase in TNF-α production. Preliminary investigation towards human clinical relevance was accomplished using human blood derived monocytes and granulocytes infected with MRSA and treated with a homologous recombinant human LF (rhLF). Treatment with (rhLF) led to increased production of IFN-γ and IL-2. The human cell studies also showed a concurrent decrease in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and IL-10. The study reports the first investigation into the efficacy of a novel recombinant mouse lactoferrin (LF) therapy in a mouse model of MRSA peritonitis. Overall, these results indicate the rmLF and rhLF have a high degree of overlap to modify inflammatory responses, although differences in activities were observed indicating existence of mechanisms

  13. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from Healthcare- and Community-Associated Infections in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has created significant epidemiological, infection-control, and therapeutic management challenges during the past three decades. Aim. To analyze the pattern of resistance of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA in Egypt and the trend of resistance of HA-MRSA over time (2005–2013. Methods. MRSA isolates were recovered from healthcare-associated (HA and community-associated (CA Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections. They were tested against 11 antimicrobial discs and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin was determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB was also screened using D-test. Findings. Of 631 S. aureus, MRSA was identified in 343 (76.6% and 21 (11.5% of HA and CA S. aureus isolates, respectively. The proportion of HA-MRSA increased significantly from 48.6% in 2005 to 86.8% in 2013 (p value < 0.001. Multidrug resistance (MDR was observed in 85.8% of HA-MRSA and 48.6% of CA-MRSA. Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA was detected in 1.2% of HA-MRSA and none was detected in CA-MRSA. Among HA-MRSA strains, 5.3% showed iMLSB compared to 9.5% among CA-MRSA. Conclusion. The upsurge of the prevalence rates of HA-MRSA over time is alarming and urges for an effective infection control strategy and continuous monitoring of antimicrobial use.

  14. Prevalence of Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes different community and hospital-acquired infections. Over time, strains of S. aureus have become resistant to different antibiotics including penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Having data on the local antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of this pathogen is ...

  15. Environmental meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disinfection using dry-mist-generated hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, M.D.; Kristoffersen, K.; Slotsbjerg, T.

    2008-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major problem in hospitals worldwide. Hand hygiene is recognised as crucial in limiting the spread of MRSA but less is known about the role of MRSA reservoirs in the inanimate hospital environment. We evaluated the effect of hydrogen peroxide...

  16. [Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA) among health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, C; Foti, M; Daidone, A; Sturniolo, G; Maviglia, P; Di Nola, C; Polito, I; Mondello, P

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a type of Staphylococcus that is resistant to certain antibiotics. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin. Staphylococcus infections, including MRSA, occur most frequently among persons in hospitals and healthcare facilities. The present study was performed to investigate the in vitro activity of oxacillin and other antimicrobial agents against S. aureus strains obtained from nursing personnel. The study included 56 hospital personnel of Universitary Policlinic of Messina. S. aureus strain was isolated in 14 samples (25%); resistent patterns have been studied and results have demonstrated: none methicillin resistant, while 14% oxacillin and tetraciclin resistant. The incidence of methicillin sensitive was 100%, while 86% proved to be sensitive to oxacillin and tetraciclin. In conclusion, the usually hygienic methods (disposable gowns, hygienic hand disinfection after each patients contact, masks use when is a risk of aerosolization of MRSA) are indicate for significantly reducing of these strains. Continuing education programmes can help to increase awareness among hospital staff.

  17. Comparison of culture screening protocols for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a chromogenic agar (MRSA-Select).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungok; Park, Yeon-Joon; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kahng, Jimin; Jeong, In-Hee; Kwon, Young-Mi; Han, Kyungja

    2008-01-01

    To compare the culture screening protocols for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a total of 300 duplicate nasal swabs (233 initial cultures and 67 weekly follow-up cultures) were collected consecutively from 233 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). One swab was plated directly on MRSA-Select agar (D-MRSA-Select) and observed at 24 hr. The duplicate swab was incubated in tryptic soy broth (TSB) with 6.5% NaCl for 24 hr, and then subcultured on MRSA-Select (B-MRSA-Select), BAP (B-BAP), and mannitol salt agar with 4 mg/L oxacillin (B-MSA(OXA)), and observed at 24 hr. MRSA was detected in 13.7% (32/233) of the initial and 22.4% (15/67) of the follow-up specimens. A patient was classified as MRSA-positive if any of the media grew colonies that were tested and confirmed to be MRSA. In the initial screening samples, the sensitivities of D-MRSA-Select, B-MRSA-Select, B-BAP, and B-MSA(OXA) were 78.1%, 84.4%, 78.1%, and 65.6%, respectively, and the specificities were 100%, 98.0%, 83.1%, and 93.5%, respectively. The sensitivities of all but the B-MRSA-Select protocol were significantly lower (p Salt-containing enrichment broth in conjunction with MRSA-Select (B-MRSA-Select) provides a promising way to increase sensitivity in initial and follow-up screening for MRSA.

  18. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiu-jun; Fang, Yong; Yao, Min

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common multidrug resistant bacteria both in hospitals and in the community. In the last two decades, there has been growing concern about the increasing resistance to MRSA of the most potent antibiotic glycopeptides. MRSA infection poses a serious problem for physicians and their patients. Photosensitizer-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears to be a promising and innovative approach for treatin...

  19. Transcriptional events during the recovery from MRSA lung infection: a mouse pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiwang; Feng, Gang; Guo, Qiang; Wardenburg, Juliane B; Lin, Simon; Inoshima, Ichiro; Deaton, Ryan; Yuan, Jason X J; Garcia, Joe G N; Machado, Roberto F; Otto, Michael; Wunderink, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging threat to human health throughout the world. Rodent MRSA pneumonia models mainly focus on the early innate immune responses to MRSA lung infection. However, the molecular pattern and mechanisms of recovery from MRSA lung infection are largely unknown. In this study, a sublethal mouse MRSA pneumonia model was employed to investigate late events during the recovery from MRSA lung infection. We compared lung bacterial clearance, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) characterization, lung histology, lung cell proliferation, lung vascular permeability and lung gene expression profiling between days 1 and 3 post MRSA lung infection. Compared to day 1 post infection, bacterial colony counts, BALF total cell number and BALF protein concentration significantly decreased at day 3 post infection. Lung cDNA microarray analysis identified 47 significantly up-regulated and 35 down-regulated genes (plung recovery is characterized by enhanced cell division, vascularization, wound healing and adjustment of host adaptive immune responses. Proliferation assay by PCNA staining further confirmed that at day 3 lungs have significantly higher cell proliferation than at day 1. Furthermore, at day 3 lungs displayed significantly lower levels of vascular permeability to albumin, compared to day 1. Collectively, this data helps us elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the recovery after MRSA lung infection.

  20. Frequency and Possible Infection Control Implications of Gastrointestinal Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, John M.; Havill, Nancy L.; Maria, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of health care-associated infections. Multiple factors, including transmission from unrecognized reservoirs of MRSA, are responsible for failure to control the spread of MRSA. We conducted prospective surveillance to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal colonization with MRSA among patients and its possible impact on nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Stool specimens submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin A/B assays w...

  1. Significant antibacterial activity and synergistic effects of camel lactoferrin with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Almehdar, Hussein A; Elsaway, Abdulrahman; Gomaa, Abu-Bakr M; Al-Masaudi, Saad Berki; Al-Fassi, Fahad A; AbuZeid, Isam Eldin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes major healthcare problems in many countries, as it is present as several hospital- and community-associated strains. Hospital-associated MRSA is one of the most prevalent nosocomial pathogens throughout the world and infections caused by community-acquired MRSA are rising. This emphasizes the need for new and efficient anti-MRSA agents. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of camel lactoferrin (cLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) alone and in combination with several antibiotics against MRSA. Antimicrobials were tested against MRSA and an S. aureus control strain by the agar disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for antimicrobials by the broth microdilution method. Synergy between cLf or hLf and antibiotics was examined by checkerboard and time-kill assays. The agar disc diffusion assay showed that MRSA growth was inhibited by cLf at 0.25-3 mg/ml and hLf at 1-3 mg/ml. cLf demonstrated 3 times higher inhibitory activity against MRSA than hLf in terms of MIC values (250 vs. 750 μg/ml, respectively). Biotinylated cLf was recognized by two membrane proteins of MRSA, 66-67 KDa. Combinations of cLf or hLf and oxacillin or vancomycin at sub-MIC levels enhanced in vitro antibacterial activity against MRSA compared with each agent alone. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. An FDA-Drug Library Screen for Compounds with Bioactivities against Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Qiu Ying Lau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of new antibacterial drugs entering the market and their misuse have resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, posing a major health crisis worldwide. In particular, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, a pathogen responsible for numerous human infections, has become endemic in hospitals worldwide. Drug repurposing, the finding of new therapeutic indications for approved drugs, is deemed a plausible solution to accelerate drug discovery and development in this area. Towards this end, we screened 1163 drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for bioactivities against MRSA in a 10 μM single-point assay. After excluding known antibiotics and antiseptics, six compounds were identified and their MICs were determined against a panel of clinical MRSA strains. A toxicity assay using human keratinocytes was also conducted to gauge their potential for repurposing as topical agents for treating MRSA skin infections.

  3. Impact of target site distribution for Type I restriction enzymes on the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth A; Houston, Patrick J; White, John H; Chen, Kai; Stephanou, Augoustinos S; Cooper, Laurie P; Dryden, David T F; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2013-08-01

    A limited number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are responsible for MRSA infections worldwide, and those of different lineages carry unique Type I restriction-modification (RM) variants. We have identified the specific DNA sequence targets for the dominant MRSA lineages CC1, CC5, CC8 and ST239. We experimentally demonstrate that this RM system is sufficient to block horizontal gene transfer between clinically important MRSA, confirming the bioinformatic evidence that each lineage is evolving independently. Target sites are distributed randomly in S. aureus genomes, except in a set of large conjugative plasmids encoding resistance genes that show evidence of spreading between two successful MRSA lineages. This analysis of the identification and distribution of target sites explains evolutionary patterns in a pathogenic bacterium. We show that a lack of specific target sites enables plasmids to evade the Type I RM system thereby contributing to the evolution of increasingly resistant community and hospital MRSA.

  4. Clinical effectiveness of rapid tests for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in hospitalized patients: a systematic review

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    Polisena Julie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. The research objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR versus chromogenic agar for MRSA screening, and PCR versus no screening for several clinical outcomes, including MRSA colonization and infection rates. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted on studies evaluating polymerase chain reaction techniques and methicillin (also spelled meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus that were published from 1993 onwards using Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, BIOSIS Previews, and EMBASE. Due to the presence of heterogeneity in the selected studies, the clinical findings of individual studies were described. Results Nine studies that compared screening for MRSA using PCR versus screening using chromogenic agar in a hospital setting, and two studies that compared screening using PCR with no or targeted screening were identified. Some studies found lower MRSA colonization and acquisition, infection, and transmission rates in screening with PCR versus screening with chromogenic agar, and the turnaround time for screening test results was lower for PCR. One study reported a lower number of unnecessary isolation days with screening using PCR versus screening with chromogenic agar, but the proportion of patients isolated was similar between both groups. The turnaround time for test results and number of isolation days were lower for PCR versus chromogenic agar for MRSA screening. Conclusions The use of PCR for MRSA screening demonstrated a lower turnaround time and number of isolation days compared with chromogenic agar. Given the mixed quality and number of studies (11 studies, gaps remain in the published literature and the evidence remains insufficient. In addition to screening, factors such as the number of contacts

  5. COMPARISON OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HEALTHY COMMUNITY HOSPITAL VISITORS[CA-MRSA] AND HOSPITAL STAFF [HA-MRSA

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    Nirmal A Pathare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] in unknown in Oman. Methods: Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on the isolates. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Results: Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%, whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%. Nasal colonization prevalence with HA-MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%, whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54.  Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates.  There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5% as compared to 13.8% [HA-MRSA] in the hospital health-care staff. In spite of a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. Recommendation the universal techniques of hand washing, personal hygiene and sanitation are thus warranted.

  6. Rapid Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the Vitek MS Saramis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Weiguang; Li, Jiaping; Fang, Ying; Wang, Xuan; Gu, Danxia; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate Vitek MS assay was developed to distinguish clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from clinical isolates of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) by developing an in-house knowledgebase of SuperSpectra. Three unique peaks, including peaks at 2305.6 and 3007.3 Da specific to MRSA, and 6816.7 Da specific to MSSA, were selected for differentiating MRSA and MSSA. This assay accurately identified 84 and 91% of clinical MRSA and MSSA strains out of the total 142 clinically acquired S. aureus strains that were tested. This method will greatly improve the efficiency of single clinical sample identification of MRSA, thereby facilitating a reduction in the transmission of MRSA in clinical settings.

  7. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in food samples associated with foodborne illness in Alberta, Canada from 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, B; Ferrato, C; Drews, S J; Svenson, L W; Tyrrell, G; Louie, M

    2012-10-01

    Consumption of foods containing Staphylococcus aureus can cause severe gastro-intestinal illness. Given the fact that over the past decade, Canada has seen increasing rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage and infection, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA on foodborne illness in Alberta, Canada. Between January 2007 and December 2010, there were 693 food samples associated with foodborne investigations submitted to the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab). These foods were screened for: Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, S. aureus, Aeromonas spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. S. aureus was identified in 10.5% (73/693) of samples, and of these, 59% (43/73) were co-contaminated with at least one other organism on the screening panel. The S. aureus positive samples included 29 meat, 20 prepared foods containing meat, 11 prepared foods not containing meat, 10 dairy, and three produce. Methicillin-resistance was not detected in any isolates tested. These findings indicate that the presence of S. aureus in food associated with foodborne investigations is a cause for concern, and although MRSA was not found, the potential for outbreaks exists, and ongoing surveillance should be sustained. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using the NanoLantern Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsahl, Christopher M.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Krauss, Todd D.

    2009-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human illness, and has developed the remarkable ability to resist the bactericidal capabilities of many of the world's leading antibiotics (i.e. MRSA). In an effort to enable rapid detection and treatment of MRSA infections, we have developed a DNA detection technology termed the NanoLantern(TM). The NanoLantern(TM) biosensor technology is based on the simple immobilization of a fluorophore-terminated DNA hairpin onto a gold chip. This produces a label-free sensor that allows for a positive response to be obtained without extensive processing of the sample, saving cost and increasing accuracy. We will also discuss a newly developed method of partial gene analysis, used to develop a DNA hairpin probe that is capable of detecting the presence of the mecR gene, a gene necessary for methicillin resistance to be present in S. aureus, with 100% sequence specificity. The successful incorporation of this probe into the NanoLantern(TM) platform, along with the concomitant development of the paired PCR assay has allowed for the successful detection of methicillin-resistance directly from a culture of S. aureus. These results represent an important step forward in terms of developing the ability to rapidly and effectively detect the presence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections.

  9. Nasal Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR Testing Reduces the Duration of MRSA-Targeted Therapy in Patients with Suspected MRSA Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Nidhu; Faust, Andrew C; Smith, Terri; Sheperd, Lyndsay A; Knoll, Laura; Goodman, Edward L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-ordered methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR testing on the duration of empirical MRSA-targeted antibiotic therapy in patients with suspected pneumonia. This is a retrospective analysis of patients who received vancomycin or linezolid for suspected pneumonia before and after the implementation of a pharmacist-driven protocol for nasal MRSA PCR testing. Patients were included if they were adults of >18 years of age and initiated on vancomycin or linezolid for suspected MRSA pneumonia. The primary endpoint was the duration of vancomycin or linezolid therapy. After screening 368 patients, 57 patients met inclusion criteria (27 pre-PCR and 30 post-PCR). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, with the majority of patients classified as having health care-associated pneumonia (68.4%). The use of the nasal MRSA PCR test reduced the mean duration of MRSA-targeted therapy by 46.6 h (74.0 ± 48.9 h versus 27.4 ± 18.7 h; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27.3 to 65.8 h; P MRSA PCR testing in patients with suspected MRSA pneumonia reduced the duration of empirical MRSA-targeted therapy by approximately 2 days without increasing adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  11. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) environmental contamination in a radiology department

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    Shelly, M.J., E-mail: martinshelly@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Scanlon, T.G. [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ruddy, R.; Hannan, M.M. [Department of Clinical Microbiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Murray, J.G. [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-09-15

    Aim: To explore the potential risk to patients and healthcare workers of acquiring meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical and non-clinical areas within a radiology department. Materials and methods: High-risk sites in clinical and non-clinical areas within the Department of Radiology were identified and 125 environmental swabs were obtained by an infection control nurse specialist. Decontamination methods and protocols were reviewed and compared against international decontamination best practice. Results: One of 125 samples was culture positive for MRSA. The positive sample was isolated from the surface of the bore of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. A hypochlorite cleaning agent was applied using a long-handled brush to clean the bore of the MRI unit. A repeat environmental screen found the MRI unit to be culture negative for MRSA. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that standard decontamination measures are adequate to prevent environmental contamination with MRSA in a radiology department. However, the MRI unit requires special attention because of its long bore and difficult access.

  12. Albumin reduces the antibacterial activity of polyhexanide-biguanide-based antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapalschinski, N; Seipp, H M; Onderdonk, A B; Goertz, O; Daigeler, A; Lahmer, A; Lehnhardt, M; Hirsch, T

    2013-09-01

    Wound infection is one of the major complications in acute and chronic wound healing. Antiseptic solutions and wound irrigating agents are routinely used for therapy and prevention in healthcare today. Even if wound exudate contains total protein concentrations up to 9.3% and albumin concentrations up to 2.7% its influence to the antibacterial efficacy of these agents is barely investigated. This study analyzed the antibacterial effect of polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) agents (PHMB-concentration 0.005-0.1%) against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant-S. aureus (MRSA) after 2min incubation in presents of albumin in different concentrations (0-3%) in a standardized quantitative suspension assay. A significant decrease of the antibacterial activity against S. aureus was shown for a PHMB-concentration of 0.005% from 0.3% albumin (p<0.05), respectively highly significant from 0.75% (p<0.01) on. Thereby the loss of antimicrobial effect was presented as a linear correlation to the rising concentration of albumin. Furthermore a reduction of the antibacterial activity against MRSA in comparison to S. aureus was presented, for albumin concentrations from 3% on highly significant (p<0.01). The study showed that albumin causes a significant decrease of the antibacterial potency of PHMB-based antiseptics. Furthermore a diminished potency of the investigated substances for MRSA-contaminated wounds must be taken in consideration. If in vitro experiments show a significant decrease of antibacterial efficacy in the presence of albumin a sufficient activity of PHMB-based agents in clinical practice, especially in cases of exuding wounds or dried-up exudates, cannot be expected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus ocular infection: methicillin-resistance, clinical features, and antibiotic susceptibilities.

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    Chih-Chun Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is an important public health issue. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of ocular infections caused by MRSA and to identify the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of ocular MRSA infections by comparing those of ocular methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The medical records of the patients (n = 519 with culture-proven S. aureus ocular infections seen between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and seventy-four patients with MRSA and 245 with MSSA ocular infections were identified. The average rate of MRSA in S. aureus infections was 52.8% and the trend was stable over the ten years (P value for trend  = 0.228. MRSA ocular infections were significantly more common among the patients with healthcare exposure (P = 0.024, but 66.1% (181/274 patients with MRSA ocular infections had no healthcare exposure. The most common clinical presentation for both MRSA and MSSA ocular infections was keratitis; MRSA and MSSA caused a similar disease spectrum except for lid infections. MRSA was significantly more resistant than MSSA to clindamycin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (all P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated a paralleled trend of ocular MRSA infection in a highly prevalent MRSA country by hospital-based survey. Except for lid disorder, MRSA shared similar spectrum of ocular pathology with MSSA. Since S. aureus is a common ocular pathogen, our results raise clinician's attention to the existence of highly prevalent MRSA.

  14. Extensive dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA between the hospital and the community in a country with a high prevalence of nosocomial MRSA.

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    Diana Espadinha

    Full Text Available According to the EARS-Net surveillance data, Portugal has the highest prevalence of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Europe, but the information on MRSA in the community is very scarce and the links between the hospital and community are not known. In this study we aimed to understand the events associated to the recent sharp increase in MRSA frequency in Portugal and to evaluate how this has shaped MRSA epidemiology in the community. With this purpose, 180 nosocomial MRSA isolates recovered from infection in two time periods and 14 MRSA isolates recovered from 89 samples of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. All isolates were also screened for the presence of Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME by PCR. The results showed that ST22-IVh, accounting for 72% of the nosocomial isolates, was the major clone circulating in the hospital in 2010, having replaced two previous dominant clones in 1993, the Iberian (ST247-I and Portuguese (ST239-III variant clones. Moreover in 2010, three clones belonging to CC5 (ST105-II, ST125-IVc and ST5-IVc accounted for 20% of the isolates and may represent the beginning of new waves of MRSA in this hospital. Interestingly, more than half of the MRSA isolates (8/14 causing SSTI in people attending healthcare centers in Portugal belonged to the most predominant clones found in the hospital, namely ST22-IVh (n = 4, ST5-IVc (n = 2 and ST105-II (n = 1. Other clones found included ST5-V (n = 6 and ST8-VI (n = 1. None of the MRSA isolates carried PVL and only five isolates (ST5-V-t179 carried ACME type II. The emergence and spread of EMRSA-15 may be associated to the observed increase in MRSA frequency in the hospital and the consequent spillover of MRSA into the community.

  15. Current methodologies on genotyping for nosocomial pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian; Chen, Lequn; Wang, Jingwen; Wang, Wenxin; Chen, Dingqiang; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo

    2017-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen in hospitals and the community. As the rapid spread and wide distribution of antimicrobial resistance (such as MRSA), treatment for infectious diseases caused by microorganisms has become a vital threat. Thus, early identification and genotyping are essential for further therapeutic treatment and the control of rapid expansion of MRSA. In combination with applications and data feedbacks, this review focused on the currently available molecular-based assays on their utility and performance for rapid typing of MRSA, especially on effective molecular-based methods. Besides, a common mobile element SCCmec and prevalence of HA-MRSA, LA-MRSA and CA-MRSA were introduced in this review in order to provide a more complete profile of MRSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SCC mec typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from pigs of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, S; Sarma, D K; Pegu, S R

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance. The overall prevalence of MRSA was 7.02 % with the highest prevalence recorded in pigs aged 1-3 months (P = 0.001) and in nasal samples (P = 0.005). Two SCC mec types (type III and V) were found in Indian pigs with predominance of type V. All isolates were resistant to penicillin. Seventeen resistance groups were observed where 87.75 % isolates showed multidrug resistance (showed resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials). The most predominant resistance pattern observed was Oxytetracycline + Penicillin + Sulfadiazine + Tetracycline accounting 12.24 % of the isolates. The present study contributes to the understanding of characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of porcine MRSA isolates which in turn will help in devising strategy for the control of this pathogen. Findings of the study also throw light on multidrug resistance MRSA and emphasize the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in animal practice.

  17. MRSA in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a form of Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterium that has developed resistance to several forms of antibiotics. MRSA has been around for many years, mostly in health care settings but has moved into the community in recent years. Infections can be seen anywhere but are mostly seen in…

  18. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

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    Gambarati Gianpaolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There were multiple episodes of left MRSA-osteomyelitis controlled after surgery and vancomycin therapy. MRSA isolated from the blood at the time of IE presented with the same profile than the isolated four years earlier. Sequential treatment with teicoplanin-cotrimoxazole and Linezolid associated to vancomycin – rifampicin – cotrimoxazole had no improvement. Infection was controlled after 28 days of therapy with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Conclusion The literature presents only a few cases of MRSA IE not susceptible to glycopeptides in not drug addicted patients. This case shows the comparison of a highly-resistant MRSA after previous S. aureus osteomyelitis treated with glycopeptides. This is the first description of successful treatment of resistant-MRSA IE of the tricuspid valve complicated by multiple pulmonary septic infarction with quinupristin/dalfopristin

  19. MRSA infections in Norway: A study of the temporal evolution, 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnholt, Jørgen Vildershøj; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Moen, Aina E. Fossum; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2017-01-01

    Background Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology. Methods We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR) of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs. Norwegian background and domestic vs. imported infections, stratified by age groups. Findings A total of 5289 MRSA infections were reported during the study period, of which 2255 (42·6%) were acquired in Norway, 1370 (25·9%) abroad, and 1664 (31·5%) with an unknown place of acquisition. Overall, the monthly NR increased significantly from 2006 to 2015 (+0·8% each month). The monthly increase in immigrants (+1·3%) was steeper than that in people with a Norwegian background (+0·6%). There was a significant growth (+0·4%) in the rate of domestically acquired infections, however, the NR of infections acquired abroad increased faster (+0·8%). For both imported and domestic infections, the increase occurred in persons aged < 70 years. Interpretation Our analysis suggests that immigration and importation, especially among persons aged < 40 years, represent important factors for the increasing notification rate of MRSA infections in Norway. PMID:28640901

  20. MRSA infections in Norway: A study of the temporal evolution, 2006-2015.

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    Francesco Di Ruscio

    Full Text Available Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology.We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs. Norwegian background and domestic vs. imported infections, stratified by age groups.A total of 5289 MRSA infections were reported during the study period, of which 2255 (42·6% were acquired in Norway, 1370 (25·9% abroad, and 1664 (31·5% with an unknown place of acquisition. Overall, the monthly NR increased significantly from 2006 to 2015 (+0·8% each month. The monthly increase in immigrants (+1·3% was steeper than that in people with a Norwegian background (+0·6%. There was a significant growth (+0·4% in the rate of domestically acquired infections, however, the NR of infections acquired abroad increased faster (+0·8%. For both imported and domestic infections, the increase occurred in persons aged < 70 years.Our analysis suggests that immigration and importation, especially among persons aged < 40 years, represent important factors for the increasing notification rate of MRSA infections in Norway.

  1. MRSA infections in Norway: A study of the temporal evolution, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruscio, Francesco; Bjørnholt, Jørgen Vildershøj; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Moen, Aina E Fossum; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2017-01-01

    Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology. We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR) of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs. Norwegian background and domestic vs. imported infections, stratified by age groups. A total of 5289 MRSA infections were reported during the study period, of which 2255 (42·6%) were acquired in Norway, 1370 (25·9%) abroad, and 1664 (31·5%) with an unknown place of acquisition. Overall, the monthly NR increased significantly from 2006 to 2015 (+0·8% each month). The monthly increase in immigrants (+1·3%) was steeper than that in people with a Norwegian background (+0·6%). There was a significant growth (+0·4%) in the rate of domestically acquired infections, however, the NR of infections acquired abroad increased faster (+0·8%). For both imported and domestic infections, the increase occurred in persons aged < 70 years. Our analysis suggests that immigration and importation, especially among persons aged < 40 years, represent important factors for the increasing notification rate of MRSA infections in Norway.

  2. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Characteristics of hospital patients colonized with livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 versus other MRSA clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Siam, K; Al-Malat, S; Christmann, J; Schaumburg, F; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W

    2011-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398 has emerged among livestock and humans exposed to these animals. MRSA CC398 has so far contributed relatively little to spread of MRSA and the burden of disease in the healthcare setting. This study aimed

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection: Methicillin-Resistance, Clinical Features, and Antibiotic Susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Ma, David Hui-Kang; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Chang, Chee-Jen; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2012-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of ocular infections caused by MRSA and to identify the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of ocular MRSA infections by comparing those of ocular methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections. Methodology/Principal Findings The medical records of the patients (n = 519) with culture-proven S. aureus ocular infections seen between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and seventy-four patients with MRSA and 245 with MSSA ocular infections were identified. The average rate of MRSA in S. aureus infections was 52.8% and the trend was stable over the ten years (P value for trend  = 0.228). MRSA ocular infections were significantly more common among the patients with healthcare exposure (P = 0.024), but 66.1% (181/274) patients with MRSA ocular infections had no healthcare exposure. The most common clinical presentation for both MRSA and MSSA ocular infections was keratitis; MRSA and MSSA caused a similar disease spectrum except for lid infections. MRSA was significantly more resistant than MSSA to clindamycin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (all PMRSA infection in a highly prevalent MRSA country by hospital-based survey. Except for lid disorder, MRSA shared similar spectrum of ocular pathology with MSSA. Since S. aureus is a common ocular pathogen, our results raise clinician’s attention to the existence of highly prevalent MRSA. PMID:22880135

  5. Comparison of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Healthy Community Hospital Visitors [CA-MRSA] and Hospital Staff [HA-MRSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Nirmal A; Tejani, Sara; Asogan, Harshini; Al Mahruqi, Gaitha; Al Fakhri, Salma; Zafarulla, Roshna; Pathare, Anil V

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] is unknown in Oman. Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method on the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for vancomycin and teicoplanin against the resistant isolates of MRSA by the Epsilometer [E] test. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%), whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%). Nasal colonization prevalence with hospital-acquired [HA] MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%), whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54). Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates. Mean MIC for vancomycin amongst CA- and HA-MRSA were 6.3 and 9.3 μg/ml, whereas for teicoplanin they were 13 and 14 μg/ml respectively by the E-test. There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test). The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5%) as compared to 13.8% HA-MRSA in the hospital health-care staff. Despite a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. The universal techniques of hand washing, personal

  6. Bullous Impetigo in Children Infected with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Alone or in Combination with Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus: Analysis of Genetic Characteristics, Including Assessment of Exfoliative Toxin Gene Carriage▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Saito, Kohei; Ozaki, Kyoko; Takano, Misao; Nitahara, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Among bullous impetigo isolates, exfoliative toxin (ET) gene carriage was found in 61.5% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates versus 90.6% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. MRSA-only cases were ETB or ETA positive, while MRSA/MSSA coinfection cases were ET negative for MRSA but ETA positive for MSSA. Collagen adhesin may facilitate some MRSA infections. PMID:21430094

  7. Detection of Macrolide, Lincosamide and Streptogramin Resistance among Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in incidence of Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA and its extraordinary potential to develop antimicrobial resistance has highlighted the need for better agents to treat such infections. This has led to a renewed interest in use of new drugs for treatment with clindamycin and quinuprsitin-dalfopristin being the preferred choice for treatment. Aim & Objectives: This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of MacrolideLincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS resistance among clinical isolates of MRSA.Material and Methods:Two hundred and thirty clinical isolates of S. aureus were subjected to routine antibiotic susceptibility testing including cefoxitin, erythromycin and quinupristindalfopristin. Inducible resistance to clindamycin was tested by 'D' test as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Out of all S. aureus isolates, 93.91% were identified as MRSA. In the disc diffusion testing, 81.5% of isolates showed erythromycin resistance. Among these, the prevalence of constitutive (cMLS , inducible (iMLS b b and MS-phenotype were 35.80%, 31.82% and 32.39% respectively by the D-test method. 77.8% of isolates were resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC ranged from 4–32 µg/ml. 89.20% of isolates were resistant to both quinupristin-dalfopristin and erythromycin of which 35.03%, 35.67% and 29.30% belonged to iMLS , cMLS and MS phenotype respectively. Conclusion: The emergence of quinupristindalfopristin resistance and MLS phenotypes brings b about the need for the simple and reliable D-test in routine diagnosis and further susceptibility testing for proper antimicrobial therapy.

  8. A cross sectional study of animal and human colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Peter; Bajgai, Janak; Penney, Carla; Williams, Karen; Whitney, Hugh; Golding, George R; Weese, Scott

    2016-07-19

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are common among humans in Aboriginal communities in Canada, for unknown reasons. Cross sectional study of humans and dogs in an Aboriginal community of approximately 1200 persons. Our objectives were to measure community-based prevalence of nasal MRSA colonization among humans, use multivariable logistic regression to analyze risk factors for MRSA colonization, and perform molecular typing of Staphylococci isolated to investigate interspecies transmission. 461 humans were approached for consent and 442 provided complete data. 109/442 (24.7 %, 95 % C.I. = 20.7-28.7 %) of humans were colonized with MRSA. 169/442 (38.2 %) of humans had received antibiotics in the last 12 months. Only number of rooms in the house (OR 0.86, p = 0.023) and recreational dog use (OR 7.7, p = 0.002) were significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. 95/109 (87.1 %) of MRSA strains from humans were of the same spa type (CMRSA10/USA300). 8/157 (5.1 %, 95 % C.I. = 1.7-8.5 %) of dogs were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and no dogs were colonized with MRSA. Human MRSA colonization in this community is very common, and a single clone is predominant, suggesting local transmission. Antibiotic use is also very common. Crowding may partially explain high colonization, but most considered risk factors including animal exposure were not predictive. Very few dogs carried human Staphylococcal strains.

  9. A cross sectional study of animal and human colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in an Aboriginal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections are common among humans in Aboriginal communities in Canada, for unknown reasons. Methods Cross sectional study of humans and dogs in an Aboriginal community of approximately 1200 persons. Our objectives were to measure community-based prevalence of nasal MRSA colonization among humans, use multivariable logistic regression to analyze risk factors for MRSA colonization, and perform molecular typing of Staphylococci isolated to investigate interspecies transmission. Results 461 humans were approached for consent and 442 provided complete data. 109/442 (24.7 %, 95 % C.I. = 20.7–28.7 % of humans were colonized with MRSA. 169/442 (38.2 % of humans had received antibiotics in the last 12 months. Only number of rooms in the house (OR 0.86, p = 0.023 and recreational dog use (OR 7.7, p = 0.002 were significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. 95/109 (87.1 % of MRSA strains from humans were of the same spa type (CMRSA10/USA300. 8/157 (5.1 %, 95 % C.I. = 1.7–8.5 % of dogs were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and no dogs were colonized with MRSA. Conclusions Human MRSA colonization in this community is very common, and a single clone is predominant, suggesting local transmission. Antibiotic use is also very common. Crowding may partially explain high colonization, but most considered risk factors including animal exposure were not predictive. Very few dogs carried human Staphylococcal strains.

  10. Evaluation of MRSA chrome agar for the detection of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdana Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MRSA Chrome agar to detect methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and compare it with 1µg oxacillin disc diffusion tests and detection of mecA gene by PCR. A total 116 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, isolated from various clinical samples, were obtained from three tertiary care hospitals of Dhaka city. S. aureus was identified by colony characters, Gram stain and standard biochemical procedures. MRSA was detected by susceptibility to 1µg oxacillin disc, growth of denim blue color colonies of S. aureus on the Brilliance MRSA Chrome agar at 24 and 48 hours of incubation. PCR was performed for amplification of mecA gene as a gold standard method. Out of 116 isolated S. aureus, 33 (28.44% were MRSA by oxacillin disc diffusion test where mecA gene was detected in 28 strains. On MRSA Chrome agar, 29 (25.0% S. aureus produced denim blue colonies at 24 hours, of which 28 isolates possessed mecA gene. At 48 hours incubation, an additional 4 isolates yielded denim blue colonies from which mecA gene could not be identified. All the strains of S. aureus that produced denim blue colonies at 24 and 48 hours were resistant to oxacillin. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of oxacillin disc diffusion test were 100%, 94.31% and 95.68% and Chrome agar at 24 hours were 100%, 98.86% and 99.13% respectively. Thus MRSA Chrome agar could be good choice in clinical microbiology laboratory for rapid and accurate identification of MRSA. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 1-4

  11. Arylthiazole antibiotics targeting intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Islam; Elsebaei, Mohamed M; Mohammad, Haroon; Hagras, Mohamed; Peters, Christine E; Hegazy, Youssef A; Cooper, Bruce; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit; Abulkhair, Hamada S; Seleem, Mohamed N; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

    2017-10-20

    The promising antibacterial potency of arylthiazole antibiotics is offset by their limited activity against intracellular bacteria (namely methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)), similar to many clinically-approved antibiotics. The failure to target these hidden pathogens is due to the compounds' lack of proper characteristics to accumulate intracellularly. Fine tuning of the size and polar-surface-area of the linking heteroaromatic ring provided a new series of 5-thiazolylarylthiazoles with balanced properties that allow them to sufficiently cross and accumulate inside macrophages infected with MRSA. The most promising compound 4i exhibited rapid bactericidal activity, good metabolic stability and produced over 80% reduction of intracellular MRSA in infected macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Proposal for common Nordic epidemiological terms and definitions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Robert; Gudlaugsson, Olafur; Hardardottir, Hjordis

    2008-01-01

    infections in the Nordic countries below 1%. The lack of common definitions was recognized as a major obstacle for a joint Nordic effort to combat MRSA. The aim of this publication is to present proposals for epidemiological definitions of individual cases, for how to report MRSA frequency per country......, and for communication of MRSA strain characteristics between the countries....

  13. Chlorhexidine and Mupirocin Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in the REDUCE-MRSA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Mary K; Lolans, Karen; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Avery, Taliser R; Kleinman, Ken; Li, Haiying; Kaganov, Rebecca E; Lankiewicz, Julie; Moody, Julia; Septimus, Edward; Weinstein, Robert A; Hickok, Jason; Jernigan, John; Perlin, Jonathan B; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2016-11-01

    Whether targeted or universal decolonization strategies for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) select for resistance to decolonizing agents is unresolved. The REDUCE-MRSA trial (ClinicalTrials registration no. NCT00980980) provided an opportunity to investigate this question. REDUCE-MRSA was a 3-arm, cluster-randomized trial of either screening and isolation without decolonization, targeted decolonization with chlorhexidine and mupirocin, or universal decolonization without screening to prevent MRSA infection in intensive-care unit (ICU) patients. Isolates from the baseline and intervention periods were collected and tested for susceptibility to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) by microtiter dilution; mupirocin susceptibility was tested by Etest. The presence of the qacA or qacB gene was determined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3,173 isolates were analyzed; 2 were nonsusceptible to CHG (MICs, 8 μg/ml), and 5/814 (0.6%) carried qacA or qacB At baseline, 7.1% of MRSA isolates expressed low-level mupirocin resistance, and 7.5% expressed high-level mupirocin resistance. In a mixed-effects generalized logistic regression model, the odds of mupirocin resistance among clinical MRSA isolates or MRSA isolates acquired in an ICU in intervention versus baseline periods did not differ across arms, although estimates were imprecise due to small numbers. Reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine and carriage of qacA or qacB were rare among MRSA isolates in the REDUCE-MRSA trial. The odds of mupirocin resistance were no different in the intervention versus baseline periods across arms, but the confidence limits were broad, and the results should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

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    Xiu-jun Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common multidrug resistant bacteria both in hospitals and in the community. In the last two decades, there has been growing concern about the increasing resistance to MRSA of the most potent antibiotic glycopeptides. MRSA infection poses a serious problem for physicians and their patients. Photosensitizer-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT appears to be a promising and innovative approach for treating multidrug resistant infection. In spite of encouraging reports of the use of antimicrobial PDT to inactivate MRSA in large in vitro studies, there are only few in vivo studies. Therefore, applying PDT in the clinic for MRSA infection is still a long way off.

  15. Diabetes and early postpartum methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in US hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parriott, Andrea M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in postpartum women is not well characterized. Because diabetes is a risk factor for some infections, we sought to characterize the relationship between diabetes and invasive MRSA infections in women admitted to US

  16. Molecular characterisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated at a large referral hospital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samutela, Mulemba Tillika; Kalonda, Annie; Mwansa, James; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Mwaba, John; Mumbula, Enoch Mulowa; Mwenya, Darlington; Simulundu, Edgar; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is globally recognized as an important public health problem. Whereas comprehensive molecular typing data of MRSA strains is available, particularly in Europe, North America and Australia, similar information is very limited in sub-Saharan Africa including Zambia. In this study, thirty two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus , collected at a large referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia between June 2009 and December 2012 were analysed by Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa) and detection of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes (pvl) . Three SCC mec types were identified namely SCC mec type IV (65.6%), SCCmec type III (21.9%), SCC mec type I (3.1%). Nine point four percent (9.4%) of the isolates were untypable. Five spa types, which included a novel type, were detected and the most prevalent spa type was t064 (40.6%). Other spa types included spa types t2104 (31.3%), t355 (3.1%) and t1257 (21.9%). The pvl genes were detected in 3 out of 32 isolates. These molecular typing data indicated that the MRSA strains collected in Lusaka were diverse. Although the source of these MRSA was not established, these results stress the need for assessing infection prevention and control procedures at this health-care facility in order to curtail possible nosocomial infections. Furthermore, country-wide surveillance of MRSA in both the community and health-care facilities is recommended for infection prevention and control. To our knowledge, this represents the first study to characterise MRSA using molecular tools in Zambia.

  17. Performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test for Simultaneous Detection of Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus From Nasal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lance R; Woods, Christopher W; Davis, Thomas E; Wang, Zi-Xuam; Young, Stephen A; Osiecki, John C; Lewinski, Michael A; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are continuing problems. Rapidly determining the MRSA colonization status of a patient facilitates practice to reduce spread of MRSA clinical disease. Sensitive detection of all SA prior to surgery, followed by decolonization, can significantly reduce postoperative infection from this pathogen. Our goal was to validate a new automated assay for this testing. We compared performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test on the cobas 4800 System to direct and enriched chromogenic culture using nasal swabs collected from patients at six United States sites. Compared to direct and enriched culture, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 93.1% and 93.9%, and the specificity was 97.5% and 94.2%, respectively. After discrepancy analysis, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 97.1% and 98.6%, and the specificity was 98.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Compared to direct culture, sensitivity for detecting any SA was 99.6%. The cobas MRSA/SA Test is an effective tool to simultaneously perform surveillance testing for nasal colonization of both MRSA and MSSA.

  18. CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen

    2017-12-04

    Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.

  19. Rep-PCR-based typing as a tool for tracking of MRSA infection origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance of rep-PCR fingerprinting method with the (GTG5 primer was explored in order to evaluate its practical application for confirmation the source of human staphylococci infection. A laboratory worker daily working with the MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus strains has been tested positively for MRSA nosocomial infection. The collection of nine MRSA strains held in the laboratory has been typed with the rep-PCR method. Analysis of the fingerprints with the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA clustering method revealed presence of six strain clusters with similarity lower than 85%. The fingerprint of MRSA strain infecting the human differed significantly from remaining fingerprints. This provided clear evidence that MRSA strain infecting the personal did not come from the laboratory strains collection. Our experimental results showed rep-PCR with the (GTG5 primer as an effective tool applicable for differentiation of individual S. aureus strains. However, the reproducibility and discrimination power of the method depended on strict observance of the optimal PCR time and temperature profile and PCR composition as well.

  20. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuny, Christiane; Friedrich, Alexander; Kozytska, Svetlana; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Ohlsen, Knut; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar; Witte, Wolfgang

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals such as horses, pet animals and productive livestock has raised questions of a probable human origin and in more general of host specificity of S. aureus. Particular clonal lineages are obviously specific for humans (e.g.

  1. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert

    2011-01-01

    . Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention...

  2. Multiclonal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak and its control after use of the Veterans Affairs (VA) MRSA bundle in a VA long-term care facility, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Risa M; Denton, Carmelita; Spruill, Emily; Henson, Gay; Bruce, Lisa; Woods, Gail L; Swiatlo, Andrea; Walker, Erica D; Peel, Chere; Sullivan, Donna

    2016-06-01

    A multiclonal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak with 91 infections occurred in our Veterans Affairs (VA) community living center over 46 months. Both similar and unique strains were shown by repetitive polymerase chain reaction to contribute to the outbreak, including 1 strain causing infections over a 33-month period. Most infections were soft tissue infections (67%). For 21 months after the initiation of the VA MRSA bundle, no infections were identified, and low rates of infection have been sustained an additional 4 years. The average annual rate of MRSA infection decreased by 62% (P < .001) from 0.6 per 1,000 resident days for 4 years prior to the bundle implementation to 0.09 per 1,000 resident days for 4 years after the bundle implementation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Oxacillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus among HIV infected and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infections due to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) present global challenges to clinicians since therapeutic options are limited and suboptimal dosing contributes to heightened mortality and increased length of hospital stay particularly among the HIV infected patients. Objectives: To assess the prevalence ...

  4. Comparison of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Healthy Community Hospital Visitors [CA-MRSA] and Hospital Staff [HA-MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Pathare, Nirmal A.; Anil Pathare

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] is unknown in Oman. Methods Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer?s disc diffusion method on the isolates. Minimum inhib...

  5. First reporting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in an industrial rabbit holding and in farm-related people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoletti, Fabrizio; Mazzolini, Elena; Bacchin, Cosetta; Bano, Luca; Berto, Giacomo; Rigoli, Roberto; Muffato, Giovanna; Coato, Paola; Tonon, Elena; Drigo, Ilenia

    2014-05-14

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been described in food-producing animals and farm or slaughterhouse workers involved in the primary industrial production of swine, bovine and poultry. This communication describes the first case of LA-MRSA (ST398, spa types t034 and t5210) occurring in rabbits raised intensively for meat production and involving farm workers or their family members. In 2012-2013, in a study involving 40 rabbit industrial holdings in Italy, one farm was found to have rabbits colonized or infected with MRSA. Four farm workers and one of their relatives were found to be carrying MRSA. In this case holding, rabbits, people and the holding environment were further investigated and followed up by a second sampling five months later. MRSA was found in 48% (11/23) and 25% (15/59) of the rabbits carrying S. aureus at first and second samplings, respectively. Five months after first detection, some farm workers or family members were still MRSA carriers. Surface samples (2/10) and air samples (2/3) were contaminated with MRSA. Air samples yielded MRSA counts of 5 and 15CFU/m(3). MRSA from rabbits and people collected at first sampling were spa types t034 and t5210 belonging to ST398. The MRSA isolates from rabbits and persons tested at second sampling were t034 and t5210, but spa types t1190 and t2970 were also detected in MRSA isolates from rabbits. Tracing the epidemiological pattern earlier may prevent further spread of LA-MRSA in these food producing animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vancomycin MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2010 in a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W; Ma, Xiaoling; Gao, P; Lv, X; Lu, H; Chen, F

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creeps among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a regional hospital in China. Furthermore, to analyze the causes of vancomycin MIC creeps and the relationship between vancomycin MICs and the outcome among patients with MRSA infection. All clinical isolates of MRSA from 2006-2010 were retrieved and tested by the broth microdilution procedure to determine their vancomycin MIC. Meanwhile, related patient records were analyzed. While all isolates were susceptive to vancomycin, the percentage of isolates with a vancomycin MIC = 1 mg/L increased significantly from 2006 (37.0%) to 2010 (75.7%). Meanwhile, vancomycin usage density (DDDs/1000 bed-days) had increased significantly from 2006-2010. Mean linear correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.905, P MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC = 1 mg/L. Clinical records revealed high vancomycin MIC was associated with a higher microbiologic failure rate in MRSA bloodstream infections. The data demonstrated vancomycin MIC creep among clinical isolates in our hospital, and the MIC creep may be caused by the increasing usage of vancomycin. Furthermore, the analysis strongly suggested this shift of vancomycin MIC within the susceptible range may be associated with an increasing probability of treatment failure.

  7. Ceftobiprole medocaril is an effective treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mediastinitis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Y; Navon-Venezia, S; Kuzmenko, B; Artzi, N; Carmeli, Y

    2014-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mediastinitis after median sternotomy is a major complication of cardiac surgery with significant morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the efficacy of ceftobiprole medocaril in a new rat model of mediastinitis and compared it to vancomycin. The model was induced in 92 rats. Infection was induced immediately after median sternotomy by the injection of MRSA (strain 3020, 1 × 10(7) cfu/rat) into the sternal bone. After 24 h, rats (groups of 6-8) were treated intraperitoneally for 5 days or 14 days by either: (i) saline (control, q8h), (ii) ceftobiprole medocaril (70 or 100 mg/kg, q8h), or (iii) vancomycin (50 mg/kg, q12h). Efficacy was determined by a reduction in bacterial cfu in the sternum and spleen tissues. Comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney test. A 5-day treatment course of ceftobiprole at both doses tested lead to a significant reduction in MRSA load in the sternum (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group and compared to 5-day vancomycin treatment, which lead to a non-significant reduction (p = 0.07). Longer treatment (14 days) with ceftobiprole lead to a complete clearance of MRSA from the sternum, similarly to vancomycin. Ceftobiprole also showed a significant effect on eliminating MRSA dissemination to the spleen compared to saline-treated rats. Ceftobiprole was effective in treating MRSA mediastinitis in the rat model. In the 5-day course, ceftobiprole showed a significant reduction in sternal MRSA counts and was superior to vancomycin. After 14 days, both ceftobiprole and vancomycin showed clearance of MRSA from the sternum in more than 50 % of rats and almost complete clearance in the remainder.

  8. Spectra MRSA, a new chromogenic agar medium to screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jess F; Riebe, Katherine M; Hall, Gerri S; Wilson, Deborah; Whittier, Susan; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2010-01-01

    A novel chromogenic medium, Spectra MRSA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), was designed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rapidly and more efficiently than traditional media (i.e., tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood [SBA] and mannitol salt agar [MSA]). A multicenter study (including four clinical trial sites and the Medical College of Wisconsin [MCW] Milwaukee, WI) compared the performance characteristics of Spectra MRSA to those of the traditional media for the detection of MRSA. For this study, 767 nasal swab specimens from the multicenter study (traditional medium used, SBA) and 667 nasal swab specimens from MCW (traditional medium used, MSA) were plated on each test medium and examined after 24 and 48 h of incubation. At 24 h, the sensitivity and the specificity of each medium were as follows: in the multicenter study, 95.4% and 99.7%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 93.6% and 100%, respectively, for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% and 99.5%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 88.7% and 94.0%, respectively, for MSA. The positive predictive values of each medium at 24 h were as follows: in the multicenter study, 98.1% for Spectra MRSA and 100% for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% for Spectra MRSA and 60.4% for MSA. In our evaluation, we found that Spectra MRSA was able to rapidly identify and differentiate methicillin-resistant S. aureus from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus on the basis of the utilization of chromogens that result in denim blue colonies, thus eliminating the need for biochemical analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Extending the incubation beyond 24 h did not significantly improve the recovery of MRSA and resulted in decreased specificity.

  9. Detection of mecA- and mecC-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates by the New Xpert MRSA Gen 3 PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Denis, Olivier; Roisin, Sandrine; Mellmann, Alexander; Idelevich, Evgeny A; Knaack, Dennis; van Alen, Sarah; Kriegeskorte, André; Köck, Robin; Schaumburg, Frieder; Peters, Georg; Ballhausen, Britta

    2016-01-01

    An advanced methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection PCR approach targeting SCCmec-orfX along with mecA and mecC was evaluated for S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. The possession of mecA and/or mecC was correctly confirmed in all cases. All methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (n = 98; including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element [SCCmec] remnants) and 98.1% of the MRSA strains (n = 160, including 10 mecC-positive MRSA) were accurately categorized. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Nursing home characteristics associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Burden and Transmission

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    Murphy Courtney R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRSA prevalence in nursing homes often exceeds that in hospitals, but reasons for this are not well understood. We sought to measure MRSA burden in a large number of nursing homes and identify facility characteristics associated with high MRSA burden. Methods We performed nasal swabs of residents from 26 nursing homes to measure MRSA importation and point prevalence, and estimate transmission. Using nursing home administrative data, we identified facility characteristics associated with MRSA point prevalence and estimated transmission risk in multivariate models. Results We obtained 1,649 admission and 2,111 point prevalence swabs. Mean MRSA point prevalence was 24%, significantly higher than mean MRSA admission prevalence, 16%, (paired t-test, p In multivariate models, higher MRSA point prevalence was associated with higher admission prevalence (p=0.005 and higher proportions of residents with indwelling devices (p=0.01. Higher estimated MRSA transmission risk was associated with higher proportions of residents with diabetes (p=0.01 and lower levels of social engagement (p=0.03. Conclusions MRSA importation was a strong predictor of MRSA prevalence, but MRSA burden and transmission were also associated with nursing homes caring for more residents with chronic illnesses or indwelling devices. Frequent social interaction among residents appeared to be protective of MRSA transmission, suggesting that residents healthy enough to engage in group activities do not incur substantial risks of MRSA from social contact. Identifying characteristics of nursing homes at risk for high MRSA burden and transmission may allow facilities to tailor infection control policies and interventions to mitigate MRSA spread.

  11. Rifampicin-fosfomycin coating for cementless endoprostheses: antimicrobial effects against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Volker; Kirchhof, Kristin; Seim, Florian; Hrubesch, Isabelle; Lips, Katrin S; Mannel, Henrich; Domann, Eugen; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2014-10-01

    New strategies to decrease infection rates in cementless arthroplasty are needed, especially in the context of the growing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of a rifampicin-fosfomycin coating against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA in a rabbit infection prophylaxis model. Uncoated or rifampicin-fosfomycin-coated K-wires were inserted into the intramedullary canal of the tibia in rabbits and contaminated with an inoculation dose of 10(5) or 10(6) colony-forming units of MSSA EDCC 5055 in study 1 and MRSA T6625930 in study 2, respectively. After 28days the animals were killed and clinical, histological and microbiological assessment, including pulse-field gel electrophoresis, was conducted. Positive culture growth in agar plate testing and/or clinical signs and/or histological signs were defined positive for infection. Statistical evaluation was performed using Fisher's exact test. Both studies showed a statistically significant reduction of infection rates for rifampicin-fosfomycin-coated implants compared to uncoated K-wires (P=0.015). In both studies none of the 12 animals that were treated with a rifampicin-fosfomycin-coated implant showed clinical signs of infection or a positive agar plate testing result. In both studies, one animal of the coating group showed the presence of sporadic bacteria with concomitant inflammatory signs in histology. The control groups in both studies exhibited an infection rate of 100% with clear clinical signs of infection and positive culture growth in all animals. In summary, the rifampicin-fosfomycin-coating showed excellent antimicrobial activity against both MSSA and MRSA, and therefore warrants further clinical testing. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection and colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in a high risk nursery of a Brazilian teaching hospital

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    Helisângela de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available Neonates are susceptible to nosocomial infections due to immunological immaturity, prolonged hospital stay and the use of invasive procedures. We evaluated the incidence of infections and the prevalence of colonization by MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and MSSA (Methilin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, as well as colonization risk factors. Staphylococcal infections were observed by analyzing medical records in the HICS (Hospital Infection Control Service and the HRN (High Risk Nursery. Additionally, four inquiries concerning colonization prevalence were made for S. aureus, from January/2000 to December/2002. Clinical specimens from the nostrils, mouth and anus were cultivated in mannitol-salt agar plates and identification was made through standard methods. The frequency of neonates colonized by S. aureus was 49%. MSSA was more prevalent (57% than MRSA (43%. Risk factors related to the acquisition of MRSA were: low weight and antibiotic use. , Hospital stay was the only variable significantly associated with colonization by S. aureus. The incidence of infections by S. aureus during the last three years was 2.18% (159 cases. Nine of them (5.5% were associated with MRSA and 150 (94.5% with MSSA. Staphylococcal infections were considered as invasive (sepsis and non-invasive (conjunctivitis, cutaneous, corresponding to 31% and 69%, respectively. The MRSA phenotype in infection was rare compared with methicillin-susceptible samples, although S. aureus, MRSA and MSSA colonization rates were high.

  13. Infection and colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in a high risk nursery of a Brazilian teaching hospital

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    Silva Helisângela de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates are susceptible to nosocomial infections due to immunological immaturity, prolonged hospital stay and the use of invasive procedures. We evaluated the incidence of infections and the prevalence of colonization by MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and MSSA (Methilin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, as well as colonization risk factors. Staphylococcal infections were observed by analyzing medical records in the HICS (Hospital Infection Control Service and the HRN (High Risk Nursery. Additionally, four inquiries concerning colonization prevalence were made for S. aureus, from January/2000 to December/2002. Clinical specimens from the nostrils, mouth and anus were cultivated in mannitol-salt agar plates and identification was made through standard methods. The frequency of neonates colonized by S. aureus was 49%. MSSA was more prevalent (57% than MRSA (43%. Risk factors related to the acquisition of MRSA were: low weight and antibiotic use. , Hospital stay was the only variable significantly associated with colonization by S. aureus. The incidence of infections by S. aureus during the last three years was 2.18% (159 cases. Nine of them (5.5% were associated with MRSA and 150 (94.5% with MSSA. Staphylococcal infections were considered as invasive (sepsis and non-invasive (conjunctivitis, cutaneous, corresponding to 31% and 69%, respectively. The MRSA phenotype in infection was rare compared with methicillin-susceptible samples, although S. aureus, MRSA and MSSA colonization rates were high.

  14. Active surveillance to determine the impact of methicillin resistance on mortality in patients with bacteremia and influences of the use of antibiotics on the development of MRSA infection

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    Juliana Pena Porto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is among the most important pathogens of nosocomial infections, mainly in intensive care units (ICUs, and accounts for 40-60% of all healthcare-associated S. aureus infections. We evaluated the incidence of nosocomial infection by S. aureus, identified the risk factors for MRSA infection, and evaluated the effect of resistance to methicillin on mortality in patients. Methods We conducted MRSA surveillance at a university hospital in Brazil from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010, and performed a retrospective case-control matched study to evaluate the frequency of subsequent MRSA bacteremia and death among patients. We evaluated and compared the risk factors between patients with MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA infection. Results Sepsis was the most common cause of infection (17.7/1,000 patient-days, followed by surgical site (11.4/1,000 patient-days, pneumonia (4.1/1,000 patient-days, and urinary tract infection (2.4/1,000 patient-days. The significant risk factors were time of hospitalization, use of central vascular catheter (CVC, urinary catheter, nasogastric tube, parenteral nutrition, tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, and previous antibiotic administration, the latter of which was the only independent risk factor for MRSA infection. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with MRSA. The number of antibiotics tested was not related to increases in the frequency of MRSA/1,000 patient-days. The incidence of mortality attributable to MRSA (bloodstream infection BSI was 50%. Conclusions Surveillance results showed that the use of high levels of antibiotics was directly related to the development of MRSA infection, and the mortality attributable to MRSA in patients with bacteremia was significant.

  15. MRSA and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. retail meats, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Davis, Johnnie A; Tran, Thu Thuy T; Yang, Qianru; Abbott, Jason W; Ayers, Sherry L; Young, Shenia R; Crarey, Emily T; Womack, Niketta A; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3.5%), followed by pork (1.9%), beef (1.7%), and chicken (0.3%). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for all 66 non-redundant MRSA. Among five multilocus sequence types identified, ST8 (72.7%) and ST5 (22.7%) were most common and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was assigned to one pork isolate. Eleven spa types were represented, predominately t008 (43.9%) and t2031 (22.7%). All four types of meats harbored t008, whereas t2031 was recovered from turkey only. The majority of MRSA (84.8%) possessed SCCmec IV and 62.1% harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all ST8 MRSA belonged to the predominant human epidemic clone USA300, and others included USA100 and USA200. We conclude that a diverse MRSA population was present in U.S. retail meats, albeit at low prevalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

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    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-García, Estrella; García-Gonzalez, Rafael; Reyes-Torres, Angélica; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María

    2015-01-01

    Background : Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs). Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods : A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results : We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions : The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  19. Infectious caused by community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: three-years experience of an universitary hospital in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Altieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections(1. In Europe the proportion of MRSA is increasing sharply and the distribution varies from country to country. In recent years there has, in various parts of the world, the emergence of infection with strains of S. aureus methicillin-resistant community-acquired (CA-MRSA than those circulating in hospitals(2. These strains contain a gene that confers resistance to methicillin (mec A SSC mec IV which is usually associated with the gene for Leukocidin Panton Valentine (PVL toxin responsible for necrosis of skin and soft tissue (3. In 2006-2008, at the Laboratory of Bacteriology PolyclinicTor Vergata,were isolated a total of 738 strains of S. aureus from biological samples of different nature (oral, vaginal secretions, wound swab, secreted headset, etc ... of patients related to our surgeries.The identification and study of drug sensitivity of strains were performed with the automatic VITEK2 (bioMérieux. Of the 738 strains of S. aureus identified 212 (28.7% were resistant to methicillin (MRSA, with an increasing trend over the years: 46 isolates, respectively, in 2006, 76 in 2007 and 90 in 2008. The highest frequency of MRSA (varying between 85% and 95% was detected in wound swabs from the dispensary and diabetes (diabetic foot.

  20. Isolation And Partial Characterization Of Bacteria Activity Associated With Gorgonian Euplexaura sp. Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, R.; Ayuningrum, D.; Asagabaldan, M. A.; Nuryadi, H.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in around the world and has been resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin. The aims of this study were to isolate, to investigate and to characterize bacterial symbionts gorgonian having activity against MRSA. Euplexaura sp. was collected from Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia by snorkling 2-5 m in depth. Bacterias were isolated by using spesific media with dilution method. Bacterias were conducted by using the streak method. Antibacterial activity was investigated by overlay method. The potent bacteria was identified by using molecular identification (DNA extraction, electrophoresis, PCR and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA genes with actinobacteria-spesific primers) and bio-chemical test (among 5 isolated bacteria from gorgonian showed activity against MRSA). The strain PG-344 was the best candidat that has an inhibition zone against MRSA. The result of sequencing bacteria is 100% closely related with Virgibacillus salarius. This becomes a potential new bioactive compounds to against MRSA that can be a new drug discovery.

  1. Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by Salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Qing; Han, Jun; Zuo, Guo-Ying; Wang, Gen-Chun; Tang, Hua-Shu

    2016-05-01

    Salvianolate (SAL) is a prescribed medicine from the Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge). It has been widely used in treatment of coronary and other diseases with significant effects. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of SAL against infectious pathogens were assayed and its combined effects on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with ten antibiotics were evaluated. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method, and the chequerboard and time-kill experiments were used for the combined activities. The results showed MIC was 128-256 mg/L for SAL used alone against MRSA. Significant synergies were observed for SAL/Ampicillin (Fosfomycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin-tazobactam or Clindamycin) combination against over half of the isolates, with their MICs reduced by times of dilution (TOD) to 4-32 (FICIs 0.375-0.5), respectively. SAL/AMP combination showed the best combined effect of synergy on bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, while SAL/AMK combination reversed the resistance of MRSA to AMK. The results demonstrated that SAL enhanced widely the in vitro anti-MRSA efficacy of the ten antibacterial agents, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA and warrants further investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by Salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolate (SAL is a prescribed medicine from the Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been widely used in treatment of coronary and other diseases with significant effects. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of SAL against infectious pathogens were assayed and its combined effects on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with ten antibiotics were evaluated. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method, and the chequerboard and time-kill experiments were used for the combined activities. The results showed MIC was 128–256 mg/L for SAL used alone against MRSA. Significant synergies were observed for SAL/Ampicillin (Fosfomycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin-tazobactam or Clindamycin combination against over half of the isolates, with their MICs reduced by times of dilution (TOD to 4–32 (FICIs 0.375–0.5, respectively. SAL/AMP combination showed the best combined effect of synergy on bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, while SAL/AMK combination reversed the resistance of MRSA to AMK. The results demonstrated that SAL enhanced widely the in vitro anti-MRSA efficacy of the ten antibacterial agents, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA and warrants further investigations.

  3. Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Guardabassi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of tetracycline and zinc on pig colonization and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398. Eight piglets naturally colonized with MRSA ST398 and 8 MRSA-negative piglets of the same age...... and breed were assigned to three groups treated with tetracycline and zinc (Group 1), zinc (Group 2) or tetracycline alone (Group 3) and one non-treated group (Group 4), each containing two MRSA-positive and two MRSA-negative animals. Two additional non-treated control groups composed of only MRSA......-positive (Group 5) and MRSA-negative (Group 6) animals were used to check for stability of MRSA carriage status. Nasal swabs and environmental wipes were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, and 21, and the occurrence of MRSA in each sample was quantified by bacteriological counts on Brilliance™ MRSA agar. Significantly...

  4. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Harlizius, J; Bressan, N; Laerberg, R; Wieler, L H; Witte, W; Deurenberg, R H; Voss, A; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were

  5. Development and validation of a bedside risk score for MRSA among patients hospitalized with complicated skin and skin structure infections

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    Zilberberg Marya D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI. Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately. Methods We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals retrospective cohort study in a US-based database between April 2005 and March 2009. All adult initial admissions with ICD-9-CM codes specific to cSSSI were included. Patients admitted with MRSA vs. non-MRSA were compared with regard to baseline demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics. We developed and validated a model to predict the risk of MRSA, and compared its performance via sensitivity, specificity and other classification statistics to the healthcare-associated (HCA infection risk factors. Results Of the 7,183 patients with cSSSI, 2,387 (33.2% had MRSA. Factors discriminating MRSA from non-MRSA were age, African-American race, no evidence of diabetes mellitus, cancer or renal dysfunction, and prior history of cardiac dysrhythmia. The score ranging from 0 to 8 points exhibited a consistent dose–response relationship. A MRSA score of 5 or higher was superior to the HCA classification in all characteristics, while that of 4 or higher was superior on all metrics except specificity. Conclusions MRSA is present in 1/3 of all hospitalized cSSSI. A simple bedside risk score can help discriminate the risk for MRSA vs. other pathogens with improved accuracy compared to the HCA definition.

  6. An observational prospective study of topical acidified nitrite for killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in contaminated wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Gail P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous nitric oxide (NO kills bacteria and other organisms as part of the innate immune response. When nitrite is exposed to low pH, NO is generated and has been used as an NO delivery system to treat skin infections. We demonstrated eradication of MRSA carriage from wounds using a topical formulation of citric acid (4.5% and sodium nitrite (3% creams co-applied for 5 days to 15 wounds in an observational prospective pilot study of 8 patients. Findings Following treatment with topical citric acid and sodium nitrite, 9 of 15 wounds (60% and 3 of 8 patients (37% were cleared of infection. MRSA isolates from these patients were all sensitive to acidified nitrite in vitro compared to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and a reference strain of MRSA. Conclusions Nitric oxide and acidified nitrite offer a novel therapy for control of MRSA in wounds. Wounds that were not cleared of infection may have been re-contaminated or the bioavailability of acidified nitrite impaired by local factors in the tissue.

  7. A Discrete Event Simulation Model of Patient Flow in a General Hospital Incorporating Infection Control Policy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Erica S; Lee, Hang; Ryan, Erin E; Hou, Taige; Walensky, Rochelle P; Ware, Winston; Hooper, David C

    2018-02-01

    Hospitalized patients are assigned to available staffed beds based on patient acuity and services required. In hospitals with double-occupancy rooms, patients must be additionally matched by gender. Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) must be bedded in single-occupancy rooms or cohorted with other patients with similar MRSA/VRE flags. We developed a discrete event simulation (DES) model of patient flow through an acute care hospital. Patients are matched to beds based on acuity, service, gender, and known MRSA/VRE colonization. Outcomes included time to bed arrival, length of stay, patient-bed acuity mismatches, occupancy, idle beds, acuity-related transfers, rooms with discordant MRSA/VRE colonization, and transmission due to discordant colonization. Observed outcomes were well-approximated by model-generated outcomes for time-to-bed arrival (6.7 v. 6.2 to 6.5 h) and length of stay (3.3 v. 2.9 to 3.0 days), with overlapping 90% coverage intervals. Patient-bed acuity mismatches, where patient acuity exceeded bed acuity and where patient acuity was lower than bed acuity, ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 and 8.6 to 11.1 mismatches per h, respectively. Values for observed occupancy, total idle beds, and acuity-related transfers compared favorably to model-predicted values (91% v. 86% to 87% occupancy, 15.1 v. 14.3 to 15.7 total idle beds, and 27.2 v. 22.6 to 23.7 transfers). Rooms with discordant colonization status and transmission due to discordance were modeled without an observed value for comparison. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed for idle beds and rooms with discordant colonization. We developed and validated a DES model of patient flow incorporating MRSA/VRE flags. The model allowed for quantification of the substantial impact of MRSA/VRE flags on hospital efficiency and potentially avoidable nosocomial transmission.

  8. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Adolescents

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    George K. Siberry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection incidence has increased in healthy US children. Our objective was to evaluate MRSA incidence and correlates in HIV-infected youth. Methods. The CDC-sponsored LEGACY study is a US multicenter chart abstraction study of HIV-infected youth. We identified MRSA infections among participants with ≥1 visit during 2006. We used bivariate and multivariable analyses to compare sociodemographic and HIV clinical factors between MRSA cases and noncases. Results. Fourteen MRSA infections (1 invasive, 12 soft tissue, 1 indeterminate occurred among 1,813 subjects (11.1 infections/1,000 patient-years (PY, 95% CI: 11.06–11.14. Most (86% isolates were clindamycin susceptible. Compared with noncases, MRSA cases were more likely older (17 versus 14 years, black (100% versus 69%, behaviorally HIV infected (43% versus 17%, and in Maryland (43% versus 7% and had viral loads (VL >1000 copies/mL (86% versus 51% and lower mean CD4% (18% versus 27% (all P1000 copies/mL (aOR = 5.9, and black race (aOR undefined. Conclusions. MRSA occurred at a rate of 11.1 infections/1,000 PY in HIV-infected youth but invasive disease was uncommon. Geographic location, black race, and increased VL, but not immunosuppression, were independently associated with MRSA risk.

  9. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  10. Opioid and amphetamine dependence is associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): An epidemiological register study with 73,201 Swedish in- and outpatients 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Disa; Berge, Jonas; Nilsson, Anna C; Kral, Alex H; Bjorkman, Per; Hakansson, Anders C

    2017-02-01

    While methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing in prevalence globally, Sweden is still a low-prevalence country enabling studies on the natural MRSA spread in subpopulations unaffected by a surrounding highly infected population. Substance dependence and injection drug use have been risk factors for MRSA carriage and infection in other countries. In this retrospective, longitudinal register study, we investigated MRSA epidemiology 1997-2013 in opioid and amphetamine-dependent individuals, in comparison with alcohol-dependent subjects. Data from the national Swedish in- and outpatients registers included 73,201 individuals from 1997, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2013. We analyzed substance use disorder and demographic predictors for MRSA using generalized estimating equations. The main finding was that both opioid (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16, 3.67) and amphetamine dependence (AOR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.70, 4.16) were significantly associated with MRSA diagnosis compared with alcohol dependence, when adjusting for age, sex and year. These findings are of value to understand the dynamics of MRSA epidemiology among substance dependent persons with presumably low socioeconomic status and potential injection drug use, and implicate repeated surveillance of MRSA among these patients.

  11. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, K.B.; Lyytikäinen, O.; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients admitted to adult intensive care units: the STAR*ICU trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Kourbatova, Ekaterina; Poole, Katharine; Huckabee, Charmaine M; Murray, Patrick; Huskins, W Charles; Blumberg, Henry M

    2011-11-01

    The multicenter, cluster-randomized Strategies to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria in Intensive Care Units (STAR*ICU) trial was performed in 18 U.S. adult intensive care units (ICUs). It evaluated the effectiveness of infection control strategies to reduce the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and/or infection. Our study objective was to examine the molecular epidemiology of MRSA and assess the prevalence and risk factors for community acquired (CA)-MRSA genotype nasal carriage at the time of ICU admission. Selected MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 5,512 ICU patient admissions in the STAR*ICU trial during the intervention period, 626 (11%) had a nares sample culture result that was positive for MRSA. A total of 210 (34%) of 626 available isolates were selected for molecular typing by weighted random sampling. Of 210 patients, 123 (59%) were male; mean age was 63 years. Molecular typing revealed that 147 isolates (70%) were the USA100 clone, 26 (12%) were USA300, 12 (6%) were USA500, 8 (4%) were USA800, and 17 (8%) were other MRSA genotypes. In a multivariate analysis, patients who were colonized with a CA-MRSA genotype (USA300, USA400, or USA1000) were less likely to have been hospitalized during the previous 12 months (PR [prevalence ratio], 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.73]) and were less likely to be older (PR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.98] per year) compared with patients who were colonized with a healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA genotype. CA-MRSA genotypes have emerged as a cause of MRSA nares colonization among patients admitted to adult ICUs in the United States. During the study period (2006), the predominant site of CA-MRSA genotype acquisition appeared to be in the community.

  13. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Phylogeographic variation in recombination rates within a global clone of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Corander, Jukka; Marttinen, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    by employing a recently developed Bayesian approach, BRATNextGen, for detecting recombination on an expanded NGS dataset of the globally disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST239. RESULTS: The data confirm strong geographical clustering at continental, national and city scales...

  15. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) : global epidemiology and harmonisation of typing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A.; Friedrich, Alex W.; Kearns, Angela M.; Westh, Henrik; MacKenzie, Fiona M.

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/ associated (HA), community-acquired/ associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods for

  16. Using Positive Deviance in the prevention and control of MRSA infections in a Colombian hospital: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, N M Olarte; Márquez, I A Valderrama; Quiroga, J Avila; Trujillo, T Goretty; González, F; Aguilar, M I Garzón; Escobar-Pérez, J

    2017-04-01

    Positive Deviance (PD) is a process to achieve a social and cultural change. This strategy has been used for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in some health institutions in the United States, but has rarely been adopted in institutions from developing countries where resources are limited. We describe our experience of PD in the control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to MRSA in a Colombian hospital with the aim of reducing HAI rates through a cultural change in processes. A time-series study was conducted based on the MRSA-HAI rate and the number of months with zero MRSA infections before and after application of PD (2001-2012). On comparing the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the mean overall rates of MRSA-HAI was 0·62 and 0·36, respectively (P = 0·0005); the number of months with zero MRSA-HAIs were 3/70 and 12/74 (odds ratio 0·264, 95% confidence interval 0·078-0·897); the percentage of MRSA-HAIs was 53·2% and 41·0%. These results are consistent with other published data. Implementation of PD was associated with a significant reduction of MRSA-HAIs, it did not involve high costs and the changes have been lasting.

  17. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Serrano, Emmanuel; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Marco, Ignasi; Fernández-Garayzabal, José-Francisco; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. [Evaluation of oxacillin resistance screening agar and chromogenic MRSA agar media for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesur, Salih; Yildiz, Eda; Irmak, Hasan; Aygün, Züleyha; Karakoç, Esra; Kinikli, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2010-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains which are the most frequent causes of hospital acquired infections, are also currently encountered with increasing frequency in community acquired infections. Therefore rapid and accurate identification of MRSA strains is essential in both implementation of infection control measures and prevention of the nosocomial spread of this microorganism. The aim of this study was to determine the specifisity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of two commercial media, one was Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base (ORSAB; Oxoid, England) and the other was chromogenic MRSA agar (BBL CHROMagar MRSA; BD, Paris, France), for the identification of MRSA strains. A total of 175 clinical S. aureus isolates, of which 45 were MRSA, and 130 were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), whose susceptibility to methicillin were determined by disk diffusion method using oxacillin and cefoxitin disks in Mueller-Hinton agar medium, were included in the study. When oxacillin disk diffusion test was accepted as the reference method, the specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of ORSAB were found as 97.7%, 40%, 36.5% and 98.1%, respectively; while these values were detected as 95.5%, 37.6%, 35.7% and 96.1% for CHROMagar MRSA, respectively. These results indicated that both media may be used in laboratories where work load is high and the number of personnel is inadequate especially in screening studies together or in addition to another medium (mannitol-salt agar). However, since these methods exhibit low specifity (high false positive results), positive results should be confirmed using other methods such as disk diffusion, E-test or microdilution susceptibility testing.

  20. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Olga E; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Kamshilova, Vera V; Kotlovsky, Yuri V; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V; Sidorenko, Sergey V; Peryanova, Olga V; Reva, Galina V; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  1. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Olga E.; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Kamshilova, Vera V.; Kotlovsky, Yuri V.; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  2. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E Khokhlova

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA, respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras, while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc (designated as ST8Kras. ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs: toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1, elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3 genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W, with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+ SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome. ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  3. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for SAB and its complications is likely to grow....... Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention...

  4. The Plasmin-Sensitive Protein Pls in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Is a Glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bleiziffer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively. The ∼250, ∼165, and ∼175 kDa proteins were identified as plasmin-sensitive protein (Pls by mass spectrometry. Previously, Pls has been demonstrated to be a virulence factor in a mouse septic arthritis model. The pls gene is encoded by the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec type I in MRSA that also encodes the methicillin resistance-conferring mecA and further genes. In a search for glycosyltransferases, we identified two open reading frames encoded downstream of pls on the SCCmec element, which we termed gtfC and gtfD. Expression and deletion analysis revealed that both gtfC and gtfD mediate glycosylation of Pls. Additionally, the recently reported glycosyltransferases SdgA and SdgB are involved in Pls glycosylation. Glycosylation occurs at serine residues in the Pls SD-repeat region and modifying carbohydrates are N-acetylhexosaminyl residues. Functional characterization revealed that Pls can confer increased biofilm formation, which seems to involve two distinct mechanisms. The first mechanism depends on glycosylation of the SD-repeat region by GtfC/GtfD and probably also involves eDNA, while the second seems to be independent of glycosylation as well as eDNA and may involve the centrally located G5 domains. Other previously known Pls properties are not related to the sugar modifications. In conclusion, Pls is a glycoprotein and

  5. The Plasmin-Sensitive Protein Pls in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Is a Glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiziffer, Isabelle; Eikmeier, Julian; Pohlentz, Gottfried; McAulay, Kathryn; Xia, Guoqing; Hussain, Muzaffar; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Simon; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa) and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa) glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively. The ∼250, ∼165, and ∼175 kDa proteins were identified as plasmin-sensitive protein (Pls) by mass spectrometry. Previously, Pls has been demonstrated to be a virulence factor in a mouse septic arthritis model. The pls gene is encoded by the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC)mec type I in MRSA that also encodes the methicillin resistance-conferring mecA and further genes. In a search for glycosyltransferases, we identified two open reading frames encoded downstream of pls on the SCCmec element, which we termed gtfC and gtfD. Expression and deletion analysis revealed that both gtfC and gtfD mediate glycosylation of Pls. Additionally, the recently reported glycosyltransferases SdgA and SdgB are involved in Pls glycosylation. Glycosylation occurs at serine residues in the Pls SD-repeat region and modifying carbohydrates are N-acetylhexosaminyl residues. Functional characterization revealed that Pls can confer increased biofilm formation, which seems to involve two distinct mechanisms. The first mechanism depends on glycosylation of the SD-repeat region by GtfC/GtfD and probably also involves eDNA, while the second seems to be independent of glycosylation as well as eDNA and may involve the centrally located G5 domains. Other previously known Pls properties are not related to the sugar modifications. In conclusion, Pls is a glycoprotein and Pls glycosyl

  6. Infection prevention and control interventions in the first outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in an equine hospital in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergström, Karin; Nyman, Görel; Widgren, Stefan; Johnston, Christopher; Grönlund-Andersson, Ulrika; Ransjö, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    The first outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in horses in Sweden occurred in 2008 at the University Animal Hospital and highlighted the need for improved infection prevention and control...

  7. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbone Sonia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to trace the dynamic changes of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA lineages in Italy, comparing the genotypic backgrounds of contemporary isolates over a period of 17 years, with those of a sample of early MRSA strains from 1980. In total, 301 non-repetitive MRSA clinical isolates, recovered from 19 Italian hospitals between 1990 and 2007 were selected and analyzed for their antibiotic resistance, typed by PFGE and SCCmec, grouped into clonal-types and further characterized using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST. A sample of fifteen early MRSA strains from 1980 was also used for comparison. The most interesting feature was the recent increase of ST228-MRSA-I (formerly the Italian clone; PFGE E over the period 2000–2007 (57%, when compared to the period 1990–1999 (29%, and its stability to date, associated with a decrease of the highly epidemic ST247-MRSA-IA (formerly the Iberian clone; PFGE A, (23% from 1990 to 1999, 6% from 2000 to 2007. ST1-MRSA-I (1 out of 2 strains carrying ccrA2B2, ST8-MRSA-I (4 strains, ST15-MRSA-I (1 out of 4 carrying ccrA2B2 and ST30-MRSA-I (2 out of 5 carrying no ccrAB-types and ccrC were the predominant earliest STs among the MRSA strains in 1980. A temporal shift in the susceptibility levels to glycopeptides was observed: strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥ 2 mg/L increased from 19.4% to 35.5%. In conclusion, we describe the alternation of MRSA clones that occurred in hospitals from 1990 to 2007 and the increase of the glycopeptide MIC levels, reflecting a worldwide trend. We document the detection of ST1, ST8, ST15 and ST30 in the 1980 isolates; we hypothesize their possible latency and their appearance as the current CA-MRSA clones.

  8. Distribution and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the small animal hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tadee, Pakpoom; Ingkaninan, Pimlada; Tankaew, Pallop; Hoet, Armando E; Chupia, Vena

    2014-03-01

    Of 416 samples taken from veterinary staff (n = 30), dogs (n = 356) and various environmental sites (n = 30) at the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 13 samples contained methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of which 1 (SCCmec type II) came from veterinarian, 9 (SCCmec types I, III, IVa, V and untypeable) from dogs, and 3 (SCCmec types I, III, and IVb) from environmental samples. The MRSA isolates were 100% susceptible to vancomycin (100%), 69% to cephazolin and 62% to gentamicin, but were up to 92% resistant to tetracycline group, 69% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoles and 62% to ceftriaxone. In addition, all MRSA isolates showed multidrug resistance. As the MRSA isolates from the veterinary staff and dogs were of different SCCmec types, this suggests there were no cross-infections. However, environmental contamination appears to have come from dogs, and appropriate hygienic practices should be introduced to solve this problem.

  9. Antimicrobial activities of bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against MRSA and other nosocomial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the antimicrobial activities of previously published bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other prominent nosocomial bacterial infections. methods: Several Russian hospitals were enlisted into the study from 2003 ...

  10. PSMs of hypervirulent Staphylococcus aureus act as intracellular toxins that kill infected osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Rasigade

    Full Text Available Epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is associated with more severe and acute forms of osteomyelitis than healthcare-associated (HA- MRSA. Although S. aureus is now recognized as a facultative intracellular pathogen, the contribution of osteoblast invasion by CA-MRSA to the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis is unknown. Using an ex vivo model of intracellular infection of human osteoblasts, we demonstrated that CA-MRSA strains of diverse lineages share an enhanced ability to kill infected osteoblasts compared to HA-MRSA. Cytotoxicity comparisons of CA-MRSA isogenic deletion mutants revealed that phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs, a class of membrane-damaging exoproteins that are expressed at higher levels in CA-MRSA than in HA-MRSA, are involved in this osteoblast killing, whereas other major CA-MRSA virulence determinants, the Panton-Valentine leukocidin and alpha-toxin, are not involved. Similarly, functional agr and sarA regulators, which control the expression of PSMs and alpha-toxin, were required for the expression of the intracellular cytotoxic phenotype by CA-MRSA, whereas the saeRS regulator, which controls the expression of alpha-toxin but not PSMs, had no impact on cytotoxicity. Finally, PSM transcript levels determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR were significantly higher in CA-MRSA than in HA-MRSA strains and associated with cell damage in MRSA-infected osteoblasts. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of severe CA-MRSA osteomyelitis and unravel a novel virulence strategy of CA-MRSA, based on the invasion and subsequent killing of osteoblasts by PSMs acting as intracellular toxins.

  11. Spread of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection within a family: implications for antibiotic therapy and prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amir, N H

    2010-04-01

    Outbreaks or clusters of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) within families have been reported. We describe a family cluster of CA-MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection where CA-MRSA was suspected because of recurrent infections which failed to respond to flucloxacillin. While the prevalence of CA-MRSA is low worldwide, CA-MRSA should be considered in certain circumstances depending on clinical presentation and risk assessment. Surveillance cultures of family contacts of patients with MRSA should be considered to help establish the prevalence of CA-MRSA and to inform the optimal choice of empiric antibiotic treatment.

  12. Antibacterial Modification of Kirschner Wires with Polyluteolin toward Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report antibacterial modification of Kirschner wires (K-wires with polyluteolin (PL toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. K-wires were modified by immersing them in the luteolin-containing aqueous solution for 24 h. Characterizations using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods confirmed the presence of the PL coatings on the K-wires. The PL-coated K-wires were further found to show antibacterial activity toward MRSA and remained unimpaired antibacterial activity even after the steam sterilization treatment.

  13. Characteristics of SCCmec IV and V Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Pnina; Openhaim, Michal; Reisfeld, Sharon; Paitan, Yossi; Regev-Yochay, Gili; Carmeli, Yehuda; Chowers, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthy individuals is not common in Israel. In our hospital, about 30% of MRSA isolates were SCCmec types IV and V. To identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients carrying MRSA SCCmec type IV or V, and to compare them with each other and with those of patients with SCCmec types I-III. We conducted a case-control study that included 501 patients from whom MRSA was isolated: 254 with SCCmec type I, II, or III, and 243 isolates from SCCmec types IV or V. MRSA was isolated from surveillance cultures in 75% of patients and from a clinical site in 25%. The majority of our study population was elderly, from nursing homes, and with extensive exposure to health care. First, we compared characteristics of patients identified through screening. Statistically significant predictors of SCCmec V vs. IV were Arab ethnicity (OR 7.44, 95% CI 1.5-37.9) and hospitalization in the year prior to study inclusion (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.9-16.9). No differences were found between patients with SCCmec types I-III and patients with SCCmec type IV or V. Analysis of the subset of patients who had clinical cultures yielded similar results. SCCmec types IV and V were common in the hospital setting although rare in the community. It seems that in Israel, SCCmec IV and V are predominantly health care-associated MRSA.

  14. Study of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Danish pigs at slaughter and in imported retail meat reveals a novel MRSA type in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Hasman, Henrik; Cavaco, Lina M.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), especially CC398, have emerged in livestock worldwide. We investigated the occurrence of MRSA in pigs at slaughter and in retail meat. During 2009, nasal swabs (n=789) were taken from pigs at slaughter. Moreover, 866 meat samples [Danish: pork....../789) of the pigs had MRSA. Based on spa types 93% corresponded to CC398 (spa t011, t034, t1451, t2876, t2974), 4% to CC30 (t1333) and one isolate to CC1 (t0127). The spa type t1333 (CC30), which is common among methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from pigs in Denmark, contained a SCCmec cassette type V...... (153), broiler meat (121), beef (142) and; imported: pork (173), broiler meat (193), and beef (84)] were randomly collected in retail stores and outlets. MRSA was isolated from nasal swabs or from meat samples after preenrichment (Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl), selective enrichment (tryptone...

  15. Trends in Invasive Infection with MRSA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-17

    Dr. James Hadler, Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at the Yale School of Public Health, discusses recent trends in MRSA.  Created: 7/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/19/2012.

  16. Evaluation of BacLite Rapid MRSA, a rapid culture based screening test for the detection of ciprofloxacin and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA from screening swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyrme Margaret

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The need for accurate and rapid screening methods to detect MRSA carriers has been clearly established. The performance of a novel assay, BacLite Rapid MRSA (Acolyte Biomedica, UK for the rapid detection (5 h and identification of hospital associated ciprofloxacin resistant strains of MRSA directly from nasal swab specimens was compared to that obtained by culture on Mannitol salt agar containing Oxacillin (MSAO after 48 h incubation. Results A total of 1382 nasal screening swabs were tested by multiple operators. The BacLite Rapid MRSA test detected 142 out of the 157 confirmed MRSA that were detected on MSAO giving a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.4, diagnostic specificity of 95.7% and a negative predictive value of 98.7%. Of the 15 false negatives obtained by the BacLite Rapid MRSA test, seven grew small amounts ( Conclusion The Baclite MRSA test is easy to use and provides a similar level of sensitivity to conventional culture for the detection of nasal carriage of MRSA with the advantage that the results are obtained much more rapidly.

  17. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among Swiss veterinary health care providers: detection of livestock- and healthcare-associated clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein Rosenkranz, K; Rothenanger, E; Brodard, I; Collaud, A; Overesch, G; Bigler, B; Marschall, J; Perreten, V

    2014-07-01

    We screened a total of 340 veterinarians (including general practitioners, small animal practitioners, large animal practitioners, veterinarians working in different veterinary services or industry), and 29 veterinary assistants for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) at the 2012 Swiss veterinary annual meeting. MRSA isolates (n = 14) were detected in 3.8 % (95 % CI 2.1 - 6.3 %) of the participants whereas MRSP was not detected. Large animal practitioners were carriers of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398-t011-V (n = 2), ST398-t011-IV (n = 4), and ST398-t034-V (n = 1). On the other hand, participants working with small animals harbored human healthcare-associated MRSA (HCA-MRSA) which belonged to epidemic lineages ST225-t003-II (n = 2), ST225-t014-II (n = 1), ST5-t002-II (n = 2), ST5-t283-IV (n = 1), and ST88-t186-IV (n = 1). HCA-MRSA harbored virulence factors such as enterotoxins, β-hemolysin converting phage and leukocidins. None of the MRSA isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). In addition to the methicillin resistance gene mecA, LA-MRSA ST398 isolates generally contained additional antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to tetracycline [tet(M) and tet(K)], trimethoprim [dfrK, dfrG], and the aminoglycosides gentamicin and kanamycin [aac(6')-Ie - aph(2')-Ia]. On the other hand, HCA-MRSA ST5 and ST225 mainly contained genes conferring resistance to the macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics [erm(A)], to spectinomycin [ant(9)-Ia], amikacin and tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia], and to fluoroquinolones [amino acid substitutions in GrlA (S84L) and GyrA (S80F and S81P)]. MRSA carriage may represent an occupational risk and veterinarians should be aware of possible MRSA colonization and potential for developing infection or for transmitting these strains. Professional exposure to animals should be reported upon hospitalization and before medical

  18. Large screening of CA-MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus colonizing healthy young children living in two areas (urban and rural of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miragaia Maria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of pediatric infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA, including children with no identifiable risk factors, has increased worldwide in the last decade. This suggests that healthy children may constitute a reservoir of MRSA in the community. In this study, nested within a larger one on nasopharyngeal ecology, we aimed to: (i evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonizing young children in Portugal; and (ii compare results with those obtained in a study conducted a decade ago, when this prevalence was Methods In the years 2006, 2007, and 2009, nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 2,100 children aged up to 6 years attending day-care centers. S. aureus were isolated by routine procedures and strains were tested for susceptibility against a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents. MRSA isolates were further characterized by SmaI-PFGE profiling, MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and presence of virulence factors. Results Seventeen percent of the children carried S. aureus. Among the 365 isolates, non-susceptibility rates were 88% to penicillin, 14% to erythromycin, 6% to clindamycin, 2% to tetracycline, and spa type t148; the other was ST939-IVa (ST939 is a single locus variant (SLV of ST72, spa type t324. The third strain was related to USA300 (ST8-IV being characterized by ST931 (SLV of ST8-VI, spa type t008. The three MRSA strains were PVL-negative, but all carried LukE-LukD leukocidin, hemolysins gamma, gamma variant and beta, and staphylococcal enterotoxin sel. Conclusions Our results, based on analysis of S. aureus isolated from nasopharyngeal samples, suggest that in Portugal the prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage in healthy young children remains extremely low favoring the exclusion of this group as a reservoir of such isolates.

  19. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  20. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  1. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in organic pig herds in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondt, N.; Vijver, van de L.P.L.; Tulinski, P.; Mevius, D.; Verwer, C.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among conventional pig herds in the Netherlands is high (around 71%). Nevertheless, information about the prevalence of MRSA among organic pig herds is lacking. Here, we report a study on 24 of the 49 organic pig herds in the

  2. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at hospital admission in the Netherlands: the value of search and destroy and restrictive antibiotic use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Boelens, H.; Voss, A.; Broucke-Grauls, C.M. van den; Meester, M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Keulen, P.H. van; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, less than 1% of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus are methicillin-resistant (MRSA). A national search and destroy policy prevents MRSA from becoming endemic. Some MRSA outbreaks cannot be related to patients at risk for MRSA carriage. This study was designed to measure

  3. Cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission and infection in an intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Gidengil, CA; Gay, C; Huang, SS; Platt, R; Yokoe, D; Lee, GM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved. Objective. Tocreateanationalpolicymodeltoevaluatetheprojectedcost-effectivenessofmultiplehospital-basedstrategiestoprevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and infection Design. Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov microsimulation model that simulates the natural history of MRSA acquisition and infection Patients and Setting. Hypothetical cohort of 10,000 adult patients admi...

  4. Frequent isolation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 among healthy pigs in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Teresa; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Although livestock-associated ST398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been widely reported in different geographic regions, MRSA carriage studies among healthy pigs in Portugal are very limited. In total, 101 swine nasal samples from two Portuguese farms were screened for MRSA. In addition five swine workers (including one veterinary and one engineer) and four household members were nasally screened. The isolates were characterized by spa typing, SCCmec typing and MLST. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of mecA and mecC genes, and virulence determinants. MRSA prevalence in swine was 99% (100/101), 80% (4/5) in swine workers and 25% (1/4) in household members. All isolates belonged to ST398 distributed over two spa types-t011 (57%) and t108 (42%). SCCmec type V was present in most of the isolates (n = 95; 82%) while 21 isolates amplified the mecA gene only and were classified as nontypeable. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%), clindamycin (97%), erythromycin (96%), chloramphenicol (84%) and gentamycin (69%). Notably, 12% showed resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (MICs 3-8 μg/mL). Beta-hemolysin (81%) and gamma-hemolysin (74%) were the unique virulence determinants detected. None of the isolates harboured PVL or mecC gene. This study showed a massive occurrence of ST398-MRSA in two independent swine farms, highlighting its establishment among healthy pigs in Portugal.

  5. Frequent isolation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ST398 among healthy pigs in Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Conceição

    Full Text Available Although livestock-associated ST398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been widely reported in different geographic regions, MRSA carriage studies among healthy pigs in Portugal are very limited.In total, 101 swine nasal samples from two Portuguese farms were screened for MRSA. In addition five swine workers (including one veterinary and one engineer and four household members were nasally screened. The isolates were characterized by spa typing, SCCmec typing and MLST. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of mecA and mecC genes, and virulence determinants. MRSA prevalence in swine was 99% (100/101, 80% (4/5 in swine workers and 25% (1/4 in household members. All isolates belonged to ST398 distributed over two spa types-t011 (57% and t108 (42%. SCCmec type V was present in most of the isolates (n = 95; 82% while 21 isolates amplified the mecA gene only and were classified as nontypeable. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%, clindamycin (97%, erythromycin (96%, chloramphenicol (84% and gentamycin (69%. Notably, 12% showed resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (MICs 3-8 μg/mL. Beta-hemolysin (81% and gamma-hemolysin (74% were the unique virulence determinants detected. None of the isolates harboured PVL or mecC gene.This study showed a massive occurrence of ST398-MRSA in two independent swine farms, highlighting its establishment among healthy pigs in Portugal.

  6. CA-MRSA Infection Incidence and Care in High School and Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tim; Kahanov, Leamor; Dannelly, Kathleen; Lauber, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Position papers offer solutions to manage community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), yet few studies establish the infection rate, management protocols, and referral practices among student-athletes. Over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school years, we assessed the annual CA-MRSA infection incidence, sport risk, referral practices, and management steps among high school and intercollegiate athletics. This study targeted high school and intercollegiate athletic programs in the Northeastern United States. For the 2012-2013 study, 156 athletic trainers completed a one-time questionnaire. In the 2013-2014 study, 87 athletic trainers reported data bimonthly during the academic year. Each questionnaire targeted demographic information, physician-confirmed CA-MRSA infection occurrence, and management of CA-MRSA infections and bacterial skin lesions. The CA-MRSA infection incidence was 15.5 per 10,000 athletes (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-19) in 2012-2013 and 16.3 per 10,000 athletes (95% CI, 13-21) in 2013-2014. The CA-MRSA infection incidence was higher in wrestling and football compared to the general student-athlete population. During the 2012-2013 study, the wrestling incidence rate was 90.2 per 10,000 (95% CI, 62-132); the football incidence rate was 42.3 per 10,000 (95% CI, 31-59). In the 2013-2014 study, the wrestling incidence rate was 89.0 per 10,000 (95% CI, 50-158); the football incidence rate was 61.4 per 10,000 (95% CI, 42-90). In both studies, primary care and general physicians received over 60% (2012-2013: 60.5%, n = 133; 2013-2014: 66.5%, n = 125) of referrals. In the 2012-2013 study, respondents indicated that student-athlete isolation and setting decontamination were common management steps used (58.1%, n = 306). The incidence of CA-MRSA infections among student-athletes remains high. Therefore, it is critical that sports medicine providers continually reassess management protocols and best practices.

  7. Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen highly evolved as both a component of the commensal flora and as a major cause of invasive infection. Severe respiratory infection due to staphylococci has been increasing due to the prevalence of more virulent USA300 CA-MRSA strains in the general population. The ability of S. aureus to adapt to the milieu of the respiratory tract has facilitated its emergence as a respiratory pathogen. Its metabolic versatility, the ability to scavenge iron, coordinate gene expression, and the horizontal acquisition of useful genetic elements have all contributed to its success as a component of the respiratory flora, in hospitalized patients, as a complication of influenza and in normal hosts. The expression of surface adhesins facilitates its persistence in the airways. In addition, the highly sophisticated interactions of the multiple S. aureus virulence factors, particularly the α-hemolysin and protein A, with diverse immune effectors in the lung such as ADAM10, TNFR1, EGFR, immunoglobulin, and complement all contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:22037948

  8. Student self-screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization in hand hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Tia; Picardo, Kristin; Westbay, Theresa; Barnello, Amber; Fine, Lynn; Lavigne, Jill

    2014-09-15

    To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of adding a hand hygiene exercise in self-screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization to a health care delivery course for first-year pharmacy (P1) students. About one month after students were trained in hand hygiene technique and indications, faculty members demonstrated how to self-screen for MRSA nasal colonization. Students were then asked to screen themselves during the required class time. Aggregated class results were shared and compared to prevalence estimates for the general population and health care providers. The 71 students present in class on the day of the self-screening exercise chose to participate. A survey comparing presecreening and postscreening responses indicated incremental improvements in student knowledge and awareness of health care associated infections and motivation to perform hand hygiene. On the written exam, student performance demonstrated improved knowledge compared to previous class years. Self-screening for MRSA nasal colonization in a health care delivery course for P1 students increased students' motivation to perform hand hygiene techniques and follow indications promulgated by the World Health Organization.

  9. Hospital acquired outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection initiated by a health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Salima; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Boukadida, Jalel; Hammami, Samia; Ben Redjeb, Saïda

    2010-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an increasingly important pathogen leading to hospital acquired infections. This study was done to confirm an outbreak of MRSA suspected at Charles Nicolle Hospital. From 26 April to 11 June 2002, six patients hospitalized in the dermatologic ward at Charles Nicolle hospital of Tunisia have developed infections caused by MRSA. An investigation of the outbreak has been detected a nasal carriage nurse. This carrier received topical mupirocin treatment to decolonize the anterior nares and the outbreak was stopped without further incident. Typing of the MRSA strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis demonstrated the same pulsotype shared by all isolates showing that MRSA isolates belonged to a single clonal type responsible of outbreak. Colonized nurse was the source of MRSA dissemination. This report illustrates the risk of nosocomial outbreak linked to cares delivered by the staff personnel. More sensibilisation and the respect of strict hygienic measures should be emphasized.

  10. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections and nasal carriage at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital Center, Casablanca, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zriouil, Sanaâ Bouhali; Bekkali, Mohammed; Zerouali, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are a major problem in hospitals. The multidrug resistance and the nasal carriage of S. aureus play a key role in the epidemic of these infections. In this prospective study, 160 S. aureus strains were isolated from pathological samples of patients (79 cases) and nasal swabs (81) of cases and controls from January to July 2007. The susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, including cefoxitin, was determined by the agar diffusion method, and methicillin resistance was confirmed by amplifying the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was high in the burns (57.7%) and dermatology (39.4%) wards, and the MRSA strains isolated were extremely multi-resistant, but all of them were still susceptible to vancomycin. The rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was high in both cases and controls, in state, MRSA nasal carriage was more common among people infected with S. aureus.

  11. Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressly, Kalynn B; Hill, Emilie; Shah, Kairav J

    2016-05-10

    A 37-year-old woman with a history of type II diabetes and Crohn's disease, status postcholecystectomy, presented with a >2-week history of cramping abdominal pain, nausea, non-bloody/non-bilious emesis and, later, diarrhoea. A flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed, revealing that 'a segmental pseudomembrane was found from rectum to sigmoid colon'. Clostridium difficile PCR on the stool was repeated twice and resulted negative both times. A food history prior to onset of symptoms was consistent with Staphylococcal food poisoning and a stool culture was positive for heavy growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the absence of enteric flora. The patient was successfully treated with oral vancomycin. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. High frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with SCCmec type III and spa type t030 in Karaj's teaching hospitals, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Bahareh; Zade, Masoumeh Hallaj; Mansouri, Samaneh; Kalantar, Enayat; Kabir, Kourosh; Zahmatkesh, Ehsan; Sepehr, Mohammad Noori; Naseri, Mohammmad Hassan; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been one of the most important antibiotic-resistant pathogen in many parts of the world over the past decades. This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate MRSA isolated between July 2013 and July 2014 in Karaj, Iran. All tested isolates were collected in teaching hospitals from personnel, patients, and surfaces and each MRSA was analyzed by SCCmec and spa typing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was accomplished by disk diffusion method. Out of 49 MRSA isolates from the Karaj's teaching hospitals, 82%, 10%, and 6% of the isolates were SCCmec types III, II, and I, respectively. The main spa type in this study was spa t030 with frequency as high as 75.5% from intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospitals and high rate of resistance to rifampicin (53%) was found in MRSA isolates. In conclusion, high frequency of spa t030 with SCCmec type III and MRSA phenotype illustrated circulating of one of the antibiotic-resistant strains in ICU of Karaj's teaching hospitals and emphasizes the need for ongoing molecular surveillance, antibiotic susceptibility monitoring, and infection control.

  13. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surgically treated hand infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahara, Scott D; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections has been observed. The purpose of this study is to determine the change in proportion of surgically treated CA-MRSA hand infections over the last decade and to identify associated risk factors. A retrospective review was performed of all 159 hand infections treated in the operating room over an 11-year period (1997-2007). Mean age overall was 40 years, mean inpatient length of stay was 4.9 days, and 115 of the 159 patients were male. Examined data included known risk factors for MRSA, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, intravenous drug use, incarceration, and homelessness. Forty-eight patients had surgery for hand infections due to CA-MRSA. The yearly proportion of CA-MRSA increased over the study period, and the risk of having an MRSA infection was 41% higher with each progressive calendar year during the study period relative to the apparent incidence of non-MRSA hand infections. Other factors associated with CA-MRSA were intravenous drug use, felon-type infection, and prior hand infection. Multivariable logistic regression identified intravenous drug use as a significant, independent risk factor for CA-MRSA hand infection. The proportion of surgically treated hand infections due to CA-MRSA has increased during the last decade. Intravenous drug use was the only independent risk factor for CA-MRSA infections treated in the operating room at our institution. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Rising Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Thirumazhisi Sachithanandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections (MRSA in ENT diseases is becoming a big clinical concern. Here two patients are described who developed MRSA infections presented with unusual post-FESS epistaxis and postmastoidectomy perichondrial abscess and failed treatment with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Following treatment with oral linezolid combined with local mupirocin dressing both patients fully recovered.

  15. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-11-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance.

  16. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-01-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance. PMID:29113628

  17. Postoperative infection of an abdominal mesh due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Stephylococcus aureus (MRSA infection has now become a major problem in hospitals. We present a case of postoperative infection MRSA where the primary source of the infection was found to be an abdominal mesh that was used to reinforce the abdominal wall. After one year of surgery, the patient developed wound dehiscence and discharge. MRSA was isolated from the wound, mesh, external nares, throat and axilla. Initially she was started on clindamycin and discharged from the hospital. After 5 months, patient came back to the hospital with infection at the same site. The patient was then treated with vancomycin and MRSA clearance. She responded to the treatment with complete healing of the wound and clearance of MRSA.

  18. MRSA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Wittig

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Clin. North Am. 42:519-537. Socha AM, LaPlante KL, Rowley DC (2006). New bisanthraquinone antibiotics and semi-synthetic derivatives with potent activity against clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium isolates. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 14:8446-8454. Thiericke R, Stellwaag M, Zeeck A, ...

  19. Frequency and possible infection control implications of gastrointestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M; Havill, Nancy L; Maria, Benedicte

    2005-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of health care-associated infections. Multiple factors, including transmission from unrecognized reservoirs of MRSA, are responsible for failure to control the spread of MRSA. We conducted prospective surveillance to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal colonization with MRSA among patients and its possible impact on nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Stool specimens submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin A/B assays were routinely inoculated on colistin-naladixic acid agar plates, and S. aureus was identified by using standard methods. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by growth on oxacillin-salt screening agar. For patients whose stool yielded MRSA, information regarding any previous cultures positive for MRSA or other organisms that would require contact precautions was obtained from the laboratory's computer system. During a 1-year period, 151 (9.8%) of 1,543 patients who had one or more stool specimens screened had MRSA in their stool. Ninety-three (62%) of the 151 patients had no previous history of MRSA colonization or infection. Of these 93, 75 were inpatients. Sixty (80%) of the 75 inpatients with no previous history of MRSA were not under "contact precautions." The 60 patients would have spent an estimated total of 267 days without being placed under contact precautions if their positive stool cultures had not resulted in their being isolated. Placing patients under contact precautions based on their positive stool cultures prevented an estimated 35 episodes of MRSA transmission. We conclude that gastrointestinal colonization with MRSA may serve as an unrecognized reservoir from which transmission of MRSA may occur in health care facilities.

  20. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA. PMID:22942699

  1. Isojacareubin from the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum: potent antibacterial and synergistic effects on clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC(50)/MBC(50)) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI(50)) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log(10)CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistente (MRSA e Infecções Nosocomiais

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    CRISTINA PAIVA SOUSA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um número crescente de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente (MRSA apresentam resistência a múltiplos agentes antimicrobianos e são implicadas como causas de infecções hospitalares. S. aureus podem ser isolados de ambiente hospitalar e profissionais da saúde, revelando o risco de transmissão desses microrganismos pelo contato direto ou indireto com pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivou-se nesta revisão correlacionar este microrganismo com infecções hospitalares e avaliar as possíveis fontes de infecção, bem como enfatizar a importância do investimento em ações de educação em saúde que culminem em minimização de infecções hospitalares. Palavras-chave: Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente. Infecções nosocomiais.

  3. A new real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of the S. aureus/MRSA strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with the livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA are of great interest to scientists and general public. The aim of our study was to present a new more rapid and reliable diagnostic method working on the RT-PCR platform applicable for monitoring of MRSA/S. aureus. The parallel testing of the S. aureus specific nuc gene sequence and the mecA gene sequence was utilised for this purpose. A collection of ten S. aureus/MRSA reference strains, fifteen genetically related non S. aureus reference strains and fifty-six environmental samples was employed for estimation of the assay performance and parameters. The environmental samples acquired in the Czech livestock farms were represented with the livestock and human nasal mucosae or skin swabs, the slaughter meat swabs and were chosen preferentially from individuals with previously confi rmed or suspected positive MRSA/S. aureus cases. The classic selective cultivation approach with the biochemical test and agar disk diffusion test was accepted as reference diagnostic method. As there were no culture positive samples that were negative using RT-PCR, our method featured with 100% sensitivity in comparison to reference method. The limit of detection allowed to identify from tens to hundreds copies of S. aureus/MRSA genome. Further, the RT-PCR assay featured with 100% inclusivity and 95% exclusivity at Cq value below 30. These parameters suggested on powerful and reliable diagnostic method with real potential of practical utilisation. We consider our method as ideal for testing of individual suspected colonies, when the results can be acquired in less than 1.5 hour.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and hospitalization in high-risk patients in the year following detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Huang

    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections during single hospitalizations and subsequent readmissions to the same institution. None have assessed the comprehensive burden of MRSA infection in the period after hospital discharge while accounting for healthcare utilization across institutions.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients insured by Harvard Pilgrim Health Care who were newly-detected to harbor MRSA between January 1991 and December 2003 at a tertiary care medical center. We evaluated all MRSA-attributable infections associated with hospitalization in the year following new detection, regardless of hospital location. Data were collected on comorbidities, healthcare utilization, mortality and MRSA outcomes. Of 591 newly-detected MRSA carriers, 23% were colonized and 77% were infected upon detection. In the year following detection, 196 (33% patients developed 317 discrete and unrelated MRSA infections. The most common infections were pneumonia (34%, soft tissue (27%, and primary bloodstream (18% infections. Infections occurred a median of 56 days post-detection. Of all infections, 26% involved bacteremia, and 17% caused MRSA-attributable death. During the admission where MRSA was newly-detected, 14% (82/576 developed subsequent infection. Of those surviving to discharge, 24% (114/482 developed post-discharge infections in the year following detection. Half (99/185, 54% of post-discharge infections caused readmission, and most (104/185, 55% occurred over 90 days post-discharge.In high-risk tertiary care patients, newly-detected MRSA carriage confers large risks of infection and substantial attributable mortality in the year following acquisition. Most infections occur post-discharge, and 18% of infections associated with readmission occurred in hospitals other than the one where MRSA was newly-detected. Despite gains in reducing MRSA infections during hospitalization, the

  5. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Chao-Min Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; (2 Methods: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D proteomic analysis; (3 Results: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid–treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4 Conclusion: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research.

  6. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Min; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2016-07-07

    (1) BACKGROUND: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); (2) METHODS: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) proteomic analysis; (3) RESULTS: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid-treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4) CONCLUSION: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research.

  7. A Time Course for Susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus Respiratory Infection during Influenza in a Swine Model

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, ELIZABETH A.; Kumar, Sandeep R. P.; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Thomas E. Cecere; LeRoith, Tanya; McGilliard, Mike; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Mullarky, Isis Kanevsky

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial superinfections following influenza A virus (IAV) are predominant causes of morbidity in humans. The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and highly virulent IAV strains has reduced treatment options. Development of an appropriate animal model to study secondary S. aureus infections may provide important information regarding disease pathogenesis. Pigs are natural hosts to both IAV and S. aureus and have respiratory physiology and immune response co...

  8. Nationwide molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus responsible for horse infections in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, François; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Meignen, Pierrick; Delente, Géraldine; Fondrinier, Caroline; Bourdon, Nancy; Cattoir, Vincent; Léon, Albertine

    2017-05-03

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in horse infections is not well documented, especially in France. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA isolates in horse infections from 2007 to 2013 in France and to characterize phenotypically and genotypically this collection. Out of 1393 S. aureus horse isolates, 85 (6.1%) were confirmed to be MRSA. Interestingly, the prevalence of MRSA significantly increased from 2007-2009 to 2010-2013 (0.7 vs. 9.5%, P MRSA strains belonged mainly since not all belong to two sequence types (STs): ST398 (53/85, 62.4%) and ST8 (28/85, 32.9%). It is worth to note that all ST398 MRSA isolates were detected in the period 2010-2013. Other molecular typing methods were also used, such SCC mec analysis, spa typing and rep-PCR (Diversilab, bioMérieux). All these four techniques were in good agreement, with spa typing and rep-PCR being more discriminative than MLST and SCC mec typing. This study is the first epidemiological study in France with extensive characterization of MRSA isolates associated with horse infections in stud farms. It shows that there is a significant increase of MRSA prevalence between 2007 and 2013, which mainly results from the spread of ST398 clones. It also highlights the importance of horses as a potential reservoir of important antimicrobial resistance genes.

  9. Report - Antibacterial activity of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Younus, Adnan; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq

    2016-09-01

    Objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries and leaves against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using the standard disc diffusion method. Chloroform, n-hexane and aqueous extract of the plant parts were used. Doses of 2mg/ml, 4 mg/ml and 6mg/ml were tested against the microorganism, and the zone of inhibition was compared against the standard drug vancomycin. Results indicated that n-hexane and chloroform extracts of berries and n-hexane extract leaves showed significant (p<0.05) antibacterial activity comparable with vancomycin. It was concluded from the study that extracts berries and leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides have antibacterial activity against MRSA.

  10. A lean Six Sigma team increases hand hygiene compliance and reduces hospital-acquired MRSA infections by 51%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboneau, Clark; Benge, Eddie; Jaco, Mary T; Robinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A low hand hygiene compliance rate by healthcare workers increases hospital-acquired infections to patients. At Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque, New Mexico a Lean Six Sigma team identified the reasons for noncompliance were multifaceted. The team followed the DMAIC process and completed the methodology in 12 months. They implemented multiple solutions in the three areas: Education, Culture, and Environment. Based on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mortality research the team's results included an estimated 2.5 lives saved by reducing MRSA infections by 51%. Subsequently this 51% decrease in MRSA saved the hospital US$276,500. For those readers tasked with increasing hand hygiene compliance this article will provide the knowledge and insight needed to overcome multifaceted barriers to noncompliance.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and the oral cavity: an overlooked source of carriage and infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M G; Smith, A J; Akram, A N; Jackson, M; Robertson, D; Edwards, G

    2015-01-01

    The role of intraoral Staphylococcus aureus in disease and cross-infection sources is controversial. We present a 10-year retrospective analysis of laboratory data reporting isolation of S aureus from oral and perioral clinical specimens. A review of laboratory records for specimens where S aureus was isolated were collated and analyzed from January 1998-December 2007 at the Oral Microbiology Laboratory, Glasgow Dental Hospital. There were 11,312 specimens submitted to the laboratory over the study time period. S aureus was isolated from 1,986 specimens (18%). Of these, 1,782 (90%) were methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA), and 204 (10%) were methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). The most common specimen type from which MSSA was isolated was an oral rinse, whereas for MRSA this was a tongue swab. Most of the MRSA isolates were EMRSA-15 or EMRSA-16 lineage. These findings suggest that S aureus continues to be a frequent isolate in the oral cavity and perioral region. The oral cavity should be considered a source of S aureus in terms of cross-infection and dissemination to other body sites. The role of S aureus in the pathogenesis of certain oral diseases should also be considered as part of a differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk Factors for Infection Among Military Personnel in a Shipboard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer A; Maguire, Jason D; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R; Deiss, Robert G; Bryan, Coleman; Tisdale, Michele D; Crawford, Katrina; Ellis, Michael; Lalani, Tahaniyat

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important public health issue for the military. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in the shipboard setting. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the point prevalence of S. aureus colonization among military personnel onboard a naval vessel. Asymptomatic active duty personnel completed a survey for risk factors associated with colonization and SSTIs. Culture specimens were obtained from the anterior nares, pharynx, groin, and perirectal regions. MRSA isolates underwent testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type. 400 individuals were enrolled, 198 (49.5%) of whom were colonized with S. aureus, with MRSA identified in 14 participants (3.5%). No significant risk factors were associated with MRSA colonization. USA800 was the most common colonizing MRSA strain in the cohort and was detected in 10 participants (71%). Two participants (14%) were colonized with USA300 MRSA. In this first report of S. aureus epidemiology in a shipboard setting, we observed high rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization. Longitudinal studies are needed to document the incident rates of S. aureus colonization during shipboard deployment and its impact on SSTI risk. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Emergence of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Petersen, Andreas; Larsen, Anders R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (LA-MRSA CC398) is causing an increasing number of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in Denmark and other European countries with industrial pig production. Yet, its impact on MRSA bloodstream...... infections (BSIs) has not been well studied. Methods: We investigated the clinical epidemiology of all human cases of LA-MRSA CC398 BSI during 2010-2015. Cases of LA-MRSA CC398 BSI were compared to cases of BSI caused by other types of MRSA and cases of SSTI caused by LA-MRSA CC398. Whole-genome sequence...... analysis was used to assess the phylogenetic relationship among LA-MRSA CC398 isolates from Danish pigs and cases of BSI and SSTI. Results: The number of LA-MRSA CC398 BSIs and SSTIs increased over the years, peaking in 2014, when LA-MRSA CC398 accounted for 16% (7/44) and 21% (211/985) of all MRSA BSIs...

  14. Detección de meticilino-resistencia en Staphylococcus aureus: Comparación de métodos convencionales y aglutinación con mrsa-Screen latex Methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus aureus: Comparison between conventional methods and Mrsa-Screen latex agglutination technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soloaga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente (MRSA es un patógeno que ha emergido en las últimas cuatro décadas causando tanto infecciones nosocomiales como de la comunidad. La rápida y precisa detección de MRSA es relevante para guiar una apropiada terapia antibiótica y evitar la diseminación nosocomial de MRSA.En este trabajo se evaluó la eficiencia de métodos convencionales para la detección de meticilino-resistencia como difusión por discos, CIM en medio sólido, screening de oxacilina, y el nuevo test de aglutinación MRSA-Screen latex sobre 100 aislamientos de S. aureus, 79 mecA positivos y 21 mecA negativos. El test de aglutinación MRSA-Screen latex (Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japón detecta la presencia de la PLP-2a, producto del gen mecA en cepas de S. aureus. La detección del gen mecA por PCR se utilizó como gold standard para comparar los resultados de los diferentes métodos. La sensibilidad y especificidad fueron 97 y 100 % para el método de difusión, 97 y 95 % para la CIM en medio sólido, 100 y 100 % para el screening de oxacilina y 100 y 100 % para MRSA-Screen latex. Todos los métodos presentaron alta sensibilidad y especificidad, pero el “MRSA-Screen latex” mostró la ventaja de poder brindar un resultado confiable, equivalente a la PCR, en sólo 15 minutos.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a significant pathogen that has emerged over the last four decades, causing both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Rapid and accurate detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus is important for the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and for the control of nosocomial spread of MRSA strains. We evaluated the efficiency of conventional methods for detection of methicillin resistance such as the disk diffusion, agar dilution, oxacillin agar screen test, and the latex agglutination test MRSA-Screen latex, in 100 isolates of S. aureus, 79 mecA positive and 21 mecA negative. The MRSA

  15. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  16. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. THE POTENT OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF CASHEW (Anacardium occidentale L. AGAINST METHICILLIN-RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Nursanty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of antibiotics including misuse and overuse has aided natural bacterial evolution by helping the microbes become resistant such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The MRSA resistant in disease treatment with commonly used antibiotics needs new drug to treat patients. Traditional herb can be alternative treatment such as cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.. Antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of stem cashew with concentration 10%, 20% and 30% showed zone of inhibition between 17 -20 mm.

  18. Strict infection control leads to low incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Andreas F; Lakatos, Botond; Frei, Reno

    2015-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infection control (IC) approaches have been tested to control its spread; however, the success of the majority of trials has been short-lived and many efforts have failed. We report the long-term success of MRSA control from a prospective observational study over 20 years. University Hospital Basel is a large tertiary care center with a median bed capacity of 855 and 5 intensive care units (ICUs); currently, the facility has >32,000 admissions per year. The IC program at the University Hospital Basel was created in 1993, after 2 MRSA outbreaks. The program has included strict contact precautions with single rooms for MRSA-colonized or -infected patients, targeted admission screening of high-risk patients and healthcare workers at risk for carriage, molecular typing of all MRSA strains and routine decolonization of MRSA carriers including healthcare workers. We used the incidence of MRSA bloodstream infections (BSIs) to assess the effectiveness of this program. All MRSA cases were prospectively classified using a standardized case report form in nosocomial and nonnosocomial cases, based on CDC definitions. Between 1993 and 2012, 540,669 blood samples were cultured. The number of blood cultures increased from 865 per 10,000 patient days in 1993 to 1,568 per 10,000 patient days in 2012 (P<.001). We identified 1,268 episodes of S. aureus BSI from 1,204 patients. MRSA accounted for 34 episodes (2.7%) and 24 of these (1.9%) were nosocomial. MRSA BSI incidence varied between 0 and 0.27 per 10,000 patient days and remained stable with no significant variation throughout the study period (P=.882). Long-term control of MRSA is feasible when a bundle of IC precautions is strictly enforced over time.

  19. The Costs and Consequences of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Treatments in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Rosner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A multinational randomized controlled trial has shown a trend toward early discharge of patients taking oral linezolid versus intravenous vancomycin (IV in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Infection treatments resulting in shorter hospitalization durations are associated with cost savings from the hospital perspective.

  20. Strict Infection Control Leads to Low Incidence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection over 20 Years

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    Widmer, Andreas F; Lakatos, Botond; Frei, Reno

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infection control (IC) approaches have been tested to control its spread; however, the success of the majority of trials has been short-lived and many efforts have failed. We report the long-term success of MRSA control from a prospective observational study over 20 years. SETTING University Hospital Basel is a large tertiary care center with a median...

  1. Clinical and epidemiological factors associated with methicillin resistance in community-onset invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections: prospective multicenter cross-sectional study in Korea.

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    Eu Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Successful empirical therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infections requires the ability to predict methicillin resistance. Our aim was to identify predictors of methicillin resistance in community-onset (CO invasive S. aureus infections. Sixteen hospitals across Korea participated in this study from May to December 2012. We prospectively included cases of S. aureus infection in which S. aureus was isolated from sterile clinical specimens ≤ 72 hours after hospitalization. Clinical and epidemiological data were gathered and compared in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA cases. Community-associated (CA infections were defined as in previous studies. In total, there were 786 cases of community-onset S. aureus infection, 102 (13.0% of which were CA-MRSA. In addition to known risk factors, exposure to 3rd generation cephalosporins in the past 6 months [odds ratio (OR, 1.922; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.176-3.142] and close contact with chronically ill patients in the past month (OR, 2.647; 95% CI, 1.189-5.891 were independent risk factors for MRSA infection. However, no clinical predictors of CA-MRSA were identified. Methicillin resistance, CO infection, and appropriateness of empirical antibiotics were not significantly related to 30-day mortality. MRSA infection should be suspected in patients recently exposed to 3rd generation cephalosporins or chronically-ill patients. There were no reliable predictors of CA-MRSA infection, and mortality was not affected by methicillin resistance.

  2. Prevalence and characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus causing community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections on Java and Bali, Indonesia.

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    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Setijowati, Nanik; Rasyid, Harun A; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Suata, Ketut; Widhyatmoko, Dicky B; Purwono, Priyo B; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Damayanti, Damayanti; Prakoeswa, Cita R S; Laurens, Mitchell; van Nierop, Josephine W I; Nanninga, Geraldine L; Oudenes, Neline; de Regt, Michelle; Snijders, Susan V; Verbrugh, Henri A; Severin, Juliëtte A

    2018-01-01

    To define the role of Staphylococcus aureus in community settings among patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Indonesia. Staphylococcus aureus were cultured from anterior nares, throat and wounds of 567 ambulatory patients presenting with SSTI. The mecA gene and genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL; lukF-PV and lukS-PV) and exfoliative toxin (ET; eta and etb) were determined by PCR. Clonal relatedness among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and PVL-positive S. aureus was analysed using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for a subset of isolates. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) was determined for all MRSA isolates. Moreover, determinants for S. aureus SSTI, and PVL/ET-positive vs PVL/ET-negative S. aureus were assessed. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from SSTI wounds of 257 (45.3%) patients, eight (3.1%) of these were MRSA. Genes encoding PVL and ETs were detected in 21.8% and 17.5% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. PVL-positive MRSA was not detected. Nasopharyngeal S. aureus carriage was an independent determinant for S. aureus SSTI (odds ratio [OR] 1.8). Primary skin infection (OR 5.4) and previous antibiotic therapy (OR 3.5) were associated with PVL-positive MSSA. Primary skin infection (OR 2.2) was the only factor associated with ET-positive MSSA. MLVA typing revealed two more prevalent MSSA clusters. One ST1-MRSA-SCCmec type IV isolate and a cluster of ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III were found. Community-acquired SSTI in Indonesia was frequently caused by PVL-positive MSSA, and the hospital-associated ST239-MRSA may have spread from the hospital into the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Structure elucidation of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) flavonoids from balsam poplar buds.

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    Simard, François; Gauthier, Charles; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Pichette, André

    2016-09-15

    There is nowadays an urgent need for developing novel generations of antibiotic agents due to the increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria. As a rich reservoir of structurally diverse compounds, plant species hold promise in this regard. Within this framework, we isolated a unique series of antibacterial flavonoids, named balsacones N-U, featuring multiple cinnamyl chains on the flavan skeleton. The structures of these compounds, isolated as racemates, were determined using extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis in tandem with HRMS. Balsacones N-U along with previously isolated balsacones A-M were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several of the tested balsacones were potent anti-MRSA agents showing MIC values in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships study highlighted some important parameters involved in the antibacterial activity of balsacones such as the presence of cinnamyl and cinnamoyl chains at the C-3 and C-8 positions of the flavan skeleton, respectively. These results suggest that balsacones could represent a potential novel class of naturally occurring anti-MRSA agents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Activity of the Extracts and Neolignans from Piper regnellii against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained of the leaves from P. regnellii were investigated for their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against MRSA, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 16 μg/mL. Based on this finding, the ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane fraction was active against MRSA (MIC at 4 μg/mL. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compound eupomatenoid-5. The structure of the compound was established by spectral data (1H and 13C NMR HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS. Eupomatenoid-5 was the only compound active on the bacterium. The antibacterial property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. The active compound eupomatenoid-5 should be further studied in animal models to verify in vivo efficacy and toxicity.

  5. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) along the production chain of dairy products in north-western Greece.

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    Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Zdragas, Antonios; Papa, Anna; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Sergelidis, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the production chain of dairy products. Of 367 tested samples (36 bulk tank milk (BTM), 19 dairy products, 72 human, 185 animal, 55 equipment), 212 (57.8%) were found positive for S. aureus. Almost all isolates (99.6%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 13.3% were multi-drug resistant (MDR), exhibiting resistance to three or more antibiotic classes. Eleven samples (3%) were found contaminated by MRSA carrying the mecA gene. None of the MRSA isolates carried the mecC or the Pandon-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes. Four spa types were identified among the MRSA isolates: t127, t3586, t1773, t4038, with t127 being the most prevalent (7 out of 11). Two of them, t3586 and t1773, were isolated for the first time in Greece. Furthermore, Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis indicated clonal circulation through the dairy production chain. The presence of MDR S. aureus, and especially MRSA, in animals and dairy products represents a potential threat for the spread of this pathogen in the community. The results indicated that human, animal and environmental sources could be involved in the contamination of dairy products along their production chain and therefore further investigation of contamination sources is needed to control the dispersion of MRSA in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergism of coumarins from the Chinese drug Zanthoxylum nitidum with antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

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    Zuo, Guo-Ying; Wang, Chun-Juan; Han, Jun; Li, Yu-Qing; Wang, Gen-Chun

    2016-12-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (Rutaceae) extracts, focusing on their potential restoration the activity of conventional antibacterial agents against clinical MRSA strains. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and spectral analyses were used to isolate the coumarins and identify the structures, respectively. The double broth microdilution method was used to assay the coumarins' alone activity. The classic checkerboard microdilution and dynamic time-killing methods were used to evaluate combinatory effects. The four plant coumarins Gm (1), Ar (2), Is (3) and Ph (4) were isolated and identified from Z. nitidum extracts. Coumarins 1-4 displayed promising inhibition against both MSSA and MRSA with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-64µg/ml, but very weak against Gram-negative pathogen and yeast with MICs of 256 to ≥1024µg/ml. The geranyloxy and prenyloxy substitutions showed to be more active than the methoxy substitution on the coumarin skeletons. 1-4 also showing different extent of synergism with a total of eight conventional antibacterial agents, i.e. chloramphenicol (CL), gentamicin (CN), fosfomycin (FF), levofloxacin (LE), minocycline (MI), piperacillin/tazobactam (P/T), teicoplanin (TE) and vancomycin (VA) against ten clinical MRSA strains. Four to ten of the tested MRSA strains showed bacteriostatic synergy in the eleven combinations. The anti-MRSA modifying effects were related to different arrangement in the combinations with fractional inhibitory concentration indices

  7. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and soft tissue infection among high school football players.

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    Lear, Aaron; McCord, Gary; Peiffer, Jeffrey; Watkins, Richard R; Parikh, Arpan; Warrington, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections have been documented with increasing frequency in both team and individual sports in recent years. It also seems that the level of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections in the general population has increased. One hundred ninety athletes from 6 local high school football teams were recruited for this prospective observational study to document nasal colonization and the potential role this plays in skin and soft tissue infections in football players and, in particular, MRSA infections. Athletes had nasal swabs done before their season started, and they filled out questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for skin and soft tissue infections. Those enrolled in the study were then observed over the course of the season for skin and soft tissue infections. Those infected had data about their infections collected. One hundred ninety of 386 available student athletes enrolled in the study. Forty-four of the subjects had nasal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none were colonized with MRSA. There were 10 skin and soft tissue infections (8 bacterial and 2 fungal) documented over the course of the season. All were treated as outpatients with oral or topical antibiotics, and none were considered serious. Survey data from the preseason questionnaire showed 21% with skin infection, 11% with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none with MRSA infection during the past year. Three reported a remote history of MRSA infection. We documented an overall skin infection rate of 5.3% among high school football players over a single season. Our results suggest that skin and soft tissue infection may not be widespread among high school athletes in northeast Ohio.

  8. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Rectovaginal Colonization in Pregnant Women and Risk for Maternal and Neonatal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Karina A; Buet, Amanda; Whittier, Susan; Ratner, Adam J; Saiman, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are increasing among pregnant and postpartum women and neonates, but risk factors for S. aureus colonization in pregnancy and the association between maternal colonization and infant infections are not well defined. We sought to identify risk factors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization and assess colonization as a risk factor for infections among mothers and infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants. Demographic and clinical data, including S. aureus infections that occurred in mothers from 3 months before to 3 months after delivery and in infants during the first 3 months of life, were extracted from electronic medical records. Predictors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization were assessed through multivariable logistic regression analysis. The cohort included 2702 women and 2789 infants. The prevalence of maternal rectovaginal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 13% and 0.7%. Independent predictors of colonization included multigravidity, human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, and group B Streptococcus colonization. S. aureus colonization was associated with an increased risk of infection in mothers (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.8) but not in their infants (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, .6-5.6). The frequency of S. aureus infections was 0.8% in mothers and 0.7% in infants. S. aureus rectovaginal colonization was associated with an increased risk of infections in women but not in their infants. The frequency of MRSA infections was low. These data suggest that routine MRSA screening of pregnant women may not be indicated. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

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    Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion healthy people carry Staphylococcus aureus (SA and of these, up to 53 million are thought to carry methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA. MRSA bacteremia patients are more critical to manage and timely introduction of antibiotics is life-saving. The aim of the study was to elucidate the prevalence of MRSA bacteremia in different units of Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura (THA, Sri Lanka and assess the clinical characteristics and associated mortality related to timely introduction of vancomycin therapy. Materials and Methods: The data on MRSA bacteremia which were obtained from THA, for the period of March 2012 to December 2013 were statically analyzed emphasizing the unit-wise prevalence, severity, and comorbidity and timely introduction of vancomycin therapy. Results: The laboratory records of total 13,260 blood cultures were analyzed. Of those, MRSA bacteremia was detected in 61 cultures (9.3%. The highest prevalence of MRSA bacteremia was observed in the nephrology unit. The survival rate of the patients when the vancomycin therapy started before 24 h of receiving the blood culture report was 94.9% and in the instances of the treatment started after 24 h of blood culture report, the survival rate decreased down to 50%. High Pitt Bacteraemia score (PBS (p<0.05 and initiation of vancomycin therapy after 24 h following the receipt of blood culture report (p<0.05 independently affected the MRSA bacteremic patient’s 7th day mortality. Having comorbidities have not shown significant impact on 7th day mortality. Conclusion: The start of vancomycin therapy as earlier as possible following arrival of antibacterial susceptibility test reduces the likelihood of mortality.

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones with high-level mupirocin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, María; Seral, Cristina; Potel, Carmen; Sáenz, Yolanda; Álvarez, Maximiliano; Torres, Carmen; Castillo, Francisco Javier

    2016-06-01

    A high proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered in one year period showed high-level mupirocin-resistance (HLMUPR-MRSA) in our environment (27.2%). HLMUPR-MRSA isolates were mainly collected from skin and soft tissue samples, and diabetes was the main related comorbidity condition. These isolates were more frequently found in vascular surgery. HLMUPR-MRSA was more resistant to aminoglycosides than mupirocin-susceptible MRSA, linked to the presence of bifunctional and/or nucleotidyltransferase enzymes with/without macrolide resistance associated with the msr(A) gene. Most of HLMUPR-MRSA isolates belonged to ST125/t067. Nine IS257-ileS2 amplification patterns (p3 was the most frequent) were observed in HLMUPR-MRSA isolates, suggesting the presence of several mupirocin-resistance-carrying plasmids in our environment and promoting the emergence of mupirocin resistance. The presence of the same IS257-ileS2 amplification pattern p3 in 65% of HLMUPR-MRSA, all of them ST125/t067, suggests a clonal spread in our hospital and community environment which could explain the high prevalence of HLMUPR-MRSA during the study period. An outbreak situation or an increase in mupirocin consumption was not observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diabetic Foot Infections in a Large Academic Hospital: Implications for Antimicrobial Stewardship.

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    Kelly R Reveles

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot infections (DFIs are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed. We sought to 1 describe the prevalence of MRSA DFIs at our institution and compare to the proportion of patients who receive MRSA antibiotic coverage and 2 identify risk factors for MRSA DFI.This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult, culture-positive DFI patients managed at University Hospital, San Antonio, TX between January 1, 2010 and September 1, 2014. Patient eligibility included a principal ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code for foot infection and a secondary diagnosis of diabetes. The primary outcome was MRSA identified in the wound culture. Independent variables assessed included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior hospitalization, DFI therapies, prior antibiotics, prior MRSA infection, and laboratory values. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for MRSA DFI.Overall, 318 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were predominantly Hispanic (79% and male (69%. Common comorbidities included hypertension (76%, dyslipidemia (52%, and obesity (49%. S. aureus was present in 46% of culture-positive DFIs (MRSA, 15%. A total of 273 patients (86% received MRSA antibiotic coverage, resulting in 71% unnecessary use. Male gender (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.37-7.99 and bone involvement (OR 1.93, 1.00-3.78 were found to be independent risk factors for MRSA DFI.Although MRSA was the causative pathogen in a small number of DFI, antibiotic coverage targeted against MRSA was unnecessarily high.

  12. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Adam; Holt, Deborah; Ritika, Roselyn; Southwell, Paul; Pravin, Shalini; Buadromo, Eka; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew

    2014-03-24

    There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S. argenteus) were found in Fiji.From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji.

  13. Concentration of airborne Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA), total bacteria, and endotoxins in pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frederic G; Sakwinska, Olga; Charrière, Nicole; Semaani, Eulalia; Oppliger, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Pigs are very often colonized by Staphylococcus aureus and transmission of such pig-associated S. aureus to humans can cause serious medical, hygiene, and economic problems. The transmission route of zoonotic pathogens colonizing farm animals to humans is not well established and bioaerosols could play an important role. The aim of this study was to assess the potential occupational risk of working with S. aureus-colonized pigs in Switzerland. We estimated the airborne contamination by S. aureus in 37 pig farms (20 nursery and 17 fattening units; 25 in summer, 12 in winter). Quantification of total airborne bacterial DNA, airborne Staphylococcus sp. DNA, fungi, and airborne endotoxins was also performed. In this experiment, the presence of cultivable airborne methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 in a pig farm in Switzerland was reported for the first time. Airborne methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was found in ~30% of farms. The average airborne concentration of DNA copy number of total bacteria and Staphylococcus sp. measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction was very high, respectively reaching values of 75 (± 28) × 10(7) and 35 (± 9.8) × 10(5) copy numbers m(-3) in summer and 96 (± 19) × 10(8) and 40 (± 12) × 10(6) copy numbers m(-3) in winter. Total mean airborne concentrations of endotoxins (1298 units of endotoxin m(-3)) and fungi (5707 colony-forming units m(-3)) exceeded the Swiss recommended values and were higher in winter than in summer. In conclusion, Swiss pig farmers will have to tackle a new emerging occupational risk, which could also have a strong impact on public health. The need to inform pig farmers about biological occupational risks is therefore crucial.

  14. Studying the time trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway by use of non-stationary γ-Poisson distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Moen, Aina E Fossum; Leegaard, Truls Michael

    2015-10-05

    Study the time development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and forecast future behaviour. The major question: Is the number of MRSA isolates in Norway increasing and will it continue to increase? Time trend analysis using non-stationary γ-Poisson distributions. Two data sets were analysed. The first data set (data set I) consists of all MRSA isolates collected in Oslo County from 1997 to 2010; the study area includes the Norwegian capital of Oslo and nearby surrounding areas, covering approximately 11% of the Norwegian population. The second data set (data set II) consists of all MRSA isolates collected in Health Region East from 2002 to 2011. Health Region East consists of Oslo County and four neighbouring counties, and is the most populated area of Norway. Both data sets I and II consist of all persons in the area and time period described in the Settings, from whom MRSA have been isolated. MRSA infections have been mandatory notifiable in Norway since 1995, and MRSA colonisation since 2004. In the time period studied, all bacterial samples in Norway have been sent to a medical microbiological laboratory at the regional hospital for testing. In collaboration with the regional hospitals in five counties, we have collected all MRSA findings in the South-Eastern part of Norway over long time periods. On an average, a linear or exponential increase in MRSA numbers was observed in the data sets. A Poisson process with increasing intensity did not capture the dispersion of the time series, but a γ-Poisson process showed good agreement and captured the overdispersion. The numerical model showed numerical internal consistency. In the present study, we find that the number of MRSA isolates is increasing in the most populated area of Norway during the time period studied. We also forecast a continuous increase until the year 2017. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  15. A combination of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light enhances the antibacterial efficacy of ineffective antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Fatma Elzahraa; El-Tayeb, Tarek; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; El-Azizi, Mohamed

    2016-08-17

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are potential antimicrobials agents, which can be considered as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. The antimicrobial effects of double and triple combinations of AgNPs, visible blue light, and the conventional antibiotics amoxicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, linezolid, and vancomycin, against ten clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs, applied in combination with blue light, against selected isolates of MRSA was investigated at 1/2-1/128 of its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in 24-well plates. The wells were exposed to blue light source at 460 nm and 250 mW for 1 h using a photon emitting diode. Samples were taken at different time intervals, and viable bacterial counts were determined. The double combinations of AgNPs and each of the antibiotics were assessed by the checkerboard method. The killing assay was used to test possible synergistic effects when blue light was further combined to AgNPs and each antibiotic at a time against selected isolates of MRSA. The bactericidal activity of AgNPs, at sub-MIC, and blue light was significantly (p MRSA isolates was significantly enhanced in triple combinations of AgNPs, blue light and antibiotic, compared to treatments involving one or two agents. The bactericidal activities were highest when azithromycin or clarithromycin was included in the triple therapy compared to the other antibiotics tested. A new strategy can be used to combat serious infections caused by MRSA by combining AgNPs, blue light, and antibiotics. This triple therapy may include antibiotics, which have been proven to be ineffective against MRSA. The suggested approach would be useful to face the fast-growing drug-resistance with the slow development of new antimicrobial agents, and to preserve last resort antibiotics such as vancomycin.

  16. Detection of mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI in diseased European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus in Sweden.

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    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel mec gene conferring beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has been discovered. This gene, mecC, is situated on a SCCmec XI element that has to date been identified in clonal complexes 49, 130, 425, 599 and 1943. Some of the currently known isolates have been identified from animals. This, and observations of mecA alleles that do not confer beta-lactam resistance, indicate that mec genes might have a reservoir in Staphylococcus species from animals. Thus it is important also to screen wildlife isolates for mec genes. Here, we describe mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ST130-MRSA-XI and the lesions related to the infection in two diseased free-ranging European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus. One was found dead in 2003 in central Sweden, and suffered from S. aureus septicaemia. The other one, found on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea in 2011, showed a severe dermatitis and was euthanised. ST130-MRSA-XI isolates were isolated from lesions from both hedgehogs and were essentially identical to previously described isolates from humans. Both isolates carried the complete SCCmec XI element. They lacked the lukF-PV/lukS-PV and lukM/lukF-P83 genes, but harboured a gene for an exfoliative toxin homologue previously described from Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and other S. aureus of the CC130 lineage. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of CC130-MRSA-XI in hedgehogs. Given that one of the samples was taken as early as 2003, this was the earliest detection of this strain and of mecC in Sweden. This and several other recent observations suggest that CC130 might be a zoonotic lineage of S. aureus and that SCCmec XI/mecC may have originated from animal pathogens.

  17. Detection of mecC-Positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI) in Diseased European Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Lazaris, Alexandros; Coleman, David C.; Shore, Anna C.; Ehricht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a novel mec gene conferring beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has been discovered. This gene, mecC, is situated on a SCCmec XI element that has to date been identified in clonal complexes 49, 130, 425, 599 and 1943. Some of the currently known isolates have been identified from animals. This, and observations of mecA alleles that do not confer beta-lactam resistance, indicate that mec genes might have a reservoir in Staphylococcus species from animals. Thus it is important also to screen wildlife isolates for mec genes. Here, we describe mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ST130-MRSA-XI) and the lesions related to the infection in two diseased free-ranging European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). One was found dead in 2003 in central Sweden, and suffered from S. aureus septicaemia. The other one, found on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea in 2011, showed a severe dermatitis and was euthanised. ST130-MRSA-XI isolates were isolated from lesions from both hedgehogs and were essentially identical to previously described isolates from humans. Both isolates carried the complete SCCmec XI element. They lacked the lukF-PV/lukS-PV and lukM/lukF-P83 genes, but harboured a gene for an exfoliative toxin homologue previously described from Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and other S. aureus of the CC130 lineage. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of CC130-MRSA-XI in hedgehogs. Given that one of the samples was taken as early as 2003, this was the earliest detection of this strain and of mecC in Sweden. This and several other recent observations suggest that CC130 might be a zoonotic lineage of S. aureus and that SCCmec XI/mecC may have originated from animal pathogens. PMID:23776626

  18. Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats

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    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8% in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41% in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2% was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%. Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4% and organic chicken samples (41%. Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8% were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken and USA 500 (from organic chicken which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S

  19. Molecular epidemiology of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, A; Parizade, M; Taran, D; Jaber, H; Berla, E; Rubin, C; Rahav, G; Glikman, D; Regev-Yochay, G

    2015-08-01

    Data on community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Israel are scarce. The objective of this study was to characterize the major CA-MRSA clones in Israel. All clinical MRSA isolates detected in the community during a period of 2.5 years (2011-2013) from individuals insured by a major health maintenance organization in Israel were collected, with additional data from medical records. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing were determined. SCCmec IV and V isolates were further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and detection of a panel of toxin genes. MRSA were detected in 280 patients, mostly from skin infections. Patients with SCCmec IV (n = 120, 43 %) were younger (p Israel, approximately 20 % are typical CA-MRSA clones, mainly USA300 and a local clone, t991.

  20. Chlorhexidine whole-body washing of patients reduces methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and has a direct effect on the distribution of the ST5-MRSA-II (New York/Japan) clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Meza, Maria Elena; Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Echániz-Aviles, Gabriela; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Valero-Moreno, Vanessa; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes the skin of hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To prevent colonization and infection by S. aureus, better disinfection practices are required. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine whole-body washing on hospital-acquired S. aureus infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. The study was conducted over 18 months to evaluate the effect of 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate (CXG) whole-body washing of ICU adult patients on chlorhexidine and antibiotic resistance, biofilm production and clonal distribution of S. aureus in a tertiary care hospital. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for CXG, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production by S. aureus isolates were determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) were used for molecular typing of MRSA isolates.Results/Key findings. We included 158 isolates. A reduction in antibiotic resistance in the study period was observed for clindamycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, oxacillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. None of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility to CXG. Most of the isolates were non-biofilm producers (147/158). The most commonly identified clone was a descendant of the ST5-MRSA-II (New York/Japan) clone. This clone decreased during the intervention period and reappeared markedly in the post-intervention period. During the post-intervention period, two isolates were related with the clone ST8-MRSA-IV (also known as USA300). Our findings suggest that the CXG bathing favored the reduction of healthcare-associated MRSA isolates and a temporary reduction of the predominant ST5-MRSA-II (New York/Japan) clone.

  1. Spread of epidemic MRSA-ST5-IV clone encoding PVL as a major cause of community onset staphylococcal infections in Argentinean children.

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    Claudia Sola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-(CA-MRSA strains have emerged in Argentina. We investigated the clinical and molecular evolution of community-onset MRSA infections (CO-MRSA in children of Córdoba, Argentina, 2005-2008. Additionally, data from 2007 were compared with the epidemiology of these infections in other regions of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two datasets were used: i lab-based prospective surveillance of CA-MRSA isolates from 3 Córdoba pediatric hospitals-(CBAH1-H3 in 2007-2008 (compared to previously published data of 2005 and ii a sampling of CO-MRSA from a study involving both, healthcare-associated community-onset-(HACO infections in children with risk-factors for healthcare-associated infections-(HRFs, and CA-MRSA infections in patients without HRFs detected in multiple centers of Argentina in 2007. Molecular typing was performed on the CA-MRSA-(n: 99 isolates from the CBAH1-H3-dataset and on the HACO-MRSA-(n: 51 and CA-MRSA-(n: 213 isolates from other regions. Between 2005-2008, the annual proportion of CA-MRSA/CA-S. aureus in Córdoba hospitals increased from 25% to 49%, P<0.01. Total CA-MRSA infections increased 3.6 fold-(5.1 to 18.6 cases/100,000 annual-visits, P<0.0001, associated with an important increase of invasive CA-MRSA infections-(8.5 fold. In all regions analyzed, a single genotype prevailed in both CA-MRSA (82% and HACO-MRSA(57%, which showed pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis-(PFGE-type-"I", sequence-type-5-(ST5, SCCmec-type-IVa, spa-t311, and was positive for PVL. The second clone, pulsotype-N/ST30/CC30/SCCmecIVc/t019/PVL(+, accounted for 11.5% of total CA-MRSA infections. Importantly, the first 4 isolates of Argentina belonging to South American-USA300 clone-(USA300/ST8/CC8/SCCmecIVc/t008/PVL(+/ACME(- were detected. We also demonstrated that a HA-MRSA clone-(pulsotype-C/ST100/CC5 caused 2% and 10% of CA-MRSA and HACO-MRSA infections respectively and was

  2. Spread of Epidemic MRSA-ST5-IV Clone Encoding PVL as a Major Cause of Community Onset Staphylococcal Infections in Argentinean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Claudia; Egea, Ana L.; Moyano, Alejandro J.; Garnero, Analia; Kevric, Ines; Culasso, Catalina; Vindel, Ana; Lopardo, Horacio; Bocco, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-(CA-MRSA) strains have emerged in Argentina. We investigated the clinical and molecular evolution of community-onset MRSA infections (CO-MRSA) in children of Córdoba, Argentina, 2005–2008. Additionally, data from 2007 were compared with the epidemiology of these infections in other regions of the country. Methodology/Principal Findings Two datasets were used: i) lab-based prospective surveillance of CA-MRSA isolates from 3 Córdoba pediatric hospitals-(CBAH1-H3) in 2007–2008 (compared to previously published data of 2005) and ii) a sampling of CO-MRSA from a study involving both, healthcare-associated community-onset-(HACO) infections in children with risk-factors for healthcare-associated infections-(HRFs), and CA-MRSA infections in patients without HRFs detected in multiple centers of Argentina in 2007. Molecular typing was performed on the CA-MRSA-(n: 99) isolates from the CBAH1-H3-dataset and on the HACO-MRSA-(n: 51) and CA-MRSA-(n: 213) isolates from other regions. Between 2005–2008, the annual proportion of CA-MRSA/CA-S. aureus in Córdoba hospitals increased from 25% to 49%, P<0.01. Total CA-MRSA infections increased 3.6 fold-(5.1 to 18.6 cases/100,000 annual-visits, P<0.0001), associated with an important increase of invasive CA-MRSA infections-(8.5 fold). In all regions analyzed, a single genotype prevailed in both CA-MRSA (82%) and HACO-MRSA(57%), which showed pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis-(PFGE)-type-“I”, sequence-type-5-(ST5), SCCmec-type-IVa, spa-t311, and was positive for PVL. The second clone, pulsotype-N/ST30/CC30/SCCmecIVc/t019/PVL+, accounted for 11.5% of total CA-MRSA infections. Importantly, the first 4 isolates of Argentina belonging to South American-USA300 clone-(USA300/ST8/CC8/SCCmecIVc/t008/PVL+/ACME−) were detected. We also demonstrated that a HA-MRSA clone-(pulsotype-C/ST100/CC5) caused 2% and 10% of CA-MRSA and HACO-MRSA infections respectively

  3. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs

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    Zhang Xue-qing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, is an important cause of pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. The aim of present study is to investigate the molecular characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus isolates isolated from the pus samples from the patients with purulent skin and soft tissue infections in Wenzhou, China. Methods Between December 2002 and June 2008, a total of 111 nonduplicate S. aureus isolates were collected from the pus samples of the patients with SSTIs in a teaching hospital in Wenzhou, China. All the tested isolates were confirmed as S. aureus using a Staph SPA agglutination kit, Gram's stain and a Vitek-60 microbiology analyzer. The homology among the tested isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was used to determine the sequence types (STs of the selected isolates. The genotypes of SCCmec were determined by a multiplex PCR in the MRSA isolates. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes and mecA were also determined by another multiplex PCR. Results Among the 111 S. aureus isolates, 48 and 63 isolates were community-acquired and hospital-acquired respectively. Sixty isolates were confirmed as MRSA harboring mecA detected by PCR. A total of 32 PFGE clonal types were obtained by PFGE, with 10 predominant patterns (types A to J. Twenty-five different STs including ST398 and three novel STs were found among 51 selected isolates. The main STs were ST239, ST1018, ST59, ST7 and ST88. Of 60 MRSA isolates, SCCmec II, III, IV and SCCmec V were found in three, 50, three and two isolates, respectively. The positive rates of PVL genes in overall isolates, HA-isolates, CA-isolates, MRSA isolates and MSSA isolates were 23.4% (26/111, 20.6% (13/63, 27.1% (13/48, 21.7% (13/60 and 25.5% (13/51, respectively. Eight (33.3%, 8/24 of 24 CA-MRSA isolates and 5 (13.9%, 5/36 of 36 HA-MRSA isolates were positive for PVL genes

  4. Zinc resistance within swine associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in the USA is associated with MLST lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, on the type V SCCmec element. Since the czrC gene and the mecA gene are co-located on the SCCmec element, it has ...

  5. [MRSA-infections-treatment with intraoperatively produced gentamycin-vancomycin PMMA beads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, J; Anagnostakos, K; Regitz, T; Schmitt, E; Schneider, G; Ahlhelm, F

    2004-10-01

    We present gentamicin-vancomycin-impregnated beads that can be produced intraoperatively in moulds and demonstrated their successful use in ten cases of problematic Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. To produce the antibiotically loaded PMMA beads, a two-part mould of polyoxymethylene was used. The mixture of PMMA and antibiotic is poured into the mould halves, and during polymerisation the halves bond together. The in vivo antibiotic concentrations of wound secretion from the redon drainage were measured by fluorescence-polarisation immunoassay, and a concentration/time function was determined. The PMMA beads (2 g of vancomycin plus 0.5 g of gentamicin plus 40 g of PMMA) were implanted in ten patients aged 41-76 years. In all ten patients, the infection was cured (follow-up 15 months). The combination of gentamicin and vancomycin in the PMMA of standardised beads represents a good alternative in the treatment of MRSA infections. Understanding of the mechanism of antibiotic release from PMMA allows differentiated dosing during systemic application.

  6. [Guidelines for the treatment on infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensa, J; Barberán, J; Llinares, P; Picazo, Jj; Bouza, E; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Borges, M; Serrano, R; León, C; Guirao, X; Arias, J; Carreras, E; Sanz, Ma; García-Rodríguez, Ja

    2008-12-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have undergone important changes in the last five years that have influenced the choice of therapy: i) increase of their frequency in hospital-associated settings and, more recently, in community settings; ii) better knowledge of clinical implications of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of vancomycin; iii) improvement of current standard methods for rapid detection of MRSA in clinical samples; iv) clear evidence that vancomycin is losing efficacy against MRSA with MIC > 1 microg/mL; and v) appearance of new antibiotics suitable for use in these infections (linezolid, daptomycin, tigecyclin). Under this situation guidelines for the treatment of common infections caused by MRSA appear to be necessary to improve the efficacy and reduce the mortality.

  7. Clinical outcomes of osteomyelitis patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA-300 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrani, P; Allen, M; Seligson, D; Roberts, C; Chen, A; Haque, N; Zervos, M; Wiemken, T; Harting, J; Christensen, D; Ramirez, R

    2012-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA-300 strains have emerged as an important cause of community-acquired infections. These strains have been recognized as an etiology of osteomyelitis but data on their incidence and outcomes are limited. We retrospectively studied the incidence and clinical outcomes of MRSA USA-300 osteomyelitis in patients at the University of Louisville Hospital and the Henry Ford Health System between January 2007 and March 2008. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine USA type. Clinical outcomes were defined as management success versus failure at 12 months. Chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare patient characteristics on the basis of clinical outcomes and USA type. Of the 50 patients with MRSA osteomyelitis, 27 (54%) had the USA-300 strain. Clinical failure was identified in 22% (6/27) of the patients with MRSA USA-300 and in 30% (7/23) of the patients with MRSA non-USA-300 osteomyelitis (P = .509). Our results showed that MRSA USA-300 is a significant etiology of MRSA osteomyelitis. With current surgical and medical management, outcomes of patients with MRSA USA-300 osteomyelitis are similar to those of patients with MRSA non-USA-300 osteomyelitis.

  8. Treatment of localized abscesses induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using MRgFUS: First in vivo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Birgit; Curiel, Laura; Mougenot, Charles; Zhang, Kunyan; Pichardo, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    Background. In the present work we study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on localized abscess induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen in health-care facilities. The people, particularly those who are immunocompromised are prone to develop infectious sites that often are non-responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity to propose a new therapy for MRSA-related infections. Methods. A 50μL subcutaneous injection of MRSA strain USA 400 bacteria at a concentration of 7×103/μL was made on the left thigh of BALB/c mice and an abscess of 6±2 mm-length formed after 48hrs. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50mm and diameter of 32mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection 4 ultrasound exposures of 9s-each were applied to each abscess under Magnetic Resonance-guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed in our laboratory. Three experimental groups of 6 animals each were tested: moderate temperature (MT), high temperature (HT) and control. MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 55°C and 65°C at end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by culturing bacteria of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Spleen samples were cultured to test for septicemia. Results. Macroscopic evaluation of treated abscess indicated a diminution of external size of abscess 1d after treatment. Treatment did not cause open wounds. Bacteria counting 1 day after treatment was 0.7±1.1 × 105, 0.5±0.7 × 105 and 1.1±2.3 × 105 CFU/μl for MT, HT and control groups, respectively; for the 4-day end point, the count was 0.6±0.6

  9. Two distinct clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the same USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile: a potential pitfall for identification of USA300 community-associated MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Rhod; Goering, Richard; Stegger, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) characterized as USA300 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified two distinct clones. One was similar to community-associated USA300 MRSA (ST8-IVa, t008, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive). The second (ST8-IVa, t024...

  10. Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Isolates of Swine Origin Form Robust Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tracy L.; Shore, Sarah M.; Smith, Tara C.; Fraena, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA), was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds. PMID:23951352

  11. Genome comparisons of two Taiwanese community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST59 clones support the multi-origin theory of CA-MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2017-10-01

    Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type V T , Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage ΦSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage ΦSa3. The anti-virulent role of SAK was confirmed using murine skin and bloodstream infection models. ΦSa3 usually integrates into the hlb gene, but in AP was found to be integrated at the genomic island νSaβ. The mutation of the attB site "TGTATCCAAACTGG" to "TGTATCCGAATTGG" led to a failure in the integration of ΦSa3 in hlb, prompting atypical integration at other sites. The sak gene possessed remarkably different patterns of distribution among the different STs of S. aureus. We conclude that the atypical integration of ΦSa3 may help S. aureus adapt to the human host habitat and that the subsequent loss of ΦSa3 contributes toward the development of a virulent CA-MRSA lineage for wider horizontal transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe infective endocarditis with systemic embolism due to community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST630

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    Beiwen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA are increasingly causing infective endocarditis over the past decade. Here we report a healthy man who developed a severe acute infective endocarditis with systemic embolism caused by CA-MRSA. The strain was recovered from repeated blood cultures and was characterized using molecular detection and genotyping. The S. aureus isolate was typed as ST630 SCCmecV with spa-type t4549, agrI/IV and was PVL-negative. This is the only case report, to our knowledge, of CA-MRSA infective endocarditis in China. This case highlights the emergence and geographical spread of life-threatening CA-MRSA infection within China.

  13. [Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Rijnmond region: the largest outbreak in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, D C; Hendriks, W D; Ott, A; Verbrugh, H A

    2004-05-22

    EPIDEMIC: The annual number of new MRSA isolates in the Netherlands tripled in 2002 compared with previous years. This increase was in part due to a MRSA outbreak in the Rijnmond region. The outbreak occurred in two merged hospitals and is the largest ever to occur in the Netherlands. From November 2001 till June 2003 MRSA was isolated from 381 patients and 113 hospital employees. The worst affected departments were Surgery and Internal Medicine. One MRSA strain (pulsed-field gel electroforesis (PFGE) type 16) remained initially unrecognised and was therefore able to spread unnoticed. Soon two additional epidemic MRSA strains (types 37 and 38) were discovered. Multiple factors played a role in the extent and duration of the outbreak. Because of the delayed detection and rapid spread of MRSA type 16, the outbreak grew too large once recognised to be resolved within the available infrastructure. Investments were needed at various fields, including the infection-control service and the microbiology laboratory. Employees had to be informed and motivated, and a separate MRSA ward and OPD were provided. New MRSA outbreaks occurred, despite extensive MRSA (contact) screening among patients and employees. The numbers of isolates began falling as from the beginning of 2003.

  14. Emergence of Hospital- and Community-Associated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and Detailed Investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V Cluster in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Anna C.; Corcoran, Suzanne; Tecklenborg, Sarah; Coleman, David C.; O'Connell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) has predominated in Irish hospitals since the late 1990s. Six distinct clones of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have also been identified in Ireland. A new strain of CA-MRSA, ST772-MRSA-V, has recently emerged and become widespread in India and has spread into hospitals. In the present study, highly similar MRSA isolates were recovered from seven colonized neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a maternity hospital in Ireland during 2010 and 2011, two colonized NICU staff, one of their colonized children, and a NICU environmental site. The isolates exhibited multiantibiotic resistance, spa type t657, and were assigned to ST772-MRSA-V by DNA microarray profiling. All isolates encoded resistance to macrolides [msr(A) and mpb(BM)] and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD and aphA3) and harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin genes (lukF-PV and lukS-PV), enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sel, and egc), and one of the immune evasion complex genes (scn). One of the NICU staff colonized by ST772-MRSA-V was identified as the probable index case, based on recent travel to India. Seven additional hospital and CA-ST772-MRSA-V isolates recovered from skin and soft tissue infections in Ireland between 2009 and 2011 exhibiting highly similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the NICU isolates were also identified. The clinical details of four of these patients revealed connections with India through ethnic background or travel. Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions. PMID:22189119

  15. Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Gráinne I

    2012-03-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) has predominated in Irish hospitals since the late 1990s. Six distinct clones of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have also been identified in Ireland. A new strain of CA-MRSA, ST772-MRSA-V, has recently emerged and become widespread in India and has spread into hospitals. In the present study, highly similar MRSA isolates were recovered from seven colonized neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a maternity hospital in Ireland during 2010 and 2011, two colonized NICU staff, one of their colonized children, and a NICU environmental site. The isolates exhibited multiantibiotic resistance, spa type t657, and were assigned to ST772-MRSA-V by DNA microarray profiling. All isolates encoded resistance to macrolides [msr(A) and mpb(BM)] and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD and aphA3) and harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin genes (lukF-PV and lukS-PV), enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sel, and egc), and one of the immune evasion complex genes (scn). One of the NICU staff colonized by ST772-MRSA-V was identified as the probable index case, based on recent travel to India. Seven additional hospital and CA-ST772-MRSA-V isolates recovered from skin and soft tissue infections in Ireland between 2009 and 2011 exhibiting highly similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the NICU isolates were also identified. The clinical details of four of these patients revealed connections with India through ethnic background or travel. Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions.

  16. Comparison of the BD MAX MRSA XT to the Cepheid™ Xpert® MRSA assay for the molecular detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Estrada, Jasmine; Ybarra, Juan; Fierer, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Variation in MRSA genotypes may affect the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect this organism. We compared 2 commonly used screening assays, the Cepheid™ Xpert® MRSA and the BD MAX™ MRSA XT on consecutively obtained nasal swabs from 479 subjects. Specimens giving discordant results were subjected to additional microbiologic and molecular testing. Six hundred forty-two (97.6%) of the 658 test results were concordant. Of the 16 discordant results from 12 subjects, additional results suggested that 9 (60%) of the 15 MRSA XT assays were likely correct, and 6 (40%) of the 15 Xpert® assays were likely correct. One discordant result could not be resolved. A mecA dropout and novel mec right-extremity junction (MREJ) sites led to false-positive and negative results by Xpert®. While both assays performed well, continued vigilance is needed to monitor for Staphylococcus aureus with novel MREJ sites, mecA dropouts, and mecC, leading to inaccurate results in screening assays. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [The correlation between expression level of femB and resistance phenotype of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Xiong, Ya-Li; Fan, Xin-Jian; Gao, Yan-Yu; Yu, Ru-Jia

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the phenotype and expression level of femB of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), to discuss the mechanism of different phenotypes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxacillin against 71 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were determined by agar dilution method according to NCCLS. The production of beta-lactamase was identified by Cefinase paper strip method. The isolation rate of beta-lactamase-producing strains was counted and the correlation between the resistance phenotype and isolation rate of beta-lactamase was analysed by statistics. Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to quantify the mRNA expression of femB of non-beta-lactamase-producing strains. The resistance rate of 71 Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin was 66.20% (47/71), the isolation rate of beta-lactamase-producing MSSA strains was 58.3%,and that of strains of high- and low-level resistance to oxacillin were 63.15% and 55.56%. The standard curve was performed by series dilution of the heterogeneous resistant strain BB270, and the amount of femB-specific mRNA in strain BB270 was set to be 1. The calculated femB amounts in MSSA strains were from 0.4830-3.3636, while the amounts were from 0.4204-3.3636 in low-level MRSA strains, and 0.0718-16.0000 in high-level MRSA strains. There were no difference in the level of femB among MSSA, high-level MRSA and low-level MRSA. The expression level of femB may not be related to the resistance of non-beta-lactamase-producting Staphylococcus aureus to methicillin.

  18. Diaryltriazenes as antibacterial agents against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajs, Jure; Proud, Conor; Brozovic, Anamaria; Gazvoda, Martin; Lloyd, Adrian; Roper, David I; Osmak, Maja; Košmrlj, Janez; Dowson, Christopher G

    2017-02-15

    Diaryltriazene derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial properties. Initial experiments showed some of these compounds to have activity against both methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium smegmatis, with MICs of 0.02 and 0.03 μg/mL respectively. Those compounds with potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-mycobacterial activity were not found to act as growth inhibitors of mammalian cell lines or yeast. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one of the most active anti-MRSA diaryltriazene derivatives was subject to very low frequencies of resistance at resistant isolates identified mutations in the enzyme that lysylates phospholipids. This could result in the modification of phospholipid metabolism and consequently the characteristics of the staphylococcal cell membrane, ultimately modifying the sensitivity of these pathogens to triazene challenge. Our work has therefore extended the potential range of triazenes, which could yield novel antimicrobials with low levels of resistance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from livestock and associated farmers in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath; Kumbukgolla, Wikum Widuranga

    2017-09-01

    The animal husbandry comes to play an important role according to new economic reforms of the rural economy in South Asia including Sri Lanka, and the rural farming community has a poor knowledge about hygienic issues of animal husbandry, which can lead to spread of pathogenic bacterial strains from animals to humans. Our study was conducted to evaluate methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and its antimicrobial resistance pattern among livestock (n=188) and related farmers (n=94) in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka. S. aureus isolates were identified using mannitol salt agar, coagulase test and DNAase test. The agar plate dilution method was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin against S. aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for other antibiotics was performed against MRSA isolates using antibiotic containing discs. To assess the MRSA transmission from livestock to humans, we have grouped MRSA strains according to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns against the tested antibiotics. Among MRSA isolates, 14 different groups with similar MIC and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were identified. Of those, 2 groups amongst pigs and pig farmers showed a significant relationship (p=0.031). The other groups did not show any significant relationship between animals and the farmers. The percentages of MRSA prevalence in pigs and pig farmers were 26.6% each, in poultry and poultry farmers 8.3% and 13.3% respectively, in cattle and cattle farmers 8.3% and 3%. Compared to human MRSA isolates, animal isolates were significantly more resistant to ciprofloxacin (p=0.031), gentamicin (p=0.010) and clindamycin (p=0.011). Similarly, animal methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates were significantly more resistant to ciprofloxacin (p=0.022) and doxycycline (p=0.012). Pig farming showed a higher prevalence and 2.4 times higher risk (OR=2.4, CI95%: 1.2-4.8) of likely transmission of

  20. Comparison of the next-generation Xpert MRSA/SA BC assay and the GeneOhm StaphSR assay to routine culture for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in positive-blood-culture broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W; Allen, Stephen; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Davis, Thomas; Levi, Michael; Mayne, Donna; Pancholi, Preeti; Relich, Ryan F; Thomson, Richard; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-03-01

    A bloodstream infection with Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a serious condition that carries a high mortality rate and is also associated with significant hospital costs. The rapid and accurate identification and differentiation of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA directly from positive blood cultures has demonstrated benefits in both patient outcome and cost-of-care metrics. We compare the next-generation Xpert MRSA/SA BC (Xpert) assay to the GeneOhm StaphSR (GeneOhm) assay for the identification and detection of S. aureus and methicillin resistance in prospectively collected blood culture broths containing Gram-positive cocci. All results were compared to routine bacterial culture as the gold standard. Across 8 collection and test sites, the Xpert assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.6% (range, 96.4% to 100%) and a specificity of 99.5% (range, 98.0% to 100%) for identifying S. aureus, as well as a sensitivity of 98.1% (range, 87.5% to 100%) and a specificity of 99.6% (range, 98.3% to 100%) for identifying MRSA. In comparison, the GeneOhm assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.2% (range, 95.2% to 100%) and a specificity of 96.5% (range, 89.2% to 100%) for identifying S. aureus, as well as a sensitivity of 94.3% (range, 87.5% to 100%) and a specificity of 97.8% (range, 96.1% to 100%) for identifying MRSA. Five of six cultures falsely reported as negative for MRSA by the GeneOhm assay were correctly identified as positive by the Xpert assay, while one culture falsely reported as negative for MRSA by the Xpert assay was correctly reported as positive by the GeneOhm assay. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Biofilm Formation and Its Relationship with the Molecular Characteristics of Food-Related Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Alberto; Normanno, Giovanni; Di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Parisi, Antonio; Santagada, Gianfranco; Colagiorgi, Angelo; Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Ianieri, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    The capability to produce biofilm is an important persistence and dissemination mechanism of some foodborne bacteria. This paper investigates the relationship between some molecular characteristics (SCCmec, ST, spa-type, agr-type, cna, sarA, icaA, icaD, clfA, fnbA, fnbB, hla, hlb) of 22 food-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains and their ability to form biofilm on stainless steel and polystyrene. Five (22.7%, 5/22) strains were able to synthesize biofilm on polystyrene, and one of these (4.5%, 1/22) strains was also able to synthesize biofilm on stainless steel. The largest amount of biofilm was formed on polystyrene by 2 MRSA strains isolated from cows' milk, thus raising concern about the dairy industry. The majority of MRSA biofilm producers carried SCCmec type IVa, suggesting that the presence of SCCmecIVa and/or agr type III could be related to the ability to form biofilm. In conclusion, in order to achieve an acceptable level of food safety, Good Hygiene Practices should be strictly implemented along the food chain to reduce the risk of colonization and dissemination of MRSA biofilm-producing strains in the food industry. In this study, some assayed isolates of food-related MRSA demonstrated the capacity to form biofilm. Biofilm formation differed according to surface characteristics and MRSA strains. A relationship was observed between some molecular characteristics and the ability to form biofilms. Few studies have investigated the ability of MRSA to form biofilms, and the majority of these studies have investigated clinical aspects. This work was performed to investigate whether or not there is a difference between MRSA food isolates and MRSA clinical isolates in their ability to form biofilm. These initial findings could provide information that will contribute to a better understanding of these aspects. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. A mechanistic model for spread of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) within a pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Before an efficient control strategy for livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs can be decided upon, it is necessary to obtain a betterunderstanding of how LA-MRSA spreads and persists within a pig herd, once it is introduced.We here present a mechanistic...... stochastic discrete-event simulation model forspread of LA-MRSA within a farrow-to-finish sow herd to aid in this. The model was individual-based and included three different disease compartments: susceptible, intermittent or persistent shedder of MRSA. The model was used for studying transmission dynamics...... and within-farm prevalence after different introductions of LA-MRSA into a farm. The spread of LA-MRSA throughout the farm mainly followed the movement of pigs. After spread of LA-MRSA had reached equilibrium, the prevalence of LA-MRSA shedders was predicted to be highest in the farrowing unit, independent...

  3. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetem, David J; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the epidemiology of MRSA infections worldwide. In contrast to hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), CA-MRSA more frequently affects healthy individuals, both with and without recent healthcare...

  4. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, D.J.; Westh, H.; Boye, K.; Jarlov, J.O.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Bootsma, M.C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830305

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the epidemiology of MRSA infections worldwide. In contrast to hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), CA-MRSA more frequently affects healthy individuals, both with and without recent

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection risks from companion animals: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petinaki E

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efthimia Petinaki,1 Iris Spiliopoulou21Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Thessalia, Larissa, 2Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, GreeceAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remains one of the most virulent human pathogens and has also recently been recognized as such in the veterinary settings. Companion animals, including dogs, cats, horses, small exotic animals, wildlife animals, and livestock, may constitute a reservoir for MRSA transmission to humans and vice versa. The evolution, emergence, and risk factors for MRSA transmission among colonized or infected animals are reviewed in the present paper, and infection control practices are discussed.Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, companion animals, close contacts

  6. Antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected in 2013-2014 at the Geneva University Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey, D O; François, P; Manzano, C; Bonetti, E J; Harbarth, S; Schrenzel, J; Kelley, W L; Renzoni, A

    2017-02-01

    Ceftaroline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Ceftaroline susceptibility of an MRSA set archived between 1994 and 2003 in the Geneva University Hospitals detected a high percentage (66 %) of ceftaroline resistance in clonotypes ST228 and ST247 and correlated with mutations in PBP2a. The ceftaroline mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of PBP2a; thus, the identification of PBP2a mutations of recently circulating clonotypes in our institution was investigated. We analyzed ceftaroline susceptibility in MRSA isolates (2013 and 2014) and established that resistant strains correlated with PBP2a mutations and specific clonotypes. Ninety-six MRSA strains were analyzed from independent patients and were isolated from blood cultures (23 %), deep infections (38.5 %), and superficial (skin or wound) infections (38.5 %). This sample showed a ceftaroline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range between 0.25 and 2 μg/ml and disk diameters ranging from 10 to 30 mm, with a majority of strains showing diameters ≥20 mm. Based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints, 76 % (73/96) of isolates showed susceptibility to ceftaroline. Nevertheless, we still observed 24 % (23/96) of resistant isolates (MIC = 2 μg/ml). All resistant isolates were assigned to clonotype ST228 and carried the N146K mutation in PBP2a. Only two ST228 isolates showed ceftaroline susceptibility. The decreasing percentage of ceftaroline-resistant isolates in our hospital can be explained by the decline of ST228 clonotype circulating in our hospital since 2008. We present evidence that ceftaroline is active against recent MRSA strains from our hospital; however, the presence of PBP2a variants in particular clonotypes may affect ceftaroline efficacy.

  7. Cost Analysis of an Intervention to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Chowers

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia.We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel.An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600.A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in skin and soft tissue infections presenting to the Emergency Department of a Canadian Academic Health Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiam, Cimi C; Fernandes, Christopher Mahendra Bernard; McLeod, Shelley L; Salvadori, Marina I; John, Michael; Seabrook, Jamie A; Theakston, Karl D; Milburn, Susan; Hussain, Zafar

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the city-wide prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients (≥18 years old) presenting with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) to the emergency departments (EDs) of a Canadian Academic Health Care Center. Secondary objectives were to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with MRSA, and determine MRSA antimicrobial susceptibilities and genotypes. This prospective observational study was conducted over 2 months. Participants completed a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Cultures of the infection site, nares, and throat were obtained and MRSA isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Patient characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics and MRSA prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using standard equations. Backwards stepwise multivariate logistic regression models determined predictor variables independently associated with MRSA colonization or infection. Of 205 patients, 35 (17.1%) were infected or colonized with MRSA. Seventy-eight (38.0%) of the infection site cultures grew S. aureus of which 27 (34.6%) were MRSA. Incarceration, known exposure to MRSA and involvement in competitive sports were significant predictors of MRSA SSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility among MRSA isolates was trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, gentamicin, and linezolid 100%, clindamycin 75%, ciprofloxacin 59.3%, and erythromycin 7.4%. Sixty-nine percent of MRSA cases fit the clinical definition of community associated; subsequently 77% were confirmed as CMRSA 10, a recognized community-acquired MRSA. Community-acquired -MRSA is a significant pathogen of SSTIs in EDs of a Canadian teaching center. MRSA should be considered when initiating empiric antibiotic therapy, particularly in patients with risk factors.

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Alicia D; Woods, Kate; Dance, David A B; Pichon, Bruno; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Davong, Viengmon; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N; Shetty, Nandini; Kearns, Angela M

    2017-08-01

    This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages. Median patient age was 19.5 years (interquartile range 2-48.5 years); 52% (50) were female. Forty-three spa types, representing 17 lineages, were identified. Fifty-eight percent (56) of all isolates encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), representing six lineages: half of these patients had abscesses and three had positive blood cultures. The dominant lineage was CC121 (39; 41%); all but one isolate encoded PVL and 49% (19) were from children under five. Staphyococcus argenteus was identified in six (6%) patients; mostly adults > 50 years and with diabetes. Six isolates (6%) belonged to rare lineage ST2885; two possibly indicate cross-infection in a neonatal unit. One isolate from a previously undescribed lineage, ST1541, was identified. Antibiotic resistance was uncommon except for penicillin (93; 97%) and tetracycline (48; 50%). Seven (7%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), belonging to ST239-MRSA-III, CC59-MRSA-V(T) Taiwan Clone, ST2250-MRSA-IV, ST2885-MRSA-V and CC398-MRSA-V. Globally widespread CC5 and CC30 were absent. There are parallels in S. aureus molecular epidemiology between Laos and neighboring countries and these data highlight the prominence of PVL and suggest infiltration of MRSA clones of epidemic potential from surrounding countries.

  10. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Grundmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.In each country, staphylococcal reference laboratories secured the participation of a sufficient number of hospital laboratories to achieve national geo-demographic representation. Participating laboratories collected successive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection using an agreed protocol. All isolates were sent to the respective national reference laboratories and characterised by quality-controlled sequence typing of the variable region of the staphylococcal spa gene (spa typing, and data were uploaded to a central database. Relevant genetic and phenotypic information was assembled for interactive interrogation by a purpose-built Web-based mapping application. Between September 2006 and February 2007, 357 laboratories serving 450 hospitals in 26 countries collected 2,890 MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection. A wide geographical distribution of spa types was found with some prevalent in all European countries. MSSA were more diverse than MRSA. Genetic diversity of MRSA differed considerably between countries with dominant MRSA spa types forming distinctive geographical clusters. We provide evidence that a network approach consisting of decentralised typing and visualisation of aggregated data using an interactive mapping tool can provide important information on the dynamics of MRSA populations such as early signalling of emerging strains, cross border spread, and importation by travel.In contrast to MSSA, MRSA spa types have a predominantly regional distribution in Europe. This finding is indicative of the selection and spread of a limited number of clones within health care

  11. Characterization of SCCmec and spa types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from health-care and community-acquired infections in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi, Yaser; Kiaei, Somayeh; Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Davood

    2017-12-01

    Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a worldwide problem. Molecular typing is a useful tool to understand MRSA epidemiology. Herein, we determined vancomycin-resistant, SCCmec and spa types among MRSA isolates recovered from healthcare and community-acquired infections in Kerman, Iran. A total of 170 S. aureus isolates were collected from different patients who were admitted to affiliated hospitals of Kerman University of Medical science. MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates were detected by phenotypic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for detection of mecA, vanA and vanB genes. Staphylococcal cassette chromosomemec (SCCmec) and spa typing were used for molecular typing of among MRSA isolates. Overall, 53% of isolates were considered as MRSA. Two MRSA isolates were resistant to vancomycin and vanA was detected in only one of VRSA isolates. SCCmec type III belonged to spa types t030 and t459 which they were the dominant spa types among community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and healthcare-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. Our findings showed that the SCCmec type I and III spread from hospital settings to community, although the SCCmec type IV spread from community to healthcare systems. We have also reported VRSA isolates from hospitalized patients, therefore, appropriate policies should be enforced in order to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance isolates in hospitals settings. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search MRSA Screening Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Related Content Related Images View Sources Formal Name Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening This article was last reviewed on February ...

  13. Characterization of the Brazilian endemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from hospitals throughout Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Geraldo A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of the Brazilian endemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from hospitals throughout Brazil. We studied 83 MRSA strains isolated from patients hospitalized in 27 public and private hospitals in 19 cities located in 14 Brazilian states from September, 1995, to June, 1997. The MRSA strains were typed using antibiograms, bacteriophage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The analysis of genomic DNA by PFGE showed that 65 isolates presented the same PFGE pattern. This pattern was present in all of the hospitals studied indicating the presence of an endemic MRSA clone widely disseminated throughout Brazilian hospitals (BEC. All isolates belonging to the BEC proved to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, lincomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Variable susceptibility to these drugs was found only in isolates belonging to clones other than the BEC. The results show that, among MRSA, the BEC is common in Brazil. The best method for mapping changes in the frequency of this clone among MRSA is pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Use of molecular mapping is an important tool for monitoring the spread of potentially dangerous microbes.

  14. Characterization of the Brazilian endemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from hospitals throughout Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of the Brazilian endemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from hospitals throughout Brazil. We studied 83 MRSA strains isolated from patients hospitalized in 27 public and private hospitals in 19 cities located in 14 Brazilian states from September, 1995, to June, 1997. The MRSA strains were typed using antibiograms, bacteriophage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The analysis of genomic DNA by PFGE showed that 65 isolates presented the same PFGE pattern. This pattern was present in all of the hospitals studied indicating the presence of an endemic MRSA clone widely disseminated throughout Brazilian hospitals (BEC. All isolates belonging to the BEC proved to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, lincomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Variable susceptibility to these drugs was found only in isolates belonging to clones other than the BEC. The results show that, among MRSA, the BEC is common in Brazil. The best method for mapping changes in the frequency of this clone among MRSA is pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Use of molecular mapping is an important tool for monitoring the spread of potentially dangerous microbes.

  15. Evaluation of rep-PCR/DiversiLab versus PFGE and spa typing in genotyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadero, V; González Velasco, C; Vindel, A; Gonzalez Velasco, M; Moreno, J J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the 'gold standard' for genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, the DiversiLab (DL) system, based on rep-PCR, is faster, simpler and could be better adapted to daily routine hospital work. We genotyped 100 MRSA isolates using PFGE, DL, and spa typing, and evaluated the discriminatory power of each technique and the correlation between them by Simpson's index(SI) and adjusted Rand coefficient (ARI), respectively. The isolates were from clinical samples from eight hospitals in Extremadura (Spain) during 2010. DL separated the 100 MRSA into 18 patterns, with 69% of the isolates grouped into four predominant patterns. spa typing reported 17 spa types, classifying 69% of MRSA into two major types (t067 and t002). PFGE revealed the existence of 27 patterns, gathering 54% of MRSA into three pulse types (E8a, E7a and E7b). SI values were 0.819, 0.726, 0.887 and 0.460 for DL, spa typing, PFGE and CC-BURP, respectively. ARI values of DL over PFGE, spa typing and CC-BURP were 0.151, 0.321 and 0.071, respectively. DL has less discriminatory power than PFGE but more than spa typing. The concordance of DL with PFGE is low, primarily because DL does not discriminate between the three predominant MRSA pulse types in our environment.

  16. Screening of Chinese medicinal plants for inhibition against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Wang, G C; Zhao, Y B; Xu, G L; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Zhao, Q

    2008-11-20

    Traditional herbs are a valuable source of novel antibacterials in combating pathogenic isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global nosocomial problem. To assess in vitro anti-MRSA activity of extracts from Chinese herbs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined in the setting of clinical MRSA isolates. A collection of 19 plant extracts were obtained and bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis performed. Antibacterial susceptibilities were screened for inhibitory zone and MICs/MBCs determined by serial dilution with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. 9 MRSA isolates and a standard control strain (ATCC 25923) were cultured and exposed to the plant extract and isolated compound. Vancomycin was used as a positive control agent. All the presented 19 plants showed anti-MRSA activity with MIC of 1.25-3.07mg/ml. The most active antimicrobial plants were Dendrobenthamia capitata, Elsholtzia rugulosa, Elsholtzia blanda, Geranium strictipes and Polygonum multiflorum (MICactive ethyl acetate fraction of Dendrobenthamia capitata extract was determined with MIC/MBC values as 62.5/125.0mg/ml. Dendrobenthamia capitata, Elsholtzia rugulosa, Elsholtzia blanda, Geranium strictipesPolygonum multiflorum and betulinic acid demonstrate promising anti-MRSA potential.

  17. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Wei, Chao; Yang, Liu-Yang; Zuo, Qian-Fei; Zhuang, Yuan; Feng, You-Jun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC), which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detail...

  18. Novel rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected silicone breast implants: a study of biofilm pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Ehud; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Gur, Eyal; Kuzmenko, Boris; Glick, Rivka; Frenkiel-Krispin, Daphna; Kramer, Eyal; Carmeli, Yehuda; Barnea, Yoav

    2013-02-01

    Clinical infection of breast implants occurs in 7 to 24 percent of breast reconstructions. It may persist over time in the form of biofilm without overt manifestation and is extremely difficult to eradicate. The authors' aim was to establish a novel model for biofilm infection of silicone breast implants in rats. Fifty-six rats underwent implantation of miniature silicone breast implants and/or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. Group A received implants covered with MRSA biofilm. Group B received implants and free planktonic MRSA. Group C received free planktonic MRSA without implants. A control group received sterile implants without MRSA. Each group was divided to receive either saline or vancomycin injections between days 4 and 11. Clinical evaluation, bacterial counts, and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The mortality rate in group B (implants infected with free planktonic MRSA) was significantly higher than that in all other groups [37 percent versus groups A and D (0 percent) and group C (7 percent)]. Treatment with vancomycin lowered temperature in groups B and C (p < 0.05) and improved wound healing in group B (p < 0.01). Vancomycin treatment reduced wound bacterial counts in free planktonic MRSA groups B and C but had no significant effect on biofilm MRSA-infected group A. The model successfully induced persistent breast implant infection. Free planktonic MRSA produced in situ biofilm on silicone implants. Biofilm infection has milder manifestations than free planktonic MRSA infection, which has higher rates of systemic infections and death when compared with either isolated biofilm infection or free planktonic MRSA infection without implant. Vancomycin has limited effect against mature biofilm.

  19. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of teicoplanin in patients with MRSA infections

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    Matsumoto K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Matsumoto,1 Erika Watanabe,1 Naoko Kanazawa,1 Tomohide Fukamizu,1 Akari Shigemi,1 Yuta Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuro Ikawa,2 Norifumi Morikawa,2 Yasuo Takeda1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacotherapy, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Background: Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that has been used to treat serious, invasive infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. The area under the drug concentration–time curve (AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was identified as a pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD parameter of glycopeptide antibiotics that correlated with bacteriological responses and clinical outcomes. Although optimized dosing regimens based on PK–PD are needed, a PK–PD analysis of teicoplanin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections has not yet been performed. Thus, this study examined patients with MRSA infections, who were administered with teicoplanin in order to determine the target AUC/MIC ratio. Methods: This study retrospectively assessed data obtained as part of our routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM of teicoplanin therapy in 46 patients with MRSA infections at Kagoshima University Hospital. Serum concentrations of teicoplanin were determined using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay system and used for a Bayesian PK estimation to estimate AUC for 24 hours (AUC24. The MIC value for teicoplanin was determined using a standardized agar dilution method. The effects of teicoplanin were evaluated in terms of bacteriological responses by a quantitative assessment. Results: The estimated AUC24/MIC ratios with and without bacteriological responses were 926.6±425.2 µg·h/mL (n=34 and 642.2±193.9 µg·h/mL, respectively (n=12; P<0.05. On the basis of a logistic regression analysis, AUC24/MIC ratios of 500 µg·h/mL, 700 µg·h/mL, and

  20. The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, C; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes. PMID:22240647

  1. Risk factors for community-associated Staphylococcus aureus skin infection in children of Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Gayle J; Seifried, Steven E

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection overall, has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Children and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are disproportionately affected by CA-MRSA infection. The purpose of this case-control study was to identify risk factors for CA-S. aureus skin infections in children of Maui, Hawai'i, as a foundation for reducing the transmission of these infections. Survey data were obtained from patients in pediatric clinician offices over an 8-month period. NHPI participants were well-represented as 58% of cases and 54% of controls. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. Significant risk factors predictive of infection among all participants were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) household contact, and (c) overweight or obesity. Risk factors predictive of infection among NHPI were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) antibiotic use within 6 months, (c) overweight or obesity, and (d) a history of eczema or other skin disorder. The role of overweight or obesity in S. aureus skin infections among NHPI has not been identified in previous research and indicates a focus for additional education. Further research is needed to better understand the role of eczema, antibiotic use, overweight and obesity, and socio-cultural factors in these infections.

  2. Can Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Silently Travel From the Gut to the Wound and Cause Postoperative Infection? Modeling the "Trojan Horse Hypothesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezalek, Monika A; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Zaborin, Alexander; Okafor, Emeka; Chandrasekar, Laxmi; Bindokas, Vitas; Guyton, Kristina; Montgomery, Christopher P; Daum, Robert S; Zaborina, Olga; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Alverdy, John C

    2017-02-09

    To determine whether intestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be the source of surgical site infections (SSIs). We hypothesized that gut-derived MRSA may cause SSIs via mechanisms in which circulating immune cells scavenge MRSA from the gut, home to surgical wounds, and cause infection (Trojan Horse Hypothesis). MRSA gut colonization was achieved by disrupting the microbiota with antibiotics, imposing a period of starvation and introducing MRSA via gavage. Next, mice were subjected to a surgical injury (30% hepatectomy) and rectus muscle injury and ischemia before skin closure. All wounds were cultured before skin closure. To control for postoperative wound contamination, reiterative experiments were performed in mice in which the closed wound was painted with live MRSA for 2 consecutive postoperative days. To rule out extracellular bacteremia as a cause of wound infection, MRSA was injected intravenously in mice subjected to rectus muscle ischemia and injury. All wound cultures were negative before skin closure, ruling out intraoperative contamination. Out of 40 mice, 4 (10%) developed visible abscesses. Nine mice (22.5%) had MRSA positive cultures of the rectus muscle without visible abscesses. No SSIs were observed in mice injected intravenously with MRSA. Wounds painted with MRSA after closure did not develop infections. Circulating neutrophils from mice captured by flow cytometry demonstrated MRSA in their cytoplasm. Immune cells as Trojan horses carrying gut-derived MRSA may be a plausible mechanism of SSIs in the absence of direct contamination.

  3. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2008-01-01

    A broad variety of infections, ranging from minor infections of the skin to post-operative wound infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The adaptive power of S. aureus to antibiotics leaded, in the early 1960s, to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The cause of

  4. A STUDY ON NASAL CARRIAGE OF MRSA AND ITS ANTIMICRO BIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS AND HOSPITALISED PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bharathi; Jyothi Padmaja

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in hospi tal associated infections as well as in community acqui red infections. About 20-40% of healthy persons carry Staphylococci in the nose. Most dreadly strains of S.aureus are Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) strains. Till recent time s these MRSA strains were restricted to hospitals only as Health care associated MRSA (HA-MR SA). But now these...

  5. Combination therapy with thioridazine and dicloxacillin combats meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marianne Ø; Schøler, Lone; Nielsen, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of drugs active against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a growing clinical problem. In vitro studies indicate that the phenothiazine thioridazine (TZ) might enhance the activity of the β-lactam antibiotic dicloxacillin (DCX) to a level where MRSA is killed......, but experiments in simple animal models have not been performed. In the present study, we introduced Caenorhabditis elegans infected by S. aureus as an in vivo model to test the effect of TZ as a helper drug in combination with DCX. Because TZ is an anthelmintic, initial experiments were carried out to define...... the thresholds of toxicity, determined by larval development, and induction of stress-response markers. No measurable effects were seen at concentrations of less than 64 mg TZ l(-1). Seven different MRSA strains were tested for pathogenicity against C. elegans, and the most virulent strain (ATCC 33591...

  6. Selective in vitro photothermal nano-therapy of MRSA infections mediated by IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Puia, Cosmin; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Gonciar, Diana; Kalman, Erszebet; Zaharie, Gabriela; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Teodora

    2016-12-23

    There are serious systemic infections associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and several other types of bacteria leading to the deaths of millions of people globally. This type of mortality is generally caused by the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant organisms, a consequence of evolution via natural selection. After the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by wet chemistry, bio-functionalization with IgG molecules was performed. Following administration of IgG-GNPs to MRSA cultures at various concentrations and various incubation time laser irradiation was performed. To assess the selectivity and specificity of the proposed treatment the following methods were used: flow cytometry, contrast phase microscopy, and by fluorescence microscopy. The results in our study indicate that following administration of IgG-GNPs biomolecule an extended and selective bacterial death occurs following laser irradiation in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, the new findings might impel studies on these antibacterial nanomaterials and their biological and medical applications.

  7. Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in participants of athletic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2005-06-01

    Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) has been identified in otherwise healthy individuals either with or without methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)-associated risk factors who participate in athletic activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of CAMRSA skin infection that occurred in university student athletes, evaluate the potential mechanisms for the transmission of MRSA infection of the skin in participants of athletic activities, and review the measures for preventing the spread of cutaneous CAMRSA infection in athletes. A retrospective chart review of the student athletes from the University of Houston whose skin lesions were evaluated at the Health Center and grew MRSA was performed. The clinical characteristics and the postulated mechanisms of cutaneous MRSA infection in the athletes were compared with those previously published in reports of CAMRSA skin infection outbreaks in other sports participants. Cutaneous CAMRSA infection occurred in seven student athletes (four women and three men) who were either weight lifters (three students) or members of a varsity sports team: volleyball (two women), basketball (one woman), and football (one man). The MRSA skin infection presented as solitary or multiple, tender, erythematous, fluctuant abscesses with surrounding cellulitis. The lesions were most frequently located in the axillary region (three weight lifters), on the buttocks (two women), or on the thighs (two women). The drainage from all of the skin lesions grew MRSA, which was susceptible to clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin; five of the isolates were also susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. All of the bacterial strains were resistant to erythromycin, oxacillin, and penicillin. The cutaneous MRSA infections persisted or worsened in the six athletes who were empirically treated for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus at

  8. Decolonisation of MRSA, S. aureus and E. coli by cold-atmospheric plasma using a porcine skin model in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Maisch

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years new antibacterial agents approved by the U.S. FDA decreased whereas in parallel the resistance situation of multi-resistant bacteria increased. Thus, community and nosocomial acquired infections of resistant bacteria led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapy, prolonging treatment time and increasing healthcare costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of cold atmospheric plasma for decolonisation of Gram-positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli using an ex vivo pig skin model. Freshly excised skin samples were taken from six month old female pigs (breed: Pietrain. After application of pure bacteria on the surface of the explants these were treated with cold atmospheric plasma for up to 15 min. Two different plasma devices were evaluated. A decolonisation efficacy of 3 log(10 steps was achieved already after 6 min of plasma treatment. Longer plasma treatment times achieved a killing rate of 5 log(10 steps independently from the applied bacteria strains. Histological evaluations of untreated and treated skin areas upon cold atmospheric plasma treatment within 24 h showed no morphological changes as well as no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis determined by the TUNEL-assay indicating that the porcine skin is still vital. This study demonstrates for the first time that cold atmospheric plasma is able to very efficiently kill bacteria applied to an intact skin surface using an ex vivo porcine skin model. The results emphasize the potential of cold atmospheric plasma as a new possible treatment option for decolonisation of human skin from bacteria in patients in the future without harming the surrounding tissue.

  9. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Thomas T.; Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, Joao C. S

    2016-01-01

    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and....../or in vivo was tested in Drosophila. Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality...... of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides....

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in rehabilitation and chronic-care-facilities: what is the best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Xavier

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been decreasing for several years in intensive care departments, but is now increasing in rehabilitation and chronic-care-facilities (R-CCF. The aim of this study was to use published data and our own experience to discuss the roles of screening for MRSA carriers, the type of isolation to be implemented and the efficiency of chemical decolonization. Discussion Screening identifies over 90% of patients colonised with MRSA upon admission to R-CCF versus only 50% for intensive care units. Only totally dependent patients acquire MRSA. Thus, strict geographical isolation, as opposed to "social reinsertion", is clearly of no value. However, this should not lead to the abandoning of isolation, which remains essential during the administration of care. The use of chemicals to decolonize the nose and healthy skin appeared to be of some value and the application of this procedure could make technical isolation unnecessary in a non-negligible proportion of cases. Summary Given the increase in morbidity associated with MRSA observed in numerous hospitals, the emergence of a community-acquired disease associated with these strains and the evolution of glycopeptide-resistant strains, the voluntary application of a strategy combining screening, technical isolation and chemical decolonization in R-CCF appears to be an urgent matter of priority.

  11. [Study of Staphylococcus aureus infections in a general acute care hospital (2002-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togneri, Ana M; Podestá, Laura B; Pérez, Marcela P; Santiso, Gabriela M

    A twelve-year retrospective review of Staphylococcus aureus infections in adult and pediatric patients (AP and PP respectively) assisted in the Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos Evita in Lanús was performed to determine the incidence, foci of infection, the source of infection and to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance. An amount of 2125 cases of infection in AP and 361 in PP were documented. The incidence in AP decreased significantly in the last three years (χi2; p<0.05); in PP it increased significantly during the last five years (χ2; p<0.0001). In both populations was detected a notable increase in skin infections and associated structures (PEA) in bacteremia to the starting point of a focus on PEA, and in total S. aureus infections of hospital-onset (χ2; p < 0.005). Methicillin-resistance (MRSA) increased from 28 to 78% in PP; in AP it remained around 50%, with significant reduction in accompanying antimicrobial resistance to non-β-lactams in both groups of MRSA. In S. aureus documented from community onset infections (CO-MRSA) in the last three years, the percentage of methicillin-resistance was 57% in PP and 37% in AP; in hospital-onset infections it was 43% and 63% respectively. Although data showed that S. aureus remains a pathogen associated with the hospital-onset, there was an increase of CO-MRSA infections with predominance in PEA in both populations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Colonización por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en las manos de individuos de la comunidad Hand colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Felipe Baéz Benavides

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections (CA-MRSA have been reported with increasing frequency during the past decade. Colonization plays an important role in the epidemiology of such infections. However, colonization studies have focused mostly on hospital settings and only a few have been carried out in communities. This was a study of the frequency of hand colonization by S. aureus in general and by CA-MRSA, by means of phenotypical and molecular methods, in 800 adults from the community who had no relationship with the health area.

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization was found in 65 individuals (8.1% and MRSA was present in 5 (0.63%. The 5 MRSA strains were found to have mec chromosomic cassettes (SCCmec of either type IV or V, typical of CA-MRSA. Our study provides evidence of CA-MRSA colonization in the hands of individuals from the community. This constitutes an important risk factor, not only by its association with subsequent infections, but also for the risk of dissemination of this microorganism to the general population.

    En la última década han sido cada vez más frecuentes los informes de infecciones causadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina asociadas a la comunidad (CA-MRSA, por Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. La colonización juega un papel

  13. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817716

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  15. Cost Analysis of Universal Screening vs. Risk Factor-Based Screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R Roth

    Full Text Available The literature remains conflicted regarding the most effective way to screen for MRSA. This study was designed to assess costs associated with universal versus risk factor-based screening for the reduction of nosocomial MRSA transmission.The study was conducted at The Ottawa Hospital, a large multi-centre tertiary care facility with approximately 47,000 admissions annually. From January 2006-December 2007, patients underwent risk factor-based screening for MRSA on admission. From January 2008 to August 2009 universal MRSA screening was implemented. A comparison of costs incurred during risk factor-based screening and universal screening was conducted. The model incorporated probabilities relating to the likelihood of being tested and the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing with associated effects in terms of MRSA bacteremia and true positive and negative test results. Inputted costs included laboratory testing, contact precautions and infection control, private room costs, housekeeping, and length of hospital stay. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted.The risk factor-based MRSA screening program screened approximately 30% of admitted patients and cost the hospital over $780 000 annually. The universal screening program screened approximately 83% of admitted patients and cost over $1.94 million dollars, representing an excess cost of $1.16 million per year. The estimated additional cost per patient screened was $17.76.This analysis demonstrated that a universal MRSA screening program was costly from a hospital perspective and was previously known to not be clinically effective at reducing MRSA transmission. These results may be useful to inform future model-based economic analyses of MRSA interventions.

  16. Chloramphenicol encapsulated in poly-ε-caprolactone–pluronic composite: nanoparticles for treatment of MRSA-infected burn wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Devi, Banasmita; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan; Sharma, Arup; Kalita, Kasturi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Kotoky, Jibon

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching health care and societal costs. MRSA infections in the context of burn wounds lead to invasive disease that could potentially cause mortality. Chloramphenicol is a well-known broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic that has been used since 1949, but due to its hydrophobicity, poor penetration in skin, fast degradation, and toxicity, its application has been hindered. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that old antibiotics such as chloramphenicol remained active against a large number of currently prevalent resistant bacterial isolates due to their low-level use in the past. Recently, the novel nanoparticulate drug-delivery system has been used and reported to be exceptionally useful for topical therapeutics, due to its distinctive physical characteristics such as a high surface-to-volume ratio and minuscule size. It helps to achieve better hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and controlled delivery with enhanced therapeutic index, which has resulted in decreased toxicity levels compared to the crude drug. Here, we report a novel chloramphenicol loaded with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-pluronic composite nanoparticles (CAM-PCL-P NPs), physicochemical characterizations, and its bioactivity evaluation in a MRSA-infected burn-wound animal model. CAM-PCL-P NPs could encapsulate 98.3% of the drug in the nanoparticles and release 81% of the encapsulated drug over 36 days with a time to 50% drug release of 72 hours (51%). Nanoparticle suspensions maintained the initial properties with respect to size and encapsulation efficiency, even after 6 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, respectively (P>0.05). Significant reduction in the level of toxicity was observed for CAM-PCL-P NPs compared with that of free drug as confirmed from hemolytic activity against human blood erythrocytes and cytotoxicity assay against an MCF-7

  17. Chloramphenicol encapsulated in poly-ε-caprolactone-pluronic composite: nanoparticles for treatment of MRSA-infected burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Devi, Banasmita; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan; Sharma, Arup; Kalita, Kasturi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Kotoky, Jibon

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching health care and societal costs. MRSA infections in the context of burn wounds lead to invasive disease that could potentially cause mortality. Chloramphenicol is a well-known broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic that has been used since 1949, but due to its hydrophobicity, poor penetration in skin, fast degradation, and toxicity, its application has been hindered. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that old antibiotics such as chloramphenicol remained active against a large number of currently prevalent resistant bacterial isolates due to their low-level use in the past. Recently, the novel nanoparticulate drug-delivery system has been used and reported to be exceptionally useful for topical therapeutics, due to its distinctive physical characteristics such as a high surface-to-volume ratio and minuscule size. It helps to achieve better hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and controlled delivery with enhanced therapeutic index, which has resulted in decreased toxicity levels compared to the crude drug. Here, we report a novel chloramphenicol loaded with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-pluronic composite nanoparticles (CAM-PCL-P NPs), physicochemical characterizations, and its bioactivity evaluation in a MRSA-infected burn-wound animal model. CAM-PCL-P NPs could encapsulate 98.3% of the drug in the nanoparticles and release 81% of the encapsulated drug over 36 days with a time to 50% drug release of 72 hours (51%). Nanoparticle suspensions maintained the initial properties with respect to size and encapsulation efficiency, even after 6 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, respectively (P>0.05). Significant reduction in the level of toxicity was observed for CAM-PCL-P NPs compared with that of free drug as confirmed from hemolytic activity against human blood erythrocytes and cytotoxicity assay against an MCF-7

  18. Propofol Sedation Exacerbates Kidney Pathology and Dissemination of Bacteria during Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Freitag, Nancy E

    2017-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for large numbers of postsurgical nosocomial infections across the United States and worldwide. Propofol anesthesia is widely used in surgery and in intensive care units, and recent evidence indicates that even brief exposure to propofol can substantially increase host susceptibility to microbial infection. Here, we delineate the impact of propofol sedation on MRSA bloodstream infections in mice in the presence and absence of prophylactic antibiotic treatment. Consistent with previous reports, brief periods of anesthesia with propofol were sufficient to significantly increase bacterial burdens and kidney pathology in mice infected with MRSA. Propofol exposure increased neutrophilic infiltrates into the kidney and enhanced bacterial dissemination throughout kidney tissue. Propofol sedation reduced populations of effector phagocytes and mature dendritic cells within the kidney and led to the apparent expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like populations. When propofol was coadministered with vancomycin prophylaxis, it dramatically increased kidney abscess formation and bacterial dissemination throughout kidney tissue at early times post-S. aureus infection compared to antibiotic-treated but nonsedated animals. Taken together, our data indicate that short-term sedation with propofol significantly increases the severity of bloodstream MRSA infection, even when administered in conjunction with vancomycin prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Antibacterial and Synergy of Berberines with Antibacterial Agents against Clinical Multi-Drug Resistant Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qi Bian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of berberine (Ber and 8-acetonyl-dihydroberberine (A-Ber alone and combined uses with antibacterial agents ampicillin (AMP, azithromycin (AZM, cefazolin (CFZ and levofloxacin (LEV was studied on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method and the chequerboard and time-kill tests for the combined evaluations, respectively. The alone MICs/MBCs (mg/mL ranges were 32–128/64–256 (Ber and 32-128/128-512 (A-Ber. Significant synergies were observed for the Ber (A-Ber/AZM and Ber (A-Ber/LEV combinations against 90% of the tested MRSA strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs values ranged  from 0.188 to 0.500. An additivity result was also observed for the Ber/AZM combination by time-kill curves. These results demonstrated for the first time that Ber and A-Ber enhanced the in vitro inhibitory efficacy of AZM and LEV to a same extent, which had potential for further investigation in combinatory therapeutic applications of patients infected with MRSA.

  20. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cluster outbreak of MRSA in the community; recognition and approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, C.F.H.; Wijngaarden, P. van; Moen, G.; Rijen, M.M. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community-acquired infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) mainly affects healthy young people, without health-care related risk factors for MRSA. Patients often present with skin and soft-tissue infections. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old woman presented at

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus central line-associated bloodstream infections in US intensive care units, 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Deron C; Edwards, Jonathan R; Horan, Teresa C; Jernigan, John A; Fridkin, Scott K

    2009-02-18

    Concerns about rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) health care-associated infections have prompted calls for mandatory screening or reporting in efforts to reduce MRSA infections. To examine trends in the incidence of MRSA central line-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in US intensive care units (ICUs). Data reported by hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1997-2007 were used to calculate pooled mean annual central line-associated BSI incidence rates for 7 types of adult and non-neonatal pediatric ICUs. Percent MRSA was defined as the proportion of S aureus central line-associated BSIs that were MRSA. We used regression modeling to estimate percent changes in central line-associated BSI metrics over the analysis period. Incidence rate of central line-associated BSIs per 1000 central line days; percent MRSA among S. aureus central line-associated BSIs. Overall, 33,587 central line-associated BSIs were reported from 1684 ICUs representing 16,225,498 patient-days of surveillance; 2498 reported central line-associated BSIs (7.4%) were MRSA and 1590 (4.7%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Of evaluated ICU types, surgical, nonteaching-affiliated medical-surgical, cardiothoracic, and coronary units experienced increases in MRSA central line-associated BSI incidence in the 1997-2001 period; however, medical, teaching-affiliated medical-surgical, and pediatric units experienced no significant changes. From 2001 through 2007, MRSA central line-associated BSI incidence declined significantly in all ICU types except in pediatric units, for which incidence rates remained static. Declines in MRSA central line-associated BSI incidence ranged from -51.5% (95% CI, -33.7% to -64.6%; P 1997 through 2007, with changes in incidence ranging from -60.1% (95% CI, -41.2% to -73.1%; P 1997-2007 period, overall MRSA central line-associated BSI incidence decreased 49.6% (P < .001) over this period. The incidence of

  3. Rapid containment of nosocomial transmission of a rare community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone, responsible for the Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Onofrio; Bongiorno, Dafne; Bertoncello, Lisa; Grandesso, Stefano; Mazzucato, Sandra; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Cutrone, Mario; Chirico, Michela; Baesso, Flavia; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Cafiso, Viviana; Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana

    2017-01-06

    The aims of this study were to identify the source and the transmission pathway for a Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) outbreak in a maternity setting in Italy over 2 months, during 2014; to implement appropriate control measures in order to prevent the epidemic spread within the maternity ward; and to identify the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic clone. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations, based on phenotyping and genotyping methods, were performed. All neonates involved in the outbreak underwent clinical and microbiological investigations to detect the cause of illness. Parents and healthcare workers were screened for Staphylococcus aureus to identify asymptomatic carriers. The SSSS outbreak was due to the cross-transmission of a rare clone of ST5-CA-MRSA-SCCmecV-spa type t311, exfoliative toxin A-producer, isolated from three neonates, one mother (from her nose and from dermatological lesions due to pre-existing hand eczema) and from a nurse (colonized in her nose by this microorganism). The epidemiological and microbiological investigation confirmed these as two potential carriers. A rapid containment of these infections was obtained only after implementation of robust swabbing of mothers and healthcare workers. The use of molecular methodologies for typing was able to identify all carriers and to trace the transmission.

  4. Non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Sydney, Australia: emergence of EMRSA-15, Oceania, Queensland and Western Australian MRSA strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosbell, Iain B; Barbagiannakos, Thelma; Neville, Stephen A; Mercer, Joanne L; Vickery, Alison M; O'Brien, Frances G; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Malkowski, Mary J; Pearson, Julie C

    2006-06-01

    To describe clinical features and molecular epidemiology of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia. Patients with non-multiresistant MRSA isolated from blood at South Western Area Pathology Service from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2001 were enrolled. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, phage typing, and (selected instances) multilocus sequence and staphylococcal cassette chromosome typing was performed. PCR was used to detect Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), and enterotoxin genes. Sixteen patients were detected: eight with UK EMRSA-15 (ST22-MRSA-IV), three with Oceania (South-West Pacific/Western Samoan phage pattern) (ST30-MRSA-IV), two with WA MRSA-5 (ST8-MRSA-IV), and one each with WA MRSA-1 (ST1-MRSA-IV), Queensland strain (ST93-MRSA-IV), and WA MRSA-15 (ST59-MRSA-IV). Prior hospital admissions occurred with six of the eight patients with UK EMRSA-15, none of the three with Oceania, and three of the five with other strains. Thirteen of 16 patients had underlying disease. Three of the three patients with Oceania strain bacteraemia were Polynesians; 11 of 13 of the others were Caucasians. PVL genes were detected in four of 16 isolates (all Oceania and Queensland strains). entC was detected in two EMRSA-15 strains; entA in one Oceania, two WA MRSA-5 and the WA MRSA-1 strain, with entA and entB in the WA MRSA-15 strain. tst was not detected. Multiple epidemic strains cause non-multiresistant MRSA bacteraemia. Most patients had risk factors. Oceania and Queensland strains possess the PVL gene.

  5. Genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from milk and dairy products in South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanisi, M G; La Bella, G; Nobili, G; Franconieri, I; La Salandra, G

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen emerging in hospitals as well as community and livestock. MRSA is a significant and costly public health concern because it may enter the human food chain and contaminate milk and dairy products causing foodborne illness. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and the characteristics of MRSA isolated from 3760 samples of milk and dairy products in a previous survey conducted in southern Italy during 2008-2014. Overall out of 484 S. aureus strains isolated, 40 (8.3%) were MRSA and were characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCCmec typing, Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and ability to form biofilm. The most frequently recovered STs were ST152 (t355-67.5%), followed by ST398 (t899, t108-25%), ST1 (t127-5%) and ST5 (t688-2.5%). All isolates harboured the SCCmec type V (92.5%) or IVa (25%). In one isolate (2.5%), ST398/t899, the SCCmec resulted not detected. Three isolates (7.5%) carried one or more enterotoxin encoding genes (one strain had seg, sei, sem, sen and seo genes; two strains had seh gene). The 50% of isolated strains harboured PVL-encoding genes. Molecular analysis for icaA and icaD genes showed: 72.5% icaA and icaD positive, 25% only icaD gene and one icaA and icaD negative. The detection of MRSA in food of animal origin is a potential health hazard, thus it is necessary monitoring of food-producing animals and improving hygiene standards in food practices in order to reduce the microbiological risk to minimum. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Host gene expression profiling and in vivo cytokine studies to characterize the role of linezolid and vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA murine sepsis model.

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    Batu K Sharma-Kuinkel

    Full Text Available Linezolid (L, a potent antibiotic for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. By contrast, vancomycin (V is a cell wall active agent. Here, we used a murine sepsis model to test the hypothesis that L treatment is associated with differences in bacterial and host characteristics as compared to V. Mice were injected with S. aureus USA300, and then intravenously treated with 25 mg/kg of either L or V at 2 hours post infection (hpi. In vivo alpha-hemolysin production was reduced in both L and V-treated mice compared to untreated mice but the reduction did not reach the statistical significance [P = 0.12 for L; P = 0.70 for V. PVL was significantly reduced in L-treated mice compared to untreated mice (P = 0.02. However the reduction of in vivo PVL did not reach the statistical significance in V- treated mice compared to untreated mice (P = 0.27. Both antibiotics significantly reduced IL-1β production [P = 0.001 for L; P = 0.006 for V]. IL-6 was significantly reduced with L but not V antibiotic treatment [P<0.001 for L; P = 0.11 for V]. Neither treatment significantly reduced production of TNF-α. Whole-blood gene expression profiling showed no significant effect of L and V on uninfected mice. In S. aureus-infected mice, L altered the expression of a greater number of genes than V (95 vs. 42; P = 0.001. Pathway analysis for the differentially expressed genes identified toll-like receptor signaling pathway to be common to each S. aureus-infected comparison. Expression of immunomodulatory genes like Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Il1r2, Cd14 and Nfkbia was different among the treatment groups. Glycerolipid metabolism pathway was uniquely associated with L treatment in S. aureus infection. This study demonstrates that, as compared to V, treatment with L is associated with reduced levels of toxin production, differences in host inflammatory response, and distinct host gene expression

  7. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals

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    Korczak, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]. Objectives: * Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital? * How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance? * Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies? * Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff? * What kind of liability problems exist?MethodsBased on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. Results: 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. Discussion: It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The

  8. Cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent MRSA transmission and infection in an intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidengil, Courtney; Gay, Charlene; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Yokoe, Deborah; Lee, Grace M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We created a national policy model to evaluate the projected cost-effectiveness of multiple hospital-based strategies to prevent MRSA transmission and infection. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov microsimulation model that simulates the natural history of MRSA acquisition and infection. Patients and setting Hypothetical cohort of 10,000 adult patients admitted to a U.S. ICU. Methods We compared 7 strategies to standard precautions using a hospital perspective: (1) active surveillance cultures (ASC); (2) ASC plus selective decolonization; (3) universal contact precautions (UCP); (4) universal chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) baths; (5) universal decolonization; (6) UCP + CHG baths; and (7) UCP + decolonization. For each strategy, both efficacy and compliance were considered. Outcomes of interest were: (1) MRSA colonization averted; (2) MRSA infection averted; (3) incremental cost per colonization averted; (4) incremental cost per infection averted. Results 1,989 cases of colonization and 544 MRSA invasive infections occurred under standard precautions per 10,000 patients. Universal decolonization was the least expensive strategy and was more effective compared to all strategies except UCP + decolonization and UCP + CHG. UCP + decolonization was more effective than universal decolonization, but would cost $2,469 per colonization averted and $9,007 per infection averted. If MRSA colonization prevalence drops from 12% to 5%, ASC plus selective decolonization becomes the least expensive strategy. Conclusions Universal decolonization is cost-saving, preventing 44% of cases of MRSA colonization and 45% of cases of MRSA infection. Our model provides useful guidance for decision makers choosing between multiple available hospital-based strategies to prevent MRSA transmission. PMID:25627757

  9. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H.; Witte, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms. For about 77%–86% of humans with occupational exposure to pigs, nasal carriage has been reported; it can be lost when exposure is interrupted. Among family members living at the same farms, only 4%–5% are colonized. Spread beyond this group of people is less frequent. The prevalence of LA-MRSA in livestock seems to be influenced by farm size, farming systems, usage of disinfectants, and in-feed zinc. LA-MRSA CC398 is able to cause the same kind of infections in humans as S. aureus and MRSA in general. It can be introduced to hospitals and cause nosocomial infections such as postoperative surgical site infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, septicemia, and infections after joint replacement. For this reason, screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts. Intrahospital dissemination, typical for HA-MRSA in the absence of sufficient hygiene, has only rarely been observed for LA-MRSA to date. The proportion of LA-MRSA among all MRSA from nosocomial infections is about 3% across Germany. In geographical areas with a comparatively high density of conventional farms, LA-MRSA accounts for up to 10% of MRSA from septicemia and 15% of MRSA from wound infections. As known from comparative genome analysis, LA-MRSA has evolved from human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the jump to livestock was

  10. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

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    Christiane Cuny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA, which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms. For about 77%–86% of humans with occupational exposure to pigs, nasal carriage has been reported; it can be lost when exposure is interrupted. Among family members living at the same farms, only 4%–5% are colonized. Spread beyond this group of people is less frequent. The prevalence of LA-MRSA in livestock seems to be influenced by farm size, farming systems, usage of disinfectants, and in-feed zinc. LA-MRSA CC398 is able to cause the same kind of infections in humans as S. aureus and MRSA in general. It can be introduced to hospitals and cause nosocomial infections such as postoperative surgical site infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, septicemia, and infections after joint replacement. For this reason, screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts. Intrahospital dissemination, typical for HA-MRSA in the absence of sufficient hygiene, has only rarely been observed for LA-MRSA to date. The proportion of LA-MRSA among all MRSA from nosocomial infections is about 3% across Germany. In geographical areas with a comparatively high density of conventional farms, LA-MRSA accounts for up to 10% of MRSA from septicemia and 15% of MRSA from wound infections. As known from comparative genome analysis, LA-MRSA has evolved from human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the jump to

  11. Clinical features and molecular characteristics of childhood community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a medical center in northern Taiwan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Huang, Chun-Yen; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2017-07-05

    Since first reported in 2002, the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among childhood community-associated (CA) S. aureus infection in Taiwan increased significantly up to 2005. There have been no reports on this issue since then. We prospectively collected clinical S. aureus isolates from the patients MRSA were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. A total of 409 S. aureus isolates were included, and 260 (63.6%) were MRSA. The proportion of MRSA among all S. aureus isolates in 2012 increased significantly (p MRSA isolates, 86.2% were identified from pus or wound. Nine pulsotypes were identified with two major types (type D, 119 (65.7%); type C, 27 (14.9%). Most of the isolates carried either SCCmec IV (66 isolates, 36%) or V T (112 isolates, 62%). 128 isolates (71%) carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Clonal complex (CC) 59 accounted for 146 isolates (80.7%) of two major pulsotypes, CC45 for 19 isolates, ST30 for 6 isolates and ST8 (USA 300) for 4 isolates. In addition to penicillin (100%), most isolates were resistant to erythromycin (81%) and clindamycin (79.3%). Around two-thirds of childhood community-associated S. aureus infections in northern Taiwan were MRSA. Though CC59 is still the prevalent community clone, several new clones emerged in northern Taiwan.

  12. Vaccine Protection of Leukopenic Mice against Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Sabine; Gough, Portia; Kim, Hwan Keun; Schneewind, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The risk for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) is increased in immunocompromised individuals, including patients with hematologic malignancy and/or chemotherapy. Due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, designated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), staphylococcal BSI in cancer patients is associated with high mortality; however, neither a protective vaccine nor pathogen-specific immunotherapy is currently available. Here, we modeled staphylococcal BSI in leukopenic CD-1 mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide, a drug for leukemia and lymphoma patients. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice were highly sensitive to S. aureus BSI and developed infectious lesions lacking immune cell infiltrates. Virulence factors of S. aureus that are key for disease establishment in immunocompetent hosts—α-hemolysin (Hla), iron-regulated surface determinants (IsdA and IsdB), coagulase (Coa), and von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp)—are dispensable for the pathogenesis of BSI in leukopenic mice. In contrast, sortase A mutants, which cannot assemble surface proteins, display delayed time to death and increased survival in this model. A vaccine with four surface antigens (ClfA, FnBPB, SdrD, and SpAKKAA), which was identified by genetic vaccinology using sortase A mutants, raised antigen-specific immune responses that protected leukopenic mice against staphylococcal BSI. PMID:25183728

  13. Prevalence and demographics of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in culturable skin and soft tissue infections in an urban emergency department

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    Fermann Gregory J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising incidence of methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA infections is a concern for emergency practitioners. While studies have examined MRSA in inpatients, few have focused on emergency department populations. We sought to describe predictors of MRSA skin infections in an emergency department population. Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted over three months in 2005. A convenience sample of patients with culturable skin infections presenting to a busy, urban emergency department was enrolled. Demographic and risk factor information was collected by structured interview. The predictive value of each risk factor for MRSA, as identified by culture, was tested using univariable logistic regression, and a multivariable predictive model was developed. Results Patients were 43% black, 40% female and mean age was 39 years (SD 14 years. Of the 182 patients with cultures, prevalence of MRSA was 58% (95%CI 50% to 65%. Significant predictors of MRSA were youth, lower body mass index, sexual contact in the past month, presence of an abscess cavity, spontaneous infection, and incarceration. The multivariable model had a C-statistic of 0.73 (95%CI 0.67 to 0.79 with four significant variables: age, group living, abscess cavity, and sexual contact within one month. Conclusion In this population of emergency department patients, MRSA skin infection was related to youth, recent sexual contact, presence of abscess, low body mass index, spontaneity of infection, incarceration or contact with an inmate, and group home living.

  14. Genotypic diversity and transmission of livestock-associated MRSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    Infections with the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus were considered to belong to the past with the introduction of antibiotics. However, S. aureus quickly adapted and became resistant against a variety of these drugs, resulting in the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In

  15. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  16. Outbreak of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections Among a Collegiate Football Team

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Russ; Lu, Doanh; Holtom, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Context: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was once primarily a hospital-acquired organism, but now community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is causing outbreaks among otherwise healthy sport participants.

  17. Origin of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus health care-associated infections: evaluation of the role of anterior nares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Hussain, Zehra; Erickson, Timothy A; Villamaria, Frank C; Copeland, Laurel A; Huber, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a cause of extended hospitalizations and escalating health care costs. We typed 49 MRSA HAIs and their corresponding admission nasal MRSA isolates to determine strain-relatedness and better define the role of anterior nares in the causation of HAI and the value of decolonization. Based on repetitive extragenic palindromic sequencing polymerase chain reaction results, the majority of our patients possibly acquired MRSA HAI from nonnasal sources (36 out of 49; 74%). Among the remaining patients (13 out of 49; 26%) the nasal and clinical HAI isolates matched, indicating potential benefit of decolonization among this subsegment of patients. These findings may be relevant to institutions such as Veterans Health Administration hospitals that already have universal screening programs but are looking at ways to further reduce MRSA HAI incidence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Survival Benefit of Empirical Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Bergin, Stephen P; Messina, Julia A; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Clark, Reese H; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-11-01

    The impact of early adequate empirical antibiotic therapy on outcomes of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who develop Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSI) is unknown. Infants with S. aureus BSI discharged in 1997-2012 from 348 NICUs managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group were identified. Early adequate empirical antibiotic therapy was defined as exposure to ≥1 antibiotic with anti-staphylococcal activity on the day the first positive blood culture was obtained. All other cases were defined as inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy. We evaluated the association between inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy on outcomes controlling for gestational age, small for gestational age status, gender, discharge year, mechanical ventilation, inotropic support and use of supplemental oxygen. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were 7-day mortality, death before hospital discharge and length of bacteremia. Of the 3339 infants with S. aureus BSI, 2492 (75%) had methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI and 847 (25%) had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) BSI. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was administered in 725 (22%) cases. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was associated with increased 30-day mortality (odds ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.82) among infants with MRSA BSI. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with increases in mortality among infants with MSSA BSI. After controlling for confounders, inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was associated with a modestly increased mortality at 30 days for infants with MRSA BSI.

  19. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection during an outbreak in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Manal A; Williams, Victoria R; Plourde, Suzanne; Callery, Sandra; Simor, Andrew E; Vearncombe, Mary

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of an outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections (SSI) after cardiovascular surgery, and analyzed risk factors for S aureus SSIs. This was a retrospective case-control study to determine risk factors for S aureus SSI in 38 patients who developed S aureus SSI during the outbreak period, compared with age-, sex-, and procedure-matched controls. S aureus strains were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 38 patients had S aureus SSI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified transmission of 3 S aureus clones (2 MSSA clones and 1 MRSA clone). Twenty-one health care workers were carriers of outbreak strains. In multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for S aureus SSI were previous cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 7.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-52.16) and long procedure duration (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.21). This outbreak demonstrates evidence of nosocomial transmission of 3 clones of S aureus in the setting of incomplete compliance with recommended standard perioperative infection control measures, associated with a high prevalence of staff carriage of the predominant outbreak strains. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outbreak of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among a collegiate football team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Russ; Lu, Doanh; Holtom, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was once primarily a hospital-acquired organism, but now community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is causing outbreaks among otherwise healthy sport participants. To investigate MRSA skin and soft tissue outbreaks within a collegiate football team and the effect of infection control measures over 3 years. Retrospective analysis. College. Collegiate football team. Infection control measures included education, following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, nasal cultures, hexachlorophene 3% soap, disposable towels, and hand sanitizers. Number of MRSA infections and hospitalizations. Complicated skin and soft tissue infections (those requiring surgical debridement and/or hospitalization) were diagnosed in 2 (1.8%) of 107 players in 2002, 17 (15.8%) of 107 players in 2003, and 1 (0.96%) of 104 players in 2004. Outbreaks of CA-MRSA in sports teams are very serious, and recognition is crucial. Treatment includes incision for proper drainage, bacterial culture and sensitivity, and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Infection control measures include educating athletes and staff, following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, identifying CA-MRSA carriers with nasal cultures, introducing hexachlorophene 3% soap intermittently in the showers, making alcohol-based hand sanitizers available on the field, disinfecting weight training and rehabilitation equipment, and using disposable towels on the field during practices and games.

  1. Interventions for wound healing among diabetic patients infected with Staphylococcus aureus: a systematic review

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    Anacássia Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent agent isolated in diabetic foot infections and may be associated with changes to wound healing times. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature, including studies that assessed the efficacy of any clinical or surgical intervention, as well as oral or topical therapy for diabetic ulcers infected with S. aureus. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review with a search conducted in databases. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with a comprehensive search in the Lilacs, SciELO, PubMed/Medline, Old Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, for articles published from 1966 to 2010. The articles selected were limited to studies on diabetic patients with wounds infected with S. aureus for whom their healing was followed up, with the use of either antibiotics or experimental treatments. Animal studies and those that did not report the wound healing, as well as review articles, were excluded. RESULTS: Five studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: There are few studies reporting the healing of wounds infected with S. aureus in diabetic patients, although this is the most commonly found pathogen in this type of wound and it frequently consists of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. There is insufficient evidence to support early use of broad-spectrum antibiotics against MRSA to promote healing of diabetic ulcers, since antibiotic resistance may develop from such treatment. This highlights the need for further studies on the subject.

  2. Infection rates of MRSA in complicated pediatric rhinosinusitis: An up to date review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Chelsea S; Sykes, Kevin J; Harrison, Christopher J; Weatherly, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Published studies have reported a rise in MRSA isolates in head and neck infections, but the microbiology of complicated pediatric rhinosinusitis is unclear. One study of such patients showed that MRSA isolates were seen only in the last three years of data collection, suggesting a possible recent increased prevalence. Given the public health concerns of increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance, the goal of this study was to investigate the microbiologic patterns and outcomes of complicated pediatric rhinosinusitis. Retrospective cohort of pediatric patients admitted to our children's hospital with complicated acute rhinosinusitis from 2004 to 2014. The mean age of 250 hospitalized children with complicated rhinosinusitis was 7.6 ± 4.9 years; 109 of these (43%) underwent surgical procedures. Although MRSA prevalence was highest in 2014, no significant trend in overall MRSA prevalence occurred when considering the entire study period. No significant relationship was identified between MRSA and intra-orbital versus intra-cranial complications. Interestingly, 22.7% of patients with anaerobes detected by culture had persistent abnormal physical examination (PE) findings versus 6.1% of patients without anaerobes (p = 0.025). Furthermore, multivariate analysis also revealed that detection of anaerobes or MRSA was associated with persistent PE findings being 21.8 and 14.8 times more likely, respectively, when compared to other detected pathogens. Our data indicate modest variability in the annual rates of MRSA associated pediatric rhinosinusitis, however there was no statistically significant pattern of change in MRSA prevalence during 2004-2014. Although detection of MRSA was not significantly associated with either intraorbital or intracranial complications of sinusitis, a significant association with a poorer outcome was observed by multivariate analysis for patients from whom MRSA or anaerobes were detected. These data raise the question as to whether

  3. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with pediatric infection in Cambodia.

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    Kheng Chheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection.We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL. Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive.This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak.

  4. Living Conditions as a Driving Factor in Persistent Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among HIV-infected Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maria Teresa C; Marlow, Mariel A; Aguiar-Alves, Fábio; Pinheiro, Marcos Gabriel; Freitas Alves, Maria de Fátima Nogueira de; Santos Cruz, Maria Letícia; Saavedra Gaspar, Mariza Curto; Rocha, Rebeca; Velarde, Luis Guillermo C; Araújo Cardoso, Claudete A

    2016-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has been linked to HIV-related sexual and social behaviors. MRSA risk factors may be different for HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults. We investigated the association of MRSA colonization, persistent colonization and genotypes with potential risk factors among HIV-infected youth. For this case-control study, patients 24 years of age or younger attending 2 HIV reference centers were recruited from February to August 2012 and followed for 1 year. Nasal swabs were collected at enrollment and every 3 months. MRSA clones were characterized by staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. We compared MRSA colonization and persistent colonization with patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Among 117 participants, MRSA colonization frequency (calculated for each collection based on the number of positive cultures per patient) was 12.8% at the first collection. The average MRSA colonization frequency was 10.4%. Our results showed 11.1% were persistent carriers (subjects with more than 1 positive culture in at least 3). Crowding was the only factor associated with MRSA colonization (P = 0.018). Persistent carriers had significantly higher (4.2 times) odds of living in a crowded household (95% confidence interval-1.1-16.2). We observed high genetic diversity among MRSA isolates, with t002/ST5 and t318/ST30 being the most frequent. MRSA colonization among HIV-infected youth is more closely related to living in a low-income or slum community than to HIV-related clinical factors. High genetic MRSA isolate diversity in our population suggests frequent transmission.

  5. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sztramko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics and management of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infections among a cohort of men who have sex with men.

  6. Predischarge postpartum methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and group B streptococcus carriage at the individual and hospital levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parriott, Andrea M.; Brown, Joelle M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to characterize the relationship between individual group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization and pre-discharge postpartum methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in United States women delivering at term. We also sought to examine the association between hospital GBS

  7. Prospective Study of Infection, Colonization and Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in an Outbreak Affecting 990 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J. Jimenez (Jose); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Arroyo; D. Minguez; C. Fernandez; F. Cruzet; C. Gaspar

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the three years between November 1989 and October 1992, an outbreak of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) affected 990 patients at a university hospital. The distribution of patients with carriage, colonization or infection was investigated prospectively. Nosocomial

  8. Beyond conventional antibiotics for the future treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: two novel alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; Humphreys, Hilary

    2012-08-01

    The majority of antibiotics currently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections target bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis. Only daptomycin has a novel mode of action. Reliance on limited targets for MRSA chemotherapy, has contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Two alternative approaches to the treatment of S. aureus infection, particularly those caused by MRSA, that have alternative mechanisms of action and that address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance are cationic host defence peptides and agents that target S. aureus virulence. Cationic host defence peptides have multiple mechanisms of action and are less likely than conventional agents to select resistant mutants. They are amenable to modifications that improve their stability, effectiveness and selectivity. Some cationic defence peptides such as bactenecin, mucroporin and imcroporin have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against MRSA. Antipathogenic agents also have potential to limit the pathogenesis of S aureus. These are generally small molecules that inhibit virulence targets in S. aureus without killing the bacterium and therefore have limited capacity to promote resistance development. Potential antipathogenic targets include the sortase enzyme system, the accessory gene regulator (agr) and the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitors of these targets have been identified and these may have potential for further development. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond conventional antibiotics for the future treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: two novel alternatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre

    2012-08-01

    The majority of antibiotics currently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections target bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis. Only daptomycin has a novel mode of action. Reliance on limited targets for MRSA chemotherapy, has contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Two alternative approaches to the treatment of S. aureus infection, particularly those caused by MRSA, that have alternative mechanisms of action and that address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance are cationic host defence peptides and agents that target S. aureus virulence. Cationic host defence peptides have multiple mechanisms of action and are less likely than conventional agents to select resistant mutants. They are amenable to modifications that improve their stability, effectiveness and selectivity. Some cationic defence peptides such as bactenecin, mucroporin and imcroporin have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against MRSA. Antipathogenic agents also have potential to limit the pathogenesis of S aureus. These are generally small molecules that inhibit virulence targets in S. aureus without killing the bacterium and therefore have limited capacity to promote resistance development. Potential antipathogenic targets include the sortase enzyme system, the accessory gene regulator (agr) and the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitors of these targets have been identified and these may have potential for further development.

  10. The rise of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: now the dominant cause of skin and soft tissue infection in Central Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmorran, E; Harch, S; Athan, E; Lane, S; Tong, S; Crawford, L; Krishnaswamy, S; Hewagama, S

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases. Hospitalisation during the preceding 6 months, and haemodialysis dependence were significant predictors of CA-MRSA infection on univariate analysis. Clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were found to be comparable for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant cases. All MRSA isolates were characterised as non-multi-resistant, with this term used interchangeably with CA-MRSA in this analysis. We did not find an association between receipt of an active antimicrobial agent within the first 48 h, and progression of infection; need for further surgical debridement; unplanned General Practitioner or hospital re-presentation; or need for further antibiotics. At least one adverse outcome was experienced by 39% of patients. Clindamycin resistance was common, while rates of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance were low. This study suggested the possibility of healthcare-associated transmission of CA-MRSA. This is the first Australian report of CA-MRSA superseding MSSA as the cause of community onset staphylococcal SSTI.

  11. The nosocomial transmission rate of animal-associated ST398 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, M.C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830305; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Trapman, J.P.; Bonten, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The global epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is characterized by different clonal lineages with different epidemiological behaviour. There are pandemic hospital clones (hospital-associated (HA-)MRSA), clones mainly causing community-acquired infections

  12. The nosocomial transmission rate of animal-associated ST398 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, M.C.J.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Trapman, J.P.; Bonten, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The global epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is characterized by different clonal lineages with different epidemiological behaviour. There are pandemic hospital clones (hospital-associated (HA-)MRSA), clones mainly causing community-acquired infections

  13. Cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission and infection in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidengil, Courtney A; Gay, Charlene; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Yokoe, Deborah; Lee, Grace M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To create a national policy model to evaluate the projected cost-effectiveness of multiple hospital-based strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and infection. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov microsimulation model that simulates the natural history of MRSA acquisition and infection. PATIENTS AND SETTING Hypothetical cohort of 10,000 adult patients admitted to a US intensive care unit. METHODS We compared 7 strategies to standard precautions using a hospital perspective: (1) active surveillance cultures; (2) active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization; (3) universal contact precautions (UCP); (4) universal chlorhexidine gluconate baths; (5) universal decolonization; (6) UCP + chlorhexidine gluconate baths; and (7) UCP+decolonization. For each strategy, both efficacy and compliance were considered. Outcomes of interest were: (1) MRSA colonization averted; (2) MRSA infection averted; (3) incremental cost per colonization averted; (4) incremental cost per infection averted. RESULTS A total of 1989 cases of colonization and 544 MRSA invasive infections occurred under standard precautions per 10,000 patients. Universal decolonization was the least expensive strategy and was more effective compared with all strategies except UCP+decolonization and UCP+chlorhexidine gluconate. UCP+decolonization was more effective than universal decolonization but would cost $2469 per colonization averted and $9007 per infection averted. If MRSA colonization prevalence decreases from 12% to 5%, active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization becomes the least expensive strategy. CONCLUSIONS Universal decolonization is cost-saving, preventing 44% of cases of MRSA colonization and 45% of cases of MRSA infection. Our model provides useful guidance for decision makers choosing between multiple available hospital-based strategies to prevent MRSA transmission.

  14. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections and nasal carriage at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital Center, Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaâ Bouhali Zriouil

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are a major problem in hospitals. The multidrug resistance and the nasal carriage of S. aureus play a key role in the epidemic of these infections. In this prospective study, 160 S. aureus strains were isolated from pathological samples of patients (79 cases and nasal swabs (81 of cases and controls from January to July 2007. The susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, including cefoxitin, was determined by the agar diffusion method, and methicillin resistance was confirmed by amplifying the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The prevalence of methicilin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was high in the burns (57.7% and dermatology (39.4% wards, and the MRSA strains isolated were extremely multi-resistant, but all of them were still susceptible to vancomycin. The rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was high in both cases and controls, in state, MRSA nasal carriage was more common among people infected with S. aureus.

  15. Engineering MRSA antimicrobials that are refractory to resistance development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most costly multi-drug resistant pathogens to both human animal health, with billions of dollars are spent annually to treat human infections. MRSA is also appearing in livestock (bovine, porcine, poultry) as well as companion animal...

  16. Risk of Transmission of MRSA on Contact Surfaces in Ambulance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukas, R. -P.; Keppler, P. -A.; Brinkrolf, P.; Friedrich, A. W.; Van Aken, H.; Bohn, A.

    2015-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequent causes of treatment-associated nosocomial infections. The incidence of MRSA among the population and in hospitalised patients is growing worldwide. Ambulance service is an interface between the

  17. Emergence of Community-Genotype Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Hospitals: Clinical Characteristics of Nosocomial Infections by Community-Genotype Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Baek, Jin Yang; Lee, Nam Yong; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Background As community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains spread into hospitals, the genotypes of the MRSA strains causing hospital-acquired (HA) infections have become more diverse. We describe clinical characteristics of nosocomial MRSA infections by a community-genotype of sequence type (ST) 72. Materials and Methods A case-control study was designed among patients with HA-MRSA infections. Forty patients with infections caused by ST72-MRSA SCCmec type IV were selected as cases. Cases were matched to the controls with 106 patients infected with ST5/ST239 MRSA, which are representative hospital genotypes in Korea. Results Patients infected with ST72 isolates were younger than those with ST5/ST239 isolates. Female gender predominated among ST72 MRSA group compared to ST5/ST239 MRSA group. Solid tumor was a more frequent underlying disease in MRSA infections by ST72 isolates, whereas underlying renal, lung, heart, and neurologic diseases were more frequently found in those by ST5/ST239 isolates. The most common type of infection was pneumonia in both ST72 and ST5/ST239 groups (45.0% vs. 51.9%), followed by skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Female gender and underlying solid tumor were identified to be independent predictors for MRSA infections by ST72 isolates. All-cause mortality rates (20.0% vs. 30.2%) were not different between the groups. Conclusion A community-genotype MRSA, ST72 isolate has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen presenting as hospital-acquired pneumonia and SSTI. Although differences in underlying disorders were found, the distribution of infection type and mortality rate did not differ between the groups. PMID:28608660

  18. Contribution of two molecular assays as compared to selective culture for MRSA screening in a low MRSA prevalence population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E; Descheemaeker, P; Deurenberg, R H; Stobberingh, E E; Gordts, B

    BACKGROUND: As the prompt detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers upon admission is fundamental in the MRSA prevention strategy of our hospital, the infection control team is eagerly seeking the most sensitive and rapid screening method. The aim of this study was to

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: risk factors and clinical outcome in non-intensive-care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinne Spirandelli Carvalho Naves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is spread out in hospitals across different regions of the world and is regarded as the major agent of nosocomial infections, causing infections such as skin and soft tissue pneumonia and sepsis. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI and the predictive factors for death. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of fifty-one patients presenting bacteraemia due to S. aureus between September 2006 and September 2008 was analysed. Staphylococcu aureus samples were obtained from blood cultures performed by clinical hospital microbiology laboratory from the Uberlândia Federal University. Methicillinresistance was determined by growth on oxacillin screen agar and antimicrobial susceptibility by means of the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: We found similar numbers of MRSA (56.8% and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (43.2% infections, and the overall hospital mortality ratio was 47%, predominantly in MRSA group (70.8% vs. 29.2% (p=0.05. Age (p=0.02 was significantly higher in MRSA patients as also was the use of central venous catheter (p=0.02. The use of two or more antimicrobial agents (p=0.03 and the length of hospital stay prior to bacteraemia superior to seven days (p=0.006 were associated with mortality. High odds ratio value was observed in cardiopathy as comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several risk factors associated with MRSA and MSSA infection, the use of two or more antimicrobial agents was the unique independent variable associated with mortality.

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: risk factors and clinical outcome in non-intensive-care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Karinne Spirandelli Carvalho; Vaz da Trindade, Natália; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spread out in hospitals across different regions of the world and is regarded as the major agent of nosocomial infections, causing infections such as skin and soft tissue pneumonia and sepsis. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) and the predictive factors for death. A retrospective cohort of fifty-one patients presenting bacteraemia due to S. aureus between September 2006 and September 2008 was analysed. Staphylococcu aureus samples were obtained from blood cultures performed by clinical hospital microbiology laboratory from the Uberlândia Federal University. Methicillinresistance was determined by growth on oxacillin screen agar and antimicrobial susceptibility by means of the disk diffusion method. We found similar numbers of MRSA (56.8%) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (43.2%) infections, and the overall hospital mortality ratio was 47%, predominantly in MRSA group (70.8% vs. 29.2%) (p=0.05). Age (p=0.02) was significantly higher in MRSA patients as also was the use of central venous catheter (p=0.02). The use of two or more antimicrobial agents (p=0.03) and the length of hospital stay prior to bacteraemia superior to seven days (p=0.006) were associated with mortality. High odds ratio value was observed in cardiopathy as comorbidity. Despite several risk factors associated with MRSA and MSSA infection, the use of two or more antimicrobial agents was the unique independent variable associated with mortality.

  1. [Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to β-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. A Disposable Polymer Lab-On-A-Slide For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Skov, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and experimental verification of a polymer microfluidic labon-a-slide for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA cells were captured in a lysis chamber using magnetic beads, followed by thermal lysis. The released DNA...... was transferred into a second chamber for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Fluidic control in the device was accomplished by pneumatic actuation of a micropump and five microvalves integrated on the device. The mecA gene from MRSA was successfully amplified by real-time PCR within 35 min. Presence...

  3. Molecular epidemiological analysis to assess the influence of pet-ownership in the biodiversity of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in dog- and non-dog-owning healthy households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Balen, J C; Landers, T; Nutt, E; Dent, A; Hoet, A E

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) can occur between owners and their pets within the same household. However, the influence that pet-ownership could have in the biodiversity of SA/MRSA strains circulating among owners is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to perform a molecular epidemiological analysis to evaluate and compare the biodiversity of SA/MRSA strains in dog-owning and non-dog-owning healthy households within the same community. Antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, USA type and clonality were assessed. Overall, 33·1% (165/499) of human subjects carried SA and 2·8% (14/499) carried MRSA. Among dogs, 7·1% (8/113) carried SA but none were MRSA positive. No difference was detected in the diversity index of SA/MRSA pulsotypes between dog-owning and non-dog-owning households; but, a marked variation was still observed in the pulsotypes circulating in each type of household. Additionally, simultaneous carriage of the same SA pulsotype in owner(s) and dog was observed in 57% of households with positive humans and pets. These results demonstrate that dogs can indeed participate in the circulation of SA/MRSA pulsotypes within a home and that the presence of a pet does not seem to favour certain strains within their household.

  4. Metabolic profiling for detection of Staphylococcus aureus infection and antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Antti

    Full Text Available Due to slow diagnostics, physicians must optimize antibiotic therapies based on clinical evaluation of patients without specific information on causative bacteria. We have investigated metabolomic analysis of blood for the detection of acute bacterial infection and early differentiation between ineffective and effective antibiotic treatment. A vital and timely therapeutic difficulty was thereby addressed: the ability to rapidly detect treatment failures because of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA were used in vitro and for infecting mice, while natural MSSA infection was studied in humans. Samples of bacterial growth media, the blood of infected mice and of humans were analyzed with combined Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis was used to reveal the metabolic profiles of infection and the responses to different antibiotic treatments. In vitro experiments resulted in the detection of 256 putative metabolites and mice infection experiments resulted in the detection of 474 putative metabolites. Importantly, ineffective and effective antibiotic treatments were differentiated already two hours after treatment start in both experimental systems. That is, the ineffective treatment of MRSA using cloxacillin and untreated controls produced one metabolic profile while all effective treatment combinations using cloxacillin or vancomycin for MSSA or MRSA produced another profile. For further evaluation of the concept, blood samples of humans admitted to intensive care with severe sepsis were analyzed. One hundred thirty-three putative metabolites differentiated severe MSSA sepsis (n = 6 from severe Escherichia coli sepsis (n = 10 and identified treatment responses over time. Combined analysis of human, in vitro, and mice samples identified 25 metabolites indicative of effective treatment of S. aureus sepsis. Taken together, this

  5. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    . aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398......Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  6. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  7. Serotonin syndrome in an orthopaedic patient secondary to linezolid therapy for MRSA infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McClean, M

    2012-01-31

    A 67-year-old patient was admitted for incision and drainage of a recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hip abscess. Linezolid therapy was initiated postoperatively. Within 48 h the patient developed confusion, agitation, hypertension and acute renal failure. Citalopram was stopped and resolution of symptoms occurred within 48 h of discontinuing the offending agent. The symptoms observed in our patient were consistent with the Sternbach criteria for serotonin syndrome.

  8. Prognosis of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection treated with teicoplanin: a retrospective cohort study investigating effect of teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Hau-Shin; Weng, Chia-Min; Hsu, Le-Yin; Wang, Fu-Der

    2013-04-19

    The present study was designed to investigate whether teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates play a role in the prognosis of patient with teicoplanin-treated MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI). Between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, adult patients with teicoplanin-treated MRSA BSI in two Taiwan medical centers were retrospectively enrolled. Their blood MRSA isolates were submitted for determination of MICs to various antibiotics and multi-locus sequence types. All-cause mortalities on Days 14 and 30, as well as clinical response at the end of teicoplanin therapy were treated as endpoints. Two hundred seventy adult patients were enrolled and 210 blood MRSA isolates were available. Independent risk factors for un-favorable outcome at the end of teicoplanin therapy included septic shock (p teicoplanin MICs in the prognosis of adult patients with teicoplanin-treated MRSA BSI.

  9. Frequency and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene in Staphylococcus aureus colonising HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zain, Z; Mohd-Nawi, S F A; Adnan, A; Kumar, S

    2017-08-01

    HIV-infected patients pose a high risk of contracting skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Those who are colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that carry Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are predisposed to severe infections that could lead to necrotic skin infections. However the association of S. aureus specifically methicillin sensitive S. aureus carrying PVL gene in HIV patients has not been widely reported. Here, we study the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of PVL-producing S. aureus in HIV-infected patients. Swabs from four body sites of 129 HIV-infected patients were cultured for S. aureus and identified by standard microbiological procedures. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion against penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and cotrimoxazole. PCR was used to detect the PVL gene and genetic relationship between the isolates was determined by using pulse field gel electrophoresis. A total of 51 isolates of S. aureus were obtained from 40 (31%) of the patients. The majority (43.1%) of the isolates were obtained from the anterior nares. Thirteen (25.5%) of all the isolates were resistant to more than one category of antibiotics, with one isolate identified as MRSA. Thirty-eight (74.5%) isolates (including the MRSA isolate) carried PVL gene where the majority (44.7%) of these isolates were from the anterior nares. A dendogram revealed that the isolates were genetically diverse with 37 distinct pulsotypes clustered in 11 groups. S. aureus obtained from multiple sites of the HIV patients were genetically diverse without any clonality observed.

  10. Impact of a mandatory infection control education program on nosocomial acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Todd C; Moore, Christine; Raboud, Janet M; Muller, Matthew P; Green, Karen; Tong, Agnes; Dhaliwal, Jastej; McGeer, Allison

    2009-03-01

    To assess the impact of an institution-wide infection control education program on the rate of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Before-and-after study. A 472-bed, urban, university-affiliated hospital.Intervention. During the period March-May 2004, all hospital staff completed a mandatory infection control education program, including the receipt of hospital-specific MRSA data and case-based practice with additional precautions. The rate of nosocomial MRSA acquisition was calculated as the number of cases of nosocomial MRSA acquisition per 100 days that a person with MRSA colonization or infection detected at admission is present in the hospital ("admission MRSA" exposure-days) for 3 time periods: June 2002-February 2003 (before the Toronto outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), June 2003-February 2004 (after the outbreak of SARS), and June 2004-February 2005 (after education). A case of nosocomial acquisition of MRSA colonization or infection represented a patient first identified as colonized or infected more than 72 hours after admission or at admission after a previous hospitalization. The rate of nosocomial acquisition of MRSA colonization or infection was 8.8 cases per 100 admission MRSA exposure-days for the period before SARS, 3.8 cases per 100 admission MRSA exposure-days for the period after SARS (Pcases per 100 admission MRSA exposure-days for the period after education (P=.02 for after education vs before education). The volume of alcohol-based handrub purchased was apparently stable, with 4,010 L during fiscal year 2003-2004 (April 2003-March 2004) compared with 3,780 L during fiscal year 2004-2005. The observed rate of compliance with hand washing did not change significantly (40.9% during education vs 44.2% after education; P=.23). The total number of patients screened for MRSA colonization was not different in the 3 periods. The rate of nosocomial acquisition of MRSA colonization or infection

  11. Determination Of Prevalence Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Infections Through Measurement Of Mics Of S. Aureus Isolates Imam Hospital (November 2001 To January 2003

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    M. Mohraz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen which its prevalence has increased worldwide over the past three decades."nMaterials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The following study is designed for determination of prevalence of MRSA infection through measurement of MICs of S. aureus isolates in Imam Khomeini Hospital (a teaching hospital from November 2001 to January 2003. A total number of 402 specimens were isolated and specified as S. aureus by Imam Khomeini microbiology lab. Demographic and clinical data and results of MIC were analysed by Epilnfo 6 software."nResults: During the study, staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 402 patients that 187 (46.5% of isolates were MRSA and 215 (53.5% were MSSA. Of 402 patients, 254 (63.2% were male and 148 (36.8% were female. The difference of the prevalence of MRSA between males and females was not statistically significant (p= 0.09. The difference in mean age in MRSA and MSSA groups was not statistically significant (p= 0.55. In the age group of < 1 month, the prevalence of MRSA infection was significantly higher than other groups (P= 0.01."nConclusion: In this study, the prevalence of MRSA infection was increased, statistically significant in the presence of such factors as sepsis, longer duration of hospitalization, hospital- acquired infection, history of invasive procedure, history of antimicrobials used in the past 3 months and type of administered antimicrobial (s, history of hospitalization in the preceding year, certain underlying diseases, type of admission ward, type of infection, type of specimen and type of administered antimicrobials for treatment. Surprisingly, the prevalence of MRSA infection in IV drug user group was low that was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. In this study, there was no statistically significant difference in outcome between MRSA infected and MSSA infected patients. Based on results of

  12. Staphylococcus aureus infections; Lead by the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn overview and the latest insights regarding S. aureus nasal carriage, associated risks of developing infections and possible preventive measures, will be given in Chapter 2. Since mupirocin efficacy studies in preventing nosocomial infections have only been performed in surgical and

  13. Risk factors and mortality of nosocomial infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Der; Chen, Yin-Yin; Chen, Te-Li; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2011-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing worldwide problem. We determined risk factors and predictors of mortality of MRSA nosocomial infections (NIs). A prospective cohort study was performed in an adult mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit from 2003 to 2007. Stratified analyses and generalized linear modeling were used to assess risk factors and predictors of infection and mortality. A total of 184 infections (3.6% of all infections) were due to S aureus, and 97.8% of these were methicillin resistant. The most common infection sites were respiratory tract (35.6%) and bloodstream (30.6%). Stratified analyses of length of stay (LOS) before onset of MRSA NI and death indicated that MRSA infection (odds ratio [OR], 38.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.53-58.09) and mortality (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 1.92-11.99) were more likely for LOS more than 15 days than for LOS less than 7 days. After controlling for potentially confounding factors by use of generalized linear modeling analysis, we identified the following as independent risk factors: LOS before onset of MRSA infection (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.01-1.04), serum creatinine (OR, 5.87; 95% CI, 1.37-9.21) level, use of mechanical ventilator (OR, 6.71; 95% CI, 1.58-8.5), and central venous catheter (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.31). Methicillin resistance is very common with S aureus infection. In our intensive care unit, use of invasive devices/procedures and LOS were the most important risk factors for infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The emerging ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone in the community in Japan: associated infections, genetic diversity, and comparative genomics.

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    Iwao, Yasuhisa; Ishii, Rumiko; Tomita, Yusuke; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Takano, Tomomi; Hung, Wei-chun; Higuchi, Wataru; Isobe, Hirokazu; Nishiyama, Akihito; Yano, Mio; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ogata, Kikuyo; Okubo, Takeshi; Khokhlova, Olga; Ho, Pak-leung; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-07-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major concern worldwide. In the United States, ST8 CA-MRSA with SCCmecIVa (USA300) has been predominant, affecting the entire United States. In this study, we investigated Japanese ST8 CA-MRSA with new SCCmecIV1 (designated ST8 CA-MRSA/J), which has emerged in Japan since 2003. Regarding community spread and infections, ST8 CA-MRSA/J spread in 16.2-34.4% as a major genotype in the community in Japan, and was associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), colitis, and invasive infections (sepsis, epidural abscesses, and necrotizing pneumonia), including influenza prodrome cases and athlete infections, similar to USA300. It spread to even public transport and Hong Kong through a Japanese family. Regarding genetic diversity, ST8 CA-MRSA/J included ST and spa variants and was classified into at least three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types, ST8 Jα to γ. Of those, ST8 Jβ was associated with severe invasive infections. As for genomics, ST8 CA-MRSA/J showed high similarities to USA300, but with marked diversity in accessory genes; e.g., ST8 CA-MRSA/J possessed enhanced cytolytic peptide genes of CA-MRSA, but lacked the Panton-Valentine leukocidin phage and arginine catabolic mobile element, unlike USA300. The unique features of ST8 CA-MRSA/J included a novel mosaic SaPI (designated SaPIj50) carrying the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene with high expression; the evolution included salvage (through recombination) of hospital-acquired MRSA virulence. The data suggest that ST8 CA-MRSA/J has become a successful native clone in Japan, in association with not only SSTIs but also severe invasive infections (posing a threat), requiring attention.

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Saito; Jessica Thom; Yanliang Wei; Piraveina Gnanasuntharam; Pirasanya Gnanasuntharam; Nathan Kreiswirth; Barbara Willey; Michelle Loftus; Catherine Varner; Vanessa Porter; Allison McGeer; Bjug Borgundvaag

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs) exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.OBJECTIVE: To determine MRSA colonization in emergency department (ED) HCWs in the setting of a moderate prevalence of MRSA...

  16. Assessment of risk factors related to healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection at patient admission to an intensive care unit in Japan

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    Ogura Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA infection in intensive care unit (ICU patients prolongs ICU stay and causes high mortality. Predicting HA-MRSA infection on admission can strengthen precautions against MRSA transmission. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in an ICU from data obtained within 24 hours of patient ICU admission. Methods We prospectively studied HA-MRSA infection in 474 consecutive patients admitted for more than 2 days to our medical, surgical, and trauma ICU in a tertiary referral hospital in Japan. Data obtained from patients within 24 hours of ICU admission on 11 prognostic variables possibly related to outcome were evaluated to predict infection risk in the early phase of ICU stay. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for HA-MRSA infection. Results Thirty patients (6.3% had MRSA infection, and 444 patients (93.7% were infection-free. Intubation, existence of open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission, were detected as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with intubation or open wound comprised 96.7% of MRSA-infected patients but only 57.4% of all patients admitted. Conclusions Four prognostic variables were found to be risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in ICU: intubation, open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission. Preemptive infection control in patients with these risk factors might effectively decrease HA-MRSA infection.

  17. Assessment of virulence diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with a Drosophila melanogaster infection model

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    Wu Kaiyu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus strains with distinct genetic backgrounds have shown different virulence in animal models as well as associations with different clinical outcomes, such as causing infection in the hospital or the community. With S. aureus strains carrying diverse genetic backgrounds that have been demonstrated by gene typing and genomic sequences, it is difficult to compare these strains using mammalian models. Invertebrate host models provide a useful alternative approach for studying bacterial pathogenesis in mammals since they have conserved innate immune systems of biological defense. Here, we employed Drosophila melanogaster as a host model for studying the virulence of S. aureus strains. Results Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA strains USA300, USA400 and CMRSA2 were more virulent than a hospital-associated (HA-MRSA strain (CMRSA6 and a colonization strain (M92 in the D. melanogaster model. These results correlate with bacterial virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans host model as well as human clinical data. Moreover, MRSA killing activities in the D. melanogaster model are associated with bacterial replication within the flies. Different MRSA strains induced similar host responses in D. melanogaster, but demonstrated differential expression of common bacterial virulence factors, which may account for the different killing activities in the model. In addition, hemolysin α, an important virulence factor produced by S. aureus in human infections is postulated to play a role in the fly killing. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the D. melanogaster model is potentially useful for studying S. aureus pathogenicity. Different MRSA strains demonstrated diverse virulence in the D. melanogaster model, which may be the result of differing expression of bacterial virulence factors in vivo.

  18. Decal bone matrix as a local antibiotic delivery vehicle in a MRSA-infected bone model: An experimental study

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    Saraf Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA antibiotic beads though have proved their utility as a local antibiotic delivery system, however, there are limitations. Decalcified bone matrix (DBM as a vehicle of antibiotics can serve the purpose, provided a minimum inhibitory concentration is sustained. Healing of the defect and avoiding the second surgery is another advantage. We studied the DBM as the delivery vehicle for vancomycin in controlling the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA osteomyelitis as well as healing of the cavity simultaneously in an experimental study. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to optimize vancomycin impregnation in the DBM. For the in vivo study, a unicortical defect was created in the metaphysis of the distal femur in 18 rabbits. After contaminating the defect with MRSA, rabbits were divided into three groups. Group I (eight limbs received no graft. Defects in group II (11 limbs were filled with plain DBM chips and in group III (14 limbs, cavities were implanted with vancomycin-impregnated decal bone chips. Rabbits were assessed by clinical, radiological, histological, gross examination and bacterial load assay. High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC analysis of vancomycin in group III was done to assess the concentration in DBM chips. Results: In group I, the infection persisted throughout the period of the study. Group II showed the fulminated infection at the grafted site with DBM chips sequestrating out. Vancomycin-impregnated decal chips in group III did not show any sign of infection and eventually incorporated. The bacterial load study showed a progressive load change and HPLC revealed an effective antibiotic concentration up to 3 weeks in both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Decal bone chips were effective as the local antibiotic delivery vehicle in preventing the MRSA osteomyelitis model. It eluted vancomycin significantly and the graft uptake was also excellent

  19. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and health care workers at Muhimbili national hospital, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geofrey, Alfred; Abade, Ahmed; Aboud, Said

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 in two ICUs at MNH. Admitted patients and health care workers were enrolled in the study. Interviewer administered questionnaires; patient history forms, observation charts and case report forms were used to collect data. Swabs (nostrils, axillary or wounds) were collected. MRSA were screened and confirmed using cefoxitin, oxacillin discs and oxacillin screen agar. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The risk factors for MRSA were determined using the logistic regression analysis and a p - value of MRSA colonization among patients and health care workers was 11.83% and 2.1% respectively. All (21) MRSA isolates were highly resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, and 17 (85.7%) were highly sensitive to vancomycin. Being male (AOR 6.74, 95% CI 1.31-34.76), history of sickness in past year (AOR 4.89, 95% CI 1.82- 13.12), being sick for more 3 times (AOR 8.91, 95% CI 2.32-34.20), being diabetic (AOR 4.87, 95% CI 1.55-15.36) and illicit drug use (AOR 10.18, 95%CI 1.36-76.52) were found to be independently associated with MRSA colonization. A study identified a high prevalence of MRSA colonization among patients admitted in the ICU. MRSA isolates were highly resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. History of illegal drug use was highly associated with MRSA colonization.

  20. Determining the prevalence of SCCmec polymorphism, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from selected hospitals in west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherikalani, Morovat; Mohammadzad, Mohammad Reza; Soroush, Setareh; Maleki, Mohammad Hossein; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Pakzad, Iraj; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Asadollahi, Parisa; Emaneini, Mohammad; Monjezi, Aazam; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important pathogens worldwide and compared to other staphylococcal species that are associated with higher mortality rate. A total of 500 Staphylococcus spp. was collected from selected hospitals in Ilam, Kermanshah, Khorram Abad and Hamadan cities and, via phenotypic and genotypic methods, was assessed to find MRSA. The presence or absence of prevalent antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes was evaluated among MRSA isolates, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and then the SCCmec typing of these isolates was assayed by multiplex PCR. A total of 372 (74.4%) Stapylococcus spp. isolates were identified as S. aureus, among which 200 (53.8%) possessed the mecA gene and were distinguished as MRSA. All of MRSA isolates contained blaZ gene. The frequency of ermA and ermC genes among erythromycin-resistant MRSA isolates was 21.6% and 66.7%, respectively. The frequency of the virulence genes eta, hla and sea among MRSA isolates was 10%, 80.5% and 100%, respectively. SCCmec type IV accounted for 30.6% of the MRSA isolates and SCCmec type III, SCCmec type II and SCCmec type I accounted for 30%, 22% and 17.5% of the isolates, respectively. The antibiotic resistance genes and the virulence genes of blaZ, hla, sea, eta and ermC had high frequencies among the MRSA isolates. This study showed that the antibiotic resistance genes had higher frequencies among SCCmec types I and IV, which confirms the previous reports in this field.

  1. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection.

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    Ching Wen Tseng

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA, exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These "humanized" NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor.

  2. Comparative analysis of the virulence characteristics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from Chinese children: ST59 MRSA highly expresses core gene-encoded toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shipeng; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Xiangmei; Tao, Xiaoxia; Wang, Lijuan; Sun, Mingjiao; Liu, Yingchao; Li, Juan; Qiao, Yanhong; Yu, Sangjie; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong; Shen, Xuzhuang

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of a novel cell wall-anchored protein gene, sasX, and to obtain information on the genetic basis for the pathogenic potential of the MRSA strains isolated from Chinese children. The molecular and virulence characteristics of the clinical strains were analyzed. Twenty-two sequence types (STs) were obtained, with six epidemic clones ST59, ST239, ST1, ST910, ST88, and ST338 accounting for 35.8, 22, 6.6, 6.6, 5.3, and 4.1% respectively. The expression levels of hla, psmα, and RNAIII were higher in ST59 than in other STs (p MRSA isolates. ST239-MRSA-SCCmecIII-t037 (61.5%) was the predominant sasX-positive MRSA clone. The expressions of PSMα and RNAIII were higher in sasX-positive ST239 isolates than in sasX-negative ST239 ones (p MRSA was higher than that by sasX-negative ST239 MRSA (p = 0.008). This study indicated that ST59 was the predominant clone in the MRSA isolates obtained from Chinese children and might have stronger pathogenic potential. The prevalence of the sasX gene in the MRSA isolates from children was relatively low. Furthermore, the sasX gene might be related to the expressions of PSMα and RNAIII and infection invasiveness. © 2013 APMIS Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ocular infections

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    Maria Eugenia Vola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus ocular infections in a tertiary health center in Brazil and compare antibiotic susceptibility patterns between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Electronic records from the ocular microbiology laboratory of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (between January 2000 and December 2009 all conjunctivitis, keratitis, and endophthalmitis cases with a positive culture for S. aureus were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-six S. aureus isolates were identified; of those, 56 (9.9% were resistant to methicillin. Throughout the 10-year period, Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant increasing trend from 7.55% to 16.18% among overall S. aurues infections (p=0.001 and from 3.7% to 13.16% in conjunctivitis (p=0.001. Conversely, we did not observe the same trend among those with keratitis (p=0.38. Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed higher resistance rates to tobramycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin when compared with S. aureus isolates (p< 0.001. All cases were susceptible to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: We observed an increasing trend in the overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ocular infections and statistically significant higher resistance rates to commonly used antibiotics compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Our data supports the need for constant bacterial surveillance and should be taken into consideration before initiating empiric treatment of ocular infections.

  4. Molecular analysis and susceptibility patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains causing community- and health care-associated infections in the northern region of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Kamel; Jarrar, Naser; Abu-Hijleh, Awni; Adwan, Ghaleb; Awwad, Elena; Salameh, Yousef

    2013-03-01

    Community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a major global problem. This study attempted to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains among 360 healthy university students at An-Najah National University, Palestine. For the purpose of comparing the staphylococcal cassette chromosome methicillin resistant determinant (SCCmec) type of MRSA, 46 clinical MRSA isolates were also included in this study. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. The genetic association of MRSA isolates was investigated by SCCmec typing. A selected number of isolates were also used to amplify and sequence mecA. Nasal carriage of S aureus was found in 86 of 360 students (24%). MRSA accounted for 9% of S aureus isolates. All 86 strains of S aureus were sensitive to vancomycin. Resistance to penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin was found in 98%, 93%, 33%, 23%, and 12% of the isolates, respectively. Resistance rates of the MRSA isolates were as follows: 100% resistant to penicillin G and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 96% to ethromycin, 52% to clindamycin, and 48% to ciprofloxacin. No vancomycin-resistant isolates were identified. In our study, nearly half (52%) of the MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec types IVa and V. However, SCCmec types II and III are represented by 48%, whereas SCCmec type I was completely absent. The findings of this study indicate the existence of SCCmec type IVa in both student nasal carriers and health care settings. This emphasizes the need for implementation of a revised set of control measures in both settings. Moreover, the rational prescription of appropriate antibiotics should also be considered. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin and soft-tissue infections in suburban primary care: epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and observations on abscess management

    OpenAIRE

    Boggs John; Kaminsky Peggy; Weiss Charles; Ley Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Reports from urban medical centers suggest that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Risk factors for MRSA have been identified but have not been clinically useful. Findings From May 2006-April 2007, we performed an observational study of 529 SSTIs among ambulatory patients in the urgent care departments of a large suburban primary-care practice. SSTIs were included if they produced ...

  6. Outbreak of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among health care workers in a cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Christelle; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam I; Perego, Cheryl A; Dvorak, Tanya; Hulten, Kristina G; Frenzel, Elizabeth; Thomas, Georgia; Chemaly, Roy F

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) soft tissue infections is rising. However, CA-MRSA outbreaks among health care workers (HCWs) are rarely reported. We describe 3 clusters of CA-MRSA soft tissue infections among HCWs and the subsequent transmission to a patient. The first cluster of boils occurred in 4 employees who worked in the ambulatory treatment clinic (area A) and 1 patient (PA1) who frequently visited area A. Three employees (EA1, EA2, and EA3) and PA1 had positive cultures. Twelve employees in 2 geographically separate diagnostic imaging areas (areas B and C) reported recent or current boils of whom EB1, EB2, EB3, and EC1 had positive cultures. Molecular subtyping using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on all 8 isolates and confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratory. Relatedness of the MRSA strain was confirmed by PFGE in 7 of 8 isolates. Only EB3 was not related to the prototype CA-MRSA strain. All 7 related MRSA strains contained the typical genetic organization of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC)-mec type IVa plus genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. EB3's strain contained SCC-mec type II and was Panton-Valentine Leukocidin negative. A total of 171 questionnaires was sent. Nine of the 85 HCWs who responded reported a recent or current history of boils. Infection control conducted an education program for employees in areas A, B, and C. Early identification and control of CA-MRSA infections among HCWs is important to limit horizontal transmission to patients. Future efforts should include educational programs and guidelines for reporting and treating HCWs with MRSA infections. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in people and pets in the same household with an infected person or infected pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faires, Meredith C; Tater, Kathy C; Weese, J Scott

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of concurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in people and pets in the same household with a person or pet with an MRSA infection and to compare MRSA isolates by use of molecular techniques. 2 cross-sectional evaluations conducted concurrently. 24 dogs, 10 cats, and 56 humans in part 1 and 21 dogs, 4 cats, and 16 humans in part 2 of the study. In both parts of the study, nasal swab specimens were collected from humans and nasal and rectal swab specimens were collected from household pets. Selective culture for MRSA was performed, and isolates were typed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing. Households were defined as positive when MRSA was isolated from at least 1 person (part 1) or 1 pet (part 2). In part 1, 6 of 22 (27.3%) households were identified with MRSA colonization in a person. In these households, 10 of 56 (17.9%) humans, 2 of 24 (8.3%) dogs, and 1 of 10 (10%) cats were colonized with MRSA. In part 2, only 1 of 8 households was identified with MRSA colonization in a pet. Most MRSA isolates obtained from humans and pets in the same household were indistinguishable by use of PFGE. The high prevalence of concurrent MRSA colonization as well as identification of indistinguishable strains in humans and pet dogs and cats in the same household suggested that interspecies transmission of MRSA is possible. Longitudinal studies are required to identify factors associated with interspecies transmission.

  8. Proteome-wide antigen discovery of novel protective vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Mattsson, Andreas Holm; Pilely, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rapidly growing problem, especially in hospitals where MRSA cause increased morbidity and mortality and a significant rise in health expenditures. As many strains of MRSA are resistant to other antimicrobials in addition to methicillin, ther...

  9. Nasal Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated Post-surgical Wounds Infections

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    Ikpeme, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is an important risk factor for developing a wide range of infections in clinical setting. This study was aimed at determining the extent of staphylococcal carriages including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in post-surgical patients and employees in a tertiary health facility. Methodology and Results: Between April and July 2010, 240 post-surgical patients and 80 hospital personnel at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar were enrolled in the present study. All subjects consented to participation in the study and those who had previous medical history or treatment on antibiotic in the last six months prior to enrolment were noted. Nasal specimens collected from carrier and post-surgical sites in individuals (15-63 years who were hospitalized for at least 21 days were immediately placed in Staurts’ transport medium and kept at 4 °C before being analyzed accordingly and screened for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Out of a total number of 320 subjects examined within a period of 4 months 144 (45% were carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and 55 (38% of these were MRSA. Demographic and clinical data of subjects indicated more male carriers (60.7% confined to older age groups above 35 years. There was a significant difference (p> 0.05 in Staphylococcus aureus carriage for subjects with recent medical history of hospitalization or treatment with antibiotics. There also appears to be a considerable association (50.9% between nasal carriage status and autoinfection of post-surgical wounds. A good proportion of all strains tested were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Approximately 89% of MRSA were resistant to penicillin. Resistant rate against other antibiotics was largely below 30%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: An improved understanding of nasal carriage is needed to foster development of new strategies to reduce colonization and

  10. Preoperative biliary MRSA infection in patients undergoing hepatobiliary resection with cholangiojejunostomy: incidence, antibiotic treatment, and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Daisuke; Sugawara, Gen; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Nagino, Masato

    2011-04-01

    There have been no reports on the impact of preoperative biliary MRSA infection on the outcome of major hepatectomy. The aim of this study was to review the surgical outcome of patients who underwent hepatobiliary resection after biliary drainage and to evaluate the impact of preoperative biliary MRSA infection. Medical records from 350 patients who underwent hepatobiliary resection with cholangiojejunostomy after external biliary drainage were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 350 study patients, 14 (4.0%) had MRSA-positive bile culture, 246 (70.3%) had positive bile culture without MRSA growth, and the remaining 90 (25.7%) had negative bile culture. In all of the patients with MRSA-positive bile culture, vancomycin was prophylactically administered after surgery. Of the 14 patients, 6 (42.9%) had surgical site infections, including wound infection in 5 patients and intra-abdominal abscess in 2 patients. The incidence of surgical site infection in the 14 MRSA-positive patients was higher but not statistically significant compared to the incidence in other patient groups. All 14 patients tolerated difficult hepatobiliary resection. Of the 350 study patients, 28 (8.0%) had postoperative MRSA infections. Multivariate analysis identified preoperative MRSA-positive bile culture as a significant independent risk factor for postoperative MRSA infection. Preoperative biliary MRSA infection is troublesome as it is an independent risk factor of postoperative MRSA infection. Even in such troublesome situations, however, difficult hepatobiliary resection can be performed with acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality using appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis, including vancomycin, based on bile culture.

  11. ANTISTAPHYBASE: database of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and essential oils (EOs) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Taieb, Malek; Lamine, Mohamed Ashraf; Cherif, Ammar; Jridi, Taoufik; Mahjoubi, Basma; Mbarek, Sarra; Fliss, Ismail; Nefzi, Adel; Sebei, Khaled; Ben Hamida, Jeannette

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus are major pathogens. The antimicrobial peptides and essential oils (EOs) display narrow- or broad-spectrum activity against bacteria including these strains. A centralized resource, such as a database, designed specifically for anti-S. aureus/anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus antimicrobial peptides and EOs is therefore needed to facilitate the comprehensive investigation of their structure/activity associations and combinations. The database ANTISTAPHYBASE is created to facilitate access to important information on antimicrobial peptides and essential peptides against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus. At the moment, the database contains 596 sequences of antimicrobial peptides produced by diverse organisms and 287 essential oil records. It permits a quick and easy search of peptides based on their activity as well as their general, physicochemical properties and literature data. These data are very useful to perform further bioinformatic or chemometric analysis and would certainly be useful for the development of new drugs for medical use. The ANTISTAPHYBASE database is freely available at: https://www.antistaphybase.com/ .

  12. Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by nanoliposomes loaded with gentamicin and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbeyk, Davod Ghoochi; Khameneh, Bahman; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh

    2014-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection with its high incidence is responsible for nosocomial infections. MRSA strains resistant to multiple antibiotics have emerged increasingly. Recently, combination therapy and efficient drug delivery systems are developed to treat infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antibacterial activities of combination of oleic acid and gentamicin against MRSA, in both free and liposomal forms, and in comparison with vancomycin. The antibacterial activities against MRSA ATCC 43300 were assessed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), MBC, and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI). The time-kill assays were performed to evaluate the potency of antibacterial agents. Nanoliposomal formulations of gentamicin, oleic acid, and combination of gentamicin with oleic acid were prepared by the dehydration-rehydration (DRV) method and characterized for size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. MIC values of gentamicin and oleic acid were 19.5 and >250 µg/ml, respectively. Synergetic effects were observed by the gentamicin and oleic acid combination; FICI was 0.5. Following incorporation of gentamicin into liposomal gentamicin and liposomal combination, the MIC values were reduced 15- and 27-fold, respectively. In comparison with vancomycin, liposomal combination was more effective in bacterial inhibition and killing. Liposomal combination was the most effective formula in time-kill study. Liposomal formulation showed a higher antibacterial activity in comparison with the free forms and vancomycin. These carriers can improve antimicrobial activity as well as reducing the effective concentration required and inducing r