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Sample records for aureus mrsa col

  1. Prolonged exposure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) COL strain to increasing concentrations of oxacillin results in a multidrug-resistant phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Aagaard, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    ) assay. DNA typing of the products of each culture step was conducted to assess purity. Serial exposure of MRSA COL to increasing concentrations of OXA resulted in increased resistance to ERY, which could be eliminated with RES. Evaluation of efflux pump activity by the EB method indicated increased...

  2. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  3. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  4. Predictive Value of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Nasal Swab PCR Assay for MRSA Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, Benjamin; Chung, Andrew; Webb, Brandon; Seville, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with poor outcomes and frequently merits empirical antibiotic consideration despite its relatively low incidence. Nasal colonization with MRSA is associated with clinical MRSA infection and can be reliably detected using the nasal swab PCR assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the nasal swab MRSA PCR in predicting MRSA pneumonia. A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary care cente...

  5. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  6. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detection: Comparison of Two Molecular Methods (IDI-MRSA PCR Assay and GenoType MRSA Direct PCR Assay) with Three Selective MRSA Agars (MRSA ID, MRSASelect, and CHROMagar MRSA) for Use with Infection-Control Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    van Hal, S. J.; Stark, D.; Lockwood, B.; Marriott, D; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasing problem. Rapid detection of MRSA-colonized patients has the potential to limit spread of the organism. We evaluated the sensitivities and specificities of MRSA detection by two molecular methods (IDI-MRSA PCR assay and GenoType MRSA Direct PCR assay) and three selective MRSA agars (MRSA ID, MRSASelect, and CHROMagar MRSA), using 205 (101 nasal, 52 groin, and 52 axillary samples) samples from consecutive known MRSA-infected an...

  8. Comparison of Chromogenic Media to BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nasal Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Larry J.; Lapsley, Linda; Fontecchio, Karen; Jacosalem, Dollie; Young, Carol; Hankerd, Rosemary; Newton, Duane W.

    2009-01-01

    To select a method for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal swabs, we compared BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR and various culture media (mannitol salt agar with cefoxitin, MRSASelect, CHROMagar MRSA, and Spectra MRSA). While PCR detection of MRSA was more rapid, MRSASelect and Spectra MRSA demonstrated performance equivalent to that of PCR with maximal detection at 24 h.

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Key facts about MRSA infections in the United States, including schools and healthcare settings.  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/23/2007.

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  11. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  12. Comparison of BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR versus the CHROMagar MRSA Assay for Screening Patients for the Presence of MRSA Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, John M.; Havill, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) real-time PCR assay with the CHROMagar MRSA assay for the detection of MRSA in 286 nasal surveillance specimens. Compared with the CHROMagar MRSA assay, PCR had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 100%, 98.6%, 95.8%, and 100%, respectively. The mean PCR turnaround time was 14.5 h.

  13. The Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeck, Robin; Mellmann, Alexander; Schaumburg, Frieder; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kipp, Frank; Becker, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: For decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of infection in hospitals and nursing homes (health care-associated MRSA, HA-MRSA). Beginning in the late 1990s, many countries have also experienced a rising incidence of MRSA infection outside of the

  14. Blue Light Phototherapy Kills Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwemeka, Chukuka S.; Williams, Debora; Enwemeka, Sombiri K.; Hollosi, Steve; Yens, David

    2010-05-01

    Background: Methycillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria continue to defy most available antibiotics. As a result infections with MRSA remain a growing public health concern. As a paradigm shift and a significant departure from the on-going trend to develop stronger drug-based therapies, we studied the effect of 405 nm and 470 nm wavelengths of blue light on two strains of MRSA—US-300 strain of CA-MRSA and the IS853 strain of HA-MRSA—in vitro. Methods: We cultured and plated each strain, following which bacteria colonies were irradiated with 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 Jcm-2 energy densities—just once. Specimens were incubated at 35° C for 24 h. Then, digital images obtained were quantified to obtain colony counts and the aggregate area occupied by bacteria colonies. Results: Each wavelength produced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in both the number and the aggregate area of colonies formed by each bacteria strain (PMRSA and CA-MRSA in vitro; raising the prospect that phototherapy may be an effective clinical tool in the on-going effort to stem MRSA infections.

  15. Long-Term Risk for Readmission, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection, and Death among MRSA-Colonized Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Quezada Joaquin, Nestor M.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Perencevich, Eli N.; Bailey, George; Winokur, Patricia L.; Schweizer, Marin L.

    2013-01-01

    While numerous studies have assessed the outcomes of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization over the short term, little is known about longer-term outcomes after discharge. An assessment of long-term outcomes could provide information about the utility of various MRSA prevention approaches. A matched-cohort study was performed among Veterans Affairs (VA) patients screened for MRSA colonization between the years 2007 and 2009 and followed to evaluate outcomes until 2010. Cox propo...

  16. Clinical utility of the Xpert MRSA assay for early detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    OH, AE-CHIN; Lee, Jin Kyung; LEE, HA NA; HONG, YOUNG JUN; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Kim, Dong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for many nosocomial and community-acquired infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A practical way to limit the spread of MRSA is early detection and proper treatment. However, screening culture for MRSA typically requires 2–3 days. The Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay developed for screening an MRSA-specific DNA sequence within the staphyl...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  18. Environmental meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disinfection using dry-mist-generated hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, M.D.; Kristoffersen, K.; Slotsbjerg, T.;

    2008-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major problem in hospitals worldwide. Hand hygiene is recognised as crucial in limiting the spread of MRSA but less is known about the role of MRSA reservoirs in the inanimate hospital environment. We evaluated the effect of hydrogen peroxide...

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Shirley A. Micallef; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  20. Misidentification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abdulbaset R. Abuzweda; Alghazali, Mohamed H.; Asma K Elramalli; Amri, Samira G.; Aghila, Ezzeddin Sh.; Abouzeed, Yousef M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims: To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reident...

  1. COMPARISON OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HEALTHY COMMUNITY HOSPITAL VISITORS[CA-MRSA] AND HOSPITAL STAFF [HA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal A Pathare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] in unknown in Oman. Methods: Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on the isolates. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Results: Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%, whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%. Nasal colonization prevalence with HA-MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%, whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54.  Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates.  There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5% as compared to 13.8% [HA-MRSA] in the hospital health-care staff. In spite of a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. Recommendation the universal techniques of hand washing, personal hygiene and sanitation are thus warranted.

  2. Control of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a day-care institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Jensen, ET; Larsen, AR;

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two institutions for multi-handicapped children in Copenhagen. The aim of the study was to determine whether it was possible to eradicate MRSA in a setting with multi-handicapped children and staff where t...

  3. Subcutaneous Infection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Ching Wen; Sanchez-Martinez, Marisel; Arruda, Andrea; Liu, George Y.

    2011-01-01

    MRSA is a worldwide threat to public health, and MRSA skin and soft-tissue infections now account for more than half of all soft-tissue infections in the United States. Among soft-tissue infections, myositis, pyomyositis, and necrotizing fasciitis have been increasingly reported in association with MRSA arising from the community. To understand the interplay between MRSA and host immunity leading to more severe infection, the availability of animal models is critical, permitting the study o...

  4. Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Willem; Pelt, Cindy; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri; Goessens, Wil

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) antigen in 87 of 90 genetically diverse methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) stock culture strains, leading to a sensitivity of 97%. The three discrepant MRSA strains displayed positive results only after induction o...

  5. A laboratory study of susceptibility of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the mode of infection, incidence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and their susceptibility against glycopeptides and fucidic acid, so that awareness may be created for consultants against such notorious rapidly spreading bacteria and recommendation can be made for their prevention and control. Methods: The specimens from various infections suspected on clinical ground were processed by standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing of all the 350 S. aureus and 135 MRSA isolates was done by using modified Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion technique. Results: Of 350 positive S.aureus cultures, 135 were found to be Methicillin resistant (38.5%) which showed susceptibility 96%, 94% and 86% to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Fucidic acid respectively. Conclusion: This study showed a high incidence of MRSA at Mayo Hospital Lahore, Glycopeptides and Fucidic acid were found to be valuable antibiotics against MRSA. (author)

  6. Use of BBL CHROMagar MRSA Medium for Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Pape, John; Wadlin, Jill; Nachamkin, Irving

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of BBL CHROMagar MRSA medium (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly upon subculture from positive blood culture bottles. There were 124 MRSA isolates recovered from blood cultures in the study. BBL CHROMagar MRSA medium was highly sensitive (97.6% [121/124] at 18 to 24 h of incubation and 100% [124/124] at 48 h) and 99.9% specific for identifying MRSA from positive blood cultures.

  7. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert;

    2011-01-01

    . Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention...

  8. Characterization and lytic activity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA phages isolated from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Rahimzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen that causes serious diseases in humans. As part of the efforts to control this pathogen, an isolated bacteriophage, Siphoviridae, which specifically targets Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, was characterized. Aims The objective of this study was to characterize of a virulent bacteriophage (Siphoviridae isolated from a NICU bathroom sink. Methods The MRSA strain was isolated from patient blood. The isolated strain was confirmed as MRSA using conventional methods. Phages were isolated from a NICU bathroom sink and activity was lytic as determined by spot test. Titer phage lysate was measured by the Double Layer Agar (DLA technique. The morphology was found with electron microscopy. The single-step growth curve was plotted. Results Electron microscopy showed the phage as a member of the family Siphoviridae, serogroup A and F. The isolated phage was capable of lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain as shown by spot test. By DLA, the titre of the phages was determined to be 10×108PFU/ml. The single-step growth curve showed that the latent period of the isolated bacteriophage was 30 min and the total number of viable progeny per infected host, burst size, was 2600 PFU/infected host. Conclusion In this study, two phages were isolated and characterized from a NICU bathroom sink, from the Siphoviridae family, which specifically targetsmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  9. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  10. Epidemiology of Emerging Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark: a Nationwide Study in a Country with Low Prevalence of MRSA Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Nuno A.; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Westh, Henrik; Monnet, Dominique L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2005-01-01

    Strict infection control measures introduced during the 1970s have kept the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections extremely low in Denmark. Nevertheless, similarly to other countries, MRSA infections began to appear in the community in the late 1990s. A nationwide surveillance program has collected and stored all MRSA isolates since 1988 and, since 1999, clinical information has been also recorded. We used this information and isolates in a detailed epidem...

  11. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Harlizius, J; Bressan, N; Laerberg, R; Wieler, L H; Witte, W; Deurenberg, R H; Voss, A; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were charact

  12. Risk factors for developing clinical infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) amongst hospital patients initially only colonized with MRSA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J.R. Glynn (Judith); J. J. Picazo; J. Fereres; C. Gaspar

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn hospital outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) many patients are initially colonized without infection. The reasons why some progress to infection while others do not are not known. A cohort of 479 hospital patients, initially only colonized with MRSA, was fo

  13. Antimicrobial treatment of nosocomial meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia: current and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Tobias; Pletz, Mathias W

    2010-11-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause of nosocomial pneumonia. Inadequate or inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, often caused by antimicrobial resistance, is associated with increased mortality for these infections. Agents currently recommended for the treatment of MRSA pneumonia include vancomycin and linezolid in the USA, and vancomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin and quinupristin/dalfopristin in Europe. Antimicrobials such as tigecycline and daptomycin, although approved for the treatment of some MRSA infections, have not demonstrated efficacy equivalent to the approved agents for MRSA pneumonia. Further agents lack data from randomised controlled trials (e.g. fosfomycin, fusidic acid or rifampicin in combination with vancomycin). Antimicrobial agents that have recently been approved or are being investigated as treatments for MRSA infections include the lipoglycopeptides telavancin (approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections in the USA and Canada), dalbavancin and oritavancin, the cephalosporins ceftobiprole and ceftaroline, and the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor iclaprim. To be an effective treatment for MRSA pneumonia, antimicrobial agents must have activity against antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus, penetrate well into the lung, have a low potential for resistance development and have a good safety profile. Here, the available data for current and potential future MRSA pneumonia antimicrobials are reviewed and discussed. PMID:20724119

  14. Epidemiology of Emerging Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark: a Nationwide Study in a Country with Low Prevalence of MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno A.; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Westh, Henrik; Monnet, Dominique L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2005-01-01

    Strict infection control measures introduced during the 1970s have kept the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections extremely low in Denmark. Nevertheless, similarly to other countries, MRSA infections began to appear in the community in the late 1990s. A nationwide surveillance program has collected and stored all MRSA isolates since 1988 and, since 1999, clinical information has been also recorded. We used this information and isolates in a detailed epidemiological and molecular analysis of the 81 MRSA infections identified in Denmark in 2001. MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing. Comparison of the 45 community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA) infections with the 36 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections showed several striking contrasts. Most CO-MRSA were recovered from skin and soft tissue infections caused by isolates carrying the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin genes, and the majority (84%) of isolates belonged to a single clonal type, ST80-IV, which has been found in the community in other European countries. Clone ST80-IV could be traced in Denmark back to 1993. ST80-IV was rarely found in HA-MRSA infections, which belonged to a large number of clonal types, including some pandemic MRSA clones. The low number of HA-MRSA infections and the diversity of MRSA clones in Danish hospitals may be the result of successful infection control measures that prevent spread of clones in hospitals. The mechanism of spread of the ST80-IV clone in the Danish community is not known, and new control measures are needed to control further spread of this and other CA-MRSA clones. PMID:15815005

  15. Experimental Endocarditis Model of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hady, Wessam Abdel; Bayer, Arnold S.; Xiong, Yan Q.

    2012-01-01

    Endovascular infections, including endocarditis, are life-threatening infectious syndromes1-3. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common world-wide cause of such syndromes with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality even with appropriate antimicrobial agent treatments4-6. The increase in infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the high rates of vancomycin clinical treatment failures and growing problems of linezolid and daptomycin resistance have all further complicated th...

  16. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Growth and Biofilm Formation after Treatment with Antibiotics and SeNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna Cihalova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a dangerous pathogen resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due to its resistance, it is difficult to manage the infections caused by this strain. We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form biofilms in sensitive S. aureus and MRSA after the application of antibiotics (ATBs—ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin—and complexes of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs with these ATBs. The results suggest the strong inhibition effect of SeNPs in complexes with conventional ATBs. Using the impedance method, a higher disruption of biofilms was observed after the application of ATB complexes with SeNPs compared to the group exposed to ATBs without SeNPs. The biofilm formation was intensely inhibited (up to 99% ± 7% for S. aureus and up to 94% ± 4% for MRSA after application of SeNPs in comparison with bacteria without antibacterial compounds whereas ATBs without SeNPs inhibited S. aureus up to 79% ± 5% and MRSA up to 16% ± 2% only. The obtained results provide a basis for the use of SeNPs as a tool for the treatment of bacterial infections, which can be complicated because of increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional ATB drugs.

  18. Phylogeographic variation in recombination rates within a global clone of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Corander, Jukka; Marttinen, Pekka;

    2012-01-01

    by employing a recently developed Bayesian approach, BRATNextGen, for detecting recombination on an expanded NGS dataset of the globally disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST239. RESULTS: The data confirm strong geographical clustering at continental, national and city scales...

  19. Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in der Veterinärmedizin : ein "New Emerging Pathogen"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Friedrich, Alexander W; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2006-01-01

    The problem of nosocomial infections is of increasing importance in veterinary medicine. As an example, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a typical example, as these pathogens are the most important agents of nosocomial infection

  20. Genome Sequences of Sequence Type 45 (ST45) Persistent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bacteremia Strain 300-169 and ST45 Resolving MRSA Bacteremia Strain 301-188

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, David; Seidl, Kati; Corvaglia, Anna-Rita; Bayer, Arnold S.; Xiong, Yan Q.; Francois, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (positive blood cultures after ≥7 days) represents a challenging subset of invasive MRSA infections. The comparison of genome sequences of persistent (300-169) and resolving (301-188) MRSA bacteremia isolates with similar genetic background (sequence type 45 [ST45]) will help us to better understand underlying mechanisms of persistent MRSA bacteremia.

  1. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Serrano, Emmanuel; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Marco, Ignasi; Fernández-Garayzabal, José-Francisco; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health.

  2. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

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    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  3. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert;

    2011-01-01

    . Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention......Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for SAB and its complications is likely to grow...

  4. Proti meticilinu odporna bakterija Staphylococcus aureus domačega okolja (CA-MRSA): Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA):

    OpenAIRE

    Dermota, Urška; Grmek-Košnik, Irena; Juteršek, Borut

    2005-01-01

    Background. Community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections affect patients without risk factors. CA-MRSA infections can be serious and also fatal even inpreviously healthy subjects. CA-MRSA differs from hospital acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA). CA-MRSA is more susceptible for non-beta-lactam antibiotics than HA-MRSA, has different PFGE subtypes, and can produce Panton-Valentine leukocidine. Methods. In Institute of Public Health Kranj we routinely performepidemiologic survey of MRSA positive patients. ...

  5. Analisis Tipe Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec Isolat Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Sunarjati Sudigdoadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA were based mainly on insertion of mobile genetic elements namely Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec in the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus. SCCmec consists of recombinase genes (ccr, mec genes complex, additional resistance genes, and insertion sequences. Recombinase genes structure mediates transfer of SCCmec from one bacteria to another. Identification of SCCmec is very important to know basic genetic resistance and to predict spreading of MRSA. The aim of this research was to analyze SCCmec type and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The design of this study was observational analytic study by typing SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on July– December 2007. Isolation and identification of 45 MRSA isolates was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, whereas identification of mecA gene and typing of SCCmec by multiplex PCR was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sriwijaya University, Palembang. The result showed that all isolates contained mecA gene. Multiplex PCR revealed that 40 MRSA isolates had SCCmec type III and 5 isolates with type IV. All SCCmec type III isolates were multiresistant and all of the type IV were not multiresistant. In conclusion, MRSA isolates with SCCmec type III was associated with multiresistant whereas type IV was not.

  6. Validity of ICD-9-CM Coding for Identifying Incident Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections: Is MRSA Infection Coded as a Chronic Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.; Eber, Michael R.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Furuno, Jon P.; Popovich, Kyle J.; Hota, Bala; Rubin, Michael A.; Perencevich, Eli N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Investigators and medical decision makers frequently rely on administrative databases to assess methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection rates and outcomes. The validity of this approach remains unclear. We sought to assess the validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code for infection with drug-resistant microorganisms (V09) for identifying culture-proven MRSA infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS All adults admitted to 3 geographically distinct hospitals between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007, were assessed for presence of incident MRSA infection, defined as an MRSA-positive clinical culture obtained during the index hospitalization, and presence of the V09 ICD-9-CM code. The k statistic was calculated to measure the agreement between presence of MRSA infection and assignment of the V09 code. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were calculated. RESULTS There were 466,819 patients discharged during the study period. Of the 4,506 discharged patients (1.0%) who had the V09 code assigned, 31% had an incident MRSA infection, 20% had prior history of MRSA colonization or infection but did not have an incident MRSA infection, and 49% had no record of MRSA infection during the index hospitalization or the previous hospitalization. The V09 code identified MRSA infection with a sensitivity of 24% (range, 21%–34%) and positive predictive value of 31% (range, 22%–53%). The agreement between assignment of the V09 code and presence of MRSA infection had a κ coefficient of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.25–0.27). CONCLUSIONS In its current state, the ICD-9-CM code V09 is not an accurate predictor of MRSA infection and should not be used to measure rates of MRSA infection. PMID:21460469

  7. Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA

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    Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Millions of indwelling devices are implanted in patients every year, and staphylococci (S. aureus, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA are responsible for a majority of infections associated with these devices, thereby leading to treatment failures. Once established, staphylococcal biofilms become resistant to antimicrobial treatment and host response, thereby serving as the etiological agent for recurrent infections. This study investigated the efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH for inhibiting biofilm synthesis and inactivating fully-formed staphylococcal biofilm on different matrices in the presence and absence of serum protein. Polystyrene plates and stainless steel coupons inoculated with S. aureus, MRSA or VRSA were treated with OH (zero, 0.5, one, 2 mM at 37 °C for the prevention of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibiofilm effect of OH (zero, 2.5, five, 10 mM on fully-formed staphylococcal biofilms on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters was investigated. OH was effective in rapidly inactivating planktonic and biofilm cells of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters in the presence and absence of serum proteins. The use of two and 10 mM OH completely inactivated S. aureus planktonic cells and biofilm (>6.0 log reduction on all matrices tested immediately upon exposure. Further, confocal imaging revealed the presence of dead cells and loss in biofilm architecture in the OH-treated samples when compared to intact live biofilm in the control. Results suggest that OH could be applied as an effective antimicrobial to control biofilms of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on appropriate hospital surfaces and indwelling devices.

  8. Effects of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Ceftaroline on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Biofilms.

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    María Lázaro-Díez

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline (CPT is a novel cephalosporin with in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftaroline exhibits a level of binding affinity for PBPs in S. aureus including PBP2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The aims of this study were to investigate the morphological, physiological and molecular responses of MRSA clinical strains and MRSA biofilms to sub-MICs (1/4 and 1/16 MIC of ceftaroline by using transmission, scanning and confocal microscopy. We have also used quantitative Real-Time PCR to study the effect of sub-MICs of ceftaroline on the expression of the staphylococcal icaA, agrA, sarA and sasF genes in MRSA biofilms. In one set of experiments, ceftaroline was able to inhibit biofilm formation in all strains tested at MIC, however, a strain dependent behavior in presence of sub-MICs of ceftaroline was shown. In a second set of experiments, destruction of preformed biofilms by addition of ceftaroline was evaluated. Ceftaroline was able to inhibit biofilm formation at MIC in all strains tested but not at the sub-MICs. Destruction of preformed biofilms was strain dependent because the biofilm formed by a matrix-producing strain was resistant to a challenge with ceftaroline at MIC, whereas in other strains the biofilm was sensitive. At sub-MICs, the impact of ceftaroline on expression of virulence genes was strain-dependent at 1/4 MIC and no correlation between ceftaroline-enhanced biofilm formation and gene regulation was established at 1/16 MIC. Our findings suggest that sub-MICs of ceftaroline enhance bacterial attachment and biofilm formation by some, but not all, MRSA strains and, therefore, stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of ceftaroline to fight biofilm-MRSA related infections.

  9. An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection in dermatology indoor patients

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    Sachdev D

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen. Indiscriminate and increased use of systemic antibiotics has led to the emergence of MRSA. Infected or colonized ward patients are the main reservoir of infection. Once colonized, the risk of subsequent local and systemic infections is high, especially in the elderly, and in debilitated and immunosuppressed patients. Methods: We report an outbreak of MRSA in the dermatology ward of a tertiary care hospital and describe measures taken to control it. Results: Ten patients were found to be MRSA positive over a span of three months while screening swabs from wet lesions in indoor patients. On the basis of risk assessment, they were treated with appropriate systemic and topical therapy. One patient died while the remaining nine patients showed a good response to therapy. All the MRSA isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Conclusion: This is the first case report of MRSA infection in dermatology indoor patients in India.

  10. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] colonization or carriage among health-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Nirmal A; Asogan, Harshini; Tejani, Sara; Al Mahruqi, Gaitha; Al Fakhri, Salma; Zafarulla, Roshna; Pathare, Anil V

    2016-01-01

    In Oman, the prevalence of health care associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [HA-MRSA] is unknown. Therefore, to estimate the prevalence of HA-MRSA, we collected nasal swabs and swabs from cell phones on sterile polyester swabs and immediately inoculated on the mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin from medical students and hospital health care providers. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was then performed using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Additionally, a brief survey questionnaire was used to acquire demographic data. Amongst the 311 participants enrolled, nasal colonization with HA-MRSA was found in 47 individuals (15.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=11.1%, 19.1%). HA-MRSA was also isolated from the cell phone surfaces in 28 participants (9.0%, 95% CI=8.6%, 9.3%). 5 participants (1.6%) showed positive results both from their nasal swabs and from their cell phones. Antibiotic resistance to erythromycin [48%] and clindamycin [29%] was relatively high. 9.3% HA-MRSA isolates were vancomycin resistant [6.6% nasal carriage]. There was no statistically significant correlation between HA-MRSA isolates and the demographic characteristics or the risk factors namely gender, underlying co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, skin/soft tissue infections, skin ulcers/wounds, recent exposure to antibiotics, or hospital visits (p>0.05, Chi-square test). PMID:26768668

  11. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary.

  12. MRSA (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth MRSA KidsHealth > For Parents > MRSA Print A A A ... and most infections can be treated easily. About MRSA MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a ...

  13. Inactivating Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Other Pathogens by Bacteriocins OR-7 and E 50-52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, reports document the increasing frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Other human pathogens are recognized as unresponsive to antibiotics of last resort. These previously treatable infections now account for increased numbers of human disease and de...

  14. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  15. Nuovo terreno cromogeno MRSA ID per la rilevazione di S. aureus meticillino-resistente: affidabilità nella lettura

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    Marco Arosio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We proceeded to the evaluation of the reability of reading and interpretation of cultures on the chromogenic medium MRSA ID for the detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, within a surveillance program. Our observations demonstrate such method results a useful instrument of screening for the prevention and the control of the spread of the infections by MRSA.

  16. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  17. Nasal colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA does not predict subsequent infection in the intensive care unit

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    Fisseha Ghidey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus; especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The aim of this study was compare the rates of MRSA infections between MRSA colonized and not-colonized patients. A retrospective, electronic and paper chart review of all adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU from 2007 to 2010 was screened for MRSA. Endpoints were pyogenic pneumonia, sepsis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Patients who were not screened for MRSA were excluded from the study. A total of 1203 patients were admitted and screened for MRSA colonization on admission to the ICU from 2007 to 2010. Two main groups were made for between colonized and not-colonized based on MRSA screening. Fifty-seven (57 positive colonized and 122 not-colonized patients' charts were randomly selected. The mean age of the study population was 61.7 ± 18.4 (range, 19–94; there were 80 (44.69% males and 99 (55.31% females. The occurrence of infection with MRSA with either lower respiratory tract infection or blood stream infection identified on the time of ICU admission was similar for patients with and without MRSA nasal colonization 3.51% vs. 2.46%; p = 0.459. There was no observed difference in the rates of MRSA infection between those who tested colonized and not-colonized.

  18. Antibacterial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Lamiaceae) in Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel, Ana P.A.D.; Silva, Jackeline G. da; Grangeiro, Ana R.S.; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; Oliveira, Rinalda Araújo Guerra de; Maria S.V. Pereira; Ivone A. Souza

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes some in vitro experiments with hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Lamiaceae) in several Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in the attempt to determine whether the popular use corroborates with pharmacological properties. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion assay method. The evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the agar dilution method...

  19. Interventions for the eradication of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in people with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited recessive disorder of chloride transport that is characterised by recurrent and persistent pulmonary infections from resistant organisms that result in lung function deterioration and early mortality in sufferers. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as, not only an important infection in long-term hospitalised patients, but also as a potentially harmful pathogen in cystic fibrosis, and has been increasing steadily in pr...

  20. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ISOLATES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN PUNJAB

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    Satish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This prospective study was undertaken to know the prevalence of MRSA, to study antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from the indoor patients of a tertiary care hospital in Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All the iso lates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens were identified by standard methods. MRSA was detected using 30ug cefoxitin disc by disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines, 2007. Each isolate was tested for other anti - staphyloc occal antibiotics by Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion method. Additionally, inducible clindamycin resistance was studied by disc induction test (D test. RESULTS : During a period of one year, a total of 252 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained. Eighty six (34.1% isolates were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the remaining 166 (65.8% isolates were methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. MRSA isolates were significantly less sensitive to common anti - staphylococcal anti biotics as compared to MSSA isolates. However, MRSA isolates showed relatively better sensitivity to some of the antibiotics like netilmicin, levofloxacin, tetracycline and clindamycin. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (19.8% and MRSA (9.3%. None of the isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin. Inducible clindamycin resistance was present in 17 (19.7% MRSA isolates as against 8 (4.8% MSSA isolates. CONCLUSION : Robust antimicrobial stewa rdship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance

  1. MULTI DRUG RESISTANCE IN METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ISOLATES FROM A UNIVER SITY HOSPITAL OF WESTERN INDIA

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    Ravi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogen. Its remarkable ability to develop resistance to a variety of antibiotics makes it a major threat to public health. OBJECTIVES: - To detect the prevalence and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates. MATERIALS & METHODS: - 202 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from c linical samples like blood, pus, sputum & body fluids were screened for Methicillin r esistance by standard disk diffusion method and then confirmed with Oxacillin Screening agar. Antibiotic susceptibility of both the MRSA and Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureu s (MSSA for other antibiotics was subsequently carried out by standard disc diffusion method. RESULTS: Methicillin resistance was detected in 114 strains of Staphylococcus aureus giving a prevalence rate of 56.44%. More than 80% of the MRSA isolates were resistant to ant ibiotics such as Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides and Quinolones. All str ains were uniformly sensitive to Vancomycin & Linezolid. Coexisting resistance to mo st of the antibiotics was significantly higher in the MRSA isolates as compared to the MSSA (Methic illin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates (p < 0.001. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Multi drug resistance among the MRSA isolates poses a major hurdle in treating syste mic infections. Monitoring antibiotic sensitivity pattern, implementing aggressive surveill ance measures & good infection control practices would be helpful in reducing the prevalence of MRSA and its multi drug resistance

  2. Evaluation von Screeningverfahren zum Schnellnachweis von Methicillin-resistenten Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-Isolaten:Vergleich der Testsysteme BacLite Rapid MRSA+ und BD GeneOhm MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, D. (Dominik)

    2015-01-01

    Zwei Schnellverfahren mit unterschiedlichem methodischem Ansatz wurden in dieser Studie evaluiert. Das auf Kurzkultur basierende Testsystem BacLite Rapid MRSA+, und das auf molekulargenetischem Nachweis basierende BD GeneOhm MRSA-Testsystem. Als Referenzmethode diente das klassische Kulturverfahren. Von 497 getesteten Patienten wurden klassisch kulturell bei insgesamt fuenf Patienten eine MRSA Besiedlung entdeckt. Das BacLite Rapid MRSA+ konnte davon zwei MRSA-Traeger erkennen und zeigte eine...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistente (MRSA e Infecções Nosocomiais

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    CRISTINA PAIVA SOUSA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um número crescente de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente (MRSA apresentam resistência a múltiplos agentes antimicrobianos e são implicadas como causas de infecções hospitalares. S. aureus podem ser isolados de ambiente hospitalar e profissionais da saúde, revelando o risco de transmissão desses microrganismos pelo contato direto ou indireto com pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivou-se nesta revisão correlacionar este microrganismo com infecções hospitalares e avaliar as possíveis fontes de infecção, bem como enfatizar a importância do investimento em ações de educação em saúde que culminem em minimização de infecções hospitalares. Palavras-chave: Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente. Infecções nosocomiais.

  4. Solid lipid nanoparticles of clotrimazole silver complex: An efficient nano antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Sonawane, Sandeep J; Sikwal, Dhiraj R; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Rambharose, Sanjeev; Mocktar, Chunderika; Govender, Thirumala

    2015-12-01

    New and effective strategies to transform current antimicrobials are required to address the increasing issue of microbial resistance and declining introduction of new antibiotic drugs. In this context, metal complexes of known drugs and nano delivery systems for antibiotics are proving to be promising strategies. The aim of the study was therefore to synthesize a silver complex of clotrimazole and formulate it into a nano delivery system for enhanced and sustained antibacterial activity against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A silver complex of clotrimazole was synthesized, characterized and further encapsulated into solid lipid nanoparticles to evaluate its antibacterial activity against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). An in vitro cytotoxicity study was performed on HepG2 cell lines to assess the overall biosafety of the synthesized clotrimazole silver complex to mammalian cells, and was found to be non-toxic to mammalian cells (cell viability >80%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of clotrimazole and clotrimazole-silver were 31.25 and 9.76 μg/mL against S. aureus, and 31.25 and 15.62 against MRSA, respectively. Clotrimazole SLNs exhibited MIC values of 104 and 208 μg/mL against both MSSA and MRSA at the end of 18 and 36 h, respectively, but thereafter completely lost its antibacterial activity. Clotrimazole-silver SLNs had an MIC value of 52 μg/mL up to 54 h, after which the MIC value was 104 μg/mL against both strains at the end of 72 h. Thus, clotrimazole-silver SLNs was found to be an efficient nanoantibiotic.

  5. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Min; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); (2) METHODS: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) proteomic analysis; (3) RESULTS: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid-treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4) CONCLUSION: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research. PMID:27399657

  6. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) environmental contamination in a radiology department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, M.J., E-mail: martinshelly@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Scanlon, T.G. [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ruddy, R.; Hannan, M.M. [Department of Clinical Microbiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Murray, J.G. [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-09-15

    Aim: To explore the potential risk to patients and healthcare workers of acquiring meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical and non-clinical areas within a radiology department. Materials and methods: High-risk sites in clinical and non-clinical areas within the Department of Radiology were identified and 125 environmental swabs were obtained by an infection control nurse specialist. Decontamination methods and protocols were reviewed and compared against international decontamination best practice. Results: One of 125 samples was culture positive for MRSA. The positive sample was isolated from the surface of the bore of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. A hypochlorite cleaning agent was applied using a long-handled brush to clean the bore of the MRI unit. A repeat environmental screen found the MRI unit to be culture negative for MRSA. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that standard decontamination measures are adequate to prevent environmental contamination with MRSA in a radiology department. However, the MRI unit requires special attention because of its long bore and difficult access.

  7. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) environmental contamination in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To explore the potential risk to patients and healthcare workers of acquiring meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical and non-clinical areas within a radiology department. Materials and methods: High-risk sites in clinical and non-clinical areas within the Department of Radiology were identified and 125 environmental swabs were obtained by an infection control nurse specialist. Decontamination methods and protocols were reviewed and compared against international decontamination best practice. Results: One of 125 samples was culture positive for MRSA. The positive sample was isolated from the surface of the bore of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. A hypochlorite cleaning agent was applied using a long-handled brush to clean the bore of the MRI unit. A repeat environmental screen found the MRI unit to be culture negative for MRSA. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that standard decontamination measures are adequate to prevent environmental contamination with MRSA in a radiology department. However, the MRI unit requires special attention because of its long bore and difficult access.

  8. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using the NanoLantern Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsahl, Christopher M.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Krauss, Todd D.

    2009-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human illness, and has developed the remarkable ability to resist the bactericidal capabilities of many of the world's leading antibiotics (i.e. MRSA). In an effort to enable rapid detection and treatment of MRSA infections, we have developed a DNA detection technology termed the NanoLantern(TM). The NanoLantern(TM) biosensor technology is based on the simple immobilization of a fluorophore-terminated DNA hairpin onto a gold chip. This produces a label-free sensor that allows for a positive response to be obtained without extensive processing of the sample, saving cost and increasing accuracy. We will also discuss a newly developed method of partial gene analysis, used to develop a DNA hairpin probe that is capable of detecting the presence of the mecR gene, a gene necessary for methicillin resistance to be present in S. aureus, with 100% sequence specificity. The successful incorporation of this probe into the NanoLantern(TM) platform, along with the concomitant development of the paired PCR assay has allowed for the successful detection of methicillin-resistance directly from a culture of S. aureus. These results represent an important step forward in terms of developing the ability to rapidly and effectively detect the presence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections.

  9. Association of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Western Nepal: a matter of concern for community infections (a hospital based prospective study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for destruction of white blood cells, necrosis...

  10. Activity of the Extracts and Neolignans from Piper regnellii against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained of the leaves from P. regnellii were investigated for their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against MRSA, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 16 μg/mL. Based on this finding, the ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane fraction was active against MRSA (MIC at 4 μg/mL. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compound eupomatenoid-5. The structure of the compound was established by spectral data (1H and 13C NMR HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS. Eupomatenoid-5 was the only compound active on the bacterium. The antibacterial property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. The active compound eupomatenoid-5 should be further studied in animal models to verify in vivo efficacy and toxicity.

  11. Structure elucidation of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) flavonoids from balsam poplar buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, François; Gauthier, Charles; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Pichette, André

    2016-09-15

    There is nowadays an urgent need for developing novel generations of antibiotic agents due to the increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria. As a rich reservoir of structurally diverse compounds, plant species hold promise in this regard. Within this framework, we isolated a unique series of antibacterial flavonoids, named balsacones N-U, featuring multiple cinnamyl chains on the flavan skeleton. The structures of these compounds, isolated as racemates, were determined using extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis in tandem with HRMS. Balsacones N-U along with previously isolated balsacones A-M were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several of the tested balsacones were potent anti-MRSA agents showing MIC values in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships study highlighted some important parameters involved in the antibacterial activity of balsacones such as the presence of cinnamyl and cinnamoyl chains at the C-3 and C-8 positions of the flavan skeleton, respectively. These results suggest that balsacones could represent a potential novel class of naturally occurring anti-MRSA agents. PMID:27436809

  12. The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the presence of an unusual sequence type ST49 in slaughter pigs in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner Sabina; Overesch Gudrun; Rossano Alexandra; Perreten Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In years past, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been frequently detected in pigs in Europe, North America and Asia. Recent, yet sporadic studies have revealed a low occurrence of MRSA in Switzerland. In 2009, a monitoring survey of the prevalence and genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in slaughter pigs in Switzerland was conducted using methods recommended by the EU guidelines, and using a sampling strategy evenly distributed throughout t...

  13. Heteroresistance to glycopeptides in Italian meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Floriana; Borbone, Sonia; Perez, Marianna; Bongiorno, Dafne; Cafiso, Viviana; Bertuccio, Taschia; Purrello, Simona; Nicolosi, Daria; Scuderi, Cristina; Stefani, Stefania

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence and molecular characterisation of heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) strains were determined in a large group of Italian strains isolated between 2005 and mid 2007. Amongst the 1284 strains isolated from documented infections in hospitalised patients (bloodstream infection, pneumonia, and skin and skin-structure infections), 139 S. aureus with vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L were screened for the presence of hVISA using three different methods and were confirmed by population analysis profile (PAP). Thirty-six hVISA strains (25.9%) were detected. Amongst the three screening methods used, the macro Etest (MET) demonstrated 100% specificity and 75% sensitivity. hVISA strains were accessory gene regulator (agr) types I and II and belonged to the major nosocomial clones circulating in Italy (ST8, ST239, ST247 and ST228). All strains were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline and dalbavancin. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that hVISA isolates are common amongst MRSA isolates with MICs between 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L in Italy. MET, with its high sensitivity and specificity, should be used for early detection of hVISA, especially in patients with serious or prolonged infections sustained by MRSA. Finally, the most recent anti-Gram-positive drugs maintained their full spectrum of in vitro activity against these strains. PMID:20727722

  14. Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S; Stanley, Adriana; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2015-05-29

    Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is

  15. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA):A Public Health Concern in Athletic Settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lindsay K. Drewes

    2008-01-01

    @@ Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria, commonly manifesting itself in the form of skin infections, and resistant to beta-lactum antibiotics[2]. These infections were seen in hospital settings starting in the 1960s in patients that had recently been hospitalized or undergone a medical procedure[3]. In the 1980s reports were first published in the literature of MRSA acquired in otherwise healthy individuals from community settingsr[4,5]. An increased occurrence of community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been on the rise since the late 1990s and manifests itself as a skin infection in populations without other previously known risk factors[6-8].

  16. An FDA-Drug Library Screen for Compounds with Bioactivities against Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Ying Lau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of new antibacterial drugs entering the market and their misuse have resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, posing a major health crisis worldwide. In particular, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, a pathogen responsible for numerous human infections, has become endemic in hospitals worldwide. Drug repurposing, the finding of new therapeutic indications for approved drugs, is deemed a plausible solution to accelerate drug discovery and development in this area. Towards this end, we screened 1163 drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for bioactivities against MRSA in a 10 μM single-point assay. After excluding known antibiotics and antiseptics, six compounds were identified and their MICs were determined against a panel of clinical MRSA strains. A toxicity assay using human keratinocytes was also conducted to gauge their potential for repurposing as topical agents for treating MRSA skin infections.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA colonization rates among personnel and dogs in a small animal hospital : association with nosocomial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar H; Friedrich, Alexander W; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2009-01-01

    The genetic relationship of thirty Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates derived from the nasal cavities of canine patients hospitalized (n = 7), veterinary personnel (n = 20), and environmental sources (n = 3) sampled during a 20-month investigation period, were analyzed in this study. Ge

  18. In vitro activities of 28 antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from a clinical setting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neela, V; Sasikumar, M; Ghaznavi, G R; Zamberi, S; Mariana, S

    2008-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an established nosocomial and emerging community pathogen associated with many fatalities due to its hyper-virulence and multiple drug resistant properties, is on the continuous rise. To update the current status on the susceptibility of local MRSA isolates to various classes of antibiotics and to identify the most potent antibiotics, thirty-two clinical isolates comprised of hospital acquired (HA) and community acquired (CA) infections were investigated by disk diffusion test. Of the 32 MRSA isolates, 14 (43.75%) and 18 (56.25%) were community and hospital acquired MRSA, respectively. All isolates were multiple drug resistant to more than 3 classes of antibiotics despite the source or specimen from which it was isolated. The oxacillin MICs for all isolates ranged from 2 to > or = 256 microg/ml. Twenty-five of 26 erythromycin-resistant MRSA isolates exhibited an inducible MLS(B) resistance phenotype while one showed an MS phenotype. More than half the isolates (68.75%) were resistant to at least one of the six aminoglycosides tested, with netilmicin as the most susceptible. The most effective antistaphylococcal agents were linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin and quinupristin/dalfopristin exhibited 100% susceptibility. Since MRSA is under continuous pressure of acquiring multiple drug resistance, it is imperative to focus routine surveillance on HA and CA-MRSA strains to monitor and limit the spread of this organism. PMID:19058585

  19. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as causes of human infection and colonization in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Köck

    Full Text Available Pigs, cattle and poultry are colonized with MRSA and the zoonotic transmission of such MRSA to humans via direct animal contact, environmental contaminations or meat are a matter of concern. Livestock-associated (LA MRSA are mostly belonging to clonal complex (CC 398 as defined by multilocus sequence typing. However, MRSA of other clonal lineages including CC5, CC9 and CC97 have also been detected in livestock animals in Germany. Within the framework of a Dutch-German network project (EUREGIO, 14,036 MRSA isolated from clinical and screening specimens (January 2008 - June 2012 derived from human patients in hospitals as well as general or specialized practices in a German region characterized by a high density of livestock production, were subjected to S. aureus protein A (spa sequence typing. The prevalence of putative LA-MRSA among the human MRSA isolates was determined by analyzing the detection of livestock-indicator (LI spa types which had already been reported in German livestock. Overall, 578 spa types were detected among the MRSA isolates. LI spa types t011, t034, t108, t1451, t2011, t571, t1456, t1250, t1255, t1580, t2970, t2346, t1344, t2576, t2330 and t2510 (all of which are indicative for LA-MRSA CC398 accounted for 18.6% of all human isolates. The LI spa types t1430 (CC9, t3992 (CC97, t002 (CC5 and t007 (CC30 were found in 0.14%, 0.01%, 1.01% and 0.04% of all human MRSA isolates, respectively. LI spa types associated with CC398 represented 23% of all MRSA from screening samples and a varying proportion among isolates from clinical specimens ranging between 0% in cerebrospinal fluid, 8% in blood cultures and 14% in deep respiratory fluids. Our findings indicate that LA-MRSA are a major cause for human infection and stress the need for close surveillance. Although LA-MRSA CC398 predominates, the occurrence of putative LA-MRSA from other clonal lineages should be monitored.

  20. Two distinct clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the same USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile: a potential pitfall for identification of USA300 community-associated MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Rhod; Goering, Richard; Stegger, Marc;

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) characterized as USA300 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified two distinct clones. One was similar to community-associated USA300 MRSA (ST8-IVa, t008, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive). The second (ST8-IVa, t024, and...

  1. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Nicholson

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA, was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds.

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE PLANT EXTRACTS USED IN NIGERIA FOLKLORIC MEDICINE AGAINST HOSPITAL ISOLATES OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA AND METHICILLIN-SENSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MSSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan SY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a species of bacterium commonly found on the skin and/or in the noses of healthy people. Although it is usually harmless at these sites, it may occasionally get into the body (eg through breaks in the skin such as abrasions, cuts, wounds, surgical incisions or indwelling catheters and cause infections. These infections may be mild (eg pimples or boils or serious (eg infection of the bloodstream, bones or joints. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. Interest in plants with antimicrobial properties has revived as a result of current problems associated with the use of antibiotics.Hexane, ethylacetate, methanol and water extracts from 3 different plant species, Jatropha curcas, Piliostigma thonningii and Hyptis suaveolens used in Nigeria as popular medicine for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origin were evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA using agar dilution method. Results revealed that there were no significant differences in the % susceptibility to MRSA and MSSA between the standard drugs and the different plant extracts using different extracting solvents (P>0.05. All the extracts of the 3 plants were effective on MRSA except water extract of Jatropha curcas and Piliostigma thonningii. Hexane extract from P. thonningii was inhibitory to 100% of both MRSA and MSSA isolates followed by ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas 61% of MSSA, ethyl acetate extract of P. thonningii on 38% of MRSA, methanol extract of J. curcas on 33% of both MSSA and MRSA and the least activity was with water extract of H. suaveolens on 17% of both MSSA and MRSA; no activity was observed with water extract of J. curcas. Hexane extract of P.thonningii was the only extract found in this study to inhibit the growth of both MRSA and MSSA

  3. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and empirical antibiotic therapy for MRSA infection: multicenter investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Li-jing; WU Xiao-dong; KANG Yan; XU Yuan; ZHOU Jian-xin; WANG Di-fen; CHEN De-chang

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) maybe changed by strict infection control measures,and the impact of empirical antibiotic therapy on the outcomes of MRSA infection was not clear.We aimed to investigate the present epidemiological status of MRSA infection and empirical antibiotic therapy for MRSA infection in university teaching hospitals in mainland China.Methods The present study was a multicenter prospective observational study conducted in five university teaching hospitals.Patients who were consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit and signed a consent form from March 3,2011 to May 31,2011 were included.Patients with age <18 years or with a length of hospital stay <48 hours were excluded from this study.The following variables were collected or recorded:demographic data,general status,APACHE Ⅱ score of the patient at the time of admission,infections,and the use of antibiotics during a stay.Primary outcomes and prognostic indicators included length of hospital stay and 28-day and 90-day mortality.The differences between the patients with appropriate empirical therapy and patients with inappropriate therapy were analyzed to detect the influences of antibiotic therapy on the prognosis of MRSA infection.Results A total of 682 cases were enrolled.Thirty (66.2%) of 88 MRSA cases were treated with effective antibiotics for MRSA infection; only 20% received appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment.The empirical therapy group compared with the target therapy group had a shorter length of stay,but there were no significant differences in mortality rates.There were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay,length of stay,and 28-day and 90-day mortality between MRSA-infected patients who received or not received effective antibiotics.Two hundred and eighteen cases received sensitive antibiotics for MRSA.Conclusions The MRSA infection rates are at relatively low levels in university

  4. The Prevalence of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus Among Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Assam with Special Reference to MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Rongpharpi, Sharon Rainy; Hazarika, Naba Kumar; Kalita, Hitesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent years have witnessed the increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to many antimicrobial agents. The most notable example is the emergence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which was reported just one year after the launch of methicillin. The ecological niches of the S. aureus strains are the anterior nares. The identification of Staphylococcus aureus by using a proper antibiogram and the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus...

  5. Nursing home characteristics associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Burden and Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy Courtney R; Quan Victor; Kim Diane; Peterson Ellena; Whealon Matthew; Tan Grace; Evans Kaye; Meyers Hildy; Cheung Michele; Lee Bruce Y; Mukamel Dana B; Huang Susan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background MRSA prevalence in nursing homes often exceeds that in hospitals, but reasons for this are not well understood. We sought to measure MRSA burden in a large number of nursing homes and identify facility characteristics associated with high MRSA burden. Methods We performed nasal swabs of residents from 26 nursing homes to measure MRSA importation and point prevalence, and estimate transmissi...

  6. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  7. Evaluation of rep-PCR/DiversiLab versus PFGE and spa typing in genotyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadero, V; González Velasco, C; Vindel, A; Gonzalez Velasco, M; Moreno, J J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the 'gold standard' for genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, the DiversiLab (DL) system, based on rep-PCR, is faster, simpler and could be better adapted to daily routine hospital work. We genotyped 100 MRSA isolates using PFGE, DL, and spa typing, and evaluated the discriminatory power of each technique and the correlation between them by Simpson's index(SI) and adjusted Rand coefficient (ARI), respectively. The isolates were from clinical samples from eight hospitals in Extremadura (Spain) during 2010. DL separated the 100 MRSA into 18 patterns, with 69% of the isolates grouped into four predominant patterns. spa typing reported 17 spa types, classifying 69% of MRSA into two major types (t067 and t002). PFGE revealed the existence of 27 patterns, gathering 54% of MRSA into three pulse types (E8a, E7a and E7b). SI values were 0.819, 0.726, 0.887 and 0.460 for DL, spa typing, PFGE and CC-BURP, respectively. ARI values of DL over PFGE, spa typing and CC-BURP were 0.151, 0.321 and 0.071, respectively. DL has less discriminatory power than PFGE but more than spa typing. The concordance of DL with PFGE is low, primarily because DL does not discriminate between the three predominant MRSA pulse types in our environment. PMID:26510268

  8. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Sadsad

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  9. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  10. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and carrier strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the hospital settings of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Mohammad J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was conducted between 2000 and 2003 on 750 human subjects, yielding 850 strains of staphylococci from clinical specimens (575, nasal cultures of hospitalized patients (100 and eye & nasal sources of hospital workers (50 & 125 respectively in order to determine their epidemiology, acquisition and dissemination of resistance genes. Methods Organisms from clinical samples were isolated, cultured and identified as per the standard routine procedures. Susceptibility was measured by the agar diffusion method, as recommended by the Nat ional Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. The modified method of Birnboin and Takahashi was used for isolation of plasmids from staphylococci. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing of clinical and carrier Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains isolated during our study was performed as described previously. Results It was shown that 35.1% of Staphylococcus aureus and 22.5% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were resistant to methicillin. Highest percentage of MRSA (35.5% was found in pus specimens (n = 151. The multiple drug resistance of all MRSA (n = 180 and Methicillin resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (MRCNS (n = 76 isolates was detected. In case of both methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive Saphylococcal isolates zero resistance was found to vancomycin where as highest resistance was found to penicillin G followed by ampicillin. It was shown that the major reservoir of methicillin resistant staphylococci in hospitals are colonized/infected inpatients and colonized hospital workers, with carriers at risk for developing endogenous infection or transmitting infection to health care workers and patients. The results were confirmed by molecular typing using PFGE by SmaI-digestion. It was shown that the resistant markers G and T got transferred from clinical S. aureus (JS-105 to carrier S. aureus (JN-49

  12. Methicillin-resistenter Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) am Universitätsklinikum Ulm - eine retrospektive Analyse für den Zeitraum 2002 - 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Brix, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    During the last years Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become the most important nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Methods: Therefore the prevalence, microbiological findings and clinical outcome of MRSA-patients at Ulm University Hospital over a period of 4 years (2002 to 2006) has been analyzed. For this purpose all microbiological findings were checked and evaluated. 19 long-term-patients (patients with a colonisation with MRSA for at least 12 months) were identified. In the lab...

  13. Surveillance of Physician-Diagnosed Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Consistent With Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) among Nebraska High School Athletes, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide…

  14. Frequency of Aminoglycoside-Resistance Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates from Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdiyoun, Seyed Mohsen; Kazemian, Hossein; Ahanjan, Mohammad; Houri, Hamidreza; Goudarzi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causative agents in community- and hospital-acquired infections. Aminoglycosides are powerful bactericidal drugs that are often used in combination with beta-lactams or glycopeptides to treat staphylococcal infections. Objectives The main objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in hospitalized patients in Sari and Tehran, Iran. Methods In this study, 174 MRSA strains isolated from different clinical samples, such as blood, sputum, tracheal exudates, bronchus, pleura, urine, wounds, and catheters, were collected from hospitalized patients in Tehran and Sari during 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed against nine antibiotics with the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. The MRSA strains were examined with oxacillin and cefoxitin disks. MRSA was then validated by detection of the mecA gene. PCR was used to evaluate the prevalence of the aminoglycoside-resistance genes aac (6’)-Ie/aph (2”), aph (3’)-IIIa, and ant (4’) among the MRSA isolates. Results The results of drug susceptibility testing showed that the highest rate of resistance was against erythromycin in Tehran (84.4%) and gentamicin (71.7%) in Sari. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, and all strains harbored the mecA gene. The aac (6’)-Ie/aph (2”), aph (3’)-IIIa, and ant (4’)-Ia genes were detected among 134 (77%), 119 (68.4%), and 122 (70.1%) of the isolates, respectively. Conclusions The present study showed a high prevalence of aminoglycoside-resistance genes among MRSA isolates in two cities in Iran.

  15. Nursing home characteristics associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Burden and Transmission

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    Murphy Courtney R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRSA prevalence in nursing homes often exceeds that in hospitals, but reasons for this are not well understood. We sought to measure MRSA burden in a large number of nursing homes and identify facility characteristics associated with high MRSA burden. Methods We performed nasal swabs of residents from 26 nursing homes to measure MRSA importation and point prevalence, and estimate transmission. Using nursing home administrative data, we identified facility characteristics associated with MRSA point prevalence and estimated transmission risk in multivariate models. Results We obtained 1,649 admission and 2,111 point prevalence swabs. Mean MRSA point prevalence was 24%, significantly higher than mean MRSA admission prevalence, 16%, (paired t-test, p In multivariate models, higher MRSA point prevalence was associated with higher admission prevalence (p=0.005 and higher proportions of residents with indwelling devices (p=0.01. Higher estimated MRSA transmission risk was associated with higher proportions of residents with diabetes (p=0.01 and lower levels of social engagement (p=0.03. Conclusions MRSA importation was a strong predictor of MRSA prevalence, but MRSA burden and transmission were also associated with nursing homes caring for more residents with chronic illnesses or indwelling devices. Frequent social interaction among residents appeared to be protective of MRSA transmission, suggesting that residents healthy enough to engage in group activities do not incur substantial risks of MRSA from social contact. Identifying characteristics of nursing homes at risk for high MRSA burden and transmission may allow facilities to tailor infection control policies and interventions to mitigate MRSA spread.

  16. Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by Salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Qing; Han, Jun; Zuo, Guo-Ying; Wang, Gen-Chun; Tang, Hua-Shu

    2016-05-01

    Salvianolate (SAL) is a prescribed medicine from the Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge). It has been widely used in treatment of coronary and other diseases with significant effects. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of SAL against infectious pathogens were assayed and its combined effects on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with ten antibiotics were evaluated. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method, and the chequerboard and time-kill experiments were used for the combined activities. The results showed MIC was 128-256 mg/L for SAL used alone against MRSA. Significant synergies were observed for SAL/Ampicillin (Fosfomycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin-tazobactam or Clindamycin) combination against over half of the isolates, with their MICs reduced by times of dilution (TOD) to 4-32 (FICIs 0.375-0.5), respectively. SAL/AMP combination showed the best combined effect of synergy on bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, while SAL/AMK combination reversed the resistance of MRSA to AMK. The results demonstrated that SAL enhanced widely the in vitro anti-MRSA efficacy of the ten antibacterial agents, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA and warrants further investigations. PMID:26639445

  17. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Sweden 2000–2003, increasing incidence and regional differences

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    Olsson-Liljequist Barbro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has gradually become more frequent in most countries of the world. Sweden has remained one of few exceptions to the high occurrence of MRSA in many other countries. During the late 1990s, Sweden experienced a large health-care associated outbreak which with resolute efforts was overcome. Subsequently, MRSA was made a notifiable diagnosis in Sweden in 2000. Methods From the start of being a notifiable disease in January 2000, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI initiated an active surveillance of MRSA. Results The number of reported MRSA-cases in Sweden increased from 325 cases in 2000 to 544 in 2003, corresponding to an overall increase in incidence from 3.7 to 6.1 per 100000 inhabitants. Twenty five per cent of the cases were infected abroad. The domestic cases were predominantly found through cultures taken on clinical indication and the cases infected abroad through screening. There were considerable regional differences in MRSA-incidence and age-distribution of cases. Conclusion The MRSA incidence in Sweden increased over the years 2000–2003. Sweden now poises on the rim of the same development that was seen in the United Kingdom some ten years ago. A quarter of the cases were infected abroad, reflecting that international transmission is now increasingly important in a low-endemic setting. To remain in this favourable situation, stepped up measures will be needed, to identify imported cases, to control domestic outbreaks and to prevent transmission within the health-care sector.

  18. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly

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    T.-W. Wan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL−/spat5110/SCCmecV+ versus PVL+/spat159(etc./SCCmec−, but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  19. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, T-W; Tomita, Y; Saita, N; Konno, K; Iwao, Y; Hung, W-C; Teng, L-J; Yamamoto, T

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)(-)/spat5110/SCCmecV(+) versus PVL(+)/spat159((etc.))/SCCmec (-), but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type) and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications. PMID:27358743

  20. Practical management: community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): the latest sports epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Holly J; Nikore, Vineet; Takagishi, Josh

    2007-09-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has gained international recognition as a superbug that causes serious infectious outbreaks in high-risk populations such as athletes. Clusters of cases in various athletic teams, particularly contact sports, have been reported since 1993 in the United States and more recently in Canada. CA-MRSA infections are not limited to North America, and all athletes are considered high risk. Skin-to-skin contact appears to be the primary mode of transmission. While typical infections are local skin and soft-tissue abscesses, CA-MRSA infections can spread systemically and lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly identified and treated. The gold standard of treatment for all abscesses is incision and drainage with wound culture for bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing. A limited number of antibiotics are currently useful in the treatment of CA-MRSA and are reviewed. Geographical variation in patterns of antibiotic resistance further complicates the treatment. Meticulous, consistent use of infection prevention strategies is critical to control outbreaks in the athletic population. Good hygiene, prompt identification of infection, limited exposure to infected persons and contaminated objects, and proper treatment combined with close follow-up of infected athletes will help contain CA-MRSA outbreaks. Future research is needed to explore person-to-person and fomite transmission risks, to define the significance of nasal carriage and skin colonization in relation to CA-MRSA infections, and to further investigate antibiotic resistance patterns. Universal education is needed for all athletes and personnel who provide care in the athletic setting to help control this widespread epidemic. PMID:17873553

  1. CURRENT SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF MRSA (METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPH AUREUS IN A TERTIARY CARE ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL IN KASHMIR (J&K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the reported emergence of vancomycin resistance in MRSA from the state and the country as a whole we evaluated the pattern of culture and sensitivity on 160 samples from Orthopaedic Department over a period of one year between Nov 2014 and Nov 2015. These belonged to 111 males and 49 females with different aetiologies. Using standard protocols for the culture, 84 (52% samples grew no organisms while Staph aureus was grown in 43 samples (26.8% and gram negative organism in 28 and 5 samples grew mixed organism. Out of these 43 isolates of Staph aureus, MRSA was grown in 32 (74.4% and MSSA in 11 (25.6%. These belonged to 23 (71.8% males and 9 (28.1% females. Majority of MRSA were grown from the patients of acute osteomyelitis and operated fractures (63.3%. Linezolid showed highest sensitivity (100% followed by Vancomycin (96.8%, Clindamycin (37.5%, erythromycin (21%, Amikacin (21%, Levofloxacin (9.3%, cotrimoxazole (9.3% and ciprofloxacin (3.1%. By diffusion method 6 positive cultures depicted doubtful sensitivity pattern for vancomycin (18.75%. However, on further analysis using MIC only one isolate (3.3% showed intermediate resistance to vancomycin; 12 cultures (37.5% were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid only. The presence of vancomycin resistance calls for a watchful approach towards these infections and an extensive study to better define the problem.

  2. An observational prospective study of topical acidified nitrite for killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in contaminated wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Gail P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous nitric oxide (NO kills bacteria and other organisms as part of the innate immune response. When nitrite is exposed to low pH, NO is generated and has been used as an NO delivery system to treat skin infections. We demonstrated eradication of MRSA carriage from wounds using a topical formulation of citric acid (4.5% and sodium nitrite (3% creams co-applied for 5 days to 15 wounds in an observational prospective pilot study of 8 patients. Findings Following treatment with topical citric acid and sodium nitrite, 9 of 15 wounds (60% and 3 of 8 patients (37% were cleared of infection. MRSA isolates from these patients were all sensitive to acidified nitrite in vitro compared to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and a reference strain of MRSA. Conclusions Nitric oxide and acidified nitrite offer a novel therapy for control of MRSA in wounds. Wounds that were not cleared of infection may have been re-contaminated or the bioavailability of acidified nitrite impaired by local factors in the tissue.

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): identification and susceptibility testing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygaert, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    Many traditional techniques are useful for identification of MRSA strains, including techniques for detection of penicillin-resistance, such as the nitrocefin disk. Techniques for assessing methicillin-resistance vary from growth on special media or at a lower temperature, to detection of the mecA gene by manual (latex agglutination) and automated (PCR) methods. Technique development is now geared toward making MRSA identification more rapid. Real-time PCR has sped MRSA detection, but can be costly. Resistance to other drugs is also an issue. Clindamycin resistance may need to be induced, so a special disk diffusion test can be performed. Vancomycin resistance is becoming an issue, so alternative drugs need to be identified. Drugs that are currently available for MRSA infections include: daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and tigecycline. Drugs that are in the development phase include: ceftobiprole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin. These drugs provide a promising arsenal against MRSA. PMID:19534447

  4. The Impact of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) Flags on Hospital Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Erica S; Lee, Hang; Hou, Taige; Ware, Winston; Ryan, Erin E; Hooper, David C; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (MRSA/VRE) designations, or flags, on selected hospital operational outcomes. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to the Massachusetts General Hospital during 2010-2011. METHODS Operational outcomes were time to bed arrival, acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfers, and length of stay. Covariates considered included demographic and clinical characteristics: age, gender, severity of illness on admission, admit day of week, residence prior to admission, hospitalization within the prior 30 days, clinical service, and discharge destination. RESULTS Overall, 81,288 admissions were included. After adjusting for covariates, patients with a MRSA/VRE flag at the time of admission experienced a mean delay in time to bed arrival of 1.03 hours (9.63 hours [95% CI, 9.39-9.88] vs 8.60 hours [95% CI, 8.47-8.73]). These patients had 1.19 times the odds of experiencing an acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfer [95% CI, 1.13-1.26] and a mean length of stay 1.76 days longer (7.03 days [95% CI, 6.82-7.24] vs 5.27 days [95% CI, 5.15-5.38]) than patients with no MRSA/VRE flag. CONCLUSIONS MRSA/VRE designation was associated with delays in time to bed arrival, increased likelihood of acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfers and extended length of stay. Efforts to identify patients who have cleared MRSA/VRE colonization are critically important to mitigate inefficient use of resources and to improve inpatient flow. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:782-790. PMID:27019995

  5. Epidemiology and outcome of pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Canadian hospitals.

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    Manal Tadros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MRSA remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired (HAP and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP. We describe the epidemiology and outcome of MRSA pneumonia in Canadian hospitals, and identify factors contributing to mortality. METHODS: Prospective surveillance for MRSA pneumonia in adults was done for one year (2011 in 11 Canadian hospitals. Standard criteria for MRSA HAP, HCAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP were used to identify cases. MRSA isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL gene detection. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days. A multivariable analysis was done to examine the association between various host and microbial factors and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients with MRSA pneumonia were identified: 90 (56% with HAP, 26 (16% HCAP, and 45 (28% CAP; 23 (14% patients had VAP. The mean (± SD incidence of MRSA HAP was 0.32 (± 0.26 per 10,000 patient-days, and of MRSA VAP was 0.30 (± 0.5 per 1,000 ventilator-days. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 28.0%. In multivariable analysis, variables associated with mortality were the presence of multiorgan failure (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.5-26.0, and infection with an isolate with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.3. CONCLUSIONS: MRSA pneumonia is associated with significant mortality. Severity of disease at presentation, and infection caused by an isolate with elevated MIC to vancomcyin are associated with increased mortality. Additional studies are required to better understand the impact of host and microbial variables on outcome.

  6. A Disposable Polymer Lab-On-A-Slide For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Skov, Julia;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and experimental verification of a polymer microfluidic labon-a-slide for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA cells were captured in a lysis chamber using magnetic beads, followed by thermal lysis. The released DNA...... was transferred into a second chamber for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Fluidic control in the device was accomplished by pneumatic actuation of a micropump and five microvalves integrated on the device. The mecA gene from MRSA was successfully amplified by real-time PCR within 35 min. Presence...

  7. Prenylated flavonoids from Desmodium caudatum and evaluation of their anti-MRSA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hisako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Shibata, Hirofumi; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-10-01

    Seven prenylated flavonoids and a prenylated chromanochroman derivative, together with eight known flavonoids, were isolated from roots of Desmodium caudatum. The 15 structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The antibacterial activity of many of other compounds was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA: COL and 5) by a disc diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to MRSA were determined. PMID:22800912

  8. Infectious caused by community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: three-years experience of an universitary hospital in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Altieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections(1. In Europe the proportion of MRSA is increasing sharply and the distribution varies from country to country. In recent years there has, in various parts of the world, the emergence of infection with strains of S. aureus methicillin-resistant community-acquired (CA-MRSA than those circulating in hospitals(2. These strains contain a gene that confers resistance to methicillin (mec A SSC mec IV which is usually associated with the gene for Leukocidin Panton Valentine (PVL toxin responsible for necrosis of skin and soft tissue (3. In 2006-2008, at the Laboratory of Bacteriology PolyclinicTor Vergata,were isolated a total of 738 strains of S. aureus from biological samples of different nature (oral, vaginal secretions, wound swab, secreted headset, etc ... of patients related to our surgeries.The identification and study of drug sensitivity of strains were performed with the automatic VITEK2 (bioMérieux. Of the 738 strains of S. aureus identified 212 (28.7% were resistant to methicillin (MRSA, with an increasing trend over the years: 46 isolates, respectively, in 2006, 76 in 2007 and 90 in 2008. The highest frequency of MRSA (varying between 85% and 95% was detected in wound swabs from the dispensary and diabetes (diabetic foot.

  9. Immunization protected well nourished mice but not undernourished ones from lung injury in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection

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    da Cunha Maria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA has been frequently isolated from endotracheal and lung puncture aspirates in malnourished children with pneumonia. In this work we evaluated the susceptibility of undernourished BALB/c mice and its ability to mount a protective immunity against MRSA with emphasis on the lung involvement. Results BALB/c mice submitted to a 20% dietary restriction during 20 days presented a significant decrease in body weight, lymphocyte number and also atrophy in thymus and intestinal epithelium. Determination of bacterial load by the number of colony forming units (CFU indicated a similar susceptibility whereas the findings of Gram stain clearly suggested a higher amount of bacteria in the lungs of normal mice than in the undernourished ones. Immunization reduced bacterial growth in the lungs of normal mice but not in the undernourished ones. Histopathological analysis showed that inflammation appeared in the lungs from normal mice only after infection and that immunization prevented this pulmonary inflammatory process. On the other hand, undernourished mice presented lung inflammation even before infection. In addition, the degree of this inflammatory process did not change with infection or previous immunization. Conclusion Our results indicated that lung injury during MRSA infection is prevented by previous immunization in well nourished but not in undernourished mice.

  10. Study of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Danish pigs at slaughter and in imported retail meat reveals a novel MRSA type in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Hasman, Henrik; Cavaco, Lina M.;

    2012-01-01

    soya broth with 4mg/L cefoxitine and 75mg/L aztreonam) and selective plating on Brilliance Chromogenic MRSA agar. The presence of mecA was confirmed by PCR and the MRSA isolates were spa typed. Novel MRSA spa types were characterized by MLST, PFGE and SCCmec typing. Thirteen percent (101...

  11. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 80 type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV isolated from the Middle East: a heterogeneous expanding clonal lineage.

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    Houda H Harastani

    Full Text Available The emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has caused a change in MRSA epidemiology worldwide. In the Middle East, the persistent spread of CA-MRSA isolates that were associated with multilocus sequence type (MLST clonal complex 80 and with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV, calls for novel approaches for infection control that would limit its spread.In this study, the epidemiology of CC80-MRSA-IV was investigated in Jordan and Lebanon retrospectively covering the period from 2000 to 2011. Ninety-four S. aureus isolates, 63 (67% collected from Lebanon and 31 (33% collected from Jordan were included in this study. More than half of the isolates (56% were associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs, and 73 (78% were Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL positive. Majority of the isolates (84% carried the gene for exofoliative toxin d (etd, 19% had the Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 gene (tst, and seven isolates from Jordan had a rare combination being positive for both tst and PVL genes. spa typing showed the prevalence of type t044 (85% and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE recognized 21 different patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the prevalence (36% of a unique resistant profile, which included resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, and fusidic acid (SKF profile.The genetic diversity among the CC80 isolates observed in this study poses an additional challenge to infection control of CA-MRSA epidemics. CA-MRSA related to ST80 in the Middle East was distinguished in this study from the ones described in other countries. Genetic diversity observed, which may be due to mutations and differences in the antibiotic regimens between countries may have led to the development of heterogeneous strains. Hence, it is difficult to maintain "the European CA-MRSA clone" as a uniform clone and it is better to designate as CC80-MRSA-IV isolates.

  12. Stopping MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Last fall, a fever gripped the nation--an overheating of news stories about the so-called super bug: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, "staph," or simply "MRSA." The bacteria are not airborne contaminants, but when they enter a person's body through cuts, abrasions, or other breaks in the skin, they can cause infections, which can…

  13. [Guidelines for prevention, control and treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): changes and updates of chapter 7.0: treatment of patients with MRSA infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenić, Smilja; Pal, Marina Payerl; Palcevski, Vera Vlahović; Horvatić, Jasminka; Mestrović, Tomislav; Barsić, Bruno; Stamenić, Valerija; Burcar, Ivan; Korusić, Andelko; Vucić, Marinko; Civljak, Rok; Stancić, Marin; Budimir, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen throughout the world, and as well in Croatia. Therefore it was decided to develop guidelines with the aim to reduce the number of patients infected/colonized with MRSA in healthcare facilities and in nursing homes in Croatia, consequently reducing MRSA-related morbidity and mortality. An interdisciplinary team of experts developed these guidelines using existing international guidelines from different countries, and literature reviews about prevention, control, treatment and laboratory diagnosis of MRSA infections. Grades of evidence for specific recommendations were determined using CDC/HICPAC grading system. Categorization is based on existing data, theoretical basis, applicability and economic impact. After a broad discussion in different professional societies, Guidelines were accepted. In the meantime, several new possibilities appeared in the treatment of patients with MRSA infections in Croatia, so the Chapter 7.0 Treatment of patients with MRSA infections is changed and updated according to the new treatment possibilities. The rest of the Guidelines was not changed. PMID:21294322

  14. Comparison of Two Commercial PCR Methods for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Screening in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Aylin Aydiner; Jessica Lüsebrink; Verena Schildgen; Ingo Winterfeld; Oliver Knüver; Katja Schwarz; Sabine Messler; Oliver Schildgen; Frauke Mattner

    2012-01-01

    Nose/throat-swabs from 1049 patients were screened for MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA, LightCycler Advanced MRSA, and Detect-Ready MRSA. Results were compared to the CHROMagar MRSA results, which was set as reference system. MRSA was detected in 3.05% of the patients with CHROMagar MRSA. LightCycler MRSA Advanced showed a higher clinical sensitivity (84.38%) than Detect-Ready MRSA (57.69%).The negative predictive values were high for both tests (>98%). The specificity and the positive predictive v...

  15. MRSA in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a form of Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterium that has developed resistance to several forms of antibiotics. MRSA has been around for many years, mostly in health care settings but has moved into the community in recent years. Infections can be seen anywhere but are mostly seen in…

  16. A study of the effects of different disinfectants used in Riyadh hospitals and their efficacy against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the means of controlling it, continue to be of major interest to the healthcare community. The bactericidal activity of some disinfectants which are in common use in seven major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh was tested against two control strains of S.aureus, namely MRSA ATCC 33591 and Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213. The disinfectants tested in this study were a group used for hand antisepsis (Purell, EZ-clean, Cida stat and Manorapid Synergy) and another group used for environmental disinfection (Combi spray, Tristel fusion, Alphadine, Isopropanol, Presept and Diesin). Presept, diesin and tristel fusion had a remarkable effect on the tested strains, both methicillin sensitive and methicillin resistant. There was hardly any noticeable difference between the effects on either (P>0.05). On the other hand, Purell and EZ-clean and Manorapid Synergy hand rubs had a relatively weak action after 15 and 30 minutes while their effect was better after 1 and 2 hours. There was no observable differences between their effects on MRSA or MSSA, P>0.05. Cita stat had a remarkably pronounced effect against both MRSA and MSSA. Contrary to some previous reports, this study has proven also that chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds show comparable efficacy against both MRSA and MSSA. (author)

  17. A retrospective study of risk factors for poor outcomes in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection in surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Scott D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its isolation, Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA has become a major cause of hospital acquired infection (HAI, adverse patient outcome and overall resource utilisation. It is endemic in Scotland and widespread in Western hospitals. MRSA has been the subject of widespread media interest- a manifestation of concerns about sterile surgical techniques and hospital cleanliness. This study aimed to investigate patient outcome of MRSA infections over the last decade at a major orthopaedic trauma centre. The objective was to establish the association of variables, such as patient age and inpatient residence, against patient outcome, in order to quantify significant relationships; facilitating the evaluation of management strategies with an aim to improving patient outcomes and targeting high-risk procedures. Methods This is a retrospective study of the rates and outcomes of MRSA infection in orthopaedic trauma at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Data was collated using SPSS 14.0 for Windows(R. Shapiro-Wilkes testing was performed to investigate the normality of continuous data sets (e.g: age. Data was analysed using both Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests (in cases of expected values under 5 Results This study found significant associations between adverse patient outcome (persistent deep infection, osteomyelitis, the necessity for revision surgery, amputation and mortality and the following patient variables: Length of inpatient stay, immuno-compromise, pre-admission residence in an institutional setting (such as a residential nursing home and the number of antibiotics used in patient care. Despite 63% of all infections sampled resulting from proximal femoral fractures, no association between patient outcome and site of infection or diagnosis was found. Somewhat surprisingly, the relationship between age and outcome of infection was not proved to be significant, contradicting previous studies suggesting a

  18. Population-Based Estimates of Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) Infections among High School Athletes--Nebraska, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Mueller, Shawn W.; Theis, Max; Keyser, Alison; Safranek, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is an emerging cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among athletes. To determine statewide incidence among high school athletes, we surveyed all 312 Nebraska high schools regarding sport programs offered, program-specific participation numbers, number of athletes with physician-diagnosed…

  19. Driving Forces of Mechanisms Regulating Oxacillin-Resistance Phenotypes of MRSA : Truly Oxacillin-Susceptible mecA-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates also Exist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, Spyros; Sabat, Artur J.; Grundmann, Hajo; Hendrix, Ron; Tsakris, Athanasios; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    As MRSA are considered Staphylococcus aureus isolates with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥4 mg/L or harboring the mecA gene. However, the presence of mecA does not necessarily lead to oxacillin resistance and mecA gene-carrying isolates may have oxacillin MIC within the suscept

  20. The first report in Brazil of severe infection caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA

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    R. Rozenbaum

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is an emergent pathogen in Brazil. However, there are no data on the prevalence of CA-MRSA. We report here the first well-characterized case of severe life-threatening CA-MRSA infection in a child living in Rio de Janeiro city. The patient had many complications including hematogenous osteomyelitis and involvement of multiple sites requiring drainage of soft-tissue abscess, and pleural and pericardial empyema. The MRSA isolates recovered were genotyped using PFGE, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing. Disk diffusion tests were performed following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. In addition, the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL was assessed by PCR amplification, using specific primers for lukF-pv (encoding for the F subunit of the PVL. The bacterial isolates were related to the ST30-SCCmecIV lineage (Oceania Southwest Pacific clone, a PVL producer CA-MRSA previously detected in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Also, the isolates analyzed were susceptible to all non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. The present report demonstrates that disseminated CA-MRSA disease is also occurring in Rio de Janeiro. Thus, the empirical treatment of moderate or severe infections suspected of being associated with CA-MRSA needs to be reviewed in order to allow prompt initiation of an effective therapy that also covers these microorganisms.

  1. Caco-2 cells permeability evaluation of nifuroxazide derivatives with potential activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    B Fernandes, Mariane; Gonçalves, José E; C Tavares, Leoberto; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the period of evaluation and selection in drug development, the assessment of the permeability potential of a compound to achieve an efficient refinement of the molecular structure has been widely appraised by the transport of substances across cell monolayers. This study aims to develop in vitro assays through Caco-2 cells in order to analyze the permeability of 5-nitro-heterocyclic compounds analogues to nifuroxazide with antimicrobial activity, especially showing promising activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Caco-2 cell monolayers cultivated for 21 days in Transwell® plates were used for the in vitro permeability assays. The quantification of the nifuroxazide derivatives in the basolateral chambers was performed by a validated high performance liquid chromatography with UV (HPLC-UV) method. Apparent permeability values (Papp) show that these compounds can be considered as new drug candidates with the potential to present high absorption in vivo, according to the classifications of Yee and Biganzoli. The thiophenic derivatives showed permeability values higher than the furanic ones, being AminoTIO the compound with the greatest potential for the development of a new drug against MRSA, since it showed the best cytotoxicity, permeability and solubility ratio among all the derivatives. PMID:24918173

  2. Cost Analysis of an Intervention to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA Transmission.

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    Michal Chowers

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia.We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel.An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600.A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.

  3. Cost Analysis of an Intervention to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowers, Michal; Carmeli, Yehuda; Shitrit, Pnina; Elhayany, Asher; Geffen, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia. Methods We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel. Results An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600. Conclusions A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country. PMID:26406889

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active metabolites from Platanus occidentalis (American Sycamore).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Mansoor, Arsala A; Gross, Amanda; Ashfaq, M Khalid; Jacob, Melissa; Khan, Shabana I; Hamann, Mark T

    2009-12-01

    One known and three new potent, selective, and nontoxic anti-MRSA metabolites, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2'',3''-di-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (1) (IC(50) 2.0 microg/mL), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2''-E-p-coumaroyl-3''-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (2) (IC(50) 0.8 microg/mL), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2''-Z-p-coumaroyl-3''-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (3) (IC(50) 0.7 microg/mL), and kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2'',3''-di-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (4) (IC(50) 0.4 microg/mL), were isolated from the leaves of the common American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Compounds 2-4 are new. Due to the unusual selectivity, potency, and safety of the pure compounds and the semipure glycoside mixture against MRSA, it is clear that this represents a viable class of inhibitors to prevent growth of MRSA on surfaces and systemically.

  5. Metabolic footprint analysis uncovers strain specific overflow metabolism and D-isoleucine production of Staphylococcus aureus COL and HG001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörries, Kirsten; Lalk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    During infection processes, Staphylococcus aureus is able to survive within the host and to invade tissues and cells. For studying the interaction between the pathogenic bacterium and the host cell, the bacterial growth behaviour and its metabolic adaptation to the host cell environment provides first basic information. In the present study, we therefore cultivated S. aureus COL and HG001 in the eukaryotic cell culture medium RPMI 1640 and analyzed the extracellular metabolic uptake and secretion patterns of both commonly used laboratory strains. Extracellular accumulation of D-isoleucine was detected starting during exponential growth of COL and HG001 in RPMI medium. This non-canonical D-amino acid is known to play a regulatory role in adaptation processes. Moreover, individual uptake of glucose, accumulation of acetate, further overflow metabolites, and intermediates of the branched-chain amino acid metabolism constitute unique metabolic footprints. Altogether these time-resolved footprint analyses give first metabolic insights into staphylococcal growth behaviour in a culture medium used for infection related studies.

  6. The Combination of Catechin and Epicatechin Gallate from Fructus Crataegi Potentiates β-Lactam Antibiotics Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Jiang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructus crataegi (hawthorn is the common name of all plant species in the genus Crataegus of the Rosaceae family. In the present study, three monomers of (+-catechin (C, (−-epicatechin gallate (ECg and (−-epigallocatechin (EGC were isolated from the hawthorn under the guide of antibacterial sensitization activity. The bioactivity of the composite fraction in enhancing the antibacterial effect of oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was greater than that of the individual monomer of the hawthorn extract in vitro. Two-fold dilution and checkerboard methods were used to analyze antibacterial activity and screen for the combination and proportion of monomers with the best bioactivity. The result showed that C (128 mg/L combined with ECg (16 mg/L had the greatest effect and the combination also reduced the bacterial load in blood of septic mice challenged with a sublethal dose of MRSA, increased daunomycin accumulation within MRSA and down-regulated the mRNA expression of norA, norC and abcA, three important efflux pumps of MRSA. In summary, C and ECg enhanced the antibacterial effect of β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA in vitro and in vivo, which might be related to the increased accumulation of antibiotics within MRSA via suppression of important efflux pumps’ gene expression.

  7. Treatment of localized abscesses induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using MRgFUS: First in vivo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Birgit; Curiel, Laura; Mougenot, Charles; Zhang, Kunyan; Pichardo, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    Background. In the present work we study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on localized abscess induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen in health-care facilities. The people, particularly those who are immunocompromised are prone to develop infectious sites that often are non-responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity to propose a new therapy for MRSA-related infections. Methods. A 50μL subcutaneous injection of MRSA strain USA 400 bacteria at a concentration of 7×103/μL was made on the left thigh of BALB/c mice and an abscess of 6±2 mm-length formed after 48hrs. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50mm and diameter of 32mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection 4 ultrasound exposures of 9s-each were applied to each abscess under Magnetic Resonance-guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed in our laboratory. Three experimental groups of 6 animals each were tested: moderate temperature (MT), high temperature (HT) and control. MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 55°C and 65°C at end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by culturing bacteria of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Spleen samples were cultured to test for septicemia. Results. Macroscopic evaluation of treated abscess indicated a diminution of external size of abscess 1d after treatment. Treatment did not cause open wounds. Bacteria counting 1 day after treatment was 0.7±1.1 × 105, 0.5±0.7 × 105 and 1.1±2.3 × 105 CFU/μl for MT, HT and control groups, respectively; for the 4-day end point, the count was 0.6±0.6

  8. The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the presence of an unusual sequence type ST49 in slaughter pigs in Switzerland

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    Büttner Sabina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In years past, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has been frequently detected in pigs in Europe, North America and Asia. Recent, yet sporadic studies have revealed a low occurrence of MRSA in Switzerland. In 2009, a monitoring survey of the prevalence and genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA in slaughter pigs in Switzerland was conducted using methods recommended by the EU guidelines, and using a sampling strategy evenly distributed throughout the year and representative of the Swiss slaughter pig population. Monitoring should determine if the overall prevalence of MRSA in the entire country is increasing over the years and if specific multi-resistant MRSA clones are spreading over the country. Results In 2009, the nasal cavities of eight out of 405 randomly selected pigs were positive for MRSA, representing a prevalence of 2.0% (95% CI 0.9-3.9. The following year, 23 out of 392 pigs were positive for MRSA [5.9% prevalence (95% CI 3.8-8.7]. Three multilocus sequence types (ST, four spa types and two types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec elements were detected. The most frequent genotypes were ST398 (MLST-(spat034-V(SCCmec (n = 18 and ST49-t208-V (n = 7, followed by ST398-t011-V (n = 4, ST398-t1451-V (n = 1, and ST1-t2279-IVc (n = 1. The isolates displayed resistance to ß-lactams [mecA, (31/31; blaZ, (19/31]; tetracycline [tet(M, (31/31; tet(K, (30/31] (n = 31; macrolides and lincosamides [erm(C (4/31 or erm(A (18/31] (n = 22; tiamulin [vga(Av (9/31 or unknown mechanism (18/31] (n = 27; trimethoprim [dfr(G (18/31; spectinomycin [ant(9-Ia (19/31 or unknown mechanism (3/31] (n = 22; streptomycin [str (19/31]; sulphamethoxazole (7/31 and ciprofloxacin (n = 1 (mechanisms not determined. Conclusions This study is the first to describe the presence of MRSA ST49 in slaughter pigs, and to demonstrate a significant and nearly three-fold increase of MRSA prevalence in pigs within two years

  9. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina;

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling.......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...

  10. 医护人员MRSA带菌状况调查%EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) CARRYING IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 贾伟; 赵志军; 师志云; 杨晓燕; 魏军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究酎甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)在医护人员及其周围环境中携带情况,为预防与控制医院MRSA感染提供依据.[方法]对某院的医护人员及其周围环境中的MRSA菌进行进行病学调查.[结果]护士携带MRSA菌高于医生,烧伤科医护人员检出MRSA菌最多,达8株;医护人员的工作服和手携带MRSA最多;初级职称医护人员携带高于中级和高级职称.[结论]MRSA菌感染控制应加强医护人员防护,减少MRSA携带;加强对初级职称的工作人员的医院感染防护知识的教育,建立MRSA感控体系.%[Objective] To find out the situation and characteristics of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in health care workers (HCW) and their surrounding environment, so as to prevent and control of MRS A infection in hospitals to provide a scientific basis. [Methods] HCW and their surrounding environment that carried MRSA were investigated. [Results] The rate of nurses carried MRSA was higher than that of doctors; The maximum of MRSA detected in Department of burn, MRSA/SA of health care workers was as high as 8 strains; the rate of MRSA carried from work clothes and hands of HCW showed to be the highest; the rate of people with intermediate and senior technical titles carried more MRSA than that junior technical titles. [Conclusion] HCW protection and reduction of carrying MRSA is an important problem of MRSA infection control, strengthen the primary HCW in particular education of nosocomial infection control knowledge, and establish MRSA infection control system.

  11. Co-therapy using lytic bacteriophage and linezolid: effective treatment in eliminating methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from diabetic foot infections.

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    Sanjay Chhibber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant pathogen in diabetic foot infections and prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA strains further complicates the situation. The incidence of MRSA in infected foot ulcers is 15-30% and there is an alarming trend for its increase in many countries. Diabetes acts as an immunosuppressive state decreasing the overall immune functioning of body and to worsen the situation, wounds inflicted with drug resistant strains represent a morbid combination in diabetic patients. Foot infections caused by MRSA are associated with an increased risk of amputations, increased hospital stay, increased expenses and higher infection-related mortality. Hence, newer, safer and effective treatment strategies are required for treating MRSA mediated diabetic foot infections. The present study focuses on the use of lytic bacteriophage in combination with linezolid as an effective treatment strategy against foot infection in diabetic population. METHODOLOGY: Acute hindpaw infection with S.aureus ATCC 43300 was established in alloxan induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy of a well characterized broad host range lytic bacteriophage, MR-10 was evaluated alone as well as in combination with linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw foot infection in diabetic mice. The process of wound healing was also investigated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A single administration of phage exhibited efficacy similar to linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw infection in diabetic animals. However, combination therapy using both the agents was much more effective in arresting the entire infection process (bacterial load, lesion score, foot myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological analysis. The entire process of tissue healing was also hastened. Use of combined agents has been known to decrease the frequency of emergence of resistant mutants, hence this approach can serve as an effective strategy in

  12. Decolonisation of MRSA, S. aureus and E. coli by cold-atmospheric plasma using a porcine skin model in vitro.

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    Tim Maisch

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years new antibacterial agents approved by the U.S. FDA decreased whereas in parallel the resistance situation of multi-resistant bacteria increased. Thus, community and nosocomial acquired infections of resistant bacteria led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapy, prolonging treatment time and increasing healthcare costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of cold atmospheric plasma for decolonisation of Gram-positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli using an ex vivo pig skin model. Freshly excised skin samples were taken from six month old female pigs (breed: Pietrain. After application of pure bacteria on the surface of the explants these were treated with cold atmospheric plasma for up to 15 min. Two different plasma devices were evaluated. A decolonisation efficacy of 3 log(10 steps was achieved already after 6 min of plasma treatment. Longer plasma treatment times achieved a killing rate of 5 log(10 steps independently from the applied bacteria strains. Histological evaluations of untreated and treated skin areas upon cold atmospheric plasma treatment within 24 h showed no morphological changes as well as no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis determined by the TUNEL-assay indicating that the porcine skin is still vital. This study demonstrates for the first time that cold atmospheric plasma is able to very efficiently kill bacteria applied to an intact skin surface using an ex vivo porcine skin model. The results emphasize the potential of cold atmospheric plasma as a new possible treatment option for decolonisation of human skin from bacteria in patients in the future without harming the surrounding tissue.

  13. Caco-2 cells cytotoxicity of nifuroxazide derivatives with potential activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Mariane B; Gonçalves, José E; Scotti, Marcus T; de Oliveira, Alex A; Tavares, Leoberto C; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2012-04-01

    It is important to determine the toxicity of compounds and co-solvents that are used in cell monolayer permeability studies to increase confidence in the results obtained from these in vitro experiments. This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of new nifuroxazide derivatives with potential activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Caco-2 cells to select analogues for further in vitro permeability analyses. In this study, nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, in addition to 6 furanic and 6 thiophenic nifuroxazide derivatives were tested at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 μg/mL. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed according to the MTT (methyl tetrazolium) assay protocol described in ISO 10993-5. The viability of treated Caco-2 cells was greater than 83% for all tested nitrofurantoin concentrations, while those treated with nifuroxazide at 2, 4 and 6 μg/mL had viabilities greater than 70%. Treatment with the nifuroxazide analogues resulted in viability values greater than 70% at 2 and 4 μg/mL with the exception of the thiophenic methyl-substituted derivative, which resulted in cell viabilities below 70% at all tested concentrations. Caco-2 cells demonstrated reasonable viability for all nifuroxazide derivatives, except the thiophenic methyl-substituted compound. The former were selected for further permeability studies using Caco-2 cells. PMID:22285235

  14. Detection of mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI in diseased European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus in Sweden.

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    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel mec gene conferring beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has been discovered. This gene, mecC, is situated on a SCCmec XI element that has to date been identified in clonal complexes 49, 130, 425, 599 and 1943. Some of the currently known isolates have been identified from animals. This, and observations of mecA alleles that do not confer beta-lactam resistance, indicate that mec genes might have a reservoir in Staphylococcus species from animals. Thus it is important also to screen wildlife isolates for mec genes. Here, we describe mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ST130-MRSA-XI and the lesions related to the infection in two diseased free-ranging European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus. One was found dead in 2003 in central Sweden, and suffered from S. aureus septicaemia. The other one, found on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea in 2011, showed a severe dermatitis and was euthanised. ST130-MRSA-XI isolates were isolated from lesions from both hedgehogs and were essentially identical to previously described isolates from humans. Both isolates carried the complete SCCmec XI element. They lacked the lukF-PV/lukS-PV and lukM/lukF-P83 genes, but harboured a gene for an exfoliative toxin homologue previously described from Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and other S. aureus of the CC130 lineage. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of CC130-MRSA-XI in hedgehogs. Given that one of the samples was taken as early as 2003, this was the earliest detection of this strain and of mecC in Sweden. This and several other recent observations suggest that CC130 might be a zoonotic lineage of S. aureus and that SCCmec XI/mecC may have originated from animal pathogens.

  15. Detection of mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI) in diseased European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Lazaris, Alexandros; Coleman, David C; Shore, Anna C; Ehricht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a novel mec gene conferring beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has been discovered. This gene, mecC, is situated on a SCCmec XI element that has to date been identified in clonal complexes 49, 130, 425, 599 and 1943. Some of the currently known isolates have been identified from animals. This, and observations of mecA alleles that do not confer beta-lactam resistance, indicate that mec genes might have a reservoir in Staphylococcus species from animals. Thus it is important also to screen wildlife isolates for mec genes. Here, we describe mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ST130-MRSA-XI) and the lesions related to the infection in two diseased free-ranging European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). One was found dead in 2003 in central Sweden, and suffered from S. aureus septicaemia. The other one, found on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea in 2011, showed a severe dermatitis and was euthanised. ST130-MRSA-XI isolates were isolated from lesions from both hedgehogs and were essentially identical to previously described isolates from humans. Both isolates carried the complete SCCmec XI element. They lacked the lukF-PV/lukS-PV and lukM/lukF-P83 genes, but harboured a gene for an exfoliative toxin homologue previously described from Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and other S. aureus of the CC130 lineage. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of CC130-MRSA-XI in hedgehogs. Given that one of the samples was taken as early as 2003, this was the earliest detection of this strain and of mecC in Sweden. This and several other recent observations suggest that CC130 might be a zoonotic lineage of S. aureus and that SCCmec XI/mecC may have originated from animal pathogens.

  16. Epidemiologische Studie zur Entwicklung von MRSA (Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus) in ökologisch wirtschaftenden Schweinebetrieben

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Thomas; Sundrum, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren gewinnt das Vorkommen der nutztierassoziierter MRSA (livestock associated MRSA) in Schweinebeständen zunehmend an Bedeutung. In dieser Studie sollte das Vorkommen von MRSA in ökologisch wirtschaftenden Schweinebeständen untersucht werden Dazu wurden 42 ökologisch wirtschaftende Bestände unterschiedlicher Produktionsstufen (Mastbestände, Ferkelerzeuger, geschlossene Systeme) im gesamten Bundesgebiet beprobt. Im Vergleich zu den Ergebnissen des EH-Verbundvorhabens des BMEL...

  17. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

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    Lorena Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4 were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL+ were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen.

  18. In Vivo Assessment of Phage and Linezolid Based Implant Coatings for Treatment of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Mediated Orthopaedic Device Related Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopaedic implant infections with two species respectively Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being the predominate etiological agents isolated. Further, with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), treatment of S. aureus implant infections has become more difficult, thus representing a devastating complication. Use of local delivery system consisting of S.aureus specific phage along with linezolid (incorporated in biopolymer) allowing gradual release of the two agents at the implant site represents a new, still unexplored treatment option (against orthopaedic implant infections) that has been studied in an animal model of prosthetic joint infection. Naked wire, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coated wire and phage and /or linezolid coated K-wire were surgically implanted into the intra-medullary canal of mouse femur bone of respective groups followed by inoculation of S.aureus ATCC 43300(MRSA). Mice implanted with K-wire coated with both the agents i.e phage as well as linezolid (dual coated wires) showed maximum reduction in bacterial adherence, associated inflammation of the joint as well as faster resumption of locomotion and motor function of the limb. Also, all the coating treatments showed no emergence of resistant mutants. Use of dual coated implants incorporating lytic phage (capable of self-multiplication) as well as linezolid presents an attractive and aggressive early approach in preventing as well as treating implant associated infections caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus strains as assessed in a murine model of experimental joint infection. PMID:27333300

  19. Comparison of multi-drug resistant environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolated from recreational beaches and high touch surfaces in built environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n=296, high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n=294, surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n=85, and the local community (n=130. Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying 2-6 different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B and tetracycline, with the majority [72%] carrying 4-6 different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment.

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Contamination in Bedside Surfaces of a Hospital Ward and the Potential Effectiveness of Enhanced Disinfection with an Antimicrobial Polymer Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. M. Yuen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study was to assess the effectiveness of a quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC surfactant in reducing surface staphylococcal contamination in a routinely operating medical ward occupied by patients who had tested positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The QAC being tested is an antibacterial film that is sprayed onto a surface and can remain active for up to 8 h. A field experimental study was designed with the QAC plus daily hypochlorite cleaning as the experimental group and hypochlorite cleaning alone as the control group. The method of swabbing on moistened surfaces was used for sampling. It was found that 83% and 77% of the bedside surfaces of MRSA-positive and MRSA-negative patients respectively were contaminated with staphylococci at 08:00 hours, and that the staphylococcal concentrations increased by 80% at 1200 h over a 4-hour period with routine ward and clinical activities. Irrespective of the MRSA status of the patients, high-touch surfaces around the bed-units within the studied medical ward were heavily contaminated (ranged 1 to 276 cfu/cm2 amongst the sites with positive culture with staphylococcal bacteria including MRSA, despite the implementation of daily hypochlorite wiping. However, the contamination rate dropped significantly from 78% to 11% after the application of the QAC polymer. In the experimental group, the mean staphylococcal concentration of bedside surfaces was significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced from 4.4 ± 8.7 cfu/cm2 at 08:00 hours to 0.07 ± 0.26 cfu/cm2 at 12:00 hours by the QAC polymer. The results of this study support the view that, in addition to hypochlorite wiping, the tested QAC surfactant is a potential environmental decontamination strategy for preventing the transmission of clinically important pathogens in medical wards.

  1. Environmental Cleaning and Disinfecting for MRSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections Share Compartir Environmental Cleaning & Disinfecting for MRSA On this Page Selecting ... or dust. Disinfectants are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). You can use a disinfectant ...

  2. Cost Analysis of Universal Screening vs. Risk Factor-Based Screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Virginia R.; Longpre, Tara; Coyle, Doug; Suh, Kathryn N.; Taljaard, Monica; Ramotar, Karamchand; Forster, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background The literature remains conflicted regarding the most effective way to screen for MRSA. This study was designed to assess costs associated with universal versus risk factor-based screening for the reduction of nosocomial MRSA transmission. Methods The study was conducted at The Ottawa Hospital, a large multi-centre tertiary care facility with approximately 47,000 admissions annually. From January 2006-December 2007, patients underwent risk factor-based screening for MRSA on admission. From January 2008 to August 2009 universal MRSA screening was implemented. A comparison of costs incurred during risk factor-based screening and universal screening was conducted. The model incorporated probabilities relating to the likelihood of being tested and the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with associated effects in terms of MRSA bacteremia and true positive and negative test results. Inputted costs included laboratory testing, contact precautions and infection control, private room costs, housekeeping, and length of hospital stay. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results The risk factor-based MRSA screening program screened approximately 30% of admitted patients and cost the hospital over $780 000 annually. The universal screening program screened approximately 83% of admitted patients and cost over $1.94 million dollars, representing an excess cost of $1.16 million per year. The estimated additional cost per patient screened was $17.76. Conclusion This analysis demonstrated that a universal MRSA screening program was costly from a hospital perspective and was previously known to not be clinically effective at reducing MRSA transmission. These results may be useful to inform future model-based economic analyses of MRSA interventions. PMID:27462905

  3. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated that many swine and swine farmers in the Netherlands and Canada are colonized with MRSA. However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.. METHODS: We sampled the nares of 299 swine and 20 workers from two different production systems in Iowa and Illinois, comprising approximately 87,000 live animals. MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SmaI and EagI restriction enzymes, and by multi locus sequence typing (MLST. PCR was used to determine SCCmec type and presence of the pvl gene. RESULTS: In this pilot study, overall MRSA prevalence in swine was 49% (147/299 and 45% (9/20 in workers. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among production system A's swine varied by age, ranging from 36% (11/30 in adult swine to 100% (60/60 of animals aged 9 and 12 weeks. The prevalence among production system A's workers was 64% (9/14. MRSA was not isolated from production system B's swine or workers. Isolates examined were not typeable by PFGE when SmaI was used, but digestion with EagI revealed that the isolates were clonal and were not related to common human types in Iowa (USA100, USA300, and USA400. MLST documented that the isolates were ST398. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that colonization of swine by MRSA was very common on one swine production system in the midwestern U.S., suggesting that agricultural animals could become an important reservoir for this bacterium. MRSA strain ST398 was the only strain documented on this farm. Further studies are examining carriage rates on additional farms.

  5. The Relationship Between Antibiotic Resistance and Agr Type in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Isolated From Burn Wound of Hospitalized Patient in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Vaziri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of hospital and community-acquired infections. This bacterium possesses an accessory gene regulator (agr that plays role in colonization, expression of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. It’s four major polypeptide with variable sequences lead to at least four agr type in S. aureus.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the antibiogram patterns with agr type of clinical S. aureus.Methods: Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from burn wounds was performed by phenotypic and genotypic profiles. The antibiotics resistance pattern was determined by disk agar diffusion (Tigecycline (TGC, Ciprofloxacin(CIP, Erythromycin(E, Cloxacillin(CX, Clindamycin(CD, Imipenem(IMI, Co-trimoxazole(SXT, Kanamycin(K, Teicoplanin(TEC, Gentamicin(GM, Mupirocin(MUP, Ceftriaxone (CTR. The agr typing by PCR-RFLP method using the Restriction endonuclease ScaI was performed and spss19 was used for data analysis.Results: The total of 76 MRSA isolates was studied. The agr type distribution was 75.6% Type I, 8.2% Type II, 5.4% Type III, 10.8% type IV. The most antibiotics resistant agr type belongs to the type I. There was no significance relationship between every agr type and antibiotics but only a statistically significant association exist between CX, E, CTR, SXT, GM, CIP antibiotics and all agr types (P<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significance relationship between every agr type and antibiotics but significant relationship observed between resistance to some antibiotics with all agr types could be related to the number and source of isolated bacteria or extra use of these antibiotics. By considering that agr locus belongs to upstream genes so it may use the Quorum Sensing (QS system to induce the most drug resistance.

  6. Antibacterial and Synergy of Berberines with Antibacterial Agents against Clinical Multi-Drug Resistant Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qi Bian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of berberine (Ber and 8-acetonyl-dihydroberberine (A-Ber alone and combined uses with antibacterial agents ampicillin (AMP, azithromycin (AZM, cefazolin (CFZ and levofloxacin (LEV was studied on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method and the chequerboard and time-kill tests for the combined evaluations, respectively. The alone MICs/MBCs (mg/mL ranges were 32–128/64–256 (Ber and 32-128/128-512 (A-Ber. Significant synergies were observed for the Ber (A-Ber/AZM and Ber (A-Ber/LEV combinations against 90% of the tested MRSA strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs values ranged  from 0.188 to 0.500. An additivity result was also observed for the Ber/AZM combination by time-kill curves. These results demonstrated for the first time that Ber and A-Ber enhanced the in vitro inhibitory efficacy of AZM and LEV to a same extent, which had potential for further investigation in combinatory therapeutic applications of patients infected with MRSA.

  7. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk. PMID:27217357

  8. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Cuny; Lothar H Wieler; Wolfgang Witte

    2015-01-01

    During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. L...

  9. In silico PCR Verification and Simplex Real-Time PCR Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from East Coast Malaysian Clinical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarizal Bin SUHAILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to validate the primers developed for molecular-based detection and identification of Malaysian clinical isolates of methicilin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using in-silico Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and real-time PCR SYBR with Green I. Rapid molecular diagnostic and risk assessment of the MRSA are possible by real-time PCR SYBR Green I. However, validation of such primers for real-life samples is expensive and time consuming. Hence, development and verification of real-time PCR primers by in-silico PCR can be the first step in the selection of the most appropriate primers. Three species-specific markers were chosen targeting coa (staphylocoagulase, nuc (thermonuclease and mecA (methicillin-resistance and were specifically verified against 35 selected S. aureus strains by using in-silico PCR. For the actual laboratory verification, all of the 3 genes were detected with a single specific melting curve peak (Tm at 76.16 ± 0.8 °C, 78.50 ± 0.4 °C and 74.41 ± 0.6 °C for a coa, nuc and mecA respectively in 32 bacterial strains including ATCC reference strains. Thus, there is no disagreement between both in-silico PCR and real-time PCR verification and validation of the primers designed for the detection and identification of MRSA in this study. The potential of using a bioinformatics approach (in-silico PCR before selecting primer pairs for a given study may enable researchers to accept or reject the potential primer pairs for downstream experimental (in vitro PCR without wasting any chemicals as well as related cost.

  10. Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Gráinne I

    2012-03-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) has predominated in Irish hospitals since the late 1990s. Six distinct clones of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have also been identified in Ireland. A new strain of CA-MRSA, ST772-MRSA-V, has recently emerged and become widespread in India and has spread into hospitals. In the present study, highly similar MRSA isolates were recovered from seven colonized neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a maternity hospital in Ireland during 2010 and 2011, two colonized NICU staff, one of their colonized children, and a NICU environmental site. The isolates exhibited multiantibiotic resistance, spa type t657, and were assigned to ST772-MRSA-V by DNA microarray profiling. All isolates encoded resistance to macrolides [msr(A) and mpb(BM)] and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD and aphA3) and harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin genes (lukF-PV and lukS-PV), enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sel, and egc), and one of the immune evasion complex genes (scn). One of the NICU staff colonized by ST772-MRSA-V was identified as the probable index case, based on recent travel to India. Seven additional hospital and CA-ST772-MRSA-V isolates recovered from skin and soft tissue infections in Ireland between 2009 and 2011 exhibiting highly similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the NICU isolates were also identified. The clinical details of four of these patients revealed connections with India through ethnic background or travel. Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions.

  11. Livestock-associated MRSA in veal farming : risk factors for MRSA carriage in veal calves and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Graveland, H.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally,Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been considered as a hospital-associated pathogen (HA-MRSA). However, since 2004, MRSA has been found to be emerging in livestock (LA-MRSA), particularly pigs and veal calves. Animals have the capacity to act as reservoirs of MRSA, and potentially transmit this bacterium to humans in close contact with MRSA-colonized animals. This thesis focuses on MRSA in veal calf farming. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate ass...

  12. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  13. Close association between oropharyngeal and rhinopharyngeal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus - clues to new insight of MRSA colonization of the oropharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, I S; Larsen, P L; Brandelev, B L;

    2013-01-01

    This study provides data on prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in oropharynx, rhinopharynx and vestibulum nasi. Specimens were taken from these three pharyngeal sites in 346 patients and analysed for S. aureus. Abnormal pharyngeal findings and patient histories were recorded. S. aureus was found...

  14. Epidemiological investigation on an epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection%一起 MRSA 感染流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈雪莲; 范超云; 许慧; 熊祝嘉; 钟秀玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate transmission routes of healthcare-associated infection(HAI)caused by methi-cillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),and make effective measures for preventing and controlling the oc-currence and epidemic of HAI caused by multidrug-resistance bacteria.Methods From February 24 to March 29, 2012,12 MRSA-infected patients were performed epidemiological study,these patients underwent bronchoscopy be-cause of tracheal stenosis,strains were identified by amplifying the sequences of 16S rRNA ,femA and mecA with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR),homology analysis of strains were performed by Spa geno-typing.Results All 12 MRSA-infected patients were susceptible to multidrug-resistance bacterial infection,5 cases of MRSA infection occurred during this hospitalization.Detection of specimens from health care workers and envi-ronment were all negative;Spa gene of all 12 MRSA isolates was type t 030 ,which was the main epidemic strain in Asia;Spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nurses’noses was type t1425 .Conclusion The assumption of MRSA spread among health care workers aren’t supported by the epidemiological investigation results,genotypes of 12 MRSA isolates are identical,but the result of gene typing can’t be as the evidence of homology of infection ;patients at high risk for MRSA infection should be screened as early as possible,early contact isolation should be performed,so as to prevent and control the occurrence of HAI.%目的:探讨耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)医院感染的传播途径,为防控多重耐药菌医院感染及流行制定有效措施。方法对2012年2月24日-3月29日某院肿瘤内科因气管狭窄而收入院行支气管镜检查治疗的12例 MRSA 感染患者进行流行病学调查,采用实时荧光定量 PCR 方法扩增,检测16S rRNA 、femA、mecA 和 Spa 基因,前三者进行菌株鉴定,后者进行菌株同源性分析。结果12例 MRSA

  15. Rapid bench identification of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicenter comparative evaluation of Alere PBP2a Culture Colony Test (Alere) Versus Slidex MRSA detection (bioMérieux).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasse, Jason; Dupieux, Céline; Caillon, Jocelyne; Lanotte, Philippe; Lamy, Brigitte; Aissa, Nejla; Bemer, Pascale; Mereghetti, Laurent; Michon, Anne-Laure; Lozniewski, Alain; Bes, Michèle; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Using 30 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus representative of the most prevalent clones circulating in France, the performance of the Alere™ PBP2a Culture Colony Test (CCT) and the Slidex(®) MRSA detection kit (SMD) were compared in 5 different labs. CCT demonstrated better performance and was easier to conduct in routine.

  16. Rapid bench identification of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicenter comparative evaluation of Alere PBP2a Culture Colony Test (Alere) Versus Slidex MRSA detection (bioMérieux).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasse, Jason; Dupieux, Céline; Caillon, Jocelyne; Lanotte, Philippe; Lamy, Brigitte; Aissa, Nejla; Bemer, Pascale; Mereghetti, Laurent; Michon, Anne-Laure; Lozniewski, Alain; Bes, Michèle; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Using 30 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus representative of the most prevalent clones circulating in France, the performance of the Alere™ PBP2a Culture Colony Test (CCT) and the Slidex(®) MRSA detection kit (SMD) were compared in 5 different labs. CCT demonstrated better performance and was easier to conduct in routine. PMID:27216499

  17. Staphylococcus aureus mutants lacking cell wall-bound protein A found in isolates from bacteraemia, MRSA infection and a healthy nasal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørum, Marit; Sangvik, Maria; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Renate S; Johannessen, Mona; Skov, Robert; Sollid, Johanna U E

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a multitude of virulence factors enables it to cause infections, from superficial lesions to life-threatening systemic conditions. Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is a surface protein contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis by interfering with immune responses and activating inflammation. Seven isolates with frameshift mutations in the spa repeat region were investigated to determine whether these mutations lead to truncation and secretion of SpA into the extracellular environment. Five isolates originated from blood cultures, one from an MRSA infection and one from a persistent nasal carrier. Full-length spa genes from the seven isolates were sequenced, and Western blot experiments were performed to localize SpA. Three isolates had identical deviating 25-bp spa repeats, but all isolates displayed different repeat successions. The DNA sequence revealed that the frameshift mutations created premature stop codons in all seven isolates, resulting in truncated SpA of different lengths, however, all lacking the XC region with the C-terminal sorting signal. SpA was detected by Western blot in six of the seven isolates, mainly extracellularly. Our findings demonstrate that S. aureus isolates with truncated SpA, not anchored to the cell wall, can still be found in bacteraemia, infection and among carriers.

  18. MRSA: treating people with infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nathwani, Dilip; Davey, Peter Garnet; Marwick, Charis Ann

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta-lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use.About 20% of S aureus in blood cultures in England, Wales, and Northern Irela...

  19. Control of MRSA infection and colonisation in an intensive care unit by GeneOhm MRSA assay and culture methods

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Claudia; Pasca Maria; De Vitis Debora; Marzani Federico; Emmi Vincenzo; Marone Piero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Due to the diffusion of MRSA strains in both hospital and community settings, prevention and control strategies are receiving increased attention. Approximately 25% to 30% of the population is colonised with S. aureus and 0.2% to 7% with MRSA. The BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay offers quicker identification of MRSA-colonised patients than do culture methods. Methods Ninety-fiv...

  20. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  1. Nasal colonization of humans with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398 with and without exposure to pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. METHODS: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family members. The same was performed in 18 veterinarians attending pig farms and in 44 of their non exposed family members. For investigating transmission beyond families we samples the nares of 462 pupils attending a secondary school in a high density pig farming area. MRSA were detected by direct culture on selective agar. The isolates were typed by means of spa-sequence typing and classification of SCCmec elements. For attribution of spa sequence types to clonal lineages as defined by multi locus sequence typing we used the BURP algorithm. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by microbroth dilution assay. RESULTS: At the farms investigated 86% of humans exposed and only 4.3% of their family members were found to carry MRSA exhibiting spa-types corresponding to clonal complex CC398. Nasal colonization was also found in 45% of veterinarians caring for pig farms and in 9% of their non exposed family members. Multivariate analysis revealed that antibiotic usage prior to sampling beard no risk with respect to colonization. From 462 pupils only 3 were found colonized, all 3 were living on pig farms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that so far the dissemination of MRSA CC398 to non exposed humans is infrequent and probably does not reach beyond familial communities.

  2. Nasal Colonization of Humans with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 with and without Exposure to Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cuny, Christiane; Nathaus, Rolf; Layer, Franziska; Strommenger, Birgit; Witte, Wolfgang; Altmann, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. Methods: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family ...

  3. Structure of ThiM from Vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway of Staphylococcus aureus – Insights into a novel pro-drug approach addressing MRSA infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebes, Julia; Künz, Madeleine; Windshügel, Björn; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Müller, Ingrid B.; Eberle, Raphael J.; Oberthür, Dominik; Cang, Huaixing; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Wrenger, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are today known to be a substantial threat for global health. Emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria have created a substantial need to identify and discover new drug targets and to develop novel strategies to treat bacterial infections. A promising and so far untapped antibiotic target is the biosynthesis of vitamin B1 (thiamin). Thiamin in its activated form, thiamin pyrophosphate, is an essential co-factor for all organisms. Therefore, thiamin analogous compounds, when introduced into the vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway and further converted into non-functional co-factors by the bacterium can function as pro-drugs which thus block various co-factor dependent pathways. We characterized one of the key enzymes within the S. aureus vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway, 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole kinase (SaThiM; EC 2.7.1.50), a potential target for pro-drug compounds and analyzed the native structure of SaThiM and complexes with the natural substrate 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (THZ) and two selected substrate analogues.

  4. 神经外科重症监护室 MRSA 医院感染暴发分析%Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infec-tion outbreak in neurosurgical intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珊红; 许文; 戈伟; 慕彩妮; 李颖; 曹小琴; 许鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of an outbreak of healthcare-associated infection with methicillin-resist-ant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)in a neurosurgical intensive care unit(NSICU).Methods Epidemiological investigation on 8 patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)in a NSICU between June 15 and June 28,2104 were performed by combination methods of prospective and retrospective survey.Results The attack rate of MRSA LRTI in NSICU patients was 22.86%,a total of 16 MRSA isolates were detected from patients’clinical specimens,nasal vestibule,as well as hospital surroundings during the period,pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)result revealed that infection outbreak was caused by two subtypes of MRSA;risk factors analysis showed that long length of stay in ICU and aspiration of spu-tum through bronchoscopy were risk factors for MRSA LRTI.Conclusion Contamination of bronchoscope was the key factor for this epidemic spread of healthcare-associated MRSA infection.%目的:调查某院神经外科重症监护室(NSICU)耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)医院感染暴发的原因。方法采用前瞻性和回顾性调查相结合的方法,对2014年6月15—28日某院 NSICU 发生的8例下呼吸道MRSA感染患者进行流行病学调查。结果2014年6月15—28日该院 NSICU 患者医院 MRSA 下呼吸道感染罹患率为22.86%,该期间住院患者临床标本、鼻前庭标本及环境卫生学标本共分离 MRSA 16株,脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)结果证实此次暴发为2个 MRSA 亚型感染;危险因素分析显示,住 ICU 时间长及使用支气管镜吸痰是 MRSA 下呼吸道感染的危险因素。结论推断 NSICU 支气管镜污染是此次 MRSA 医院感染暴发传播的关键因素。

  5. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Uzunović; Branka Bedenić; Ana Budimir; Amir Ibrahimagić; Farah Kamberović; Zlatko Fiolić; Michelle I. A. Rijnders; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL), and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic charact...

  6. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum (ESBL- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Uzunović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum (ESBL, and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic characterization of MRSA was performed using spa-typing and the algorithm based upon repeat patterns (BURP. Double-disk-synergy test was used to screen for ESBLs. PCR was used to detect blaESBL alleles. Genetic relatedness of the strains was tested by PFGE. Results Seventeen in-patients with MRSA, 13 with ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria and three patients co-infected with both, were detected. Five MRSA and 16 ESBL-producing Gramnegative bacteria were found in outpatient samples. Klebsiella spp. was isolated in 11 in- and seven outpatients. MLST CC152 was the most prevalent MRSA. Seven (38.9% Klebsiella spp. yielded amplicons with primers specific for SHV, TEM-1 and CTXM group 1 β-lactamases. Eight K. pneumonia (44.4% and 16 (64% MRSA (including the in- and outpatient strains were clonally related. Conclusion The presence of MRSA and ESBL-producing organisms causing SSTIs in the community poses a substantial concern, due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with possible consequent hospital infections.

  7. Mutations in mmpL and in the cell wall stress stimulon contribute to resistance to oxadiazole antibiotics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiaobin; Vakulenko, Sergei; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections, which exhibit broad resistance to various antibiotics. We recently disclosed the discovery of the oxadiazole class of antibiotics, which has in vitro and in vivo activities against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We report herein that MmpL, a putative member of the resistance, nodulation, and cell division (RND) family of proteins, contributes to oxadiazole resistance in the S. aureus strain COL. Through serial passages, we generated two S. aureus COL variants that showed diminished susceptibilities to an oxadiazole antibiotic. The MICs for the oxadiazole against one strain (designated S. aureus COL(I)) increased reproducibly 2-fold (to 4 μg/ml), while against the other strain (S. aureus COL(R)), they increased >4-fold (to >8 μg/ml, the limit of solubility). The COL(R) strain was derived from the COL(I) strain. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 31 mutations in S. aureus COL(R), of which 29 were shared with COL(I). Consistent with our previous finding that oxadiazole antibiotics inhibit cell wall biosynthesis, we found 13 mutations that occurred either in structural genes or in promoters of the genes of the cell wall stress stimulon. Two unique mutations in S. aureus COL(R) were substitutions in two genes that encode the putative thioredoxin (SACOL1794) and MmpL (SACOL2566). A role for mmpL in resistance to oxadiazoles was discerned from gene deletion and complementation experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a cell wall-acting antibiotic selects for mutations in the cell wall stress stimulon and the first to implicate MmpL in resistance to antibiotics in S. aureus.

  8. Risk factors for colonization/infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylo-coccus aureus in intensive care unit patients%ICU 患者 MRSA 定植与感染的危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珊红; 李颖; 戈伟; 许文; 慕彩妮; 李谨革

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the colonization/infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MR-SA)in patients in intensive care unit (ICU),respiratory ICU (RICU)and neurosurgical ICU(NSICU),so as to find out the risk factors for MRSA colonization/infection in patients.Methods A prospective method was used for this study,data of all patients admitted to three ICUs between May 1 and July 31,2013 were collected,specimens of nasal swabs of patients and health care workers (HCWs),as well as specimens of patients’surroundings were taken and per-formed MRSA detection.Results The average colonization rate of MRSA in 197 patients at three ICUs was 11.17%,22 MRSA strains were isolated,the colonization rate in ICU,RICU and NSICU patients was 4.00%,11.90% and 15.87%respectively,no significant difference was found among different ICU groups (χ2 =4.04,P =0.133).The detection rate of MRSA from patients was 2.03% (4/197),colonization rate of MRSA in HCWs’nasal vestibule was 1.72%(2/116).De-tection rate of MRSA from surroundings of patients with MRSA colonization was higher than that without MRSA coloniza-tion (22.73%[5/22]vs 4.00%[7/175],χ2 =8.93,P =0.003).Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that pa-tients aged ≥60 years,invasive procedures,long length of ICU stay,and recent antimicrobial use were independent risk factors for MRSA colonization/infection.Conclusion Patients in ICU should be screened for MRSA colonization,ef-fective measures should be taken to avoid MRSA transmission between hospital and patients;invasive procedures should be minimized,length of ICU stay should be shortened,antimicrobial agents should be used rationally,so as to reduce MRSA colonization and infection in ICU patients.%目的:比较重症监护室(ICU)、呼吸内科监护室(RICU)和神经外科监护室(NSICU)耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)定植与感染状况,探讨患者 MRSA 定植/感染的危险因素。方法采用前瞻

  9. MRSA in Croatia: prevalence and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay. MRSA is a major pathogen in hospitals and an important pathogen in community infections with few severe and fatal cases. However, MRSA causes the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the US. The burden of community MRSA is much smaller in Europe, but there are reports of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolated from pigs and cattle causing significant infections in the people who are connected to these farms. MRSA has been present in Croatia for more than 45 years, and it exerts a different impact on health-care infections. A remarkable increase in MRSA percentage was noted in primarily sterile samples in 2002 (37%) in comparison to 2001 (31%). This percentage remained quite high until 2008, when the first signs of a reduced trend were observed. The lowest percentage was 22% in 2012. PMID:26559874

  10. Care for MRSA carriers in the outpatient sector: a survey among MRSA carriers and physicians in two regions in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Rübsamen, Nicole; Szkopek, Sebastian; Schmalz, Oliver; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Castell, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers in the German outpatient sector and about the impact of MRSA on their daily life. Reimbursement for MRSA related costs in the German outpatient sector is available since 2012, but its impact has not been studied yet. The aim of the study was to analyze the outpatient management of MRSA carriers from both, physicians’ and MRSA carriers’ perspective. Methods Paper-based questionnaires ...

  11. Defining the Active Fraction of Daptomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Using a Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garonzik, Samira M.; Lenhard, Justin R.; Forrest, Alan; Holden, Patricia N.; Bulitta, Jϋrgen B.; Tsuji, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in the presence of varying concentrations of human serum (HS) in vitro to quantify the fraction of daptomycin that is ‘active’. Time kill experiments were performed with daptomycin (0 to 256 mg/L) against two MRSA strains at log-phase growth, in the presence of HS (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) combined with Mueller-Hinton broth. Daptomycin ≥ 2 mg/L achieved 99.9% kill within 8 h at all HS concentrations; early killing activity was slightly attenuated at higher HS concentrations. After 1 h, bacterial reduction of USA300 upon exposure to daptomycin 4 mg/L ranged from -3.1 to -0.5 log10CFU/mL in the presence of 0% to 70% HS, respectively. Bactericidal activity was achieved against both strains at daptomycin ≥ 4 mg/L for all fractions of HS exposure. A mechanism-based mathematical model (MBM) was developed to estimate the active daptomycin fraction at each %HS, comprising 3 bacterial subpopulations differing in daptomycin susceptibility. Time-kill data were fit with this MBM with excellent precision (r2 >0.95). The active fraction of daptomycin was estimated to range from 34.6% to 25.2% at HS fractions of 10% to 70%, respectively. Despite the reported low unbound fraction of daptomycin, the impact of protein binding on the activity of daptomycin was modest. The active fraction approach can be utilized to design in vitro experiments and to optimize therapeutic regimens of daptomycin in humans. PMID:27284923

  12. Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Guardabassi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    breed were assigned to three groups treated with tetracycline and zinc (Group 1), zinc (Group 2) or tetracycline alone (Group 3) and one non-treated group (Group 4), each containing two MRSA-positive and two MRSA-negative animals. Two additional non-treated control groups composed of only MRSA...... housed with MRSA-positive animals became positive in all groups, whereas the carriage status of the animals in Groups 5 and 6 did not change. This study demonstrates that feed supplemented with tetracycline or zinc increases the numbers of MRSA ST398 in the nasal cavity of pigs. Transmission of MRSA from...... positive to negative animals housed within the same pen was not influenced by exposure to these agents....

  13. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: Human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Graveland, H.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Heesterbeek, H; Mevius, D.J.; Duijkeren, van, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. METHODS: A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to ...

  14. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carrying the mecC gene in a semi-extensive red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) farm in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; González-Barrio, David; Zarazaga, Myriam; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Torres, Carmen

    2015-06-12

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in red deer of a semi-extensive farm and in humans in contact with the estate animals, and to characterize obtained isolates. Nasal swabs of 65 deer and 15 humans were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base. Isolates were identified by microbiological and molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics by disk-diffusion and the presence of eight antibiotic resistance genes, seven virulence genes and genes of immune-evasion-cluster (IEC) was analyzed by PCR. S. aureus was typed by PFGE-SmaI, spa, agr, SCCmec and MLST. Isolates were detected in 16 deer (24.6%). Eleven S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), and five were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). All MRSA harbored mecC gene and were agr-III/SCCmecXI/ST1945 (four spa-t843 and seven spa-t1535). All mecC-MRSA carried blaZ-SCCmecXI and etd2, were IEC-type-E, and belonged to the same PFGE pattern. The five MSSA were typed as spa-t2420/agr-I/ST133. Regarding humans, S. aureus was recovered from six samples (40%). The isolates were MSSA and were typed as spa-t002/agr-II, spa-t012/agr-III or spa-t822/agr-III and showed different IEC types (A, B, D and F). blaZ and erm(A) genes were detected, as well as cna and tst genes. As conclusion, red deer analyzed in this study are frequent carriers of mecC-MRSA CC130 (16.9%), they are characterized by few resistance and virulence determinants, and by the presence of IEC type-E. Deer could be a source of mecC-MRSA which could potentially be transmitted to other animals, or even to humans.

  15. MRSA bacteraemia: North/South study of MRSA in Ireland 1999.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Donald, P

    2002-12-01

    Retrospective aggregate data on all Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from blood cultures during 1998 were collected in both jurisdictions on the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland (North) and the Republic of Ireland (South), as part of the North\\/South Study of MRSA in Ireland 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to gather the data, and all diagnostic microbiology laboratories in the North and 98% of laboratories in the South participated. S. aureus bacteraemia occurred at rates of 20.4 per 100,000 population in the North and 24.5 per 100,000 in the South (missing data from one laboratory). In the North, 22% of patients who had blood cultures positive for S. aureus had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 25% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA (some patients had more than one isolate). In the South, 31% of patients who had blood cultures positive for S. aureus had MRSA and 36% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA. There was a marked variation in rates between different regions. The percentage of patients with blood cultures positive for S. aureus that had MRSA was considerably lower in the North (22%) than in the South (31%), and in both jurisdictions was lower than that found in England and Wales in 1999 (37%). It is recommended that data on S. aureus bacteraemia and methicillin-resistance rates (already available in many laboratories) are gathered at regional and national level for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Prevention and Control of MRSA Infection

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 信一; 井上, 正樹

    2003-01-01

    Many efficacious antimicrobial agents have beem developed in the latter half of the 20th century, and this has enabled us to overcome bacterial infections. However, various drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been emerging. MRSA strains used to be isolated not only from compromised patients with nosocomial infection but also from patients with community-acquired infection. MRSA infection is difficult to treat because of the strong pathogen...

  17. Impact of Colonization Pressure and Strain Type on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Victor O; Carroll, Karen C.; Ross, Tracy; Reich, Nicholas G.; Perl, Trish M.; Aaron M Milstone

    2013-01-01

    We studied the transmissibility of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains and the association of MRSA colonization pressure and MRSA transmission in critically ill children. Importantly, we found that in hospitalized children MRSA colonization pressure above 10% increases the risk of MRSA transmission 3-fold, and CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains have similar transmission dynamics.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of antibacterial effect of Ag nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Daissy Paredes,1 Claudia Ortiz,2 Rodrigo Torres1 1Escuela de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia; 2Escuela de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been shown great interest because of their potential antibacterial effect. Recently, this has been increased due to resistance in some pathogenic bacteria strains to conventional antibiotics, which has initiated new studies to search for more effective treatments against resistant microorganisms. For these reasons, AgNPs have become an important approach for applications in nanobiotechnology in the development of antibiotic treatment of different bacterial infections. This study was aimed at synthesizing AgNPs using cysteine as a reducer agent and cetyl-tri-methyl-ammonium bromide as a stabilizer in order to obtain more efficient treatment against the pathogen bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7. These AgNPs were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. From these analyses, formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 55 nm was confirmed. Finally, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC of these AgNPs against pathogenic strains E. coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA were determined in both solid and liquid media. MIC and MBC values were around 0.25 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. These parameters were comparable to those reported in the literature and were even more effective than other synthesized AgNPs. Keywords: nanomaterials, antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC, minimal bactericide concentration, MBC

  19. Genetic pathway in acquisition and loss of vancomycin resistance in a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain of clonal type USA300.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gardete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clone USA300 with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (SG-R (i.e, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, VISA and its susceptible "parental" strain (SG-S were recovered from a patient at the end and at the beginning of an unsuccessful vancomycin therapy. The VISA phenotype was unstable in vitro generating a susceptible revertant strain (SG-rev. The availability of these 3 isogenic strains allowed us to explore genetic correlates of antibiotic resistance as it emerged in vivo. Compared to the susceptible isolate, both the VISA and revertant strains carried the same point mutations in yycH, vraG, yvqF and lspA genes and a substantial deletion within an intergenic region. The revertant strain carried a single additional frameshift mutation in vraS which is part of two component regulatory system VraSR. VISA isolate SG-R showed complex alterations in phenotype: decreased susceptibility to other antibiotics, slow autolysis, abnormal cell division and increased thickness of cell wall. There was also altered expression of 239 genes including down-regulation of major virulence determinants. All phenotypic properties and gene expression profile returned to parental levels in the revertant strain. Introduction of wild type yvqF on a multicopy plasmid into the VISA strain caused loss of resistance along with loss of all the associated phenotypic changes. Introduction of the wild type vraSR into the revertant strain caused recovery of VISA type resistance. The yvqF/vraSR operon seems to function as an on/off switch: mutation in yvqF in strain SG-R turns on the vraSR system, which leads to increase in vancomycin resistance and down-regulation of virulence determinants. Mutation in vraS in the revertant strain turns off this regulatory system accompanied by loss of resistance and normal expression of virulence genes. Down-regulation of virulence genes may provide VISA strains with a "stealth

  20. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  1. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitske Graveland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. METHODS: A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390 to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151. Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  2. Evaluation of a New Chromogenic Medium, MRSA Select, for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Lisa; Soares, Deirdre; Meaney, Helen; Vearncombe, Mary; Simor, Andrew E

    2006-01-01

    We compared MRSA Select to mannitol-salt agar with 8 μg/ml cefoxitin for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 6,199 clinical samples submitted for MRSA screening. The sensitivities and specificities of MRSA Select and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin were 98% and 92% versus 90% and 78%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Most (96%) MRSA were detected after overnight incubation using MRSA Select.

  3. Evaluation of the IDI-MRSA PCR for screening methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in 75 operation patients%IDI-MRSA PCR对75例手术患者进行MRSA筛选的使用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史跃杰; 杨玉林

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价IDI-MRSA PCR检测手术患者MRSA的性能和可靠性.方法 同时使用选择平板法、选择肉汤增菌法、普通PCR和IDI-MRSA PCR对75例手术住院患者进行MRSA筛选检测.并以选择肉汤增菌法为金标准,对其它三种方法进行各项指标比较.结果 选择平板法敏感度为78.6%,特异性为100%;普通PCR敏感度100%,特异性为90.2%;IDI-MRSA PCR的敏感度和特异性均为100%.结论 IDI-MRSA PCR克服了选择平板培养法的灵敏度低、普通PCR的特异性差以及金标准方法的耗时长等缺点,是筛选手术患者MRSA的较好的诊断方法.

  4. 耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的管理:关注宿主%Management of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection:focus on host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天昊; 马朋林

    2012-01-01

      在抗生素选择压力等因素影响下,全球细菌耐药情况日益严峻。作为主要的临床耐药菌之一,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染的发生率呈现逐年快速增长趋势。因此,在抗生素以外寻求其它MRSA感染的防治措施将具有重要的临床意义。本文将对机体免疫状态与MRSA的关系、尤其是巨噬细胞和粒细胞数量和功能在抗MRSA感染中的作用进行系统回顾,探索临床可能的、以免疫调节为目标的、针对MRSA感染的有效预防与治疗措施。%  Influenced by multiple factors, such as antibiotics abuse, bacteria resistance has been becoming a global serious problem. The isolated-rate of MRSA, which was the one of the most common resistant bacteria, has increased rapidly. Thus, it is important to investigate strategies, other than antibiotics, for clinical MRSA infection control. In this article, we wil systematical y review the association of host immune status, especial y the numbers and function of macrophages and leukocytes with MRSA infection. The aim is to investigate the potential ways, which are focused on immunomodulaion, for clinical prevention and management of MRSA.

  5. Evidence for cost reduction based on pre-admission MRSA screening in general surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diller, Ricarda; Sonntag, Anne K; Mellmann, Alexander; Grevener, Knut; Senninger, Norbert; Kipp, Frank; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2008-01-01

    Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a risk factor for MRSA infection causing increased costs in patient's care and treatment. To evaluate cost efficiency, pre-admission MRSA screening and subsequent MRSA decolonization of patients admitted to the Department of Gen

  6. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  7. Study on MRSA typing and molecular traceability of staphylococcus aureus%金黄色葡萄球菌MRSA分型及分子溯源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 周丽萍; 巢国祥; 吴艳涛; 张小荣

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过对来源于临床、动物、环境等的金黄色葡萄球菌中耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌(MRSA)分子分型及溯源,研究不同来源MRSA的存在状况并进行克隆溯源研究.方法 采用MRSA分型方法对503株不同来源的菌株进行分型并对其中227株进行多位点序列(MLST)分型及分析.结果 503株不同来源的菌株中,MRSA阳性率为21.67%,有5个MRSA型:SⅠ、SⅡ、SⅢ、SⅣ、SⅤ型.MRSA-Ⅰ、MRSA-Ⅱ、MRSA-Ⅲ型全部来源于人,属于HAMRSA;MRSA-Ⅳ、MRSA-Ⅴ、MRSA-UT型则来源于人、动物、生乳及环境,属于CA-MRSA.多位点序列分型出现45个ST型,出现有4个重要的克隆复合体CC239、CC630、D9及D398.其中CC630是新出现的克隆.结论 HAMRSA-Ⅲ主要属于CC239克隆复合体.CA-MRSA-V主要属于CC630克隆复合体,并在人、动物、环境中形成流行链.与欧洲及美洲ST398主要出现在动物(尤其是猪)后感染人不同,国内ST398出现在人且极少在动物中出现.

  8. Prevalence of qacA/B Genes and Mupirocin Resistance Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates in the Setting of Chlorhexidine Bathing Without Mupirocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David K; Prager, Martin; Munigala, Satish; Wallace, Meghan A; Kennedy, Colleen R; Bommarito, Kerry M; Mazuski, John E; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the frequency of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes and high-level mupirocin resistance among MRSA isolates before and after the introduction of a chlorhexidine (CHG) daily bathing intervention in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study (2005-2012) SETTING A large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients admitted to SICU who had MRSA surveillance cultures of the anterior nares METHODS A random sample of banked MRSA anterior nares isolates recovered during (2005) and after (2006-2012) implementation of a daily CHG bathing protocol was examined for qacA/B genes and high-level mupirocin resistance. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was also performed. RESULTS Of the 504 randomly selected isolates (63 per year), 36 (7.1%) were qacA/B positive (+) and 35 (6.9%) were mupirocin resistant. Of these, 184 (36.5%) isolates were SCCmec type IV. There was a significant trend for increasing qacA/B (P=.02; highest prevalence, 16.9% in 2009 and 2010) and SCCmec type IV (P<.001; highest prevalence, 52.4% in 2012) during the study period. qacA/B(+) MRSA isolates were more likely to be mupirocin resistant (9 of 36 [25%] qacA/B(+) vs 26 of 468 [5.6%] qacA/B(-); P=.003). CONCLUSIONS A long-term, daily CHG bathing protocol was associated with a change in the frequency of qacA/B genes in MRSA isolates recovered from the anterior nares over an 8-year period. This change in the frequency of qacA/B genes is most likely due to patients in those years being exposed in prior admissions. Future studies need to further evaluate the implications of universal CHG daily bathing on MRSA qacA/B genes among hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:590-597. PMID:26828094

  9. 脊柱术后耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染的治疗--附8例报告%Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection after spine surgery:8 cases report Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection after spine surgery:8 cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少强; 齐强; 刘宁; 孙垂国; 马勇光; 陈仲强; 刘忠军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨脊柱术后耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染的合理治疗方法。方法:2007年7月~2012年12月共收治8例脊柱术后MRSA感染患者,女6例,男2例,年龄32~72岁,平均54.3岁。8例患者均行彻底清创冲洗、对口置管冲洗引流,根据引流液培养结果决定冲洗量及拔除冲洗管和引流管,同时联合抗生素辅助治疗,在静脉使用广谱抗生素前留取切口分泌物送检细菌培养和药敏试验,待细菌培养和药敏结果明确后调整抗生素,必要时还增加口服抗生素。结果:本组8例MRSA感染患者有1例死亡;另7例患者随访5~43个月,平均21个月,至末次随访时未见感染复发。其中4例经过对口置管冲洗引流后感染获得控制而保留了内置物,而另3例在内置物移除后感染才得到控制。患者总住院时间为26~200d,平均91.8d,有5例因手术部位感染于初次手术出院后再次住院,住院次数最多达5次。静脉抗生素的使用时间为14~144d,平均55.5d;其中有5例联合口服抗生素的时间为11~73d,平均31.4d。8例患者中有4例清创手术次数超过1次,最多达5次,其中1例因多次清创导致严重软组织缺损而采用旋转肌瓣覆盖后治愈。结论:脊柱术后MRSA感染治疗往往相对困难,常需要增加住院时间、延长抗生素疗程、多次清创手术,甚至移除内置物才能有效控制感染。对于脊柱术后MRSA感染,决定是否移除内置物时主要考虑:①术后感染发生的时间>30d时考虑移除内置物;②术后清创次数达到3次仍未能很好地控制感染时考虑移除内置物。%Objectives: To investigate the treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) in-fection after spine surgery. Methods: From July 2007 to December 2012, a total of 8 MRSA infected cases (6 females and 2 males) following spine surgery and with an average age at admission of 54.3 years

  10. Application of the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Fingerprinting to Analyze Genetic Variation in Community Associated-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) Isolates in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Shojaei, Hasan; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Davoodabadi, Fazollah; Khorvash, Farzin; Ataei, Behrooz; Daei-Naser, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply RAPD technique to analyze the genetic variability among the Iranian CA-MRSA isolates. The RAPD amplification was implemented on 25 strains isolated from the anterior nares of 410 healthy children using four randomly selected oligonucleotide primers from the stocks available in our laboratory, including the primers 1254, GE6, OLP6 and OLP13 from our stock. The amplified PCR products were detected on a 1.5% agarose gel and subjected to further analysis to establish the band profiles and genetic relationships using the Gel Compar® program. The Iranian CA-MRSA isolates produced distinct RAPD patterns which varied based on the primer used, however, the primer 1254 revealed highly polymorphic patterns consisting 5 discernable RAPD types (RT), “RT1” (12, 48%), “RT2” (8, 32%), “RT3” (3, 12%), and “RT4 and RT5”, (a single RAPD type each, 4%). Phylogenetic analysis based on RAPD profiles divided most of the CA-MRSA isolates into 2 distinct but related RAPD clusters, a small group and two single unrelated RAPD types. This study shows that the simple and cost-effective but rather difficult to optimize RAPD fingerprinting could be used to evaluate genetic and epidemiological relationships of CA-MRSA isolates on condition that the patterns are obtained from carefully optimized laboratory tests. PMID:27045409

  11. Detection of methicillin and mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates using conventional and molecular methods: a descriptive study from a burns unit with high prevalence of MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, P U; Miles, K.; Shetty, N

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To compare conventional phenotypic methods for the detection of methicillin and mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in routine laboratory practice with reference to an established molecular method.

  12. Prospective analysis methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and its risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khulood K Al-Asfoor; Mona F Salama; Al-Awadi, Bashayer M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the early nineties, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has existed in a form correlating with community health personnel. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) could be differentiated from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) microbiologically, epidemiologically, and molecularly. Aims: To determine the prevalence, risk factors of MRSA infections in community and hospital. Settings: The incidence and risk factors for CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA among patients of med...

  13. Prospective Analysis Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khulood K Al-Asfoor; Mona F Salama; Al-Awadi, Bashayer M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the early nineties, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has existed in a form correlating with community health personnel. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) could be differentiated from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) microbiologically, epidemiologically, and molecularly. Aims: To determine the prevalence, risk factors of MRSA infections in community and hospital. Settings: The incidence and risk factors for CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA among patients of med...

  14. Control of MRSA infection and colonisation in an intensive care unit by GeneOhm MRSA assay and culture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Due to the diffusion of MRSA strains in both hospital and community settings, prevention and control strategies are receiving increased attention. Approximately 25% to 30% of the population is colonised with S. aureus and 0.2% to 7% with MRSA. The BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay offers quicker identification of MRSA-colonised patients than do culture methods. Methods Ninety-five patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia (Italy) for a period > 24 h were screened for MRSA colonisation with both the culture method and the GeneOhm assay. Results Of the 246 nasal swabs collected from 95 patients, 36 samples were found to be positive by both methods (true-positive). 30% of colonised patients had developed the MRSA infection. Conclusion Our results show that the GeneOhm MRSA assay is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting MRSA quickly in nasal swabs. This study confirms that colonisation represents a high risk factor for MRSA infection, and that good MRSA surveillance in an Intensive Care Unit is therefore an excellent way to prevent MRSA infection. PMID:19703294

  15. Control of MRSA infection and colonisation in an intensive care unit by GeneOhm MRSA assay and culture methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Claudia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Due to the diffusion of MRSA strains in both hospital and community settings, prevention and control strategies are receiving increased attention. Approximately 25% to 30% of the population is colonised with S. aureus and 0.2% to 7% with MRSA. The BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay offers quicker identification of MRSA-colonised patients than do culture methods. Methods Ninety-five patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia (Italy for a period > 24 h were screened for MRSA colonisation with both the culture method and the GeneOhm assay. Results Of the 246 nasal swabs collected from 95 patients, 36 samples were found to be positive by both methods (true-positive. 30% of colonised patients had developed the MRSA infection. Conclusion Our results show that the GeneOhm MRSA assay is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting MRSA quickly in nasal swabs. This study confirms that colonisation represents a high risk factor for MRSA infection, and that good MRSA surveillance in an Intensive Care Unit is therefore an excellent way to prevent MRSA infection.

  16. Increased mortality associated with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the intensive care unit: results from the EPIC II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanberger, H.; Walther, S.; Leone, M.; Barie, P.S.; Rello, J.; Lipman, J.; Marshall, J.C.; Anzueto, A.; Sakr, Y.; Pickkers, P.; Felleiter, P.; Engoren, M.; Vincent, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Controversy continues regarding whether the presence of meticillin resistance increases mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus infections. In this study, we assessed the role of meticillin resistance in survival of patients with S. aureus infection included in the EPIC II point-prevalence study of

  17. Costs and effects of MRSA control in Dutch hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Wassenberg, M.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus bloodstream isolates was as low as 0.7% in 2008. This low prevalence is maintained by a nationwide MRSA policy (also called search and destroy), that has been employed in Dutch hospitals since 1984. In the last years we have witnessed major changes in the Dutch MRSA epidemiology. Since 2003 a new MRSA strain (ST398), which originated from livestock, emerged in the Netherlands. Importantly, there is now a substantial number of MRSA carr...

  18. 耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌耐药基因及其相关因素分析%Analysis on drug resistance gene and correlation factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 安云庆; 吕哲; 马岳珠; 董云英; 陈惠

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)耐药现状,加强临床MRSA的监控.方法 回顾性分析临床46株MRSA耐药性,并用PCR法对MRSA进行β-内酰胺类耐药相关基因mecA、氨基糖甙类耐药相关基因aac(6')/aph(2")、红霉素类耐药基因emr和耐消毒剂基因qac(A/B)检测.结果 46株MRSA表现多重耐药和高度耐药性,并检测出相关的耐药基因.结论 在临床工作中加强MRSA的监测、合理使用抗生素、严格消毒隔离制度是控制MRSA医院感染的关键.%Objective To investigate the drug resistance status of methicillin-resistant Staphylo-coccus aureus (MRSA), strengthen the monitoring of MRSA. Methods Drug resistance of 46 strains of MRSA was retrospectively analyzed. β-lactams resistance gene mecA, aminoglycosides resistance gene sac (6') / aph (2"), erythromyeins resistance gene emr and antiseptics resistance gene qac (A/B) were tested in 46 strains of MRSA by applying PCR. Results Most of MRSA strains were highly and multidrug-resistant, and related resistant genes of MRSA were detected. Conclusion Enhancement of MRSA monitoring, rational use of antibiotics and strict disinfection/insulation in clinic are the key to control of MRSA hospital infection.

  19. Improved detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phenyl mannitol broth containing aztreonam and ceftizoxime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); C. van Pelt (Cindy); P. de Man (Peter); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe tested a phenyl mannitol broth containing ceftizoxime and aztreonam (PHMB(+)) for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reference MRSA strains and, subsequently, with clinical samples (n = 1,098). All reference MRSA strains

  20. Comparison of in vitro efficacy of linezolid and vancomycin by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To compare the in vitro activities of vancomycin and linezolid against methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus in our set up to help in formulating a better empirical treatment and reduce the emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months(July 1, 2009 - Dec 1, 2009). Fifty Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the clinical isolates of Military Hospital Rawalpindi were subjected to the determination of Minimum inhibitory concentrations of linezolid and vancomycin using E-strips. Results: All the isolated organisms were uniformly susceptible to both the antibiotics. Vancomycin showed higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as compared to linezolid MICs. Conclusion: This study suggests that linezolid and vancomycin have similar in vitro efficacy for methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus infections. (author)

  1. The hospital ‘superbug’: social representations of MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Washer, P.; Joffe, H

    2006-01-01

    The so-called ‘hospital superbug’ methcillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) became a topic of media and political concern from the middle of the 1990’s. It was increasingly politicised in the period leading up to the British General Election of 2005. This study examines the meanings of MRSA that circulate in Britain by analysing newspaper coverage of the disease over a ten year period. It utilises social representations theory and contextualises MRSA within existing research on repres...

  2. [Cluster outbreak of MRSA in the community; recognition and approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, C.F.H.; Wijngaarden, P. van; Moen, G.; Rijen, M.M. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community-acquired infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) mainly affects healthy young people, without health-care related risk factors for MRSA. Patients often present with skin and soft-tissue infections. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old woman presented at

  3. Risk of Transmission of MRSA on Contact Surfaces in Ambulance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukas, R. -P.; Keppler, P. -A.; Brinkrolf, P.; Friedrich, A. W.; Van Aken, H.; Bohn, A.

    2015-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequent causes of treatment-associated nosocomial infections. The incidence of MRSA among the population and in hospitalised patients is growing worldwide. Ambulance service is an interface between the

  4. Engineering MRSA antimicrobials that are refractory to resistance development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most costly multi-drug resistant pathogens to both human animal health, with billions of dollars are spent annually to treat human infections. MRSA is also appearing in livestock (bovine, porcine, poultry) as well as companion animal...

  5. MRSA infection in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Bonura, Celestino; Cipolla, Domenico; Mammina, Caterina

    2013-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is well known as one of the most frequent etiological agents of healthcare-associated infections. The epidemiology of MRSA is evolving with emergence of community-associated MRSA, the clonal spread of some successful clones, their spillover into healthcare settings and acquisition of antibacterial drug resistances. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients are at an especially high risk of acquiring colonization and infection by MRSA. Epidemiology of MRSA in NICU can be very complex because outbreaks can overlap endemic circulation and make it difficult to trace transmission routes. Moreover, increasing prevalence of community-associated MRSA can jeopardize epidemiological investigation, screening and effectiveness of control policies. Surveillance, prevention and control strategies and clinical management have been widely studied and are still the subject of scientific debate. More data are needed to determine the most cost-effective approach to MRSA control in NICU in light of the local epidemiology.

  6. [Optimisation of the antibiotic policy in the Netherlands. XII. The SWAB guideline for antimicrobial eradication of MRSA in carriers].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H.F.; Ammerlaan, H.S.; Bonten, M.J.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Troelstra, A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.; Vos, M.C.; Voss, A.; Nouwen, J.L.; Kluytmans, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Stichting Werkgroep Antibioticabeleid' (SWAB; Dutch Working Party on Antibiotics Policy) has developed evidence-based guidelines for the antimicrobial treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers for the eradication of MRSA. A distinction was made between uncomplicat

  7. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Dreyer, Z.S.; Makgotlho, E.; Oosthuysen, W.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the local epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, we characterised blood culture isolates using molecular methods and prospectively collected clinical data to determine the occurrence of community-acquired, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA). Consecutive S. aureus blood cu

  8. MRSA genotypes in Turkey: persistence over 10 years of a single clone of ST239.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Klaassen, C.H.; Doganay, M.; Altoparlak, U.; Aydin, K.; Engin, A.; Kuzucu, C.; Ozakin, C.; Ozinel, M.A.; Turhan, O.; Voss, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of life-threatening human infections. The clinical impact of MRSA is mounting, not only due to the ever-increasing prevalence but also due to the occurrence of new, community-acquired MRSA strains. The aim of this

  9. Incidence of Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Regional Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabata, Hidenobu; Murakami, Manabu; Kisa, Kengo; Maezawa, Masaji

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Since the early 2000s, the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections among the community of people lacking known healthcare risk factors has increased. This MRSA infection is referred to as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infection and is distinct from hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) infection, which occurs among people with known healthcare risk factors. Understanding the epidemiology of CA-MRSA infections is critical; however...

  10. MRSA transmission between cows and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhasz-Kaszanyitzky, E.; Janosi, S.; Somogyi, P.; Dan, A.; Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Dulijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from cows with subclinical mastitis and from a person who worked with these animals. The bovine and human strains were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods and were of a low frequency spa type. To our knowledge, this f

  11. National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Z

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain an indication of the size of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem in Ireland prior to introducing national MRSA control guidelines. A survey of all microbiology laboratories in Ireland was carried out over two weeks in Spring 1995. For patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the study period standard demographic and clinical data were requested and period prevalence\\/1000 discharges was calculated. All 45 microbiology laboratories surveyed responded. MRSA was isolated from 448 patients during the two-week period. The period prevalence of MRSA was 16.5\\/1000 discharges. Males aged > or = 65 had the highest rate (50\\/1000 discharges). Half of all isolates were from patients in surgical or medical wards, but 4% were from community-based sources such as GPs, nursing homes and hospices. Thirty-two percent of MRSA patients were infected rather than colonized. MRSA is clearly a significant problem in Ireland. While it is largely a hospital problem at present, the increasing trend towards day procedures and shorter hospital stay means that infection will increase in the community.

  12. EUREGIO MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland : Search & Follow durch euregionale Netzwerkbildung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, A W

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes the majority of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Particularly critical are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), for which there are few possibilities of antibiotic therapy. It is known that the occurrence of MRSA is directly

  13. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  14. Einführung eines Patientenaufnahmescreenings nach MRSA an einem Universitätsklinikum

    OpenAIRE

    Barekzai, Jasmin

    2011-01-01

    Nosokomiale Infektionen gehören in Deutschland zu den häufigsten Komplikationen medizinischer Behandlung. Staphylococcus aureus mit einem zunehmenden Anteil von MRSA ist dabei einer der wichtigsten Verursacher. Niedrige MRSA-Raten in den Niederlanden und Skandinavien zeigen, dass konsequente MRSA-Präventionsstrategien die Verbreitung verhindern können. Basis der Transmissionkontrolle im Krankenhaus ist die frühzeitige Erkennung von MRSA durch Screeninguntersuchungen bei Aufnahme des Patienten...

  15. Variations in spa types found in consecutive MRSA isolates from the same patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kit; Westh, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Very little is known about how the spa gene mutates over time in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the same patient. Copenhagen is an area with low prevalence of MRSA but with high variability in spa types. We collected 1536 MRSA isolates from 319 patients during a 5-year...... period and found spa type alterations in 30 MRSA isolates (2%) from 13 patients (4%). The alteration most often seen was the deletion of repeats followed by repeat duplication and point mutation....

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections. PMID:20851011

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance Analysis and Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Among Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis%牛源金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性及耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洋; 蒲万霞; 陈智华; 邓海平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解内蒙古地区奶牛乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性和耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染的情况,为奶牛乳房炎的防治提供理论依据.[方法]采用K-B纸片扩散法,检测分离自内蒙古地区38株金黄色葡萄球菌对17种药物的敏感性,同时用琼脂稀释法检测苯唑西林、万古霉素对金黄色葡萄球菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC);再用头孢西丁、苯唑西林纸片扩散法、苯唑西林盐琼脂筛选法和PCR方法扩增mecA耐药基因对分离菌株进行全面MRSA检测.[结果]分离菌株对每种抗生素都有不同程度抗性,对氨苄西林、头孢拉丁、青霉素、复方新诺明、新生霉素和链霉素的耐药率都高于45%,而对氧氟沙星、丁胺卡那霉素、万古霉素、环丙沙星、庆大霉素和头孢唑林的敏感性高于90%,2株细菌的万古霉素MIC≥16 μg.mL-1;其中8株细菌的苯唑西林MIC≥8μg·mL-1,而其它菌株的苯唑西林MIC≤2μg·mL-1,分离菌株多重耐药情况严重,耐受3种及3种以上药物的菌株占84.21%,其中4株细菌能同时耐受9种不同抗菌药物;16 (42.11%)株细菌被检测携带mecA耐药基因,而仅有其中7株的苯唑西林MIC≥4 μg·mL-1;头孢西丁、苯唑西林纸片扩散法和苯唑西林盐琼脂筛选法分别检出7株、10株和7株表型为MRSA的菌株.[结论]分离菌株的耐药性和多重耐药现象较为严重,被调查地区奶牛场中已经存在MRSA和OS-MRSA感染情况,且感染率高.%[Objective] The aim of the study is to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus (Science) and to detect the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis in Inner Mongolia, and to provide credible theory evidence for prevention and treatment of bovine mastitis. [Method] K-B.disk diffusion method was used to test drug sensitivity of 38 total strains of S.aureus to 17 commonly used antibiotics

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus laryngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Tracey; Kaye, Keith; Rubin, Adam D

    2010-09-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become more prevalent, in part because of the emergence and spread of community-acquired MRSA. This trend is particularly concerning because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA infections, and because MRSA strains are often resistant to many classes of antibiotics. Reports of infections of the head and neck, including wound infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and otitis externa, are well documented. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of bacterial laryngitis due to MRSA. We report the first published case of bacterial laryngitis caused by MRSA.

  19. Transmission and Persistence of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Veterinarians and Their Household Members

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, T; Verkade, E.; van Luit, M.; Landman, F.; Kluytmans, J.; Schouls, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    After the first isolation of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in 2003, this MRSA variant quickly became the predominant MRSA obtained from humans as part of the Dutch national MRSA surveillance. Previous studies have suggested that human-to-human transmission of LA-MRSA, compared to that of other MRSA lineages, rarely occurs. However, these reports describe the transmission of LA-MRSA based on epidemiology and limited molecular characterization of iso...

  20. Nosocomial acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients: a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Angelis Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of acquisition of antibiotic resistant-bacteria during or shortly after antibiotic therapy is still unclear and it is often confounded by scarce data on antibiotic usage. Primary objective of the study is to compare rates of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients, after starting antibiotic therapy. Methods/Design The study, running in three European hospitals, is a multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] within the project 'Impact of Specific Antibiotic Therapies on the prevalence of hUman host ResistaNt bacteria' (acronym SATURN. Nasal and rectal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae will be obtained at hospital admission, discharge, at antibiotic start (t0, within one hour and at the following intervals: day 3 (t1, 7 (t2, 15 (t3, and 30 (t4. Two nested case-control studies will be performed. The objective of the first study will be to define individual level of risk related to specific antibiotics. Patients acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (cases will be compared with patients not acquiring antibiotic-resistant strains after starting antibiotic therapy (controls; ratio 1:4. To define the impact of antibiotics on new acquisition of target antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a second nested case-control study will be done (ratio 1:4. Control group will be selected among patients not receiving antibiotics, admitted in the same ward on the day of the corresponding case, with negative cultures at admission. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data will be prospective collected. Discussion The rationale of this study is to better

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  2. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu

    2011-07-01

    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed. PMID:21935792

  3. Genomic characterization of ribitol teichoic acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus: genes, genomic organization and gene duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lingyi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus, is an acquired pathogen and the primary cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. In S. aureus, teichoic acid is an essential component of the cell wall, and its biosynthesis is not yet well characterized. Studies in Bacillus subtilis have discovered two different pathways of teichoic acid biosynthesis, in two strains W23 and 168 respectively, namely teichoic acid ribitol (tar and teichoic acid glycerol (tag. The genes involved in these two pathways are also characterized, tarA, tarB, tarD, tarI, tarJ, tarK, tarL for the tar pathway, and tagA, tagB, tagD, tagE, tagF for the tag pathway. With the genome sequences of several MRSA strains: Mu50, MW2, N315, MRSA252, COL as well as methicillin susceptible strain MSSA476 available, a comparative genomic analysis was performed to characterize teichoic acid biosynthesis in these S. aureus strains. Results We identified all S. aureus tar and tag gene orthologs in the selected S. aureus strains which would contribute to teichoic acids sythesis.Based on our identification of genes orthologous to tarI, tarJ, tarL, which are specific to tar pathway in B. subtilis W23, we also concluded that tar is the major teichoic acid biogenesis pathway in S. aureus. Further analyses indicated that the S. aureus tar genes, different from the divergon organization in B. subtilis, are organized into several clusters in cis. Most interesting, compared with genes in B. subtilis tar pathway, the S. aureus tar specific genes (tarI,J,L are duplicated in all six S. aureus genomes. Conclusion In the S. aureus strains we analyzed, tar (teichoic acid ribitol is the main teichoic acid biogenesis pathway. The tar genes are organized into several genomic groups in cis and the genes specific to tar (relative to tag: tarI, tarJ, tarL are duplicated. The genomic organization of the S. aureus tar pathway suggests their regulations are different when

  4. Use of oligoarrays for characterization of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koessler, Thibaud; Francois, Patrice; Charbonnier, Yvan; Huyghe, Antoine; Bento, Manuela; Dharan, Sasi; Renzi, Gesuele; Lew, Daniel; Harbarth, Stephan; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was considered the prototype of a hospital-acquired bacterial pathogen. However, recent reports have shown that MRSA has now emerged in the community. Characterization of specific markers for distinguishing the origin of isolates could contribute to improved knowledge of MRSA epidemiology. The release of whole-genome sequences of hospital- and community-acquired S. aureus strains allowed the development of whole-genome content analysis techniques, including microarrays. We developed a microarray composed of 8,191 open reading frame-specific oligonucleotides covering >99% of the four sequenced S. aureus genomes (N315, Mu50, MW2, and COL) to evaluate gene contents of hospital- and community-onset S. aureus strains. In parallel, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable number of tandem repeats, antibiogram, staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec element typing, and presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene were evaluated in a collection of 15 clinical isolates. Clusters obtained with microarrays showed a high degree of similarity with those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or variable number of tandem repeats. Clusters clearly segregated hospital-onset strains from community-onset strains. Moreover, the microarray approach allowed definition of novel marker genes and chromosomal regions specific for given groups of isolates, thus providing better discrimination and additional information compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and variable number of tandem repeats. Finally, the comparative genome hybridization approach unraveled the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfer events leading to community-onset MRSA as well as the need for a specific genetic background in recipient strains for both the acquisition and the stability of the mec element. PMID:16517892

  5. Use of Oligoarrays for Characterization of Community-Onset Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koessler, Thibaud; Francois, Patrice; Charbonnier, Yvan; Huyghe, Antoine; Bento, Manuela; Dharan, Sasi; Renzi, Gesuele; Lew, Daniel; Harbarth, Stephan; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was considered the prototype of a hospital-acquired bacterial pathogen. However, recent reports have shown that MRSA has now emerged in the community. Characterization of specific markers for distinguishing the origin of isolates could contribute to improved knowledge of MRSA epidemiology. The release of whole-genome sequences of hospital- and community-acquired S. aureus strains allowed the development of whole-genome content analysis techniques, including microarrays. We developed a microarray composed of 8,191 open reading frame-specific oligonucleotides covering >99% of the four sequenced S. aureus genomes (N315, Mu50, MW2, and COL) to evaluate gene contents of hospital- and community-onset S. aureus strains. In parallel, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable number of tandem repeats, antibiogram, staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec element typing, and presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene were evaluated in a collection of 15 clinical isolates. Clusters obtained with microarrays showed a high degree of similarity with those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or variable number of tandem repeats. Clusters clearly segregated hospital-onset strains from community-onset strains. Moreover, the microarray approach allowed definition of novel marker genes and chromosomal regions specific for given groups of isolates, thus providing better discrimination and additional information compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and variable number of tandem repeats. Finally, the comparative genome hybridization approach unraveled the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfer events leading to community-onset MRSA as well as the need for a specific genetic background in recipient strains for both the acquisition and the stability of the mec element. PMID:16517892

  6. The nares as a CA-MRSA reservoir in the healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silveira de Brito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has increased in the community. This study evaluated the prevalence of MRSA and community-acquired (CA-MRSA in 120 healthy elderly.METHODS:The MRSA were evaluated for the presence of the IS256, mecA, agr, icaA, icaD, fnbB , and pvl genes with PCR. Results: Frequency of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 17.8% and 19%, respectively. CA-MRSA isolate showed SCC mec IV, fnbB+ , and icaD+ .CONCLUSIONS:CA-MRSA was detected, with genotype determined as SCC mec type IV/IS256/ fnbB+ / icaA / icaD+ / bbp-/agr2 / bap / pvl, characterizing this population as a possible reservoir of this organism in the community.

  7. A GENETIC STUDY TO DIFFERENTIAL HA/CA MRSA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL CASES IN IRAQ HOSPITALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISRAA MOHAMED SAFI AL- KADMY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been a major cause of nosocomial infections since the 1960s . Currently, MRSA is divided into two subgroups: the healthcare associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community associated MRSA(CA-MRSA, CA-MRSA infections have been increasing. The most common of these infections present in soft skin. The aim of this study to different between CA and HA MRSA in clinical isolates of Baghdad hospitals.Methods: clinical isolates were collected from patients with different infections, Simple laboratory testing followed by the complementary API Staph, followed by antibiotic sensitivity and D-test, and finally by using PCR technique, detection of this genes : mecA, PVL, SCCmec IV and V .Results: A total of 105 S.aureus found 104 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains, after a D-test , S.aureus divided to two group: CA and HA –MRSA, where the ratio of CA 18(17.1% out of 105 isolates, while HA reached 87(82.8%. MRSA was characterized by PCR amplification mecA gene, 104(99.04% isolates out of 105 gave positive result, all isolates of HA carry mecA gene, while 17 out of 18 isolates of CA carry mecA gene which was CA-MRSA and one isolates was CA-MSSA . All isolates 18(100% of CA gave positive result in risk factors PVL gene, while for detection of SCCmec IV 17 (94.4% out of 18 isolates of CA gave positive result, and finally two isolates of CA-MRSA gave positive result in SCCmec V gene .Conclusions: This is the first report in Iraq for the emergence of CA isolates especially CA-MRSA which is responsible for the majority of infection in soft tissue and skin abscesses , are likely to be sensitive to clindamycin.

  8. 社区分离金黄色葡萄球菌在健康人群中的分布及其分子生物学特点%Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonized in healthy community population and molecular epidemiological characteristics for MRSA strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马笑雪; 罗恩杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查医科大学学生鼻腔中金黄色葡萄球菌(金葡菌)的定植状况,解析鼻腔定植社区型甲氧两林耐药性金葡菌(MRSA)克隆的分子生物学特点.方法 以无菌棉签从调查对象鼻腔中收集定植菌,鉴定出甲氧西林敏感性金葡菌(MSSA)和MRSA;多重PCR法分型MRSA携带的SCCmec基因岛;PCR测定pvl、seh、tsst1等毒素基因在菌株中的分布;脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)检测MRSA菌株的脉冲场型.结果 2009年977名学生488份样本中鉴定出葡萄球菌,其中凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(CoNS)和金葡菌分别为364份和124份,MRSA在金葡菌中所占比例为3.4%.2010年调查显示,657名学生中有310份样本鉴定为葡萄球菌属,其中CoNS为195份,金葡菌115份,MRSA在金葡菌中所占比例为7.7%.金葡菌在所有葡萄球菌属中所占比例为29.9%,而MRSA在金葡菌中所占比例为5.1%.MRSA菌株中共鉴定出5种SCCmec基因岛型,其中Ⅳa型最多(10株),为优势SCCmec基因岛类型.PFGE共有11种图谱型,7种(A~G)脉冲场型.10株MRSA均为pvl阳性.结论 1株起源于社区,基因型为Ⅳa SCCmec-pulsotype A且携带pvl毒素基因的特定MRSA克隆在健康大学生中传播.%Objective To investigate the nasal colonization of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains among medical university students in Shenyang and to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Methods Sterilized nasal swabs were used to collect nasal bacteria from both nares of the students. Nasal specimens were further identified as S. aureus strains, sensitive or resistant to methicillin through a series of tests. Molecular related methods including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed- field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) , coagulase isotyping and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination etc. were used to characterize the isolates. Prevalence of the panton-valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes (luk

  9. A study of methicillin - resistant staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) in a burn unit with repetitive - DNA - sequence- based PCR fingerprinting%烧伤病房耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的DNA重复序列PCR研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 徐秀华; 曾海涛

    2001-01-01

    目的研究烧伤病房耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌( methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus,MRSA)的分布及传播,探讨烧伤病房医院感染的预防、监测及控制工作。方法采集烧伤患者的创面、鼻前庭,工作人员手、鼻前庭,陪护家属的手、鼻前庭及烧伤科病房各种环境表面共504份标本,从中分离到MRSA 58株,对苯唑西林敏感的金黄色葡萄球菌43株,并对所分离的MRSA菌株的基因组DNA进行重复序列PCR检测。结果 53.7%(22/41)的患者创面分离出MRSA,其中5例鼻前庭分离出MRSA;19名工作人员中,3人手分离出MRSA,工作人员鼻前庭未分离到MRSA;43例患者陪护家属中有9人手上分离出MRSA,2人鼻前庭分离出MRSA;193份环境标本共分离MRSA 13株。通过MRSA细菌基因组DNA重复序列PCR分析,发现部分患者创面之间及创面与工作人员、陪护和环境之间存在MRSA同源株。结论 (1)MRSA在烧伤科分布广,其中不乏同源株;(2)基因组DNA重复序列PCR分析,显示烧伤病室存在两例患者之间的交叉感染,MRSA在烧伤病房的传染源为患者,传播途径与陪护及工作人员的手污染有关;(3)MRSA的广泛存在,携带率高,手与环境的污染,是MRSA爆发感染的潜在危险。%bjective To investigate the distribution and spread of MRSA in a burn ward, so as to explore the measures of the prevention,surveillance and control of hospital infection in a burn ward. Methods Five hundred and four specimens were isolated from the wounds and nasal vestibules of burn patients ,the hands and nasal vestibules of medical staffs and lay attendants and the surfaces of various equipments. From these specimens,58 strains of MRSA and 43 methicillin- sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were isolated. The genome DNA of isolated MRSA strains was analyzed by repetitive DNA - sequence- based PCR analysis. Results MRSA strains were isolated from the burn wounds

  10. Characterisation of MRSA from Malta and the description of a Maltese epidemic MRSA strain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scicluna, E A

    2010-02-01

    Malta has one of the highest prevalence rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Europe. However, only limited typing data are currently available. In order to address this situation, 45 MRSA isolates from the Mater Dei Hospital in Msida, Malta, were characterised using DNA microarrays. The most common strain was ST22-MRSA-IV (UK-EMRSA-15, 30 isolates). Sporadic strains included ST36-MRSA-II (UK-EMRSA-16, two isolates), PVL-positive ST80-MRSA-IV (European Clone, one isolate), ST228-MRSA-I (Italian Clone\\/South German Epidemic Strain, one isolate) and ST239-MRSA-III (Vienna\\/Hungarian\\/Brazilian Epidemic Strain, one isolate). Ten MRSA isolates belonged to a clonal complex (CC) 5\\/ST149, spa type t002 strain. This strain harboured an SCCmec IV element (mecA, delta mecR, ugpQ, dcs, ccrA2 and ccrB2), as well as novel alleles of ccrA\\/B and the fusidic acid resistance element Q6GD50 (previously described in the sequenced strain MSSA476, BX571857.1:SAS0043). It also carried the gene for enterotoxin A (sea) and the egc enterotoxin locus, as well as (in nine out of ten isolates) genes encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst1) and enterotoxins C and L (sec, sel). While the presence of the other MRSA strains suggests foreign importation due to travel between Malta and other European countries, the CC5\\/t002 strain appears, so far, to be restricted to Malta.

  11. Characterisation of MRSA from Malta and the description of a Maltese epidemic MRSA strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, E A; Shore, A C; Thürmer, A; Ehricht, R; Slickers, P; Borg, M A; Coleman, D C; Monecke, S

    2010-02-01

    Malta has one of the highest prevalence rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Europe. However, only limited typing data are currently available. In order to address this situation, 45 MRSA isolates from the Mater Dei Hospital in Msida, Malta, were characterised using DNA microarrays. The most common strain was ST22-MRSA-IV (UK-EMRSA-15, 30 isolates). Sporadic strains included ST36-MRSA-II (UK-EMRSA-16, two isolates), PVL-positive ST80-MRSA-IV (European Clone, one isolate), ST228-MRSA-I (Italian Clone/South German Epidemic Strain, one isolate) and ST239-MRSA-III (Vienna/Hungarian/Brazilian Epidemic Strain, one isolate). Ten MRSA isolates belonged to a clonal complex (CC) 5/ST149, spa type t002 strain. This strain harboured an SCCmec IV element (mecA, delta mecR, ugpQ, dcs, ccrA2 and ccrB2), as well as novel alleles of ccrA/B and the fusidic acid resistance element Q6GD50 (previously described in the sequenced strain MSSA476, BX571857.1:SAS0043). It also carried the gene for enterotoxin A (sea) and the egc enterotoxin locus, as well as (in nine out of ten isolates) genes encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst1) and enterotoxins C and L (sec, sel). While the presence of the other MRSA strains suggests foreign importation due to travel between Malta and other European countries, the CC5/t002 strain appears, so far, to be restricted to Malta.

  12. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  13. 儿科分离金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性和耐甲氧西林株的流行病学探究%An Epidemiological Study on the Resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus and MRSA Isolated from Pediatrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智珍

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析和探讨儿科分离金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性和耐甲氧西林株的流行病学,为明确MRAS流行情况提供依据和支撑。方法:采用ATB、头孢硝基噻吩显色法、随机扩增多态DNA(randomly amplified polymorphic DNA,RAPD)方法等方法进行药敏试验、β-内酰胺酶检测、MRSA同源性分析。结果:696株SA中668株产β-内酰胺酶,全部对青霉素耐药,49.14%对阿莫西林/棒酸耐药,6.03%~12.93%对其他β-内酰胺酶类抗菌药物耐药。经RAPD分型,67.71%的Ⅰ型感染,比例最高,主要分布在儿科PICU。结论:本院儿科收治的儿童感染金黄色葡萄球菌有不同的耐药谱,为了避免MRSA感染爆发及耐药性的蔓延应把握好MRSA的流行情况,并做好金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性的检测。%Objective: To analyze and discuss the epidemiology of drug resistance and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children, and to provide evidence and support for the MRSA epidemic.Methods: ATB, MRSA, RAPD (DNA polymorphic), DNA (randomly) were randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (amplified) to perform the drug sensitivity test, beta–lactamases test and MRSA Homology analysis.Results: Among 696 strains of SA, 668 strains produce beta lactamase; all resistant to penicillin and 49.14% resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; 6.03% ~ 12.93% of others showed beta - lactamases of antimicrobial drug resistance. By RAPD typing, 67.71% of type I infection, the highest proportion, mainly distributed in the pediatric PICU.Conclusion: The children of our hospital infected with Staphylococcus aureus have different resistance spectrum. In order to avoid the MRSA infection in the spread of the outbreak, we should pay more attention on the prevalence of MRSA, and do a good job on the detection of drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite consider...

  15. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus": Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aniltta; Letizia, MariJo

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is a disease-causing organism that has been present in hospital settings since the 1960s. However, a genetically distinct strain of MRSA, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA), has emerged in recent years in community settings among healthy…

  16. Inhibitors targeting on cell wall biosynthesis pathway of MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wu, Qinghua; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), widely known as a type of new superbug, has aroused world-wide concern. Cell wall biosynthesis pathway is an old but good target for the development of antibacterial agents. Peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids (WTAs) biosynthesis are two main processes of the cell wall biosynthesis pathway (CWBP). Other than penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), some key factors (Mur enzymes, lipid I or II precursor, etc.) in CWBP are becoming attractive molecule targets for the discovery of anti-MRSA compounds. A number of new compounds, with higher affinity for PBPs or with inhibitory activity on such molecule targets in CWBP of MRSA, have been in the pipeline recently. This review concludes recent research achievements and provides a complete picture of CWBP of MRSA, including the peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids synthesis pathway. The potential inhibitors targeting on CWBP are subsequently presented to improve development of novel therapeutic strategies for MRSA. PMID:22898792

  17. Population Dynamics among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Germany during a 6-Year Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Koeck, Robin; Mellmann, Alexander; Richter, Laura; Hasenberg, Felicitas; Kriegeskorte, Andre; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Gatermann, Soeren; von Eiff, Christof; Becker, Karsten; Peters, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated from the health care setting but is now emerging in communities without health care contact (CA-MRSA) or in livestock (LA-MRSA). The impact on the whole MRSA population was assessed in a German prospective multicenter study. Thirty-three

  18. Risk factors for anti-MRSA drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2012-11-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-related infections have recently been spreading and are difficult to control, partly because affected patients are frequently in a poor condition. This study retrospectively investigated recent MRSA-related infections focusing on the relationship between clinical risk factors and anti-MRSA drug resistance. The patients with MRSA-related infections in Kobe University Hospital (Kobe, Japan) in 2009 were enrolled in the study. The relationships between various clinical risk factors as well as MRSA bacterial DNA concentration with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of anti-MRSA drugs were examined. In total, 44 patients were enrolled in the study and MRSA was isolated from blood (23 patients), urine (12 patients) and nasal secretions (9 patients). There was only one resistant strain to linezolid (LZD) among the anti-MRSA drugs tested, and this strain was considered staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IIa from phage open-reading frame typing analyses. Statistical analyses showed that MRSA bacterial DNA concentration, cancer and use of a respirator, respectively, had a significant relationship with the MICs of LZD (P=0.0058) and arbekacin (ABK) (P=0.0003), of quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) (P=0.0500) and ABK (P=0.0133), and of Q/D (P=0.0198) and vancomycin (P=0.0036). In conclusion, bacterial DNA concentration, cancer and use of a respirator were found to be significant risk factors for lower susceptibilities to anti-MRSA drugs; one strain was resistant to LZD. We suggest that further investigation and surveillance for MRSA-related infection are necessary for preventing the spread of MRSA-related infections. PMID:22999766

  19. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Elise R Breed; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Richard S Hotchkiss; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA ...

  20. Epidemiology of MRSA: the North/South study of MRSA in Ireland 1999.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, P

    2003-06-01

    The North\\/South Study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Ireland, 1999, includes a joint review of the epidemiology of MRSA across both jurisdictions on the island of Ireland. Data were gathered on all MRSA cases identified in laboratories in Northern Ireland (the North) and in the Republic of Ireland (the South) over a two-week period. The prevalence rate per 100000 population was 11.4 in the North and 14.0 in the South, with a marked variation across geographical regions. MRSA cases were located throughout hospitals and the community, were slightly more common in males than females, and occurred in all age groups, especially in the elderly. The majority of cases were inpatients in acute hospitals and were distributed across all types of wards. Most cases were colonized with MRSA but 5% of cases in the North and 10% in the South had invasive infection. Invasive infection was associated with intravascular lines and invasive procedures\\/surgery. Continuous surveillance is recommended to monitor the epidemiology of MRSA and the effectiveness of control measures.

  1. MRSA transmission on a neonatal intensive care unit: epidemiological and genome-based phylogenetic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Nübel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA may cause prolonged outbreaks of infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. While the specific factors favouring MRSA spread on neonatal wards are not well understood, colonized infants, their relatives, or health-care workers may all be sources for MRSA transmission. Whole-genome sequencing may provide a new tool for elucidating transmission pathways of MRSA at a local scale. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We applied whole-genome sequencing to trace MRSA spread in a NICU and performed a case-control study to identify risk factors for MRSA transmission. MRSA genomes had accumulated sequence variation sufficiently fast to reflect epidemiological linkage among individual patients, between infants and their mothers, and between infants and staff members, such that the relevance of individual nurses' nasal MRSA colonization for prolonged transmission could be evaluated. In addition to confirming previously reported risk factors, we identified an increased risk of transmission from infants with as yet unknown MRSA colonisation, in contrast to known MRSA-positive infants. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of epidemiological (temporal, spatial and genomic data enabled the phylogenetic testing of several hypotheses on specific MRSA transmission routes within a neonatal intensive-care unit. The pronounced risk of transmission emanating from undetected MRSA carriers suggested that increasing the frequency or speed of microbiological diagnostics could help to reduce transmission of MRSA.

  2. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from Healthcare- and Community-Associated Infections in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has created significant epidemiological, infection-control, and therapeutic management challenges during the past three decades. Aim. To analyze the pattern of resistance of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA in Egypt and the trend of resistance of HA-MRSA over time (2005–2013. Methods. MRSA isolates were recovered from healthcare-associated (HA and community-associated (CA Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections. They were tested against 11 antimicrobial discs and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin was determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB was also screened using D-test. Findings. Of 631 S. aureus, MRSA was identified in 343 (76.6% and 21 (11.5% of HA and CA S. aureus isolates, respectively. The proportion of HA-MRSA increased significantly from 48.6% in 2005 to 86.8% in 2013 (p value < 0.001. Multidrug resistance (MDR was observed in 85.8% of HA-MRSA and 48.6% of CA-MRSA. Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA was detected in 1.2% of HA-MRSA and none was detected in CA-MRSA. Among HA-MRSA strains, 5.3% showed iMLSB compared to 9.5% among CA-MRSA. Conclusion. The upsurge of the prevalence rates of HA-MRSA over time is alarming and urges for an effective infection control strategy and continuous monitoring of antimicrobial use.

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from Healthcare- and Community-Associated Infections in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Mohamed; El-Shokry, Mona; Ismail, Ghada; Hafez, Soad; El-Kholy, Amani; Attia, Ehab; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has created significant epidemiological, infection-control, and therapeutic management challenges during the past three decades. Aim. To analyze the pattern of resistance of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA in Egypt and the trend of resistance of HA-MRSA over time (2005-2013). Methods. MRSA isolates were recovered from healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections. They were tested against 11 antimicrobial discs and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) was also screened using D-test. Findings. Of 631 S. aureus, MRSA was identified in 343 (76.6%) and 21 (11.5%) of HA and CA S. aureus isolates, respectively. The proportion of HA-MRSA increased significantly from 48.6% in 2005 to 86.8% in 2013 (p value Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 85.8% of HA-MRSA and 48.6% of CA-MRSA. Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) was detected in 1.2% of HA-MRSA and none was detected in CA-MRSA. Among HA-MRSA strains, 5.3% showed iMLSB compared to 9.5% among CA-MRSA. Conclusion. The upsurge of the prevalence rates of HA-MRSA over time is alarming and urges for an effective infection control strategy and continuous monitoring of antimicrobial use. PMID:27433480

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Saito; Jessica Thom; Yanliang Wei; Piraveina Gnanasuntharam; Pirasanya Gnanasuntharam; Nathan Kreiswirth; Barbara Willey; Michelle Loftus; Catherine Varner; Vanessa Porter; Allison McGeer; Bjug Borgundvaag

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs) exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.OBJECTIVE: To determine MRSA colonization in emergency department (ED) HCWs in the setting of a moderate prevalence of MRSA...

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Children Attending Child Care Centers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; David J. Weber; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R; Kotch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in ...

  7. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moroney, Shannon M.; Heller, Loree C.; Arbuckle, Jesse; Talavera, Monica; Widen, Ray H.

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene carriage were compared among suspected community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (CA-MRSA) and health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. CA-MRSA isolates carried the SCCmec type IV complex, and most were PVL positive. The HA-MRSA isolates carried the SCCmec type II complex and did not harbor the PVL genes.

  8. Usage of antimicrobials on 60 dairy farms in Northern Germany and characterization of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBLs-producing E. coli) isolated from bulk tank milk samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kreausukon, Khwanchai

    2011-01-01

    Das Ziel der Studie war, Informationen über den Einsatz von Antibiotika in deutschen Milchkuhherden zu sammeln. Zudem sollte auf das Vorkommen von MRSA und ESBL-produzierenden E. coli in Tankmilchproben untersucht werden. Fragebögen wurden unter den Herdenmanagern von 60 norddeutschen Betrieben (Herdengröße von 25 bis 3000 Tiere) verteilt, die auf freiwilliger Basis an den Untersuchungen teilnahmen. Tankmilchproben wurden in den Betrieben einmalig entnommen und auf das Vorkommen von MRSA u...

  9. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  10. Livestock-associated MRSA ST398 carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers related to quantitative environmental exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.; Bos, M.E.H.; Duim, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Heres, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) carriage among workers in pig slaughterhouses and assess associated risk factors, including occupational exposure to LA-MRSA. Methods A cross-sectional study in three Dutch pig slaughterhouses was underta

  11. First outbreak with MRSA in a danish neonatal intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsing, Benedicte Grenness Utke; Arpi, Magnus; Andersen, Erik Arthur;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics and outbreak handling of a large methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Denmark June 25(th)-August 8(th) 2008, and to identify risk factors for MRSA...

  12. Fatal septicemia linked to transmission of MRSA clonal complex 398 in hospital and nursing home, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Kemp, Michael; Holm, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    We describe 2 fatal cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 septicemia in persons who had no contact with livestock. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolated MRSA strains strongly suggest that both were of animal origin and that the patients had been infected...

  13. Methicilline resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare disease and may be seen as a complication of pneumonia, septicemia particularly in immunocompromised patients. It is rare but can be fatal if not promptly and adequately treated. One such case was successfully managed in our intensive care department, which we want to share in this report. (author)

  14. Zinc resistance of Staphylococcus aureus of animal origin is strongly associated with methicillin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of zinc and copper resistances in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from swine and veal calves in a global strain collection.The test population consisted of 476 porcine MRSA isolates from ten European countries, 18 porcine MRSA...... isolates from Canada and seven MRSA from China, 92 MRSA and 60 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from veal calves in the Netherlands and 88 porcine MSSA isolates from four European countries. Most porcine MRSA (n=454) and all bovine MRSA belonged to clonal complex (CC) 398 whereas 37...... resistance (MIC>2mM) was observed in 74% (n=324) and 42% (n=39) of European MRSA CC398 from pigs and veal calves, respectively, and in 44% of the Canadian isolates (n=8), but not among the Chinese isolates. Almost all (99%) zinc-resistant MRSA carried czrC. Of the 37 European non-CC398 MRSA, 62% were...

  15. Structural Analysis of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase B and Multiple Peptide Resistant Factor of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rakette, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are becoming increasingly problematic. The bacteria gain resistance to new antibiotics in relatively short time periods. Besides the hospital associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA), infections with community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) are increasing. The only serine/threonine kinase PknB of S. aureus is composed of an intracellular kinase domain, a transmembrane helix and three extracellular penicillin-binding protein and serine/th...

  16. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3-10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices.

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.

  18. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Hyun Mun; Sung-Bae Kim; Ryong Kong; Jang-Gi Choi; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong-Won Shin; Ok-Hwa Kang; Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA ...

  19. Aplicação de estudos de QSAR-2D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente (MRSA 2D QSAR studies of 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Masunari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O avanço de estudos de QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships como método de modificação molecular racionalmente planejada vem se constituindo, nos últimos anos, em alternativa bastante viável para o desenvolvimento de ligantes candidatos potenciais a fármacos. Sendo assim, aliando a excelente aplicabilidade deste método com o fenômeno de multi-resistência bacteriana, realizou-se, neste trabalho, o estudo, em duas dimensões, das relações quantitativas entre a estrutura química e a potência antimicrobiana de 5-nitro-2-tiofilideno benzidrazidas substituídas, considerando faixa de hidrofobicidade ótima pré-determinada experimentalmente. A aplicação da Análise de Hansch/Fujita possibilitou a determinação da influência de descritores estruturais de caráter físico-químico sobre a referida atividade, indicando ser a hidrofobicidade a propriedade de maior impacto no desempenho da atividade biológica analisada. Evidenciou-se, a partir das correlações obtidas, o forte potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos como possível alternativa para o desenvolvimento racional, em nível molecular, de novos fármacos com atividade antimicrobiana.With the constant advance of QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships studies as molecular modification methodology, a frequent application of this procedure in many science areas was observed. Besides, the rational ligand development for many diseases has been growing in recent years. Thus, in order to ally these medicinal chemistry advances with the necessity to combat the high incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the purpose of this study was the 2D-QSAR study of p-substituted 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, considering hydrophobicity range experimentally determined. The statistical significant correlations obtained by Hansch/Fujita Analysis showed significant influence of

  20. Methicillin/Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a hospital and public health threat in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karinne Spirandelli Carvalho; Elsa Masae Mamizuka; Paulo P. Gontijo Filho

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an established nosocomial pathogen (HA-MRSA, hospital acquired MRSA), but has recently begun to appear in the community (CA-MRSA, community acquired MRSA). The cause of resistance to methicillin and all other β-lactam antibiotics is the mecA gene, which is situated on a mobile genetic element, the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Seven major variants of SCCmec, type I to VII are distinguished. HA-MRSA disseminated worldwide a...

  1. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: What do we need to know?

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a matter of concern worldwide, in particular in the USA. For the analysis of emergence and spread, clear definitions based on epidemiological origin are needed for discrimination between CA-MRSA, healthcare-associated community MRSA, and healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Although its role in pathogenesis is currently under debate, the capability for Panton-Valentine leukocidin formation is associated wit...

  2. Comparative Molecular Analysis of Community- or Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Fey, P. D.; Saïd-Salim, B.; Rupp, M. E.; Hinrichs, S H; Boxrud, D. J.; Davis, C C; Kreiswirth, B N; Schlievert, P M

    2003-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a growing public health concern that has been associated with pediatric fatalities. It is hypothesized that the evolution of CA-MRSA is a recent event due to the acquisition of mec DNA by previously methicillin-susceptible strains that circulated in the community. This study investigated the genetic relatedness between CA-MRSA, hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (nmTSS) isolates....

  3. MRSA and the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH MRSA and the Workplace Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: CDC ... livestock settings, and veterinary clinics. FAQs for the Workplace NOTE: This information is provided for general workplaces, ...

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  5. A variant of the Southern German clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, A; Deurenberg, R H; Bosnjak, Z; Stobberingh, E E; Cetkovic, H; Kalenic, S

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and molecular epidemiology of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered in 24 hospitals in 20 cities in Croatia from October to December 2004. A total of 1815 consecutive S. aureus isolates were recovered, 248 of which were MRSA. The MRSA isolates were analysed using spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and SCCmec typing. Furthermore, the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was determined as a genetic marker for community-associated MRSA. The MRSA prevalence was 14%. Ninety-six per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 95% to clindamycin and azithromycin, 94% to gentamicin, and 93% to erythromycin. The majority of the MRSA isolates (78%) was associated with the ST111-MRSA-I clone. In addition, various other endemic MRSA clones were observed, such as the ST247-MRSA-I (4%), the ST45-MRSA-IV (2%), the ST5-MRSA-I (2%), the ST239-MRSA-III (2%), the ST5-MRSA-II (1%), the ST8-MRSA-IV (1%) and the ST5-MRSA-IV (<1%) clones. Furthermore, we observed one PVL-negative ST80-MRSA-IV isolate. Four PVL-positive MRSA isolates were found, associated with ST8-MRSA-IV, ST80-MRSA-IV and ST80-MRSA-I. The ST111-MRSA-I clone was predominant in Croatia. Future surveillance studies of MRSA are important to elucidate whether changes in the clonal distribution of MRSA will occur, and if the minor endemic MRSA clones observed in the present study will replace the ST111-MRSA-I clone on a large scale. PMID:19732087

  6. Genomic insights into the emergence and spread of international clones of healthcare-, community- and livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Blurring of the traditional definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A M; Coombs, G W; Holden, M T G; Lindsay, J A; Nimmo, G R; Tattevin, P; Skov, R L

    2016-09-01

    The evolution of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from meticillin-susceptible S. aureus has been a result of the accumulation of genetic elements under selection pressure from antibiotics. The traditional classification of MRSA into healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) is no longer relevant as there is significant overlap of identical clones between these groups, with an increasing recognition of human infection caused by livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Genomic studies have enabled us to model the epidemiology of MRSA along these lines. In this review, we discuss the clinical relevance of genomic studies, particularly whole-genome sequencing, in the investigation of outbreaks. We also discuss the blurring of each of the three epidemiological groups (HA-MRSA, CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA), demonstrating the limited relevance of this classification. PMID:27530849

  7. Combating CA-MRSA in Physical Education, Sports, and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda K.; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice; Adams, Jon E.

    2007-01-01

    By now most people have heard about the deadly bacteria that can fester in locker rooms, on sports equipment, and in dance facilities, among other places. This article was written to help PERD professionals become better informed about these bacteria, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA). Readers will…

  8. The impact of MRSA infection in the airways of children with cystic fibrosis; a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cox, D W

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) has risen dramatically over the past 10 years. The clinical significance of MRSA in CF patients remains undetermined. We conducted a review of patients with CF infected with MRSA over a 10 year period at Our Lady\\'s Children\\'s Hospital, Crumlin between 1999 and 2009. We collected data from 24 patients infected with MRSA and 24 control patients without MRSA There was a significant difference between the two groups in the rate of decline in percentage FEV1 two years after MRSA infection (Difference: -17.4, 95% CI: -30.48, -4.31, p = 0.01). A similar trend was seen for FVC% and FEF25-75% predicted. This study suggests that persistent MRSA infection in the airways of children with CF is associated with diminished lung function two years post acquisition, when compared to a matched control cohort without MRSA.

  9. Detection and genetic characterization of PVL-positive ST8-MRSA-IVa and exfoliative toxin D-positive European CA-MRSA-Like ST1931 (CC80) MRSA-IVa strains in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Souvik; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Chand; Jilani, Md Shariful Alam; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful; Ahmed, Abdullah Akhtar; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2014-08-01

    Severe skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection are associated with production from bacterial cells of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a typical virulence factor of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), as well as other toxins represented by exfoliative toxins. Through a retrospective study of 26 S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions of diabetic patients admitted to a hospital in Bangladesh, 2 PVL-gene-positive MRSA-IVa strains and 8 PVL-negative, exfoliative toxin D (ETD) gene (etd)-positive MRSA-IVa strains were isolated. A PVL-positive MRSA-IVa strain had a type I arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), belonged to ST8/agr-type I/spa-type t121 (a variant of t008), and harbored blaZ, tet(K), msrA, and aph(3')-IIIa, which are mostly typical characteristics found in USA300, a predominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States. Another PVL-positive MRSA strain, belonging to ST1929 (CC88)/agr-type III/spa-type t3341, was negative for ACME, but possessed blaZ and tet(K). The etd-positive MRSA-IVa strains possessed the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (EDIN-B)-encoding gene (edinB) and belonged to ST1931 (CC80)/agr-type III/spa-type t11023 (a variant of t044), which was genetic trait similar to that of the European CA-MRSA ST80 clone. However, unlike the European ST80 strains, the etd-positive MRSA strains detected in the present study harbored seb, sek, and seq, while they were negative for tet(K), aph(3')-IIIa, and fusB, showing susceptibility to fusidic acid. These findings suggested that etd-positive ST1931 MRSA strains belong to the same lineage as the European ST80 MRSA clone, evolving from a common ancestral clone via acquisition of a different pathogenicity island. This is the first report of a USA300-like MRSA-IV strain, PVL-positive ST1929 (CC88) MRSA-IV, and European ST80 CA-MRSA-like etd-positive ST1931 (CC80) MRSA-IV strains isolated in Bangladesh.

  10. Clonal spread of MRSA CC398 sublineages within and between Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Jesper; Moodley, Arshnee;

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 is non-typeable by standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) due to methylation of the SmaI site. This makes it difficult to study the epidemiology of this livestock-associated MRSA clone. In this study, we employed...... MRSA CC398 sublineages and whether specific sublineages may occur on different farms. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed in five Danish pig farms where farm workers had been shown to carry MRSA CC398 in the previous year. A total of 75 environmental and 308 animal samples were collected...

  11. Comparison of Community-Associated and Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canada: Results from CANWARD 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Kimberly A.; McCracken, Melissa; DeCorby, Melanie R.; Thompson, Kristjan; Mulvey, Michael R; Karlowsky, James A.; Hoban, Daryl J.; Zhanel, George G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differ from health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) in their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to compare the demographics, antimicrobial susceptibilities and molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA in Canada. METHODS: In 2007, 385 MRSA isolates were collected from Canadian patients attending hospital clinics, emergency rooms, medical/ surgical wards and inte...

  12. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Persistent or Recurrent Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially with persistent (PB or recurrent bacteremia (RB.

  13. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetem, David J; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit;

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the epidemiology of MRSA infections worldwide. In contrast to hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), CA-MRSA more frequently affects healthy individuals, both with and without recent healthcare...... exposure. Despite obvious epidemiological differences, it is unknown whether differences in nosocomial transmissibility exist. We have, therefore, quantified the transmissibility, expressed by the single admission reproduction number (R(A)), of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA in hospital settings in Denmark....

  14. Community Acquisition of Gentamicin-Sensitive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmo, Graeme R.; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline; O'Kane, Gabrielle; McCall, Brad; Vickery, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) susceptible to gentamicin has been reported in a number of countries in the 1990s. To study the acquisition of gentamicin-sensitive MRSA (GS-MRSA) in southeast Queensland and the relatedness of GS-MRSA to other strains of MRSA, 35 cases of infection due to GS-MRSA from October 1997 through September 1998 were examined retrospectively to determine the mode of acquisition and risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Thirty-one isol...

  15. Response of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to amicoumacin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Lama

    Full Text Available Amicoumacin A exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, hence we sought to uncover its mechanism of action. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. aureus COL in response to amicoumacin A showed alteration in transcription of genes specifying several cellular processes including cell envelope turnover, cross-membrane transport, virulence, metabolism, and general stress response. The most highly induced gene was lrgA, encoding an antiholin-like product, which is induced in cells undergoing a collapse of Δψ. Consistent with the notion that LrgA modulates murein hydrolase activity, COL grown in the presence of amicoumacin A showed reduced autolysis, which was primarily caused by lower hydrolase activity. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of amicoumacin A, a whole genome comparison of wild-type COL and amicoumacin A-resistant mutants isolated by a serial passage method was carried out. Single point mutations generating codon substitutions were uncovered in ksgA (encoding RNA dimethyltransferase, fusA (elongation factor G, dnaG (primase, lacD (tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and SACOL0611 (a putative glycosyl transferase. The codon substitutions in EF-G that cause amicoumacin A resistance and fusidic acid resistance reside in separate domains and do not bring about cross resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that amicoumacin A might cause perturbation of the cell membrane and lead to energy dissipation. Decreased rates of cellular metabolism including protein synthesis and DNA replication in resistant strains might allow cells to compensate for membrane dysfunction and thus increase cell survivability.

  16. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. Methods This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibio...

  17. General Information about MRSA in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button General Information About MRSA in the Community Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... MRSA Who Is At Risk, and How Is MRSA Spread In The Community? Anyone can get MRSA ...

  18. MRSA Prevention Information and Advice for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to do If You Think You Have MRSA Tell your parent, coach, athletic trainer, school nurse, ... MRSA in athletic facilities... Top of Page Why MRSA is Spread among Athletes MRSA might spread easily ...

  19. Community-based intervention to manage an outbreak of MRSA skin infections in a county jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Abdallah F; Chaussee, Michael S; McDowell, Emily J; Huntington, Mark K

    2010-07-01

    This article describes a community-based intervention to manage an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections in a midwestern county jail. A systematic investigation conducted by a family medicine residency program identified 64 total cases and 19 MRSA cases between January 1 and December 31, 2007. Factors contributing to MRSA transmission included inadequate surveillance, lack of antibacterial soap, and a defective laundry process. All 19 isolates were CA-MRSA and all seven tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were USA300. Four of the seven isolates showed variation of their PFGE patterns. A primary care approach using community-based resources effectively reduced the number of cases in this heterogeneous outbreak of CA-MRSA, with the last MRSA being isolated in October 2007. PMID:20466702

  20. Arbejdsbetinget MRSA-bærertilstand medførte alvorlige psykosociale konsekvenser for en landmand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid; Hansen, Vivi Imer; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort

    2015-01-01

    Work-related MRSA CC398 carrier status had serious psychosocial consequences to a farmer We describe a case of work-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 carrier status in a 33-year-old male working at a pig farm. The case was complicated since his pregnant girlfriend had...... also MRSA CC398 carrier status. Although she remained without con­tact to farm animals the MRSA could not be eradicated. Conflicting messages from health-care workers complicated the case and the psychological consequences became traumatizing to the patient and caused sick leave and psychotherapy. This...... case shows the importance of better information of MRSA CC398 positive patients in the future, especially for MRSA-exposed occupations....

  1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  2. Prophylactic Effect of Vancomycin on Infection after Cranioplasty in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Carriers with Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Keun-Tae; Park, Seong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) are major causes of neurosurgical infection. Nasal colonization of MRSA is the most important risk factor and MRSA screening can be a screening method to identify MRSA and MRCNS colonization. We retrospectively evaluated prophylactic effect of vancomycin on MRSA or MRCNS surgical site infection (SSI) after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy (DC) after t...

  3. Molecular and Clinical Characteristics of Hospital and Community Onset Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Associated with Bloodstream Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shu-Hua; Hines, Lisa; van Balen, Joany; José R Mediavilla; Pan, Xueliang; Hoet, Armando E; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Pancholi, Preeti; Stevenson, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSI) are classified epidemiologically as health care-associated hospital onset (HAHO)-, health care-associated community onset (HACO)-, or community-associated (CA)-MRSA. Clinical and molecular differences between HAHO- and HACO-MRSA BSI are not well known. Thus, we evaluated clinical and molecular characteristics of MRSA BSI to determine if distinct features are associated with HAHO- or HACO-MRSA strains. Molecular ge...

  4. Trends in antibiotic susceptibility patterns and epidemiology of MRSA isolates from several hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abuelkheir Manal M; Baddour Manal M; Fatani Amal J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates with rapid development of resistance. Methods A total of 512 MRSA isolates were procured from 6 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and antibiotic susceptibilities and MICs were documented against several antibiotics and vancomycin. SPSS version 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of MRSA in the study hospitals ranged from 12% to 49.4%. Mea...

  5. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G. MacKay (William); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTen samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Sample

  6. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    2007-01-01

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  7. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  8. A Novel Gene, fudoh, in the SCCmec Region Suppresses the Colony Spreading Ability and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Chikara Kaito; Yosuke Omae; Yasuhiko Matsumoto; Makiko Nagata; Hiroki Yamaguchi; Taiji Aoto; Teruyo Ito; Keiichi Hiramatsu; Kazuhisa Sekimizu

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonies can spread on soft agar plates. We compared colony spreading of clinically isolated methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). All MSSA strains showed colony spreading, but most MRSA strains (73%) carrying SCCmec type-II showed little colony spreading. Deletion of the entire SCCmec type-II region from these MRSA strains restored colony spreading. Introduction of a novel gene, fudoh, carried by SCCmec type-II into Newman st...

  9. Coagulase-negative staphylococci as reservoirs of genes facilitating MRSA infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that Staphylococcus epidermidis is a reservoir of genes that, after horizontal transfer, facilitate the potential of Staphylococcus aureus to colonize, survive during infection, or resist antibiotic treatment, traits that are notably manifest in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). S. aureus is a dangerous human pathogen and notorious for acquiring antibiotic resistance. MRSA in particular is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and death in hospitalized patients. S. aureus is an extremely versatile pathogen with a multitude of mechanisms to cause disease and circumvent immune defenses. In contrast, most other staphylococci, such as S. epidermidis, are commonly benign commensals and only occasionally cause disease. Recent findings highlight the key importance of efforts to better understand how genes of staphylococci other than S. aureus contribute to survival in the human host, how they are transferred to S. aureus, and why this exchange appears to be uni-directional. PMID:23165978

  10. In Vivo Activity of Ceftobiprole in Murine Skin Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Hilliard, Jamese J.; Abbanat, Darren; Zhang, Wenyan; Melton, John L.; Santoro, Colleen M.; Flamm, Robert K.; Bush, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC β-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC β-lactamase). In the MSSA an...

  11. An Outbreak of Community-Acquired Foodborne Illness Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Timothy F.; Kellum, Molly E.; Porter, Susan S.; Bell, Michael; Schaffner, William

    2002-01-01

    Infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly community acquired. We investigated an outbreak in which a food handler, food specimen, and three ill patrons were culture positive for the same toxin-producing strain of MRSA. This is the first report of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by community-acquired MRSA.

  12. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by healthy companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant human pathogen and has also been associated with wounded or ill companion animals. Healthy animals may also harbor MRSA without presenting any symptoms, but little is known about the prevalence of MRSA among these animals. Therefo...

  13. Staphylococcus aureus induces hypoxia and cellular damage in porcine dermal explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can infect wounds and produce difficult-to- treat biofilms. To determine the extent that MRSA biofilms can deplete oxygen, change pH and damage host tissue, we developed a porcine dermal explant model on which we cultured GFP-labeled MRSA biofilms. ...

  14. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Abee, Christian R; Lambeth, Susan P; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  15. Preventing Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" among Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) was once thought to be a bacterium causing infections in only hospitalized patients. However, a new strain of MRSA has emerged among healthy individuals who have not had any recent exposure to a hospital or to medical procedures. This new strain is known as "community-associated MRSA". Studies…

  16. Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance genes among livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argudin, Maria Angeles; Lauzat, Birgit; Kraushaar, Britta;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged in animal production worldwide. Most LA-MRSA in Europe belong to the clonal complex (CC)398. The reason for the LA-MRSA emergence is not fully understood. Besides antimicrobial agents used for therapy, other su...

  17. Automation of the BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Nasal Swab Specimens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Ginocchio, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrated that an automated version of the BD-GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) assay (BD-MRSA), using achromopeptidase sample lysis and PCR setup performed on the Hamilton MICROLAB STARlet (Auto-MRSA), gave results comparable to those obtained with BD-MRSA. The positive- and negative-result concordance rates and overall concordance of BD-MRSA and Auto-MRSA were 98.2, 97.7, and 97.6%, respectively. Auto-MRSA required 60% less technical time than BD-MRSA,...

  18. Phenotypic methods of greater accuracy to detect the mecA gene product for the recognition of MRSA in resource constraint settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasheed MU; Ahmed Z

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and analyze the performance of Mastalex MRSA(Mast,UK).Methods:Two hundred and ten Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)strains were isolated from different clinical samples and were tested for methicillin resistance by Oxacillin (1μg) and Cefoxitin (30 μg) disc diffusion, oxacillin agar screen, and minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin and cefoxitin.S. aureus isolates were grown on the blood agar and mannitol salt agar with (2mg/L) and without oxacillin for the analysis of MastalexMRSA.Results: Out of210S. aureus strains tested,103 strains were detected as methicillin resistant by Cefoxitin disk diffusion, Cefoxitin minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) and MastalexMRSA test. Whereas oxacillin disc diffusion and oxacillin agar screen detected91 and97 MRSA respectively. The Cefoxitin MIC test performance was equivalent to Cefoxitin disc diffusion.103 (100%)strains grown on blood agar without and with oxacillin, and76 (74%) and93 (91%) strains grown on mannitol salt agar without and with oxacillin shown positive agglutination with MastalexMRSA test respectively.Conclusions: The cefoxitin disk diffusion/ MastalexMRSA is very suitable for detection ofMRSA and the tests can be an alternative toPCR for detection ofMRSA in resource constraint settings. Mastalex test would be particularly useful when confirmation of resistance is urgently required.

  19. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  20. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance again

  1. [EUREGIO-projekt MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland. Creation of a regional network to combat MRSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels-Haardt, I; Verhoeven, F; Mellmann, A; Hendrix, M G R; Gemert-Pijnen, J E C; Friedrich, A W

    2006-11-01

    Over the last years, Germany has observed an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) in all S. aureus isolates from 2 % to about 25 % whereas in The Netherlands this proportion has continuously been kept below 1 % thanks to a consistent "search & destroy" policy. Both countries increasingly register so-called community-acquired (CA) MRSA which are a threat also to the healthy population without any known risk factor for MRSA carriership. The EUREGIO project "MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland" has made it its main goal to set up a German-Dutch network serving as a basis for a quality association which includes all those who are actively involved in health care provision on both sides of the border and to implement a coordinated strategy for MRSA control and prevention. The project is being carried out with the financial support of the European Union under the INTERREG-IIIA Community initiative and of the Ministry of Economics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The epidemiological backbone of the MRSA-net is a genetic-based MRSA typing strategy (spa-typing) which has been developed by the Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital, Münster and which allows regional and cross-border comparability of laboratory results. The Faculty of Behavioural Sciences of the University of Twente examines MRSA hygiene protocols with regard to their acceptability and realisability with the intention of developing user-friendly, target group-oriented MRSA protocols for the EUREGIO. The health departments involved in the project play a central role in the coordination of the network partners in the municipalities. By performing their function of surveillance in accordance with Sections 23 and 36 of the Infectious Disease Control Act they provide an important contribution to enhancing MRSA control and prevention strategies. Thanks to its cross-border cooperation and exchange of knowledge and technology the EUREGIO project "MRSA-net" contributes to

  2. Establishment and evaluation of a pneumonia model in mice after infection with an isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)%耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎小鼠感染模型的建立与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星; 周文江; 沈艳; 刘芳; 杨华; 高谦; 王德成

    2011-01-01

    Objective Staphylococcus aureus pneumonias are increasingly recognized as a major form of lifethreatening infections.In this study, we established a pneumonia model of BALB/c mice after infection with an ST239 MRSA strain, which was a popular MRSA stain and isolated and identified from Shanghai Huashan hospital.Methods We monitored the clinical signs and gross observations of MRSA-infected mice, and defined the pneumonia with microCT scanning, lung bacteria loading counting and histopathology examination.Results This isolated ST239 MRSA strain can caused a severe injury in the trachea and lung, the obvious symptoms including the desquamated cilia and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung.However, the damaged symptoms in respiratory system were improved importantly in the vancomycin-treated mice.Conclusion The solid results obatined in this model will benefit us to study the pathogenic characteristics and patholgenesis in MRSA-induced pneumonia, and propeled us to seek a safety cure approaches in the future.%目的 本研究采用临床分离鉴定的ST239型耐甲氧西林金黄葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染BALB/c小鼠,建立小鼠肺炎模型,对小鼠的临床症状、肺载菌量与组织病理学变化进行时相性监测,并用该模型验证万古霉素对小鼠的治疗效果.方法 取35只小鼠随机分成MRSA感染组、药物组和对照组,通过滴鼻方式分别滴入50μL细菌(前两组)与PBS(对照组);感染一天后对药物组用同样的方式滴入万古霉素,CT检测肺部的变化,并对肺载菌量和组织病理学变化进行观察.结果 与对照组比较,CT和细菌计数等结果表明MRSA感染组和药物组的肺组织有明显的炎症反应,载菌量较高;与感染组相比,药物组小鼠肺部的载菌量明显降低,气管和肺部的组织病理学症状明显减轻.结论 本实验结果表明小鼠MRSA肺炎模型成功建立,并可用于药物疗效的比较评估.该模型的建立,将为进一步研究临床分

  3. Emergence of MRSA clone ST22 in healthy young adults in the community in the absence of risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mollaghan, A M

    2010-05-01

    One thousand adults aged between 18 and 35 years were investigated for nasal colonization with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Each volunteer completed a questionnaire to assess the presence or absence of risk factors for hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) carriage. All MRSA isolated were characterized by microbiological and molecular methods. A S. aureus carriage rate of 22% and a MRSA carriage rate of 0.7% were observed. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed 121 individuals with HA-MRSA risk factors. Subsequently two MRSA infections with associated risk factors were excluded from calculation of the true carriage rate and an adjusted rate of 0.57% (5\\/879) was established. All seven MRSA isolates expressed the genotypic profile ST22-MRSA-IV, were PVL negative, agr type 1, and differed only by their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. ST22-MRSA-IV (EMRSA-15) has shown worldwide spread in the hospital setting but has not been previously documented in isolation in the community.

  4. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  5. Nosocomial Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterimia among Nasal Carriers of Methicillin- Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ariza (Javier); J. Ayats (Josefina); M.A. Dominguez; F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine the relevance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, either methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicillinresistant (MRSA), as a risk factor for the development of nosocomial S aureus bacteremia during an MRSA outbreak. patients and methods: In this prospective

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Community Acquired and Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    P R, Vysakh; M, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital.

  7. Nasal Carriage of Multi-Drug Resistant Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Children in Tripoli-Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Al-haddad, Omaima H.; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized children are at an increased risk of developing infections than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonized children. Nasal specimens from inpatient children, mothers of inpatient children, healthcare workers, and outpatient children at Tripoli Children Hospital (TCH) were examined for MRSA by chromogenic MRSA ID medium. Susceptibility of MRSA isolates to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The nasal carriage rate...

  8. Advances in MRSA drug discovery: where are we and where do we need to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Michio; Siricilla, Shajila; Mitachi, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been on the increase during the past decade, due to the steady growth of the elderly and immunocompromised patients, and the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Although, only a limited number of anti-MRSA drugs are available, a number of different combination antimicrobial drug regimens have been used to treat serious MRSA infections. Thus, addition of several new antistaphylococcal drugs into clinical practice should broaden therapeutic options. Because MRSA is one of the most common and problematic bacteria associated with increasing antimicrobial resistance, continuous efforts on discovery of lead compounds as well as development of alternative therapies and faster diagnostics to ensure effective antistaphylococcal therapy are required. Areas covered This article summarizes the FDA approved drugs to treat MRSA infections, the drugs in clinical trials, and the drug leads for MRSA and related Gram-positive bacterial infections. In addition, the mode of action of antistaphylococcal molecules and resistant mechanisms of some molecules are briefly discussed. Expert opinion The number of pipeline drugs presently undergoing clinical trials is not particularly encouraging. There are limited and rather expensive therapeutic options for the infections by MRSA in the critically ill. This review article provides an update on antistaphylococcal drugs in clinical trials and antibacterial molecules effective against Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA. The structural and biological information of antibacterials summarized here are very useful for designing drug leads to develop into new anti-MRSA drugs. PMID:23829425

  9. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in Pigs in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Larsen; Maho Imanishi; Soawapak Hinjoy; Prasit Tharavichitkul; Kwanjit Duangsong; Davis, Meghan F; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated pathogen. Recently, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) has emerged and disseminated in Europe and North America and now constitutes a considerable zoonotic burden in humans with risk factors of pig exposure, whereas the extent of the livestock reservoir is relatively unknown on other continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March through April 2011, MRSA was identified i...

  10. When are the hands of healthcare workers positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    OpenAIRE

    Creamer, Eilish; Dorrian, Sarah; Dolan, Anthony; Sherlock, Orla; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Thomas, Toney; Walsh, John; Shore, A; Sullivan, D.; Kinnevey, Peter M; Rossney, A S; Cunney, Robert; Coleman, David; Humphreys, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a key component in reducing infection. There are few reports on the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on healthcare workers' (HCWs') hands. The aim of this study was to establish whether HCWs' fingertips were contaminated with MRSA in a clinical hospital setting. The study was conducted in an acute tertiary referral hospital on four MRSA wards that were part of a larger research study on MRSA epidemiology and four other wards not included in the ...

  11. Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin Region

    OpenAIRE

    Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Nulens, Eric; Valvatne, Havard; Sebastian, Silvie; Driessen, Christel; Craeghs, Jos; De Brauwer, Els; Heising, Bernhard; Kraat, Yvette J.; Riebe, Joachim; Stals, Frans S.; Trienekens, Thera A.; Scheres, Jacques; Friedrich, Alexander W.; van Tiel, Frank H.

    2009-01-01

    Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the emergence, dissemination, and diversity of MRSA clones in the EMR by using several typing methods. MRSA associated with clonal complexes 5, 8, 30, and 45 was disseminated throughout the EMR. Dutch isolat...

  12. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  13. Computer aided screening and evaluation of herbal therapeutics against MRSA infections

    OpenAIRE

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Krishnan, Rao Shruti; Siddapa, Snehapriya Bangalore; Salian, Chithra; Bora, Prerana; Sebastian, Denoj

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a pathogenic bacterium that causes life threatening outbreaks such as community-onset and nosocomial infections has emerged as ‘superbug’. The organism developed resistance to all classes of antibiotics including the best known Vancomycin (VRSA). Hence, there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. This study mainly evaluates the potential use of botanicals against MRSA infections. Computer aided design is an initial platform to screen ...

  14. Characterization and Proposed Nomenclature of Epidemic Strains of MRSA in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Simor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been increasing in many Canadian hospitals over the past few years. Some strains may be considered ‘epidemic’, in that they are clinically or epidemiologically significant, and have been identified in patients from multiple hospitals and geographic regions across the country. This paper describes phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of four epidemic MRSA strains in Canada and proposes standardized nomenclature.

  15. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

    OpenAIRE

    Gambarati Gianpaolo; Mestres Carlos A; Colli Andrea; Chesi Giuseppe; Boni Fabrizio; Gherli Tiziano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE) by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There w...

  16. The Increasing Problem of Wound Bacterial Burden and Infection in Acute and Chronic Soft-Tissue Wounds Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Demling, Robert H.; Waterhouse, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions. Methods: Methods used include a literature review on the growth o...

  17. First outbreak with MRSA in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors and control procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Grenness Utke Ramsing

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics and outbreak handling of a large methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Denmark June 25(th-August 8(th 2008, and to identify risk factors for MRSA transmission. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and the Danish Neobase database. All MRSA isolates obtained from neonates, relatives and NICU health care workers (HCW as well as environmental cultures were typed. RESULTS: During the 46 day outbreak period, 102 neonates were admitted to the two neonatal wards. Ninety-nine neonates were subsequently sampled, and 32 neonates (32% from 25 families were colonized with MRSA (spa-type t127, SCCmec V, PVL negative. Thirteen family members from 11 of those families (44% and two of 161 HCWs (1% were colonized with the same MRSA. No one was infected. Five environmental cultures were MRSA positive. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP treatment (p = 0.006 and Caesarean section (p = 0.016 were independent risk factors for MRSA acquisition, whereas days of exposure to MRSA was a risk factors in the unadjusted analysis (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: MRSA transmission occurs with high frequency in the NICU during hospitalization with unidentified MRSA neonates. Caesarean section and nCPAP treatment were identified as risk factors for MRSA colonization. The MRSA outbreak was controlled through infection control procedures.

  18. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Medical Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Trépanier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA during their training. The occupational risk of this specific population is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data regarding MRSA colonization among health care professionals in Quebec.

  19. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...

  20. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambarati Gianpaolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There were multiple episodes of left MRSA-osteomyelitis controlled after surgery and vancomycin therapy. MRSA isolated from the blood at the time of IE presented with the same profile than the isolated four years earlier. Sequential treatment with teicoplanin-cotrimoxazole and Linezolid associated to vancomycin – rifampicin – cotrimoxazole had no improvement. Infection was controlled after 28 days of therapy with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Conclusion The literature presents only a few cases of MRSA IE not susceptible to glycopeptides in not drug addicted patients. This case shows the comparison of a highly-resistant MRSA after previous S. aureus osteomyelitis treated with glycopeptides. This is the first description of successful treatment of resistant-MRSA IE of the tricuspid valve complicated by multiple pulmonary septic infarction with quinupristin/dalfopristin

  1. MRSA – ‘Bug-Bear’ of a Surgical Practice: Reducing the Incidence of MRSA Surgical Site Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Andrea; Layer, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Adverse publicity (the ‘superbug') has demonstrated that the problem of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is prevalent in many of the country's most prestigious hospitals. The results of the mandatory UK Department of Health (DH) surveillance for early surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgery (SSIS) have been published recently for the period April 2004 to March 2005 when 41,242 operations were studied ( 28 October 2005). Infection rates were generally and gratifyingly...

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health. PMID:23060511

  3. General Information about MRSA in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button General Information About MRSA in Healthcare Settings Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Problem? Who is at Risk, and How is MRSA Spread in Healthcare Settings? MRSA is usually spread ...

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yu-Chuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Ma, David H. K.; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Shin-Yi; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. This observational study aimed to characterize clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypes of ocular infections caused by MRSA based on the clinical and molecular definitions of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) strains. Fifty-nine patients with culture-proven S aureus ocular infection were enrolled from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 at Chang...

  5. Vancomycin-intermediate livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398/t9538 from swine in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Dutra, Mauricio C; Moreno, Marina; Ferreira, Thais SP; da Silva, Givago FR; Matajira, Carlos EC; Silva, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been mainly related with pig farming, in Europe and North America, with the ST398 as the most commonly identified type of LA-MRSA. Here we present the draft genome of the first vancomycin-intermediate MRSA ST398/t9538 isolated from a swine presenting exudative epidermitis in Brazil.

  6. Methicillin/Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a hospital and public health threat in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinne Spirandelli Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an established nosocomial pathogen (HA-MRSA, hospital acquired MRSA, but has recently begun to appear in the community (CA-MRSA, community acquired MRSA. The cause of resistance to methicillin and all other β-lactam antibiotics is the mecA gene, which is situated on a mobile genetic element, the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec. Seven major variants of SCCmec, type I to VII are distinguished. HA-MRSA disseminated worldwide and causes the majority of S. aureus nosocomial infections with a limited number of clones disseminated including the Brazilian Epidemic Clone (BEC, ST239-MRSA-III. CA-MRSA isolates are susceptible to non-β-lactam antibiotics, usually isolated from healthy individuals which do not possess any unknown risk factors for MRSA infection and are associated with a larger clonal diversity compared with HA-MRSA. However, during recent years distinction between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA is beginning to fade. Actually, knowledge about MRSA disseminating clones is required to implement any strategies to control the transmission of MRSA either within hospitals or in community. For this reason, rapid identification of strains is an important issue. The rate of HA-MRSA can be reduced substantially through the implementation of interventions strategies, even in settings where MRSA is endemic as in most Brazilian hospitals. However, these policies could be quite complicated in the light of an increasing CA-MRSA prevalence in healthcare facilities, considering that distinction between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA has started to disappear.

  7. Spread of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection within a family: implications for antibiotic therapy and prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amir, N H

    2010-04-01

    Outbreaks or clusters of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) within families have been reported. We describe a family cluster of CA-MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection where CA-MRSA was suspected because of recurrent infections which failed to respond to flucloxacillin. While the prevalence of CA-MRSA is low worldwide, CA-MRSA should be considered in certain circumstances depending on clinical presentation and risk assessment. Surveillance cultures of family contacts of patients with MRSA should be considered to help establish the prevalence of CA-MRSA and to inform the optimal choice of empiric antibiotic treatment.

  8. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% seven-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) concentrations of MRSA compared to sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased BAL levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and G-CSF compared to those given intratracheal saline while CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared to those subjected to sham laparotomy while this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared to animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection. PMID:21937950

  9. The posttranslocational chaperone lipoprotein PrsA is involved in both glycopeptide and oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselin, Ambre; Renzoni, Adriana; Andrey, Diego O; Monod, Antoinette; Lew, Daniel P; Kelley, William L

    2012-07-01

    Understanding in detail the factors which permit Staphylococcus aureus to counteract cell wall-active antibiotics is a prerequisite to elaborating effective strategies to prolong the usefulness of these drugs and define new targets for pharmacological intervention. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are major pathogens of hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections and are most often treated with glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) because of their resistance to most penicillins and a limited arsenal of clinically proven alternatives. In this study, we examined PrsA, a lipid-anchored protein of the parvulin PPIase family (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase) found ubiquitously in all Gram-positive species, in which it assists posttranslocational folding at the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. We show by both genetic and biochemical assays that prsA is directly regulated by the VraRS two-component sentinel system of cell wall stress. Disruption of prsA is tolerated by S. aureus, and its loss results in no detectable overt macroscopic changes in cell wall architecture or growth rate under nonstressed growth conditions. Disruption of prsA leads, however, to notable alterations in the sensitivity to glycopeptides and dramatically decreases the resistance of COL (MRSA) to oxacillin. Quantitative transcriptional analysis reveals that prsA and vraR are coordinately upregulated in a panel of stable laboratory and clinical glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) strains compared to their susceptible parents. Collectively, our results point to a role for prsA as a facultative facilitator of protein secretion or extracellular folding and provide a framework for understanding why prsA is a key element of the VraRS-mediated cell wall stress response. PMID:22526301

  10. Optimization of multiple muco-cutaneous site sampling method for screening MRSA colonization in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Datta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Active screening for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriers remains a vital component of infection control policy in any health-care setting. The relative advantage of multiple anatomical site screening for detecting MRSA carriers is well recognized. However, this leads to increase in financial and logistical load in a developing world scenario. The objective of our study was to determine the sensitivity of MRSA screening of nose, throat, axilla, groin, perineum and the site of catheterization (central line catheter individually among intensive care unit patients and to compare it with the sensitivity of multiple site screening. Materials and Methods: Active surveillance of 400 patients was done to detect MRSA colonization; 6 sites-nose, throat, axilla, perineum, groin and site of catheter were swabbed. Result and Discussion: The throat swab alone was able to detect maximum number of MRSA (76/90 carriers, with sensitivity of 84.4%. Next in order of sensitivity was nasal swab, which tested 77.7% of MRSA colonized patients. When multiple sites are screened, the sensitivity for MRSA detection increased to 95%. Conclusions: We found that though throat represent the most common site of MRSA colonization, nose or groin must also be sampled simultaneously to attain a higher sensitivity.

  11. Transmission through air as a possible route of exposure for MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marian E H; Verstappen, Koen M; van Cleef, Brigitte A G L; Dohmen, Wietske; Dorado-García, Alejandro; Graveland, Haitske; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Heederik, Dick J J

    2016-05-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is highly prevalent in pigs and veal calves. The environment and air in pig and veal calf barns is often contaminated with LA-MRSA, and can act as a transmission source for humans. This study explores exposure-response relationships between sequence type 398 (ST398) MRSA air exposure level and nasal ST398 MRSA carriage in people working and/or living on farms. Samples and data were used from three longitudinal field studies in pig and veal calf farm populations. Samples consisted of nasal swabs from the human participants and electrostatic dust fall collectors capturing airborne settled dust in barns. In both multivariate and mutually adjusted analyses, a strong association was found between nasal ST398 MRSA carriage in people working in the barns for >20 h per week and MRSA air levels. In people working in the barns < 20 h per week there was a strong association between nasal carriage and number of working hours. Exposure to ST398 MRSA in barn air seems to be an important determinant for nasal carriage, especially in the highly exposed group of farmers, next to duration of contact with animals. Intervention measures should therefore probably also target reduction of ST398 MRSA air levels. PMID:25515375

  12. Risk factors for persistence of livestock-associated MRSA and environmental exposure in veal calf farmers and their family members: an observational longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado-Garcia, A.; Bos, M.E.H.; Graveland, H.; Cleef, van, B.A.G.L.; Verstappen, K.M.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) emergence is a major public health concern. This study was aimed at assessing risk factors for persistently carrying MRSA in veal calf farmers and their family members. We also evaluate the dynamics of MRSA environmental load during the veal-calf production cycle. Design: Observational, longitudinal, repeated cross-sectional study. Setting: 52 veal calf farms in the Netherlands. Participants: From the end o...

  13. Community-Associated MRSA in Uruguay

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that is typically associated with infections in healthcare settings. In the past couple of decades, MRSA has emerged in the community, most often causing skin infections in healthy people who haven't recently been hospitalized. After an increase in community cases in Uruguay in 2004, health officials investigated to learn more about what was happening and found some interesting trends. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Stephen Benoit discusses what they learned, the results of which are published in the August 2008 issue of CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/7/2008.

  14. Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 Ameliorate MRSA Pneumonia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The only human cathelicidin, LL-37, and the innate defense regulator peptide IDR-1, which have been proven to have antimicrobial activity, represent essential elements of immunity. Our previous study showed that the peptide LL-37 was protective in vitro to attenuate LTA-induced inflammatory effects. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA causes a multitude of serious and sometimes life-threatening diseases around the globe. However, the effect of LL-37 and IDR-1 in MRSA-induced pneumonia is unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential of LL-37 and IDR-1 in ameliorating MRSA-induced pneumonia in vivo. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups and perfused intratracheally with PBS, peptide, MRSA and MRSA plus peptide, respectively. Pulmonary tissue pathology, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR were employed. The relative signal pathways were further explored by western blot analysis. Results: Pathological analysis of the lung tissue sections demonstrated that, when compared with the MRSA-treated group, both the LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate the MRSA-induced pneumonia. The phosphorylation of JNK and Akt were markedly decreased in the peptide plus MRSA-treated group compared with the MRSA-treated group. Furthermore, both of them also reduced TNF-α and IL-6 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum in vivo. Conclusion: We report the first evidence of peptides inhibiting inflammation, decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and restoring pulmonary function in vivo. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate MRSA-induced pneumonia by exerting an anti-inflammatory property and attenuating pro-inflammatory cytokine release, thus providing support for the hypothesis that both innate and synthetic peptides could protect against MRSA in vivo.

  15. High Genetic Diversity among Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: Results from a Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Empel, Joanna; Bouchami, Ons; Faria, Nuno A.; Tavares, Ana; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fluit, Ad C.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this continent. Methods and Findings A total of 568 colonization and infection isolates, comprising both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were recover...

  16. Community-onset Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daly, Denise A; Pearson, Julie C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Robinson, James O; Turnidge, John D

    2014-03-01

    In 2012, the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) conducted a community-onset period-prevalence survey of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital outpatients and general practice patients including nursing homes, long term care facilities and hospice patients. Day surgery and dialysis patients were excluded. Twenty-nine medical microbiology laboratories from all state and mainland territories participated. Isolates were tested by Vitek2® (AST-P612 card). Results were compared with previous AGAR community surveys. Nationally, the proportion of S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) increased significantly from 11.5% in 2000 to 17.9% in 2012 (P<0.0001). Resistance to the non-ß-lactam antimicrobials varied between regions. No resistance was detected to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. Resistance in methicillin susceptible S. aureus was rare apart from erythromycin (12.8%) and was absent for vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and daptomycin. The proportion of S. aureus characterised as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) was 5.1%. Three HA-MRSA clones were characterised, with 72.9% and 26.4% of HA-MRSA classified as ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA) respectively. Multi-clonal community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) accounted for 12.5% of all S. aureus. Regional variation in resistance in MRSA was primarily due to the differential distribution of the 2 major HA-MRSA clones; ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA), which is resistant to multiple non-ß-lactam antimicrobials, and ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15), which is resistant to ciprofloxacin and typically erythromycin. Although the majority of CA-MRSA were non-multi-resistant, a significant expansion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive CA-MRSA clones has occurred nationally. The mean age of patients (31.7 years, 95% CI 28.9-34.5) with a PVL positive CA-MRSA infection was significantly lower (P<0.0001), than the mean age of patients with a PVL

  17. Coagulase-negative staphylococci as reservoirs of genes facilitating MRSA infection: Staphylococcal commensal species such as Staphylococcus epidermidis are being recognized as important sources of genes promoting MRSA colonization and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that Staphylococcus epidermidis is a reservoir of genes that, after horizontal transfer, facilitate the potential of Staphylococcus aureus to colonize, survive during infection, or resist antibiotic treatment, traits that are notably manifest in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). S. aureus is a dangerous human pathogen and notorious for acquiring antibiotic resistance. MRSA in particular is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and death in hospitalized patients. S. aureus is an extremely versatile pathogen with a multitude of mechanisms to cause disease and circumvent immune defenses. In contrast, most other staphylococci, such as S. epidermidis, are commonly benign commensals and only occasionally cause disease. Recent findings highlight the key importance of efforts to better understand how genes of staphylococci other than S. aureus contribute to survival in the human host, how they are transferred to S. aureus, and why this exchange appears to be uni-directional.

  18. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manipal...... using disc diffusion test by cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) disc, further confirmation was done by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ResultsOut of 400 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 139 (34.75%) were found to be MRSA. Among the MRSA isolates, 74 (53.2%) were from inpatient departments, 58 (41...

  19. Low incidence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in The Netherlands in 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte A G L van Cleef

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a worldwide problem in both hospitals and communities all over the world. In 2003, a new MRSA clade emerged with a reservoir in pigs and veal calves: livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA. We wanted to estimate the incidence of bacteraemias due to LA-MRSA using national surveillance data from 2009 in the Netherlands. We found a low incidence of LA-MRSA and MRSA bacteraemia episodes, compared to bacteraemias caused by all S. aureus (0.04, 0.18 and 19.3 episodes of bacteraemia per 100,000 inhabitants per year, respectively. LA-MRSA and MRSA were uncommon compared to numbers from other countries as well. MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in specific does not appear to be a public health problem in the Netherlands now. The low incidence of LA-MRSA bacteraemia episodes may best be explained by differences in the populations affected by LA-MRSA versus other MRSA. However, reduced virulence of the strain involved, and the effectiveness of the search and destroy policy might play a role as well.

  20. Absence of human innate immune evasion complex in LA-MRSA ST5 strains isolated from pigs, swine facilities, and humans with swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Since its first ties to swine, livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has raised public health concerns because livestock may be the largest reservoir of MRSA outside the hospital setting. In contrast to Europe and Asia, where the primary sequence type...

  1. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among secondary school students at Duhok City-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Habeeb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA widely distributed in hospitals around the world. There is strong relationship between disease development and S. aureus nasal carriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of nasal colonization with S. aureus and MRSA in the community of Duhok city, Iraq. Methods: 489 students aged 16 to18 years were included. Nasal swab samples were collected followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for the mecA gene. Also the prevalence of PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL gene was also studied. Results: A total of 90 (18.4% out of 489 (18.4% of the students were found to be colonized by S. aureus . Only 10 (2.04% of the students were found to be MRSA carrier. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. PLV gene was detected in one MRSA strain. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating S. aureus colonization in students in the Duhok city. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Fortunately, all trains included in our study were sensitive to vancomycin. Further research is needed to examine the SCCmec elements and the evolution of MRSA over the time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(2: 59-63

  2. Successful Daptomycin Use in a Pediatric Patient With Acute, Bilateral Osteomyelitis Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Billups, Kelsey L.; Stultz, Jeremy S

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacteria associated with the development of osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. Osteomyelitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be difficult to safely and effectively treat. Vancomycin, linezolid, and clindamycin are commonly used to treat osteomyelitis caused by MRSA. While adult studies suggest intravenous (IV) daptomycin may by beneficial for the treatment of MRSA osteomyelitis, it is not Food and Drug Administration ...

  3. Modulation of Fibronectin Adhesins and Other Virulence Factors in a Teicoplanin-Resistant Derivative of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Renzoni, Adriana; Francois, Patrice; Li, Dongmei; Kelley, William L; Lew, Daniel P.; Vaudaux, Pierre; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The impact of glycopeptide resistance on the molecular regulation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence and attachment to host tissues is poorly documented. We compared stable teicoplanin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain 14-4 with its teicoplanin-susceptible MRSA parent, strain MRGR3, which exhibits a high degree of virulence in a rat model of chronic foreign body MRSA infection. The levels of fibronectin-mediated adhesion and surface display of fibronectin-binding protein...

  4. La(III) complex involving the O,N-donor environment of quinazoline-4(3H)-one Schiff’s base and their antimicrobial attributes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, K.; Mane, Sunilkumar B.; Manikprabhu, Deene

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased during the past few decades, so there is an urgent need of new antimicrobial agents if public health is concerned. Though the Schiff’s bases and La(III) complex have enormous biological activity, but less attention was given in their synthesis. In the present investigation, we synthesized a new (E)-3-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methyleneamino)-2-methylquinazoline-4(3H)-one HNMAMQ Schiff’s base by the condensation of 3-(2-aminophenyl) quinazolin-2-methyl-4(3H)-one and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. The Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR, mass spectra, and thermal studies. The newly synthesized Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the Gulbarga region in India. The Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex showed good antimicrobial activity and thus represents a potential new drug of choice.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of recombinant lactoferrin during MRSA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2014-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection remains a serious hazard to global health. The use of immune modulatory therapy to combat infection is gaining an interest as a novel treatment alternative. Lactoferrin (LF), an iron binding protein with immune modulating properties, has the potential to modify the course of systemic MRSA infection. Specifically, LF is capable of limiting deleterious inflammatory responses while promoting the development of antigen specific T-cell activity. The efficacy of a novel recombinant mouse LF (rmLF) to protect against MRSA infection was examined in a mouse peritonitis model. BALB/c mice were infected with a lethal dose of MRSA and treated at 2h post-infection with rmLF. Effects of rmLF on MRSA-infected primary monocytes and granulocytes were analyzed for inflammatory mediators. The rmLF treated mice demonstrated a modest increase in survival of more than 24h, albeit with reduced bacteremia. Serum cytokines, IL-17 and IL-6, were significantly reduced post-challenge post-rmLF treatment. The rmLF led to a minor decrease in IL-1b, and a slight increase in TNF-a production. Preliminary investigation towards human clinical relevance was accomplished using human blood derived monocytes and granulocytes infected with MRSA and treated with homologous recombinant human LF (rhLF). Treatment with (rhLF) led to increased production of IFN-g and IL-2. The human cell studies also showed a concurrent decrease in TNF-a, IL-6, IL-1b, IL-12p40, and IL-10. These results indicate that the rmLF and rhLF have a high degree of overlap to modify inflammatory responses, although differences in activities were observed between the two heterologous recombinant molecules.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  7. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin P Predicts Bacteremia in Hospitalized Patients Colonized With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Michael S.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sakoulas, George; Nicol, Robert; DuBois, Andrea; Delaney, Mary L.; Kleinman, Ken; Cosimi, Lisa A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Birren, Bruce W.; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization predicts later infection, with both host and pathogen determinants of invasive disease. Methods. This nested case-control study evaluates predictors of MRSA bacteremia in an 8–intensive care unit (ICU) prospective adult cohort from 1 September 2003 through 30 April 2005 with active MRSA surveillance and collection of ICU, post-ICU, and readmission MRSA isolates. We selected MRSA carriers who did (cases) and those who did not (controls) develop MRSA bacteremia. Generating assembled genome sequences, we evaluated 30 MRSA genes potentially associated with virulence and invasion. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed the association of these genes with MRSA bacteremia, controlling for host risk factors. Results. We collected 1578 MRSA isolates from 520 patients. We analyzed host and pathogen factors for 33 cases and 121 controls. Predictors of MRSA bacteremia included a diagnosis of cancer, presence of a central venous catheter, hyperglycemia (glucose level, >200 mg/dL), and infection with a MRSA strain carrying the gene for staphylococcal enterotoxin P (sep). Receipt of an anti-MRSA medication had a significant protective effect. Conclusions. In an analysis controlling for host factors, colonization with MRSA carrying sep increased the risk of MRSA bacteremia. Identification of risk-adjusted genetic determinants of virulence may help to improve prediction of invasive disease and suggest new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24041793

  8. Evaluation of Three Rapid Methods for Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, L.; Matsumura, S. O.; Choi, E; Louie, M; Simor, A E

    2000-01-01

    The probe-based Velogene Rapid MRSA Identification Assay (ID Biomedical Corp., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and the latex agglutination MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated for their ability to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to distinguish strains of MRSA from borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA; mecA-negative, oxacillin MICs of 2 to 8 μg/ml). The Velogene is a 90-min assay using a chimeric probe to detect the mecA ge...

  9. Development and validation of a bedside risk score for MRSA among patients hospitalized with complicated skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilberberg Marya D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI. Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately. Methods We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals retrospective cohort study in a US-based database between April 2005 and March 2009. All adult initial admissions with ICD-9-CM codes specific to cSSSI were included. Patients admitted with MRSA vs. non-MRSA were compared with regard to baseline demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics. We developed and validated a model to predict the risk of MRSA, and compared its performance via sensitivity, specificity and other classification statistics to the healthcare-associated (HCA infection risk factors. Results Of the 7,183 patients with cSSSI, 2,387 (33.2% had MRSA. Factors discriminating MRSA from non-MRSA were age, African-American race, no evidence of diabetes mellitus, cancer or renal dysfunction, and prior history of cardiac dysrhythmia. The score ranging from 0 to 8 points exhibited a consistent dose–response relationship. A MRSA score of 5 or higher was superior to the HCA classification in all characteristics, while that of 4 or higher was superior on all metrics except specificity. Conclusions MRSA is present in 1/3 of all hospitalized cSSSI. A simple bedside risk score can help discriminate the risk for MRSA vs. other pathogens with improved accuracy compared to the HCA definition.

  10. Molecular techniques for MRSA typing: current issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Trindade

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Serious staphylococcal infections can frequently occur in inpatients and may lead to dire consequences, especially as to therapy with antimicrobial agents. The increase in the frequency of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as the causal agent of nosocomial infection and the possibility of emergence of resistance to vancomycin demands a quick and trustworthy characterization of isolates and identification of clonal spread within hospitals. Enough information must be generated to permit the implementation of appropriate measures for control of infection, so that outbreaks can be contained. Molecular typing techniques reviewed in this manuscript include: plasmid profile analysis, analysis of chromosomal DNA after enzymatic restriction, Southern blotting, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, techniques involving polymerase chain reaction and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Repetitive DNA Sequence PCR (rep-PCR may be used for screening due to its practicality, low cost and reproducibility. Because of its high discriminatory power Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE still remains the gold standard for MRSA typing. New techniques with higher reproducibility and discriminatory power, such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, are appearing. These are mostly useful for global epidemiology studies. Molecular typing techniques are invaluable tools for the assessment of putative MRSA outbreaks and so should be extensively used for this purpose.

  11. VanA-Type MRSA (VRSA) Emerged in Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icgen, Bulent

    2016-09-01

    Due to the widespread occurrence of mecA-encoded methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), treatment of staphylococcal infections is shifted to glycopeptide antibiotics like vancomycin and teicoplanin. The selective pressure of glycopeptides has eventually led to the emergence of staphylococci with increased resistance. Of great concern is vanA-encoded high level vancomycin and teicoplanin resistance in MRSA (VRSA). Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the occurrence of VRSA in surface waters. Out of 290, two staphylococcal isolates identified as MRSA Al11, Ba01, and one as MRS Co11 through 16S rRNA sequencing, also displayed high level resistance towards vancomycin and teicoplanin. These staphylococcal isolates were found to harbor vanA gene with sequence similarities of 99 %-100 % to the vanA gene extracted from vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) surface water isolates of Enterococcus faecalis Cr07, E07, Pb06 and E. faecium E330. High level glycopeptide resistance rendering protein encoded by the vanA gene, D-alanine-D-lactate ligase found in VRE, was also shown to be present in all vanA-type staphylococcal isolates through western blot. Current study elucidated that surface waters provide high potential for enterococcal vanA gene being transferred to MRSA, so called VRSA, and require special scientific consideration. PMID:27216737

  12. Antibacterial synergy between rosmarinic acid and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Sanmuga Priya; Perumal, Senthamil Selvan; Balakrishnan, Ajay; Marappan, Nathiya; Gajendran, Sabari Srinivasan; Viswanathan, Vinodhini

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S. aureus and MRSA was investigated. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of RA against S. aureus and a clinical isolate of MRSA was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of RA was determined by broth dilution method. Synergism of RA with various antibiotics against S. aureus and MRSA was studied by broth checkerboard method and time-kill kinetic assay. Effect of RA on microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM’s) of S. aureus and MRSA was studied using sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: MIC of RA was found to be 0.8 and 10 mg/ml against S. aureus and MRSA, respectively. RA was synergistic with vancomycin, ofloxacin, and amoxicillin against S. aureus and only with vancomycin against MRSA. The time-kill analysis revealed that synergistic combinations were a more effective than individual antibiotics. MSCRAMM’s protein expression of S. aureus and MRSA was markedly suppressed by RA + vancomycin combination rather than RA alone. Conclusion: The synergistic effects of RA with antibiotics were observed against S. aureus and MRSA. RA showed inhibitory effect on the surface proteins MSCRAMM’s. Even though RA was shown to exhibit a synergistic effect with antibiotics, the MIC was found to be higher. Thus, further studies on increasing the efficacy of RA can develop it

  13. Active surveillance to determine the impact of methicillin resistance on mortality in patients with bacteremia and influences of the use of antibiotics on the development of MRSA infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pena Porto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is among the most important pathogens of nosocomial infections, mainly in intensive care units (ICUs, and accounts for 40-60% of all healthcare-associated S. aureus infections. We evaluated the incidence of nosocomial infection by S. aureus, identified the risk factors for MRSA infection, and evaluated the effect of resistance to methicillin on mortality in patients. Methods We conducted MRSA surveillance at a university hospital in Brazil from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010, and performed a retrospective case-control matched study to evaluate the frequency of subsequent MRSA bacteremia and death among patients. We evaluated and compared the risk factors between patients with MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA infection. Results Sepsis was the most common cause of infection (17.7/1,000 patient-days, followed by surgical site (11.4/1,000 patient-days, pneumonia (4.1/1,000 patient-days, and urinary tract infection (2.4/1,000 patient-days. The significant risk factors were time of hospitalization, use of central vascular catheter (CVC, urinary catheter, nasogastric tube, parenteral nutrition, tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, and previous antibiotic administration, the latter of which was the only independent risk factor for MRSA infection. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with MRSA. The number of antibiotics tested was not related to increases in the frequency of MRSA/1,000 patient-days. The incidence of mortality attributable to MRSA (bloodstream infection BSI was 50%. Conclusions Surveillance results showed that the use of high levels of antibiotics was directly related to the development of MRSA infection, and the mortality attributable to MRSA in patients with bacteremia was significant.

  14. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pig carcasses in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, J.; O'Donoghue, M.; Guardabassi, Luca;

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from slaughtered pigs sampled from local markets in Hong Kong. The nares of 400 slaughtered pigs were cultured and MRSA isolates characterized for the presence of antibiotic......-resistance determinants, toxins and SCCmec and spa types using PCR. Clonality was investigated using PFGE and MLST. The prevalence of MRSA colonization of slaughter pigs was 39.3%, the majority (92%) harbouring SCCmec type IVb. Of the 157 samples yielding MRSA, 13 had two distinct MRSA strains present. Spa type t899...

  15. Alternatives to vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micek, Scott T

    2007-09-15

    Vancomycin remains the reference standard for the treatment of systemic infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, as a result of limited tissue distribution, as well as the emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin, the need for alternative therapies that target MRSA has become apparent. New treatment options for invasive MRSA infections include linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Additionally, a number of new anti-MRSA compounds are in development, including novel glycopeptides (dalbavancin, telavancin, and oritavancin), ceftobiprole, and iclaprim. The present article will review clinical issues surrounding the newly marketed and investigational agents with activity against MRSA. PMID:17712745

  16. Monitoring meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its spread in Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013, through routine whole genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, M D; Larner-Svensson, H; Meiniche, H;

    2015-01-01

    Typing of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by whole genome sequencing (WGS) is performed routinely in Copenhagen since January 2013. We describe the relatedness, based on WGS data and epidemiological data, of 341 MRSA isolates. These comprised all MRSA (n = 300) identified in Cop...

  17. Increasing Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Causing Nosocomial Infections at a University Hospital in Taiwan from 1986 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Chen, Wen-Hwei; Pan, Huei-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lin; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Luh, Kwen-Tay; Lin, Fang-Yue

    2004-01-01

    A rapid emergence of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection (from 26.3% in 1986 to 77% in 2001) was found. The susceptibility of 200 nonduplicate blood isolates of MRSA and 100 MRSA isolates causing refractory bacteremia to 22 antimicrobial agents disclosed that glycopeptides, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid remained the most active agents.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...... large epidemiological studies in Europe. Nevertheless, the overall numbers identified in some Northern European reference laboratories have increased during the past decade. To determine whether the S. aureus t437 clone is present in other European countries, and to assess its genetic diversity across...... Europe, we analysed 147 S. aureus t437 isolates from 11 European countries collected over a period of 11 years using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and MLST. Additionally 16 S. aureus t437 isolates from healthy carriers and patients from China were...

  19. "Not Rocket Science" or "No Silver Bullet"? Media and Government Discourses about MRSA and Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Nerlich, Brigitte; Crawford, Paul; Wright, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA), commonly called a superbug, has recently been a major political issue in the UK, playing a significant role in debates over health policy in the general election held in 2005. While science recognizes the lack of evidence with regards to the effectiveness of existing measures implemented to…

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characteristics of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Newly Admitted Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Sun, Kangde; Dong, Danfeng; Luo, Qingqiong; Peng, Yibing; Chen, Fuxiang

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant pathogen in both nosocomial and community infections. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains tend to be multi-drug resistant and to invade hospital settings. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristicsof nasal S. aureus among newlyadmitted inpatients.In the present study, 66 S. aureus isolates, including 10 healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), 8 CA-MRSA, and 48 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains, were found in the nasal cavities of 62 patients by screening 292 newlyadmitted patients. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of these isolates, including spa-type, sequence type (ST) and SCCmec type, were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin, but high levels of resistance to penicillin and erythromycin were detected. According to D-test and erm gene detection results, the cMLS(B) and iMLS(B) phenotypes were detected in 24 and 16 isolates, respectively. All 10 HA-MRSA strains displayed the cMLS(B) phenotypemediated by ermA or ermA/ermC, while the cMLS(B) CA-MRSA and MSSA strains carried the ermB gene. Molecular characterization revealedall 10 HA-MRSA strains were derived from the ST239-SCCmec III clone, and four out of eight CA-MRSA strains were t437-ST59-SCCmec V. The results suggest that patients play an indispensable role in transmitting epidemic CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains. PMID:26915614

  1. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jimei; Chen, Chun; Ding, Baixing; Tu, Jinjing; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Salgado, Cassandra; Cai, Qiangjun; Song, Yulong; Bao, Qiyu; Zhang, Liming; Pan, Jingye; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community. PMID:22114670

  2. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimei Du

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935 S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935 MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%, ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%. 82%, (23/28 of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116 of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs, as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779 and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.

  3. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  4. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Central Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Claire L; Ralph, Anna; McLeod, James E T; McDonald, Malcolm I

    2006-01-01

    To date, there has been scant information about the burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Central Australia. Our aims were to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus infections due to methicillin-resistant strains in Central Australia, to characterise resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics and to correlate findings with available demographic information. We retrospectively reviewed S. aureus isolates identified by the Microbiology Laboratory of the Pathology Department, Alice Springs Hospital between September 2005 and February 2006. Multi-resistance was defined as resistance to three or more non-beta lactam antibiotics. We identified the recovery site and extended antibiotic resistance profile of each isolate. Demographic data included place of residence, discharge diagnosis and ethnicity. There were 524 S. aureus isolates: 417 (79.6%) methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, 104 (19.7%) non-multi-resistant MRSA (nmrMRSA) and 3 (0.7%) multi-resistant MRSA (mrMRSA). MRSA accounted for 7/22 (32%) invasive infections and 91/474 (19.2%) cases of staphylococcal skin infections. Aboriginal people comprised 89 per cent (93/104) of patients with nmrMRSA; 57 per cent lived in remote communities, 21 per cent in suburban Alice Springs, and 18 per cent in Alice Springs Town Camps. Six per cent (6/104) of nmrMRSA were hospital-acquired. Of the nmrMRSA isolates, 57 per cent (59/104) were resistant to erythromycin and 7 per cent (7/104) to fusidic acid. All MRSA isolates were susceptible to co-trimoxazole. In conclusion, Central Australia has high rates of community-acquired nmrMRSA and low rates of multi-resistant MRSA. Erythromycin resistance in S. aureus is also common. These findings should prompt the review of antimicrobial prescribing guidelines for the region, especially for treatment of skin and soft tissue infections.

  5. The Efficiency of Biofilters at Mitigating Airborne MRSA from a Swine Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D D; Smith, T C; Donham, K J; Hoff, S J

    2015-10-01

    Our prior studies have been in agreement with other researchers in detecting airborne methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inside and downwind of a swine housing facility. MRSA emitted in the exhaust air of swine facilities creates a potential risk of transmission of these organisms to people in the general area of these facilities as well as to other animals. This study investigated a possible means of reducing those risks. We investigated the efficiency of biofilters to remove MRSA from the exhaust air of a swine building. Two types of biofilter media (hardwood chips and western red cedar shredded bark) were evaluated. Efficiency was measured by assessing both viable MRSA (viable cascade impactor) and dust particles (optical particle courter) in the pre-filtered and post-filtered air of a functioning swine production facility. Our study revealed that hardwood chips were respectively 92% and 88% efficient in removing viable MRSA and total dust particles. Western red cedar was 95% efficient in removing viable MRSA and 86% efficient in removing dust particles. Our findings suggest that biofilters can be used as effective engineering controls to mitigate the transmission of aerosolized MRSA in the exhaust air of enclosed swine housing facilities.

  6. Reduction in MRSA environmental contamination with a portable HEPA-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, T C; Fox, P C

    2006-05-01

    There is renewed interest in the hospital environment as a potentially important factor for cross-infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtration unit (IQAir Cleanroom H13, Incen AG, Goldach, Switzerland) at reducing MRSA environmental surface contamination within a clinical setting. The MRSA contamination rate on horizontal surfaces was assessed with agar settle plates in ward side-rooms of three patients who were heavy MRSA dispersers. Contamination rates were measured at different air filtration rates (60-235 m(3)/h) and compared with no air filtration using Poisson regression. Without air filtration, between 80% and 100% of settle plates were positive for MRSA, with the mean number of MRSA colony-forming units (cfu)/10-h exposure/plate ranging from 4.1 to 27.7. Air filtration at a rate of 140 m(3)/h (one patient) and 235 m(3)/h (two patients), resulted in a highly significant decrease in contamination rates compared with no air filtration (adjusted rate ratios 0.037, 0.099 and 0.248, respectively; P contamination within patient isolation rooms, and this may prove to be a useful addition to existing MRSA infection control measures.

  7. Nosocomial Infections and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Methicillin Sensitive and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nitish Kumar; Garg, Raina; Baliga, Shrikala; Bhat K., Gopalkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary.

  8. ‘Not rocket science’ or ‘No silver bullet’? Media and government discourses about MRSA and cleanliness

    OpenAIRE

    Koteyko, Nelya; Nerlich, Brigitte; Crawford, Paul; Wright, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), commonly called a superbug, has recently been a major political issue in the UK, playing a significant role in debates over health policy in the general election held in 2005. While science recognizes the lack of evidence with regards to the effectiveness of existing measures implemented to control and prevent MRSA, the UK media coverage is dominated by articles that appeal to common sense and practical experience calling for more government...

  9. Enhanced efficacy and anti-biofilm activity of novel nanoemulsions against skin burn wound multi-drug resistant MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Sun, Hongwu; Yang, Yun; Jing, Haiming; Yang, Liuyang; Tong, Yanan; Wei, Chao; Wang, Zelin; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Multi-drug resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a global problem for human health, especially skin burn wound patients. Therefore, we estimated the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of a chlorhexidine acetate nanoemulsion (CNE) by previously ourselves designed against skin burn wound MRSA infections. Compared with its water solution (CHX), CNE showed a better and faster action against MRSA both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, CNE was more effective at inhibiting biofilm formation and clearing the biofilm. We also found that the cell walls and membranes of MRSA were severely disrupted after treatment with CNE. Moreover, the relative electrical conductivity and the leakage of alkaline phosphates, K(+), Mg(2+), DNA and protein obviously increased because the cell wall and membrane were damaged. These data show that novel CNE is a promising potential antimicrobial candidate, especially for skin burn wound MRSA infections. PMID:26961464

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Northern German Epidemic Staphylococcus aureus (ST247) Strains Containing Multiple Copies of IS256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Franziska; Kallies, René; Zweynert, Annegret

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of three multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of sequence type 247 (ST247). The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) SA1450/94 is vancomycin susceptible, while the clinical MRSA isolate S. aureus SA137/93A and its spontaneous laboratory mutant SA137/93G are characterized by intermediate vancomycin susceptibility. PMID:27609917

  11. Evaluation of ceftiofur and cefquinome for phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion testing and MIC-determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Skov, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged in animals. Testing 98 mecA negative and 71 mecA positive S. aureus we compared the usefulness of ceftiofur and cefquinome to cefoxitin, for detection of MRSA and found that these cephalosporins are not as efficient as cefoxitin....

  12. Preventing Introduction of Livestock Associated MRSA in a Pig Population – Benefits, Costs, and Knowledge Gaps from the Swedish Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sören Höjgård; Olov Aspevall; Björn Bengtsson; Sara Hæggman; Maria Lindberg; Kristina Mieziewska; Svante Nilsson; Helle Ericsson Unnerstad; Diana Viske; Helene Wahlström

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in human, as well as in veterinary medicine. Part of the problem concerns how to respond to the risk presented by animal reservoirs of resistant bacteria with the potential of spreading to humans. One example is livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). In countries where LA-MRSA is endemic in the pig population, people in contact with pigs have a higher risk of being colonised with LA-MRSA, and persons from this gro...

  13. mecA-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberović, Farah; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Uzunović, Selma; Budimir, Ana; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Forty-four mecA-positive and eight mecA-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates confirmed by PCR were further tested by disc-diffusion (DD) oxacillin and cefoxitin, oxacillin Epsilon (E)-test, and oxacillin and cefoxitin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) Strip methicillin-resistant phenotype in S. aureus (MRSA) tests. Among 44 mecA-positive S. aureus isolates, two (4·5%) were detected as MRSA by DD-oxacillin, 17 (38·6%) by DD-cefoxitin test, and seven (15·9%) by the E-test. In the cefoxitin MIC Strip MRSA test, 19 (43·2%) isolates were resistant. In the oxacillin MIC Strip MRSA test, 18 (40·9%) isolates were resistant and 26 (59·1%) were sensitive, i.e. oxacillin-sensitive MRSA (OS-MRSA) (MIC range 0·25-≤0·25 mg/l). Fifteen out of 26 OS-MRSA (57·7%) belonged to spa-CC 355/595, 78% of which belonged to the largest PFGE clone. Some discrepancies between the phenotypic methods for MRSA identification obtained in this study were caused by large proportion of OS-MRSA. Misidentification of OS-MRSA as MSSA might result in an appearance of highly resistant MRSA in patients treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:25112955

  14. Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers: transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte A G L van Cleef

    Full Text Available This prospective cohort study describes carriage of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA in household members from 49 farrowing pig farms in the Netherlands (2010-2011. Of 171 household members, 4% were persistent MRSA nasal carriers, and the MRSA prevalence on any given sampling moment was 10% (range 7-11%. Working in the stables (of which 98% was MRSA-positive, prevalence ratio (PR = 2.11 per 10 hours, working with sows (PR=1.97, and living with an MRSA-positive pig farmer (PR=4.63 were significant determinants for MRSA carriage. Significant protective factors were carriage of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (PR=0.50, and wearing a facemask when working in the stables (37% decreased prevalence. All MRSA strains during the study period were known livestock-associated types. The bacteriophage φ3 was not found in household members. Transmission from pigs and the environment appeared to be important determinants; human-to-human transmission could not sufficiently be differentiated. Wearing a facemask when working in the stables and carriage of MSSA are potential interventional targets.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing mecC in Swedish dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnerstad Helle Ericsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has not been detected in Swedish cattle. However, due to the report of mecC, a novel homologue to the mecA gene, there was reason to re-evaluate susceptibility results from strain collections of Staphylococcus aureus and test suspected isolates for the presence of mecC. Findings Bovine isolates of S. aureus with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactams were retrospectively tested for presence of mecC. In four of the isolates mecC was detected. Conclusion In Sweden, this is the first finding of MRSA in cattle and the first detection of MRSA harbouring mecC of domestic animal origin. MRSA in animal populations has implications as a potential reservoir with risk for spread to humans. Occurrence of MRSA among Swedish cattle appears still very limited.

  17. Impact of Vancomycin on sarA-Mediated Biofilm Formation: Role in Persistent Endovascular Infections Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhady, W; Bayer, A S; Seidl, K; Moormeier, D E; Bayles, K W; Cheung, A.; Yeaman, M R; Xiong, Y Q

    2014-01-01

    Background. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of endovascular infections. The staphylococcal accessory regulator A locus (sarA) is a major virulence determinant that may potentially impact methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) persistence in such infections via its influence on biofilm formation. Methods. Two healthcare-associated MRSA isolates from patients with persistent bacteremia and 2 prototypical community-acquired MRSA strains, as well as their respective isogenic sar...

  18. In Vitro Activities of a Novel Cephalosporin, CB-181963 (CAB-175), against Methicillin-Susceptible or -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Glycopeptide-Intermediate Susceptible Staphylococci

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Vanthida; Brown, William J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the activity of CB-181963, a novel cephalosporin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 200), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 50), glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus species (GISS) (n = 47), and VRSA (n = 2) isolates. CB-181963 exhibited MIC profiles similar to those of linezolid against MRSA and GISS; however, activity against MSSA was similar to that of vancomycin. Time-kill study results of investigations of activity against MRSA, M...

  19. Risk factors for MRSA in fattening pig herds - a meta-analysis using pooled data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Sabine; Beißwanger, Elena; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2014-11-01

    The importance of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) as an infectious agent for humans has increased in recent years in Germany. Although it is well known that the prevalence of MRSA in pig farms is high, risk factors for the presence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate available data from previous studies on MRSA in fattening pigs in a meta-analysis to answer the question: What are the factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA in fattening pig herds? The studies on MRSA in pigs that were identified by literature research were heterogeneous with respect to the risk factors investigated and the type of herds focused on. Therefore we decided to carry out a pooling analysis on herd level rather than a typical meta-analysis. Eligible herd data were identified based on the published literature and communication with the authors. The final data set covered 400 fattening pig herds from 10 different studies and 12 risk factors. The prevalence of MRSA in the 400 fattening pig herds was 53.5%. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The resulting multivariate model confirmed previously identified risk factors for MRSA in pig herds (herd size and herd type). It also identified further risk factors: group treatment of fattening pigs with antimicrobial drugs (OR=1.79) and housing fattening pig herds on at least partially slatted floors (OR=2.39) compared to plain floor. In contrast, according to the model, fattening pig herds on farms keeping other livestock along with pigs were less likely to harbor MRSA (OR=0.54). The results underline the benefits from a pooling analysis and cooperative re-evaluation of published data.

  20. Clearance of an epidemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a drug-use network: A follow-up study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Carlo; Senn, Gabriela; Bürgel, Anne; Ruef, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background: A single clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was observed in a drug-use network starting in 1994, and was found to persist throughout 2001, with up to 19% MRSA colonization of intravenous drug users (IDUs). Recent clinical observations have shown low prevalences of this endemic drug clone among MRSA isolates. The goal of this study was to assess the evolution of MRSA carriage among IDUs. Methods: The survey took place from November 2008 to September 2009. T...

  1. Mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Erin E.; Jung, Enjae; Breed, Elise; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and sacrificed 24 hours later. Septic animals had a marked increas...

  2. The Rise of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. Correctional Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging threat to public health, especially in correctional settings. Outbreaks have been seen in jails and prisons in Mississippi, California, Texas, and Georgia in recent years. Also, many correctional settings have seen an increase in MRSA infection greater than in the general population. This article examines the lessons that have been learned about MRSA in correctional settings and ponders what is yet to be learned about this dise...

  3. Role of Berberine in the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Chu; Ming-bo Zhang; Yan-chen Liu; Jia-rui Kang; Zheng-yun Chu; Kai-lin Yin; Ling-yu Ding; Ran Ding; Rong-xin Xiao; Yi-nan Yin; Xiao-yan Liu; Yue-dan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in the treatment of microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that berberine can enhance the inhibitory efficacy of antibiotics against clinical multi-drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of berberine exhibited no bactericidal activity against MRSA, but affected MRSA b...

  4. Improved understanding of factors driving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee SS; Otto M.

    2013-01-01

    Som S Chatterjee, Michael OttoPathogen Molecular Genetics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Since the global spread of MRSA in the 1960s, MRSA strains have evolved with increased pathogenic potential. Notably, some strains are now capable of causing persistent infections not only in hospitalized patients but al...

  5. Multiplex PCR for Rapid Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Suspected to Represent Community-Acquired Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    Strommenger, B.; Braulke, C.; Pasemann, B.; Schmidt, C.; Witte, W.

    2007-01-01

    The continuous spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (caMRSA) and the introduction of these highly virulent isolates into hospitals represent increasing threats. The timely recognition of caMRSA strains is crucial for infection control purposes. Thus, we developed a PCR-based assay for the easy and rapid determination of those caMRSA clones that currently are the most prevalent in Germany and Central Europe. This assay was able to correctly identify the majo...

  6. Evaluation of four phenotypic methods for the rapid identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Narasinga R. Bandaru; Srinivas Budati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a superbug has been recognized as one of the major pathogens in hospitals as well as community settings. The prevalence of MRSA is 30 and ndash;70% and many studies have suggested an alarming rate of infections caused by this organism. In spite of modern diagnostic procedures and technological advancement, infections caused by MRSA still remain difficult to diagnose in developing countries like India. We tried to evaluate four ph...

  7. Prevalence of Chlorhexidine-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus following Prolonged Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schlett, Carey D.; Millar, Eugene V.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Cui, Tianyuan; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Tribble, David R.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has been increasingly utilized in outpatient settings to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and as a component of programs for MRSA decolonization and prevention of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of chlorhexidine resistance in clinical and colonizing MRSA isolates obtained in the context of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for SSTI prevention, during which...

  8. Combination Therapy of Sophoraflavanone B against MRSA: In Vitro Synergy Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Mun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B, a known prenylated flavonoid, was isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial synergism of SPF-B combined with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. MRSA, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, causes both hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The antimicrobial activity of SPF-B was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill curve assay. The MIC of SPF-B for 7 strains of S. aureus ranges from 15.6 to 31.25 μg/mL determined. In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SPF-B with antibiotics had a synergistic effect; SPF-B markedly reduced the MICs of the β-lactam antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP and oxacillin (OXI; aminoglycosides gentamicin (GET; quinolones ciprofloxacin (CIP and norfloxacin (NOR against MRSA. The time-kill curves assay showed that a combined SPF-B and selected antibiotics treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24 h. These data suggest that the antibacterial activity of SPF-B against MRSA can be effectively increased through its combination with three groups of antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. Our research can be a valuable and significant source for the development of a new antibacterial drug with low MRSA resistance.

  9. Combination Therapy of Sophoraflavanone B against MRSA: In Vitro Synergy Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Su-Hyun; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Joung, Dae-Ki; Kim, Sung-Bae; Seo, Yun-Soo; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Cha, Seon-Woo; Ahn, Young-Sup; Han, Sin-Hee; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B), a known prenylated flavonoid, was isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial synergism of SPF-B combined with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, causes both hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The antimicrobial activity of SPF-B was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill curve assay. The MIC of SPF-B for 7 strains of S. aureus ranges from 15.6 to 31.25  μ g/mL determined. In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SPF-B with antibiotics had a synergistic effect; SPF-B markedly reduced the MICs of the β -lactam antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP) and oxacillin (OXI); aminoglycosides gentamicin (GET); quinolones ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) against MRSA. The time-kill curves assay showed that a combined SPF-B and selected antibiotics treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24 h. These data suggest that the antibacterial activity of SPF-B against MRSA can be effectively increased through its combination with three groups of antibiotics ( β -lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones). Our research can be a valuable and significant source for the development of a new antibacterial drug with low MRSA resistance. PMID:24319486

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk Factors for Infection Among Military Personnel in a Shipboard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer A; Maguire, Jason D; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R; Deiss, Robert G; Bryan, Coleman; Tisdale, Michele D; Crawford, Katrina; Ellis, Michael; Lalani, Tahaniyat

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important public health issue for the military. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in the shipboard setting. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the point prevalence of S. aureus colonization among military personnel onboard a naval vessel. Asymptomatic active duty personnel completed a survey for risk factors associated with colonization and SSTIs. Culture specimens were obtained from the anterior nares, pharynx, groin, and perirectal regions. MRSA isolates underwent testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type. 400 individuals were enrolled, 198 (49.5%) of whom were colonized with S. aureus, with MRSA identified in 14 participants (3.5%). No significant risk factors were associated with MRSA colonization. USA800 was the most common colonizing MRSA strain in the cohort and was detected in 10 participants (71%). Two participants (14%) were colonized with USA300 MRSA. In this first report of S. aureus epidemiology in a shipboard setting, we observed high rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization. Longitudinal studies are needed to document the incident rates of S. aureus colonization during shipboard deployment and its impact on SSTI risk. PMID:27244061

  11. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs.

  12. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs. PMID:27261430

  13. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome with persistent vertebral osteomyelitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San S. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with a slowly progressive, relatively asymptomatic course in a young woman with suspected hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (Job's syndrome.

  14. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: determinants of treatment failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Ammerlaan; J.A.J.W. Kluytmans; H. Berkhout; A. Buiting; E.I.G.B. de Brauwer; P.J. van den Broek; P. van Gelderen; S.C.A.P. Leenders; A. Ott; C.J.J. Richter; L. Spanjaard; I.J.B. Spijkerman; F.H. van Tiel; G.P. Voorn; M.W.H. Wulf; J. van Zeijl; A. Troelstra; M.J.M. Bonten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from an observational study in which the effectiveness of a guideline for eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage was evaluated, we identified variables that were associated with treatment failure. Methods: A multivariate logistic regression

  15. Global transcriptional response of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to thioridazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mette; Jacobsen, Kirstine; Kolmos, Hans Jørn;

    Few drugs are available against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and decreased susceptibility among staphylococci to newly introduced agents such as linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline has been observed [1-3]. Consequently, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Thioridazine...

  16. Prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in European hospitals: moving beyond policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, M.A.; Hulscher, M.; Scicluna, E.A.; Richards, J.; Azanowsky, J.M.; Xuereb, D.; Huis, A. van; Moro, M.L.; Maltezou, H.C.; Frank, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia can be reduced with improved infection control and antibiotic stewardship. AIM: To survey infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices within European hospitals and to identify initiatives that

  17. The effectiveness of bacteriophages against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 nasal colonization in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Koen M.; Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Fluit, Ad C.; Carney, Jennifer; Nes, Van Arie; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important colonizer in animals and an opportunistic pathogen in humans. In humans, MRSA can cause infections that might be difficult to treat because of antimicrobial resistance. The use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a potential a

  18. Pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Family transmission and severe pneumonia in a newborn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Skov, Robert L;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Carriage of pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to occur in pig farmers. Zoonotic lineages of MRSA have been considered of low virulence and with limited capacity for inter-human spread. We present a case of family transmission of pig-associated MRS...

  19. Svin som smittekilde til infektioner med methicillinresistente Staphylococcus aureus hos mennesker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Kolmos, Hans Jørn J; Kristiansen, Jette E;

    2008-01-01

    Recent Dutch studies indicate that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 is widely distributed in pigs and may give rise to infection in humans. In this study we present the first two Danish cases of MRSA infection, which in all probability were acquired from...

  20. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: effectiveness of a national guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Ammerlaan; J.A.J.W. Kluytmans; H. Berkhout; A. Buiting; E.I.G.B. de Brauwer; P.J. van den Broek; P. van Gelderen; S.C.A.P. Leenders; A. Ott; C.J.J. Richter; L. Spanjaard; I.J.B. Spijkerman; F.H. van Tiel; G.P. Voorn; M.W.H. Wulf; J. van Zeijl; A. Troelstra; M.J.M. Bonten

    2011-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effectiveness of eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the Netherlands after the introduction of a guideline in 2006. The guideline distinguishes complicated (defined as the presence of MRSA infection, skin lesions, foreign-body ma

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within a healthcare system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Li-Yang; Harris, Simon R.; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Lindsay, Jodi A.; Koh, Tse-Hsien; Krishnan, Prabha; Tan, Thean-Yen; Hon, Pei-Yun; Grubb, Warren B.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.; Holden, Matthew T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, several countries have seen gradual replacement of endemic multi-resistant healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with clones that are more susceptible to antibiotic treatment. One example is Singapore, where MRSA ST239, the dominant

  2. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.;

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  3. Community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in south Florida hospital and recreational environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a frequent human pathogen, may also be found in the flora of healthy persons and in the environments that they frequent. Strains of MRSA circulating in the community classified as USA 300 are now found not only in the community but also...

  4. Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, Ulrich; Roumagnac, Philippe; Feldkamp, Mirjam;

    2008-01-01

    A small number of clonal lineages dominates the global population structure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resulting in the concept that MRSA has emerged on a few occasions after penicillinase-stable beta-lactam antibiotics were introduced to clinical practice, followed...

  5. The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of sophoraflavanone B against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Su-Hyun; Joung, Dae-Ki; Kim, Sung-Bae; Park, Sung-Joo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Gong, Ryong; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shin, Dong-Won; Rho, Jung-Rae; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2014-03-01

    Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B), a prenylated flavonoid, can be isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of SPF-B's antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a multidrug-resistant pathogen and the main cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SPF-B was assessed using the broth microdilution method. The mechanism of action of SPF-B on S. aureus was analyzed in combination assays incorporating detergents, ATPase inhibitors, and peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from S. aureus. Furthermore, morphological changes in the SPF-B-treated MRSA strains were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The MIC of SPF-B for MRSA was in the range of 15.6-31.25 μg/mL. The mechanism of action of SPF-B on MRSA was investigated using combination assays with detergent and ATPase inhibitors. The optical density at 600 nm of MRSA suspensions treated with a combination of detergent and SPF-B reduced the MRSA by 63%-73%. In the SPF-B and PGN combination assay, direct binding of SPF-B with PGN from S. aureus was evident. These data may be validated for the development of new antibacterial drugs for low MRSA resistance. PMID:24601672

  6. Proteome-wide antigen discovery of novel protective vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Mattsson, Andreas Holm; Pilely, Katrine;

    2016-01-01

    is an urgent need to institute non-antimicrobial measures, such as vaccination, against the spread of MRSA. With the aim of finding new protective antigens for vaccine development, this study used a proteome-wide in silico antigen prediction platform to screen the proteome of S. aureus strain MRSA252...

  7. Rapid increase of genetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rhod Larsen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates ...

  8. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  9. Multiple B-cell epitope vaccine induces a Staphylococcus enterotoxin B-specific IgG1 protective response against MRSA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Sun, He-Qiang; Wei, Shan-Shan; Li, Bin; Feng, Qiang; Zhu, Jiang; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming; Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    No vaccine against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been currently approved for use in humans. Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of the most potent MRSA exotoxins. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and immunologic mechanisms of an SEB multiple B-cell epitope vaccine against MRSA infection. Synthetic overlapping peptide ELISA identified three novel B-cell immunodominant SEB epitopes (in addition to those previously known): SEB31-48, SEB133-150, and SEB193-210. Six B-cell immunodominant epitopes (amino acid residues 31-48, 97-114, 133-150, 193-210, 205-222, and 247-261) were sufficient to induce robust IgG1/IgG2b-specific protective responses against MRSA infection. Therefore, we constructed a recombinant MRSA SEB-specific multiple B-cell epitope vaccine Polypeptides by combining the six SEB immunodominant epitopes and demonstrated its ability to induce a robust SEB-specific IgG1 response to MRSA, as well as a Th2-directing isotype response. Moreover, Polypeptides-induced antisera stimulated synergetic opsonophagocytosis killing of MRSA. Most importantly, Polypeptides was more effective at clearing the bacteria in MRSA-infected mice than the whole SEB antigen, and was able to successfully protect mice from infection by various clinical MRSA isolates. Altogether, these results support further evaluation of the SEB multiple B-cell epitope-vaccine to address MRSA infection in humans.

  10. MRSA Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Health-care Workers in Non-outbreak Situations in the Dutch-German EUREGIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Sassmannshausen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventing the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in healthcare facilities is a major infection control target. However, only a few studies have assessed the potential role of healthcare workers (HCWs for MRSA dissemination. To investigate the MRSA prevalence and the risk factors for MRSA colonization among HCWs, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken between June 2010 and January 2011 from 726 employees from nine acute care hospitals with different care levels within the German part of a Dutch-German border region (EUREGIO. The isolated MRSA strains were investigated using spa typing. The overall MRSA prevalence among HCWs in a non-outbreak situation was 4.6% (33 of 726, and was higher in nurses (5.6 %, 29 of 514 than in physicians (1.2%, 1 of 83. Possible risk factors associated with MRSA colonization were a known history of MRSA carriage and the presence of acne. Intensive contact with patients may facilitate MRSA transmission between patients and HCWs. Furthermore, an accumulation of risk factors was accompanied by an increased MRSA prevalence in HCW.

  11. Epidemiology of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pediatric cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Timothy Ronan; Yau, Yvonne; Atenafu, Eshetu; Corey, Mary; Ratjen, Felix; Waters, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A single-centre retrospective study was undertaken in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) to evaluate 1) risk factors for acquisition; 2) molecular epidemiology; and 3) impact on disease progression of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) versus mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The study comprised of 1) identification of all children with at least one respiratory specimen positive for either BORSA or MRSA during the s...

  12. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat in Qena, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Karmi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in poultry meat and its products. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 poultry samples were collected during 2012 in Qena governorate for presence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples were taken from freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses (25/125), chicken portions (25/125), chicken luncheon (25/125), chicken sausages ...

  13. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and Clinical Consequences of an Emerging Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    David, Michael Z.; Daum, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were once confined largely to hospitals, other health care environments, and patients frequenting these facilities. Since the mid-1990s, however, there has been an explosion in the number of MRSA infections reported in populations l...

  14. Molecular study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from dogs and associated personnel in Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaser; Hamadeh; Tarazi; Ahmed; Mahmoud; Almajali; Mustafa; Mohammad; Kheer; Ababneh; Humam; Shawket; Ahmed; Adnan; Saleem; Jaran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, genetic relatedness, and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus)(MRSA) isolated from household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs, compared to isolates from their associated personnel.Methods: MRSA was isolated from 250 nasal swabs(150 swabs from dogs and 100 swabs from humans). PCR assays were used to detect the presence of both the nuc and mec A genes,which con firmed the identity of S. aureus isolates and the presence of methicillin resistance,respectively. Disk diffusion was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents along with an E-test that determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of MRSA isolates from dogs to those from associated and unassociated personnel.Results: The prevalence of S. aureus in dogs and humans was 12.7% and 10.0%respectively, while the prevalence of MRSA isolates in dogs and humans was 5.3% and5.0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA isolates in household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs was 7.8%, 4.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. MRSA isolates demonstrated a significantly higher rate of multi-resistance against three or more antimicrobial agents than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus(MSSA). Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against all MRSA isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a strong association between dog MRSA isolates and MRSA isolates from strongly associated personnel.Conclusions: MRSA is prevalent in house dogs, as well as in dog rearing centers and among their strongly associated personnel. A strong association was found between the MRSA isolates from dogs and those from humans who are in close contact. In addition,MRSA isolates showed a high rate of multi-resistance compared to MSSA isolates.

  15. Molecular study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from dogs and associated personnel in Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaser Hamadeh Tarazi; Ahmed Mahmoud Almajali; Mustafa Mohammad Kheer Ababneh; Humam Shawket Ahmed; Adnan Saleem Jaran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence, genetic relatedness, and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) isolated from household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs, compared to isolates from their associated personnel. Methods: MRSA was isolated from 250 nasal swabs (150 swabs from dogs and 100 swabs from humans). PCR assays were used to detect the presence of both the nuc and mecA genes, which confirmed the identity of S. aureus isolates and the presence of methicillin resistance, respectively. Disk diffusion was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents along with an E-test that determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of MRSA isolates from dogs to those from associated and unassociated personnel. Results:The prevalence of S. aureus in dogs and humans was 12.7%and 10.0%respectively, while the prevalence of MRSA isolates in dogs and humans was 5.3%and 5.0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA isolates in household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs was 7.8%, 4.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. MRSA isolates demonstrated a significantly higher rate of multi-resistance against three or more antimicrobial agents than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against all MRSA isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a strong association between dog MRSA isolates and MRSA isolates from strongly associated personnel. Conclusions:MRSA is prevalent in house dogs, as well as in dog rearing centers and among their strongly associated personnel. A strong association was found between the MRSA isolates from dogs and those from humans who are in close contact. In addition, MRSA isolates showed a high rate of multi-resistance compared to MSSA isolates.

  16. Individual predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs based on quantification, carriage dynamics and serological profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Dahl, Jan; Elvstrøm, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    associations between carriage and immune response. Nasal swabs were collected three times weekly from 480 tagged adult pigs in 20 Danish production farms. S. aureus and MRSA were quantified on selective media by the most probable number method. Serum levels of IgG against ten S. aureus antigens were quantified...... in selected pigs by a Luminex assay. All farms were positive for S. aureus and 15 for MRSA, leading to an overall prevalence of persistent, intermittent and non-carriers of 24, 52 and 23%, respectively. Carriage frequency and nasal loads were significantly higher in MRSA-positive farms. Logistic regression...

  17. Strategies for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J M

    1995-07-01

    In areas where the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very low, aggressive strategies, which appear to have been effective, such as those used in the Netherlands and western Australia, may be feasible. In hospitals where MRSA is epidemic or highly endemic, less rigorous strategies are appropriate. However, which isolation techniques and barrier precautions are optimal is controversial. In addition, there is no consensus regarding the epidemiological importance of environmental contamination. Rapid detection of MRSA, prompt implementation of barrier precautions and prospective surveillance are essential components of a successful control programme. Eradicating nasal carriage of MRSA among patients and personnel can be useful during epidemics, but the cost-effectiveness of using this approach in hospitals where the prevalence of MRSA is low is unknown. Additional studies of this issue need to include surveillance for mupirocin-resistant strains.

  18. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...... resources for handling the epidemic are not available. Without active intervention, this situation will have serious implications for the health care system....

  19. Determining of antibiotic resistance profile inStaphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Motamedi; Hadis Mirzabeigi; Tahere Shirali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance amongStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from clinical specimens and to identify community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA)in specimens that have been collected from patients referring to one of the hospitals of Ahvaz.Methods:S. aureus isolates from a hospital in Ahvaz were screened for resistance to various antibiotics including methicillin. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. TheMRSA was also treated with ethidium bromide to find the origin of resistance.Results: Among the bacterial isolates, all of 11S. aureus were resistant to methicillin and cefixime,2 were resistant to ciprofloxacine,6 were resistant to tetracycline and the reminder were sensitive or intermediate to other antibiotics. The treated isolates were reminded resistant to methicillin and this suggested that the plasmid was not the origin of resistance in these isolates.Conclusions: These results showed that infection due toMRSA is widespread in Ahvaz and with respect to the spread of vancomycin resistance among MRSA and appearance of overwhelming infections. It is necessary to identify continuously the profile of antibiotic resistance amongS. aureus isolates in other regions and finding appropriate antibiotic for infection control and eradication.

  20. Investigation of the bactericidal effects of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin on Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞGÖR-LİMONCU, Mine; ERMERTCAN, Şafak; COŞAR, Güner

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the bactericidal activity of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) on Staphylococcus aureus isolates and their minimal inhibition concentrations. The in-vitro susceptibilities of the 99 S. aureus isolates to vancomycin and Q/D were investigated by agar dilution. Thirty methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) vancomycin and Q/D susceptible isolates were involved in time-kill stu...

  1. Determination of the antibiofilm, antiadhesive, and anti-MRSA activities of seven Salvia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal G Al-Bakri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several Salvia species are indigenous to Jordan and are widely used as beverages and spices and for their medicinal properties. The objective of the study was to establish the antimicrobial activities, including the antiadhesive and antibiofilm effects of seven different Salvia species. Materials and Methods: Methods used for planktonic culture included agar diffusion, broth microdilution, and minimal biocidal concentration determination while viable count was used for the determination of the antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities. Overnight cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were used as test microorganisms. Results: An antimicrobial activity toward planktonic cultures demonstrated a significant bacteriocidal activity (≥4 log cycle reduction for the S. triloba extract against S. aureus including MRSA. Its volatile oil exhibited an antimicrobial activity covering all tested microorganisms with the exception of P. aeruginosa. S. triloba extract and volatile oil were successful in preventing and controlling the biofilm, demonstrating antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities, respectively. Conclusion: These reported activities for S. triloba extract and volatile oil allows their listing as potential antibiofilm and anti-MRSA natural agents. This might suggest their use as an antiseptic in the prophylaxis and treatment of S. aureus-associated skin infections. The antimicrobial activity of the other tested Salvia species was negligible.

  2. Influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocytic bacterial clearance and enhances susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Keer; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. Here we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage of influenza infection, despite the fact that MRSA super-infection had no significant effect on viral burdens. Compared to mice infected with bacteria alone, post-influenza MRSA infected mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance, which was not due to defective phagocyte recruitment, but rather coincided with reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. NADPH oxidase is responsible for ROS production during phagocytic bacterial killing, a process also known as oxidative burst. We found that gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages and neutrophils was essential for optimal bacterial clearance during respiratory MRSA infections. In contrast to WT animals, gp91phox−/− mice exhibited similar defects in MRSA clearance before and after influenza infection. Using gp91phox+/− mosaic mice, we further demonstrate that influenza infection inhibits a cell-intrinsic contribution of NADPH oxidase to phagocyte bactericidal activity. Together, our results establish that influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent bacterial clearance and leads to susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection. PMID:24563256

  3. 2-D GEL ELECTROPHORESIS MAP OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TREATED WITH QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Lee Seng Aik; Radhiah Khairon; Mariati Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The widespread outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has caused clinical and epidemiological concern in hospital environment. The emergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate S. Aureus (VISA) and, more recently, Vancomycin-Resistant S. Aureus (VRSA) has further alarmed clinician and scientist worlwide. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of sample protein from MRSA after treatment with acetone extract from Quercus infectoria gall. Comparison ...

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates expressing low- and high-level mupirocin resistance in Nigeria and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Edet E; Shittu Adebayo O; Lin Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial agent which is used for the treatment of skin and postoperative wound infections, and the prevention of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus, particularly in MRSA, has increased with the extensive and widespread use of this agent in hospital settings. This study characterized low- and high-level mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates obtained f...

  5. First report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from cage-cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyah, M A S; Zamri-Saad, M; Siti-Zahrah, A

    2010-08-26

    Swabs from the brain, eyes and kidneys of tilapia from 11 farms were collected for a period of 2 years. They were grown on blood agar before cultures of suspected Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to ABI STAPH Detection Kit and PCR for identification. They were then grown on oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and subjected to PCR using the MRSA 17 kb forward and reverse primers to identify the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A total of 559 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained, from which 198 (35%) isolates were identified as S. aureus. Of the 198 S. aureus isolated from tilapias, 98 (50%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Since global spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria has increased in the past decade, this new finding in fish should be of concern. PMID:20189324

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: risk factors associated with community-onset infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcher, Sidsel; Gervelmeyer, Andrea; Monnet, Dominique;

    2008-01-01

    The proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark has been below 1% for more than 30 years. However, a marked increase in community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA) started in 2002. To identify possible risk factors for CO-MRSA infections, a nationwide case-control study...... was conducted in 2004. Cases (34) were patients with CO-MRSA infections; controls (87) were patients with community-onset methicillin-sensitive S. aureus infections (CO-MSSA). Demographic and clinical data and exposures to possible risk factors during the last 24 months were collected with a structured...... the last 6 months, and 51% and 31%, respectively, had been hospitalized within the previous year. In a multivariate analysis, non-Danish origin, defined as being from or having parents from outside Denmark, was the only independent risk factor for CO-MRSA infection (OR 30.5, 95% CI 3.6-257.3). Prior...

  7. Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeck Harry

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE, are an increasing problem world-wide, causing intractable wound infections. Complex phytochemical extracts such as tea tree oil and eucalypt-derived formulations have been shown to have strong bactericidal activity against MRSA in vitro. Polytoxinol (PT antimicrobial, is the trade name of a range of antimicrobial preparations in solution, ointment and cream form. Methods We report the first use of this drug, administered percutaneously, via calcium sulphate pellets (Osteoset,TM, into bone, to treat an intractable MRSA infection of the lower tibia in an adult male. Results and Discussion Over a three month period his symptoms resolved with a healing response on x-ray and with a reduced CRP.

  8. Discovery of wall teichoic acid inhibitors as potential anti-MRSA β-lactam combination agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Gill, Charles J; Lee, Sang H; Mann, Paul; Zuck, Paul; Meredith, Timothy C; Murgolo, Nicholas; She, Xinwei; Kales, Susan; Liang, Lianzhu; Liu, Jenny; Wu, Jin; Santa Maria, John; Su, Jing; Pan, Jianping; Hailey, Judy; Mcguinness, Debra; Tan, Christopher M; Flattery, Amy; Walker, Suzanne; Black, Todd; Roemer, Terry

    2013-02-21

    Innovative strategies are needed to combat drug resistance associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we investigate the potential of wall teichoic acid (WTA) biosynthesis inhibitors as combination agents to restore β-lactam efficacy against MRSA. Performing a whole-cell pathway-based screen, we identified a series of WTA inhibitors (WTAIs) targeting the WTA transporter protein, TarG. Whole-genome sequencing of WTAI-resistant isolates across two methicillin-resistant Staphylococci spp. revealed TarG as their common target, as well as a broad assortment of drug-resistant bypass mutants mapping to earlier steps of WTA biosynthesis. Extensive in vitro microbiological analysis and animal infection studies provide strong genetic and pharmacological evidence of the potential effectiveness of WTAIs as anti-MRSA β-lactam combination agents. This work also highlights the emerging role of whole-genome sequencing in antibiotic mode-of-action and resistance studies.

  9. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  10. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod;

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates by...... pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had no...

  11. Genetic diversity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Belinda; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Méndez-Álvarez, Sebastián

    2012-04-01

    With the recent detection of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections in patients lacking health care-related risk factors, the term community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) has been become widely recognised. Many cases of CA-MRSA spreading to the community have been described worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the features of CA-MRSA isolates from Tenerife Island. Toward this end, one hundred MRSA isolates were collected from eight different health regions, and their molecular features were investigated. This study revealed a wide variety of MRSA clones, including an emergent ST: ST1434 (CC8) and two new spa types, t7575 (ST125) and t7678 (ST22). The PVL genes were found in only five isolates belonging to unrelated lineages, ST8, ST30 and ST22, which could indicate at least three independent introductions of PVL(+) strains to Tenerife. Moreover, we detected that hospital MRSA clones, like EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16, had spread to the community and are now circulating in both environments. Therefore, in our study, the CDC's rules were not specific enough to distinguish CA-MRSA from HA-MRSA. Thus, we think that the current epidemiological information is not enough to discriminate between both MRSAs, and it is necessary for prevention guidelines to include the routine determination of at least the genetic background, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and the PVL genes of each MRSA isolate.

  12. Estimation of the incidence of MRSA patients: evaluation of a surveillance system using health insurance claim data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, S; Suzuki, S

    2016-08-01

    Because sentinel surveillance systems cannot obtain information about patients who visit non-sentinel medical facilities, the characteristics of patients identified by these systems may be biased. In this study, we evaluated the representativeness of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance system using health insurance claim (HIC) data, which does not depend on physician notification. We calculated the age-specific incidence of MRSA patients using data from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) programme, which is based on sentinel surveillance systems, and inpatient HICs submitted to employee health insurance organizations in 2011, and then computed age-specific incidence ratios between the HIC and JANIS data. Age-specific MRSA incidence in both datasets followed J-shaped curves with similar shapes. For all age groups, the ratios between HIC and JANIS data were around 10. These findings indicate that JANIS notification of MRSA cases was not affected by patients' age. PMID:27350233

  13. Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA in broiler flocks and risk factors for slaughterhouse personnel in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M.N.; Haenen, A.P.J.; Geenen, P.L.; Vesseur, P.C.; Poldervaart, E.S.; Bosch, T.; Huijsdens, X.W.; Hengeveld, P.D.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Graat, E.A.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Voss, A.; Giessen, van de A.W.

    2010-01-01

    To determine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in poultry and slaughterhouse personnel, 40 Dutch broiler flocks, in six slaughterhouses and 466 personnel were sampled. Of the employees, 26 were positive (5·6%), indicating a higher risk of exposure when compared to the gener

  14. Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA in broiler flocks and risk factors for slaughterhouse personnel in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M.N.; Haenen, A.P.; Geenen, P.L.; Vesseur, P.C.; Poldervaart, E.S.; Bosch, T.; Huijsdens, X.W.; Hengeveld, P.D.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.; Graat, E.A.; Mevius, D.; Voss, A.; Giessen, A.W. Van De

    2010-01-01

    To determine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in poultry and slaughterhouse personnel, 40 Dutch broiler flocks, in six slaughterhouses and 466 personnel were sampled. Of the employees, 26 were positive (5.6%), indicating a higher risk of exposure when compared to the gener

  15. Antimicrobial activities of bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against MRSA and other nosocomial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the antimicrobial activities of previously published bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other prominent nosocomial bacterial infections. methods: Several Russian hospitals were enlisted into the study from 2003 ...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus collected in a Spanish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Porto, Miriam; Lecuona, María; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Castro, Beatriz; Delgado, Teresa; Cuervo, Milagros; Pedroso, Yanet; Arias, Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    Clonal distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals may differ according to the geographic location and time period. Knowledge of MRSA clonal epidemiology in hospital settings involves much more than the study of healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) clones. In recent years, investigators have documented the introduction of both community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) clones, the emergence of clones carrying Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) XI, and the genetic diversity among sporadic MRSA isolates. The allocation of certain antibiotypes to dominant MRSA clones in an institution allows their use as phenotypic markers for a preliminary search for new clones, early detection of clonal shift, and as a guide for better empirical therapy, infection control, and treatment within a particular institution. For these reasons, we identified 938 strains detected in a System of Universal Active Surveillance of MRSA in clinical samples during the period 2009-2010, obtaining the clonal distribution of MRSA at the Hospital Universitario de Canarias (Tenerife, Spain) and the relationship between antimicrobial susceptibility and three major clones present. The antibiotypes that best defined the ST5-MRSA-IV (Pediatric) clone showed resistance to tobramycin and susceptibility to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and linezolid, whereas the ST22-MRSA-IV clone (EMRSA-15) showed susceptibility to these antibiotics, and finally, the ST36-MRSA-II clone (EMRSA-16) was resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, and tobramycin and susceptible to the remaining antimicrobials. Similar observations would allow the early detection of changes in clonal epidemiology by analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates within a single institution. PMID:25365597

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ulcerative keratitis in a Thoroughbred racehorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Taisuke; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Mizobe, Fumiaki; Ueno, Takanori; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Hatazoe, Takashi; Hobo, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) keratitis in a racehorse. A 5-year-old mare developed punctate keratitis after racing. The corneal ulcer continued to expand despite ophthalmic antimicrobial therapy. On day 6, a conjunctival graft surgery was performed. The mare was euthanized, following colitis and laminitis development on day 10. MRSA was isolated from the corneal swab taken at the time of euthanasia. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated gram-positive and anti-S. aureus monoclonal antibody-positive cocci infiltration of the corneal stroma; and a diagnosis of MRSA ulcerative keratitis was made. An ophthalmic antimicrobial against the isolated MRSA did not improve the ocular lesion. The MRSA strain was found to be staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type II, a strain frequently isolated from humans in Japan. PMID:26435683

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal cariage among hospitalized patients and healthcare workers in the Clinical center of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirković Ivana; Đukić Slobodanka; Carević Biljana; Mazić Nataša; Mioljević Vesna; Stepanović S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide the first comprehensive analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in the largest healthcare facility in Serbia. Specimens from anterior nares obtained from 195 hospitalized patients and 105 HCWs were inoculated after broth enrichment onto chromogenic MRSA-ID medium. In total, 21 of 300 specimens yielded MRSA. Among hospitalized patients, 7.7% ...

  19. Managing skin and soft-tissue infection and nosocomial pneumonia caused by MRSA: a 2014 follow-up survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Matthew; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Bassetti, Matteo; Bouza, Emilio; Chastre, Jean; Baguneid, Mo; Esposito, Silvano; Giamarellou, Helen; Gyssens, Inge; Nathwani, Dilip; Unal, Serhat; Voss, Andreas; Wilcox, Mark

    2015-04-24

    As a follow-up to our 2009 survey, in order to explore opinion and practice on the epidemiology and management of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Europe, we conducted a second survey to elicit current opinions on this topic, particularly around antibiotic choice, dose, duration and route of administration. We also aimed to further understand how the management of MRSA has evolved in Europe during the past 5 years. Members of an expert panel of infectious diseases specialists convened in London (UK) in January 2014 to identify and discuss key issues in the management of MRSA. Following this meeting, a survey was developed comprising 36 questions covering a wide range of topics on MRSA complicated skin and soft-tissue infection and nosocomial pneumonia management. The survey instrument, a web-based questionnaire, was sent to the International Society of Chemotherapy for distribution to registered European infection societies and their members. This article reports the survey results from the European respondents. At the time of the original survey, the epidemiology of MRSA varied significantly across Europe and there were differing views on best practice. The current findings suggest that the epidemiology of healthcare-associated MRSA in Europe is, if anything, even more polarised, whilst community-acquired MRSA has become much more common. However, there now appears to be a much greater knowledge of current treatment/management options, and antimicrobial stewardship has moved forward considerably in the 5 years since the last survey.

  20. Transmission dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eCrombé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-2000s on, numerous studies have shown that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, renowned as human pathogen, has a reservoir in pigs and other livestock. In Europe and North America, clonal complex (CC 398 appears to be the predominant lineage involved. Especially worrisome is its capacity to contaminate humans in close contact with affected animals. Indeed, the typical multi-resistant phenotype of MRSA CC398 and its observed ability of easily acquiring genetic material suggests that MRSA CC398 strains with an increased virulence potential may emerge, for which few therapeutic options would remain. This questions the need to implement interventions to control the presence and spread of MRSA CC398 among pigs. MRSA CC398 shows a high but not fully understood transmission potential in the pig population and is able to persist within that population. Although direct contact is probably the main route for MRSA transmission between pigs, also environmental contamination, the presence of other livestock, the herd size and farm management are factors that may be involved in the dissemination of MRSA CC398. The current review aims at summarizing the research that has so far been done on the transmission dynamics and risk factors for introduction and persistence of MRSA CC398 in farms.

  1. Asphodosides A-E, anti-MRSA metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M.; Elokely, Khaled M.; El-Hela, Atef A.; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I.; Jacob, Melissa; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Doerksen, Robert J.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv. (Xanthorrhoeaceae or Asphodelaceae) resulted in isolation of five compounds identified as asphodosides A-E (1–5). Compounds 2–4 showed activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 1.62, 7.0 and 9.0 μg/mL, respectively. They also exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus (non-MRSA) with IC50 values of 1.0, 3.4 and 2.2 μg/mL, respectively. The structure elucidation of isolated metabolites was carried out using spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR), optical rotation and both experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). PMID:25034614

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and characterization of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Johnson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA continues to be a problem for clinicians worldwide. However, few data on the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolates in South Africa have been reported and the prevalence of MRSA in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province is unknown. In addition, information on the characterization of S. aureus in this province is unavailable. This study investigated the susceptibility pattern of 227 S. aureus isolates from the KZN province, South Africa. In addition, characterization of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA are reported in this survey. Methods The in-vitro activities of 20 antibiotics against 227 consecutive non-duplicate S. aureus isolates from clinical samples in KZN province, South Africa were determined by the disk-diffusion technique. Isolates resistant to oxacillin and mupirocin were confirmed by PCR detection of the mecA and mup genes respectively. PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene was employed in the characterization of MSSA and MRSA. Results All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and fusidic acid, and 26.9% of isolates studied were confirmed as MRSA. More than 80% of MRSA were resistant to at least four classes of antibiotics and isolates grouped in antibiotype 8 appears to be widespread in the province. The MSSA were also susceptible to streptomycin, neomycin and minocycline, while less than 1% was resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and mupirocin. The inducible MLSB phenotype was detected in 10.8% of MSSA and 82% of MRSA respectively, and one MSSA and one MRSA exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. There was good correlation between antibiotyping and PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene in the characterization of MRSA in antibiotypes 1, 5 and 12. Conclusion In view of the high resistance rates of MRSA to gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampicin and

  3. The changing face of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, P; Dhawan, B

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of infection, both in hospitalised patients with significant healthcare exposure and in patients without healthcare risk factors. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) are known for their rapid community transmission and propensity to cause aggressive skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. The distinction between the healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA and CA-MRSA is gradually fading owing to the acquisition of multiple virulence factors and genetic elements. The movement of CA-MRSA strains into the nosocomial setting limits the utility of using clinical risk factors alone to designate community or HA status. Identification of unique genetic characteristics and genotyping are valuable tools for MRSA epidemiological studies. Although the optimum pharmacotherapy for CA-MRSA infections has not been determined, many CA-MRSA strains remain broadly susceptible to several non-β-lactam antibacterial agents. This review aimed at illuminating the characteristic features of CA-MRSA, virulence factors, changing clinical settings and molecular epidemiology, insurgence into the hospital settings and therapy with drug resistance. PMID:27514947

  4. The changing face of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infection, both in hospitalised patients with significant healthcare exposure and in patients without healthcare risk factors. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA are known for their rapid community transmission and propensity to cause aggressive skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. The distinction between the healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA is gradually fading owing to the acquisition of multiple virulence factors and genetic elements. The movement of CA-MRSA strains into the nosocomial setting limits the utility of using clinical risk factors alone to designate community or HA status. Identification of unique genetic characteristics and genotyping are valuable tools for MRSA epidemiological studies. Although the optimum pharmacotherapy for CA-MRSA infections has not been determined, many CA-MRSA strains remain broadly susceptible to several non-β-lactam antibacterial agents. This review aimed at illuminating the characteristic features of CA-MRSA, virulence factors, changing clinical settings and molecular epidemiology, insurgence into the hospital settings and therapy with drug resistance.

  5. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, J.C.; Valiquette, G.; Kennedy, K.J.;

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  6. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Atya, Ahmed K.; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was sh...

  7. Anti-MRSA activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and evidences on their role in the inhibition of biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Khassaf eAL ATYA; Yanath ebelguesmia; Gabrielle eChataigné; Rozenn eRavallec; Anne eVachée; Sabine eSzunerits; Rabah eBoukherroub; Djamel eDrider

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a worrisome superbug worldwide. This work was aimed at studying the efficacies of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93, against MRSA-S1 grown in planktonic culture and embedded in biofilms. These bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chrom...

  8. Quercus infectoria: a candidate for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2008-04-01

    Acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) demonstrated significant antibacterial activities against all strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Inhibition zones were in the range 11.75-16.82 mm. Both MRSA and MSSA strains exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values at 0.13 and 0.13-1.00 mg/mL, respectively. At 2 MIC, the growth of two representative MRSA strains was continually inhibited for at least 20 h. Surviving MRSA cells were not detected within 12-14 h after treatment with the extract at 4 MIC concentration. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 demonstrated similar results. PMID:18338770

  9. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  10. Genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital in The Netherlands between 2002 and 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E; Stobberingh, E E; Smeets, E; van Dessel, H; Welling, M A; Sebastian, S; van Tiel, F H; Beisser, P S; Deurenberg, R H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones isolated in a Dutch university hospital, situated near the borders of Belgium and Germany, between 2002 and 2006. MRSA strains (n = 175) were characterized using spa and SCCmec typing. The presence

  11. Automated DNA sequence-based early warning system for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellmann, Alexander; Friedrich, Alexander W; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Rothgänger, Jörg; Karch, Helge; Reintjes, Ralf; Harmsen, Dag

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) usually requires the implementation of often rigorous infection-control measures. Prompt identification of an MRSA epidemic is crucial for the control of an outbreak. In this study we evaluated various early warning algo

  12. Comparing Whole-Genome Sequencing with Sanger Sequencing for spa Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder;

    2014-01-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013, and an...

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals in Tbilisi, the Republic of Georgia, are variants of the Brazilian clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, M.D.; Nanuashvili, A.; Boye, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from the Republic of Georgia, part of the former Soviet Union. Thirty-two non-duplicate MRSA isolates were collected in the period from May 2006 to February 2007. The patient data were analysed...

  14. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Pediatric Emergency Department in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Peebles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: First-generation cephalosporins and antistaphylococcal penicillins are typically the first choice for treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI, but are not effective for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. It is currently unclear what percentage of SSTIs is caused by community-associated MRSA in different regions in Canada.

  15. Outbreaks of Infection Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Canadian Correctional Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Main

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been identified in prison settings in the United States. The present study investigated two clusters of skin and soft tissue infection caused by community-acquired (CA MRSA in a correctional facility in southern Ontario.

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in HIV-infected outpatients is common and detection is enhanced by groin culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P J; Brooks, J T; Limbago, B; Lowery, H K; McAllister, S K; Mindley, R; Fosheim, G; Gorwitz, R J; Guest, J L; Hageman, J; Fridge, J; Rimland, D

    2011-07-01

    SUMMARYAlthough high rates of clinical infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported in HIV-infected adults, data on MRSA colonization are limited. We enrolled HIV-infected adults receiving care at the Atlanta VA Medical Center. Swabs from each participant's nares and groin were cultured with broth enrichment for S. aureus. Of 600 HIV-infected adults, 79 (13%) were colonized with MRSA and 180 (30%) with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. MRSA pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types USA300 (n=44, 54%) and USA500/Iberian (n=29, 35%) predominated. Inclusion of groin swabs increased MRSA detection by 24% and USA300 detection by 38%. In multivariate analysis, MRSA colonization compared to no MRSA colonization was associated with a history of MRSA clinical infection, rarely or never using condoms, and contact with prisons and jails. In summary, the prevalence of MRSA colonization was high in this study of HIV-infected adults and detection of USA300 was enhanced by groin culture. PMID:20843384

  17. A randomized controlled trial of topical tea tree preparation for MRSA colonized wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow L.P. Lee; Polly H.M. Leung; Wong, Thomas K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) colonized wounds in home care residents is expected to grow continuously as a result of the substantial proportion of older people requiring institutionalized care due to chronic disease and declining functional status, which contribute to more frequent skin breakdown and wound formation. Tea tree oil has been claimed to have anti-bacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that have been suggested in many...

  18. Serotonin syndrome in an orthopaedic patient secondary to linezolid therapy for MRSA infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McClean, M

    2012-01-31

    A 67-year-old patient was admitted for incision and drainage of a recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hip abscess. Linezolid therapy was initiated postoperatively. Within 48 h the patient developed confusion, agitation, hypertension and acute renal failure. Citalopram was stopped and resolution of symptoms occurred within 48 h of discontinuing the offending agent. The symptoms observed in our patient were consistent with the Sternbach criteria for serotonin syndrome.

  19. The effectiveness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation screening in asymptomatic healthcare workers in an Irish orthopaedic unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edmundson, S P

    2012-01-31

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are associated with increased mortality, costs and length of stay compared to non-MRSA infections. This observational 4-year study analyses the impact of screening and treating orthopaedic healthcare workers for MRSA colonisation. A total of 1,011 swabs were taken from 566 healthcare workers. Positive healthcare workers were treated with topical mupirocin to both anterior nares. The prevalence of MRSA colonisation on initial testing was 4.77%. The rate of positive MRSA colonisation of those tested on more than one occasion fell from 5.88% to 2.71% (p = 0.055) on subsequent screening. All healthcare workers receiving treatment were successfully cleared of colonisation; however, some required more than one course of treatment. These results show that there could be a role for screening and treating orthopaedic staff for MRSA colonisation as part of a strategy to reduce the prevalence of MRSA infections in orthopaedic units.

  20. Comparison of genotypes and enterotoxin genes between Staphylococcus aureus isolates from blood and nasal colonizers in a Korean hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Kyong Ran; Baek, Jin Yang; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the genetic background of 70 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (36 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 34 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) obtained from blood at a Korean tertiary-care hospital, using spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing. In addition, the prevalence of enterotoxin (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, and sek), tst, and pvl genes among the samples was assessed via polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with those of 95 isolates of S. aureus obtained from nasal swabs. All MRSA isolates from blood, except one, belonged to three major clones: sequence type (ST)5-MRSA-II, ST72-MRSA-II (or IVA), and ST239-MRSA-III, among which ST5-MRSA-II was the predominant clone. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes in the S. aureus isolates obtained from blood differed significantly from those from the nasal swabs for the sea, seb, sec, and seh gene. In particular, the seb and sec genes were detected exclusively in the MRSA isolates of ST5 or spa-CC002, thereby suggesting the co-adaptation of virulence genes with the genetic background and their contribution to biological fitness.

  1. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Anna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2 study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7% among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures.

  2. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  3. Acute haematogenous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in an adult: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanoa Amreeta; Singh Vivek; Mansor Azura; Yusof Mohd; Lim King-Ting; Thong Kwai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has of late emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among immunocompetent adults without risk factors. Skin and soft tissue infections represent the majority of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clinical presentations, whilst invasive and life-threatening illness like necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, osteomyelitis and sepsis syndrome are less comm...

  4. Comparison of Genetic Backgrounds of Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Portuguese Hospitals and the Community

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, M. Aires; Conceição, T.; Simas, C.; de Lencastre, H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the origins of the dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in Portuguese hospitals, we compared the genetic backgrounds of nosocomial MRSA with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from the same hospitals (n = 155) and from the community (n = 157) where they were located. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and agr type analysis revealed that the genetic backgrounds correspondent to the domina...

  5. Clonal Complex 398 Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: A Frequent Unspecialized Human Pathogen with Specific Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Chroboczek; Sandrine Boisset; Jean-Philippe Rasigade; Anne Tristan; Michele Bes; Helene Meugnier; François Vandenesch; Jerome Etienne; Frederic Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Clonal complex 398 livestok-associated-MRSA (CC398 LA-MRSA) clone is described as a major animal pathogen that can also colonize and infect humans. CC398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CC398 MSSA) is less described. We identified 126 CC398 MSSA strains of human origin within 6380 S. aureus isolates gathered between 2009 and 2011, from the French National Reference Centre for Staphylococci. They were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA micr...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Resistance to Mupirocin in Methicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Nasal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Fernando; García-Martínez, Jesus; Miguel, Sonia; Otero, Joaquín R.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 15 of 101 (14.8%) nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates exhibited mupirocin resistance (Mupr) compared with 1 of 154 (0.6%) methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A total of 14 (93%) isolates exhibiting high-level Mupr belonged to a single clone. Horizontal plasmid transfer and transmission of Mupr strains contribute to a high incidence of Mupr MRSA at our institution.

  7. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus; Grønvall Kjær Hansen, Sanne; Møller, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally...

  8. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  9. Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diabetic Foot Infections in a Large Academic Hospital: Implications for Antimicrobial Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert J.; Hand, Elizabeth O.; Howell, Crystal K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed. We sought to 1) describe the prevalence of MRSA DFIs at our institution and compare to the proportion of patients who receive MRSA antibiotic coverage and 2) identify risk factors for MRSA DFI. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult, culture-positive DFI patients managed at University Hospital, San Antonio, TX between January 1, 2010 and September 1, 2014. Patient eligibility included a principal ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code for foot infection and a secondary diagnosis of diabetes. The primary outcome was MRSA identified in the wound culture. Independent variables assessed included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior hospitalization, DFI therapies, prior antibiotics, prior MRSA infection, and laboratory values. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for MRSA DFI. Results Overall, 318 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were predominantly Hispanic (79%) and male (69%). Common comorbidities included hypertension (76%), dyslipidemia (52%), and obesity (49%). S. aureus was present in 46% of culture-positive DFIs (MRSA, 15%). A total of 273 patients (86%) received MRSA antibiotic coverage, resulting in 71% unnecessary use. Male gender (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.37–7.99) and bone involvement (OR 1.93, 1.00–3.78) were found to be independent risk factors for MRSA DFI. Conclusions Although MRSA was the causative pathogen in a small number of DFI, antibiotic coverage targeted against MRSA was unnecessarily

  10. Risk factors of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care staff in a teaching hospital in central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Humaidan, Ohoud S.; El-kersh, Talat A; Al-Akeel, Raid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate possible risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage associated with various health troubles among healthcare workers (HCWs) at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Method: This prospective study was conducted between May 2012 and January 2013 in KKUH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 200 nasal swabs were collected from HCWs. Identification was carried out based on morphology, Gram stain, catalase an...

  11. Risk factors for MRSA infection in companion animals: results from a case-control study within Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Szilvia; Brandenburg, Anja G; Espelage, Werner; Stamm, Ivonne; Wieler, Lothar H; Kopp, Peter A; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Walther, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    Increasing numbers of companion animals suffering from infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported in the recent past. These infections are of particular concern because of the limited treatment options for MRSA and their transferability to humans. Since MRSA lineages isolated from infected companion animals often mirror typical human epidemic strains circulating in the same region, successful strategies to combat MRSA need strong and coordinated efforts from both, the human and the veterinary field according to the "One Health" concept. Hence, to identify potential risk factors related to MRSA infections in dogs, cats and horses, a case-control study was conducted, including data on 106 MRSA-infected animal patients as cases and 102 MSSA-infected animals as controls, originating from 155 different veterinary settings within Germany. Demographic data on animal patients, patient history and administration of antibiotics as well as practice/clinic specific parameters were assessed as putative risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression identified the following variables as risk factors for MRSA infection compared to MSSA infection: number of employees working at the veterinary setting (n>10; p<0.001), antibiotic treatment prior to sampling (systemic: p=0.002; local: p=0.049, both: p=0.011) and surgical site infection (p<0.001). Spa typing revealed predominantly clonal complexes well-known for hospital-associated lineages spreading in human health-care settings in Germany (CC5 and CC22) for isolates of dog and cat origin. CC398-MRSA dominated among equine isolates, a CC that was described as a nosocomial pathogen in equine clinical settings before. The identified risk factors and genotyping results are in accordance with numerous study outcomes from the field of human medicine and point towards reasonable problems with nosocomial spread of MRSA, especially within companion animal veterinary clinics. To define targeted

  12. Survey on the risk awareness of german pig and cattle farmers in relation to dealing with MRSA and antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Veronika Schulze-Geisthövel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The danger surrounding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been well known for decades. Although MRSA was initially only associated with hospitals, livestock-associated MRSA is being increasingly connected to the way food-supplying animals are treated. However, little is yet known about farmers’ risk awareness and their knowledge of MRSA. Hence, the goal of this study was to discover farmers’ perceptions of MRSA. Materials and methods: Two successive studies were performed. Study I analysed the connection between the attitudes of cattle and pig farmers towards MRSA complications and characteristics such as age and vocational training. Study II dealt with the connection between contact frequency with livestock and the risk of MRSA colonisation. Results: For Study I, 101 questionnaires were completed. Analysis showed that the participants’ education level (p=0.042, α=0.05 and the animal species kept on their farm (p=0.045, α=0.05 significantly influenced their perceptions. Screening results from 157 participants within Study II showed that contact frequency and the participants’ particular profession were significantly decisive for MRSA prevalence (contact frequency: p=0.000, professional branch: p=0.000, OR=11.966, α=0.05. Discussion: The results show a high degree of risk consciousness and responsibility among farmers. However, it is assumed that most farmers who took part in the studies were interested parties. Thus, the study results are valid only for the chosen livestock holdings. Ultimately, educational work is still needed. Joint projects between economics and science offer a good platform to spark farmers’ interest in the MRSA problem, as well as to inform and enlighten them about dangers and connections. Interdisciplinary research will contribute to a better understanding of drug resistance and to reducing the long-term use of antibiotics.

  13. Update on Epidemiology and Treatment of MRSA Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    David, Michael Z.; Daum, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000-10 the epidemiology of pediatric MRSA infections in the United States was transformed with an epidemic of CA-MRSA infections. We review the epidemiology of MRSA in the community and in the health care setting, including intensive care units, among infants and CF patients, and in households as well as the impact that the CA-MRSA epidemic has had on hospitalization with MRSA infections. Risk factors for carriage, transmission, and initial and recurrent infection with MRSA are discussed....

  14. MRSA in a tertiary care hospital (1999-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Goll, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the years between 1999 and 2004 data from 908 MRSA-positive patients was collected in a tertiary care hospital with approximately 1,200 beds. An increase in epidemiological parameters such as MRSA-rate and MRSA-day-prevalence shows the growing significance of MRSA as a nosocomial pathogen. MRSA was found primarily on non-surgical wards, especially on internal care wards. MRSA patients showed a significantly higher mortality rate as well as a considerably higher median age. The ...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of canine and human Staphylococcus aureus collected in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J E; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of infection in people and is increasingly recognized in dogs. The increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is complicating the treatment of these infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic syndromes in people may be partially responsible for the rise of MRSA. Canine and human S. aureus from the same geographic area are genetically similar, indicating a common population and likely transmission. The implications of increasing antimicrobial resistance complicated by interspecies transmission, necessitates including both dogs and humans in S. aureus resistance surveillance studies. A collection of 126 S. aureus isolates from people (n = 99) and dogs (n = 27) were included, minimum inhibitor concentrations to a panel of 33 antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine were determined. No resistance to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin or nitrofurantoin was found. A wide range of antibiograms were found; including resistance to 0-12 drugs (0-6 drug classes). Outstanding antibiograms included a canine MRSA resistant to rifampin and a human MRSA resistant to chloramphenicol. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found among 78% and 4% of canine and human MRSA and 17% and 25% of canine colonizing and human methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. Resistance to mupirocin was only found among human isolates including 20% of MRSA and 4% of MSSA. While no canine isolates were PVL positive, 39% of human MRSA and 2% of MSSA carried the gene. The bidirectional transmission of S. aureus between people and dogs necessitates the inclusion of isolates from both species in future studies. PMID:21824346

  16. Vancomycin Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus among Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    S Saadat; K Solhjoo; A. Kazemi; Erfanian, S. (MSc); Ashrafian, F. (MSc)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vancomycin is used for treatment of methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA) infections; therefore, resistance to this antibiotic is increasing. We aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and frequency of vancomycin resistant S. Areas (VRSA) strains isolated from clinical samples. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 S. Aureus isolates collected from hospitals in Shiraz during six months, 2012, were identified by biochemical, microbiolo...

  17. Methicillin resistance & inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Soumyadeep Ghosh; Mandira Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with inducible clindamycin resistance (iCR) are resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin on routine testing and inducible clindamycin resistance can only be identified by D-test. This study was aimed to detect methicillin resistance and iCR among S. aureus isolates, effectiveness of some commonly used antibiotics and correlation between methicillin resistance and iCR. Methods: The present cro...

  18. Solonamide B Inhibits Quorum Sensing and Reduces Staphylococcus aureus Mediated Killing of Human Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Bojer, Martin S.;

    2014-01-01

    that a cyclodepsipeptide termed Solonamide B isolated from the marine bacterium, Photobacterium halotolerans strongly reduces expression of RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. Here we show that Solonamide B interferes with the binding of S. aureus autoinducing peptides (AIPs) to sensor......A controlled virulence gene expression in S. aureus.......Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a serious human pathogen, and particularly the spread of community associated (CA)-MRSA strains such as USA300 is a concern, as these strains can cause severe infections in otherwise healthy adults. Recently, we reported...

  19. Methicillin (Oxacillin)-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Major Food Animals and Their Potential Transmission to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, John Hwa

    2003-01-01

    From May 2001 to April 2003, various types of specimens from cattle, pigs, and chickens were collected and examined for the presence of methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). S. aureus was isolated and positively identified by using Gram staining, colony morphology, tests for coagulase and urease activities, and an API Staph Ident system. Among 1,913 specimens collected from the animals, 421 contained S. aureus; of these, 28 contained S. aureus resistant to concentrat...

  20. Foods from black market at EU border as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Bolocan, Andrei-Sorin; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rovira, Jordi; Hernández, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-09-16

    The illegal entrance of foods to EU through black markets at the EU borders can constitute a neglected route of dissemination of foodborne pathogens, and in particular of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have assessed the presence of MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border (the southeast part of Romania, on the border with Republic of Moldavia). We performed a search for MRSA among 200 food samples collected from 2012 to 2013. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 32 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 16 food samples (8%). One isolate detected in a pork lard sample was MRSA (0.5%). PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI revealed 12 genotypes among the 32 S. aureus isolates. The MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type 398, harbored SCCmec type V, tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes and was resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and cefazolin, besides all β-lactams. Among 31 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 29% were resistant to penicillin, 9.7% to tetracycline and 3.2% to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, in this study we report the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border: ST398-MRSA-V. These results confirm the potential role of food in the dissemination of MRSA lineages among population, and the potential role of illegally introduced food to EU in the prevalence and evolution of MRSA clones in the community.

  1. From pig to pork: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the pork production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassok, Birgit; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major global public health concern and could be a food safety issue. Recurrent reports have documented that pig herds are an important reservoir for MRSA, specifically the livestock-associated sequence type 398. The high prevalence of MRSA in pig primary production facilities and the frequent detection of MRSA of the same types in pork and pig meat products raise the question of underlying mechanisms behind the introduction and transmission of MRSA along the pork production chain. A comprehensive review of current literature on the worldwide presence of livestock-associated MRSA in various steps of the pork production chain revealed that the slaughter process plays a decisive role in MRSA transmission from farm to fork. Superficial heat treatments such as scalding and flaming during the slaughter process can significantly reduce the burden of MRSA on the carcasses. However, recontamination with MRSA might occur via surface treating machinery, as a result of fecal contamination at evisceration, or via increased human handling during meat processing. By optimizing processes for carcass decontamination and avoiding recontamination by effective cleaning and personal hygiene management, transmission of MRSA from pig to pork can be minimized.

  2. Changing characteristics of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from humans - emergence of a subclade transmitted without livestock exposure, the Netherlands, 2003 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; van Luit, Martijn; Pluister, Gerlinde N; Frentz, Dineke; Haenen, Anja; Landman, Fabian; Witteveen, Sandra; van Marm-Wattimena, Naomi; van der Heide, Han G; Schouls, Leo M

    2016-05-26

    Since 2007, livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has become the predominant MRSA clade isolated from humans in the Netherlands. To assess possible temporal changes, we molecularly characterised over 9,000 LA-MRSA isolates submitted from 2003 to 2014 to the Dutch MRSA surveillance. After an initial rapid increase with a peak in 2009 (n = 1,368), the total number of submitted LA-MRSA isolates has been slowly decreasing to 968 in 2014 and over 80% of LA-MRSA belonged to one of three predominant MLVA/spa-types. Next generation sequencing (n=118) showed that MT569/t034 isolates were genetically more diverse than MT398/t011 and MT572/t108. Concurrent with the decrease in LA-MRSA, fewer people reported having contact with livestock and this was most prominent for people carrying MT569/t034 LA-MRSA. The proportion of LA-MRSA isolated from infection-related materials increased from 6% in 2009, to 13% in 2014 and most of these isolates originated from patients older than 50 years of age. Remarkably, 83% of these patients reported not having contact with livestock. The results reveal an ongoing change in the genotypic and epidemiological characteristics of Dutch LA-MRSA isolated from humans with the emergence of a LA-MRSA subclade independent of livestock exposure, suggesting LA-MRSA starts to resemble non-LA-MRSA in terms of transmissibility and pathogenicity. PMID:27254022

  3. The mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance in MRSA: key role of the stringent stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonkeun Kim

    Full Text Available All methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains carry an acquired genetic determinant--mecA or mecC--which encode for a low affinity penicillin binding protein -PBP2A or PBP2A'--that can continue the catalysis of peptidoglycan transpeptidation in the presence of high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics which would inhibit the native PBPs normally involved with the synthesis of staphylococcal cell wall peptidoglycan. In contrast to this common genetic and biochemical mechanism carried by all MRSA strains, the level of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance shows a very wide strain to strain variation, the mechanism of which has remained poorly understood. The overwhelming majority of MRSA strains produce a unique--heterogeneous--phenotype in which the great majority of the bacteria exhibit very poor resistance often close to the MIC value of susceptible S. aureus strains. However, cultures of such heterogeneously resistant MRSA strains also contain subpopulations of bacteria with extremely high beta-lactam MIC values and the resistance level and frequency of the highly resistant cells in such strain is a characteristic of the particular MRSA clone. In the study described in this communication, we used a variety of experimental models to understand the mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA that received the mecA determinant in the laboratory either on a plasmid or in the form of a chromosomal SCCmec cassette, generated heterogeneously resistant cultures and the highly resistant subpopulations that emerged in these models had increased levels of PBP2A and were composed of bacteria in which the stringent stress response was induced. Each of the major heterogeneously resistant clones of MRSA clinical isolates could be converted to express high level and homogeneous resistance if the growth medium contained an inducer of the stringent stress response.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, G; Egea, A L; Otth, C; Otth, L; Fernández, H; Bocco, J L; Wilson, M; Sola, C

    2013-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of public health importance. In Chile, the Cordobes/Chilean clone was the predominant healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) clone in 1998. Since then, the molecular epidemiological surveillance of MRSA has not been performed in Southern Chile. We aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HA-MRSA infections in Southern Chile to identify the MRSA clones involved, and their evolutionary relationships with epidemic international MRSA lineages. A total of 303 single inpatient isolates of S. aureus were collected in the Valdivia County Hospital (2007-2008), revealing 33% (100 MRSA/303) prevalence for HA-MRSA infections. The SCCmec types I and IV were identified in 97% and 3% of HA-MRSA, respectively. All isolates lacked the pvl genes. A random sample (n = 29) of all MRSA was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec subtyping, agr and spa typing, and virulence genes profiling. PFGE analysis revealed the predominance (89%, 26/29) of pulsotype A and three additional pulsotypes, designated H1, I33, and G1. Pulsotype A (ST5-SCCmecI-spa-t149) is clonally related to the Cordobes/Chilean clone. Pulsotype H1 (ST5-SCCmecIVNT-spa-t002) is genetically related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-SCCmecIV). Pulsotype I33 (ST5-SCCmecIVc-spa-t002) is clonally related by PFGE to the community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone spread in Argentina, I-ST5-IVa-PVL(+). The G1 pulsotype (ST8-SCCmecIVc-spa-t024) is clonally related to the epidemic USA300 CA-MRSA. Here, we demonstrate the stability of the Cordobes/Chilean clone over time as the major HA-MRSA clone in Southern Chile. The identification of two CA-MRSA clones might suggest that these clones have entered into the healthcare setting from the community. These results emphasize the importance of the local surveillance of MRSA infections in the community and hospital settings.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer.

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    Nana Ama Amissah

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during wound care in a health care center. S. aureus isolates from different BU patients with overlapping visits to the clinic were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed by a gene-by-gene approach using SeqSphere(+ software. In addition, sequence data were screened for the presence of genes that conferred antibiotic resistance.SeqSphere(+ analysis of whole-genome sequence data confirmed transmission of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus among patients that took place during wound care. Interestingly, our sequence data show that the investigated MRSA isolates carry a novel allele of the fexB gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance, which had thus far not been observed in S. aureus.

  6. Comparison of four diagnostic methods for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Pourmand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen with a worldwide distribution. Given the increasing rate of MRSA infections, implementing of reliable, accurate and rapid testing for diagnosis of MRSA is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic methods for detection of MRSA isolates.From December 2012 to April 2014, 120 S. aureus isolates were collected from three hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. MRSA isolates were detected by four different methods including cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin as determined by MIC test strip, and mecA detection by PCR.Out of 120 S. aureus isolates, cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test and MIC test strip identified 60 (50%, 48 (40%, 55 (45.83% isolates as MRSA, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and MIC of oxacillin were 80% and 100%, 100% and 100%, and 91.6% and 100%, respectively.Cefoxitin disc diffusion test is reliable substitute for detection of MRSA in clinical laboratory where MIC detection and molecular methods are not accessible.

  7. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival.

  8. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival. PMID:26748534

  9. Combination Therapy of LysGH15 and Apigenin as a New Strategy for Treating Pneumonia Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Feifei; Li, Xin; Wang, Bin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xiao, Feng; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Lei; Song, Jun; Hu, Liyuan; Cheng, Mengjun; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Ouyang, Songying; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Li, Xinwei; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu

    2015-10-16

    Pneumonia is one of the most prevalent Staphylococcus aureus-mediated diseases, and the treatment of this infection is becoming challenging due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. It has been reported that LysGH15, the lysin derived from phage GH15, displays high efficiency and a broad lytic spectrum against MRSA and that apigenin can markedly diminish the alpha-hemolysin of S. aureus. In this study, the combination therapy of LysGH15 and apigenin was evaluated in vitro and in a mouse S. aureus pneumonia model. No mutual adverse influence was detected between LysGH15 and apigenin in vitro. In animal experiments, the combination therapy showed a more effective treatment effect than LysGH15 or apigenin monotherapy (P pneumonia caused by MRSA. This paper reports the combination therapy of lysin and natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine.

  10. Characterisation of Australian MRSA strains ST75- and ST883-MRSA-IV and analysis of their accessory gene regulator locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become a major problem in Australia. These strains have now been isolated throughout Australia including remote Indigenous communities that have had minimal exposure to healthcare facilities. Some of these strains, belonging to sequence types ST75 and ST883, have previously been reported to harbour highly divergent alleles of the housekeeping genes used in multilocus sequence typing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ST75-MRSA-IV and ST883-MRSA-IV isolates were characterised in detail. Morphological features as well as 16S sequences were identical to other S. aureus strains. Although a partial rnpB gene sequence was not identical to previously known S. aureus sequences, it was found to be more closely related to S. aureus than to other staphylococci. Isolates also were screened using diagnostic DNA microarrays. These isolates yielded hybridisation results atypical for S. aureus. Primer directed amplification assays failed to detect species markers (femA, katA, sbi, spa. However, arbitrarily primed amplification indicated the presence of unknown alleles of these genes. Isolates could not be assigned to capsule types 1, 5 or 8. The allelic group of the accessory gene regulator (agr locus was not determinable. Sequencing of a region of agrB, agrC and agrD (approximately 2,100 bp revealed a divergent sequence. However, this sequence is more related to S. aureus agr alleles I and IV than to agr sequences from other Staphylococcus species. The predicted auto-inducing peptide (AIP sequence of ST75 was identical to that of agr group I, while the predicted AIP sequence of ST883 was identical to agr group IV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genetic properties of ST75/ST883-MRSA may be due to a series of evolutionary events in ancient insulated S. aureus strains including a convergent evolution leading to agr group I- or IV-like AIP sequences and a recent acquisition of SCCmec IV

  11. Treatment of MRSA Infection%MRSA感染的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新裕; 吴文川

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1961年首次发现耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus,MRSA)引起的感染[1].40年来,由于抗生素尤其是广谱抗生素的滥用,MRSA造成的院内与院外感染均成上升趋势.2008年中国细菌耐药性监测协作网(CHINET)监测结果显示,国内主要地区12所教学医院MRSA平均检出率为55.9%,最高为77.5%[2],属MRSA感染的严重国家之一.

  12. Colonization of Cimex lectularius with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Hu, Baofeng; Nachamkin, Irving; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-05-01

    A recent paper published by Lowe and Romney in Emerging Infectious Diseases titled, Bed bugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria has sparked a renewed interest in bed bug vector potential. We followed a pyrethroid resistant strain of the human bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) fed either human blood or human blood with added methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for 9 days post-feeding. Results indicated that while the bed bug midgut is a hospitable environment for MRSA, the bacteria does not survive longer than 9 days within the midgut. Additionally, MRSA is not amplified within the midgut of the bug as the infection was cleared within 9 days. Due to the weekly feeding behaviours of bed bugs, these results suggest that bed bug transmission of MRSA is highly unlikely. PMID:24589308

  13. Quantitative differences in antibiotic resistance between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Hungary, Austria and Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A; Rozgonyi, F; Pesti, N; Kocsis, E; Malmos, G; Kristof, K; Nagy, K; Lagler, H; Presterl, E; Stich, K; Gattringer, R; Kotolacsi, G; Cekovska, Z; Graninger, W

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) strains from three European countries to nine antistaphylococcal agents. The antibiotic susceptibility of 274 MRSA and 284 MSSA strains from Hungary, Austria and macedonia was tested by the broth microdilution method. The clonal relationship of strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin appeared in Macedonian MRSA strains. Macedonian MRSA strains had high-level amikacin and gentamicin resistance. MSSA strains generally were susceptible to all drugs at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC(50)) except for gentamicin resistance in Macedonian strains. In Hungary and Austria a common antibiotic resistance phenotype of MRSA predominated, while in macedonia three other phenotypes were also prevalent. Geographical differences in the resistance of S. aureus are still high. Since resistance levels of MRSA and MSSA strains differ extensively, they should be considered separately for antibiotic resistance analysis.

  14. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals. PMID:24908537

  15. New insights into molecular typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) remains a significant problem causing infections in both hospital and community settings. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) continues to evolve and pose a great challenge through outbreaks and pandemic spread. Humans are no longer the only and the most important reservoir of

  16. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I. [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, W. A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  17. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  18. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division

  19. An Unexpected Location of the Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) in a USA300-Related MRSA Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær Bartels, Mette; Hansen, Lars H.; Boye, Kit;

    2011-01-01

    In methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was initially described in USA300 (t008-ST8) where it is located downstream of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). A common health-care associated MRSA in Copenhagen, Denmark (t024...... composite island of S. epidermidis strain ATCC12228. Sequencing of an ACME negative t024-ST8 strain (M299) showed that DR1 and the sequence between DR1 and DR3 was missing. The finding of a mobile ACME II-like element inserted downstream of orfX and upstream of SCCmec indicates a novel recombination between...

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.