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Sample records for aureus gatcab guarantee

  1. Computational analysis of ammonia transfer along two intramolecular tunnels in Staphylococcus aureus glutamine-dependent amidotransferase (GatCAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewage, Sajeewa Walimuni; Cisneros, G Andrés

    2015-03-05

    Most bacteria and all archaea misacylate the tRNAs corresponding to Asn and Gln with Asp and Glu (Asp-tRNA(Asn) and Glu-tRNA(Gln)).The GatCAB enzyme of most bacteria converts misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) to Gln-tRNA(Gln) in order to enable the incorporation of glutamine during protein synthesis. The conversion process involves the intramolecular transfer of ammonia between two spatially separated active sites. This study presents a computational analysis of the two putative intramolecular tunnels that have been suggested to describe the ammonia transfer between the two active sites. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for wild-type GatCAB of S. aureus and its mutants: T175(A)V, K88(B)R, E125(B)D, and E125(B)Q. The two tunnels have been analyzed in terms of free energy of ammonia transfer along them. The probability of occurrence of each type of tunnel and the variation of the probability for wild-type GatCAB and its mutants is also discussed.

  2. A simple turbidimetric method for monitoring the inhibition of tRNA-dependent amidotransferase GatCAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Miho; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Takesue, Nobuchika; Tanaka, Isao; Asano, Kozo

    2010-02-01

    In eubacteria that lack glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), a tRNA-dependent amidotransferase (GatCAB) recognizes mischarged Glu-tRNA(Gln) and converts it into Gln-tRNA(Gln). An inhibitor specific for GatCAB could therefore act as an antibiotic with a novel mode of action against multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus strains. However, there is no rapid, simple and efficient screening method for specifically monitoring the inhibition of GatCAB activity. We have focused on developing a simple system for monitoring the inhibition of GatCAB activity using Escherichia coli Top10 co-expressing the ndGluRS and GatCAB genes from Staphylococcus aureus Mu50. First, growth repression was confirmed by introducing ndgluRS from S. aureus Mu50 into E. coli. Then, we verified that co-expression of the gatCAB operon alleviated growth repression in the host E. coli. The screening system consisted of these two transformants and non-expressing E. coli Top10. The transformant harbors both ndGluRS gene and GatCAB operon could be co-expressed in the presence and in the absence of chemical compound of interest. Since there is no inhibitor that inactivates GatCAB activity, we expressed two inactive GatCAB deletion variants, GatCAB(Delta10) and GatCAB(DeltaCHD) together with ndGluRS in E. coli Top10. The expressed E. coli showed repressed growth as well as ndGluRS expressed. These results indicate that if GatCAB activity is inhibited in this co-expressed E. coli, the inhibition can be monitored by the decrease in O.D. of the co-expressed E. coli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple turbidimetric method for monitoring the inhibition of tRNA-dependent amidotransferase GatCAB

    OpenAIRE

    Chatani, Miho; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Takesue, Nobuchika; Tanaka, Isao; ASANO, Kozo

    2010-01-01

    In eubacteria that lack glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), a tRNA-dependent amidotransferase (GatCAB) recognizes mischarged Glu-tRNA^[Gln] and converts it into Gln-tRNA^[Gln]. An inhibitor specific for GatCAB could therefore act as an antibiotic with a novel mode of action against multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus strains. However, there is no rapid, simple and efficient screening method for specifically monitoring the inhibition of GatCAB activity. We have focused on devel...

  4. 7 CFR 1493.60 - Payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103... credit period and an extension of time to export. Any amendment to the payment guarantee, particularly...

  5. 7 CFR 1720.14 - Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. 1720.14 Section 1720.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.14 Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. (a) Any guarantee...

  6. 48 CFR 1371.119 - Guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.119 Guarantees. Insert clause 1352.271-88, Guarantees, in all solicitations and contracts for ship construction and ship repair. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.450 - Payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.450 Payment guarantee. (a) CCC's obligation. The... coverage under this subpart, except where it is determined by the GSM to be in the best interests of CCC to...

  8. 75 FR 20043 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    .... Department of Agriculture, is proposing a guaranteed loan program for biorefineries. The proposed rule will establish guaranteed loan regulations for the development and construction of commercial-scale biorefineries..., Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs Rural Development guaranteed loans are subject to the Provisions of...

  9. 14 CFR 398.6 - Seat guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat guarantees. 398.6 Section 398.6... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.6 Seat guarantees. (a) The number of seats guaranteed at the eligible place will be sufficient to accommodate the...

  10. 7 CFR 1493.460 - Guarantee rates and fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.460 Guarantee rates and fees. (a) Guarantee fee rates... that such refund will be in the best interest of CCC. If the application for a payment guarantee is not...

  11. 76 FR 39068 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2011; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2011... 4279.107(b), Rural Development (the ] Agency) has the authority to charge an annual renewal fee for...

  12. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the optimal pricing of government-sponsored bank debt guarantees within the context of an asset substitution framework. We show that the desirability of fair pricing of guarantees depends on the degree of transparency of the banking sector: in relatively opaque banking systems, fair

  13. 76 FR 38577 - Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Guarantee Program AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, U.S. Department of Treasury... regarding the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Bond Guarantee Program created by the...: Information regarding the CDFI Fund and its programs may be downloaded from the CDFI Fund's Web site at http...

  14. Consumer Sales guarantees in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewiorowska, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis pursues three main aims. The first aim is to present the current legislative situation in the European Union and the process that led to accepting the assumptions concerning guarantees that laid foundations for the rules on the guarantee contained in the Consumer Sales Directive. The

  15. 22 CFR 230.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Officer, Assistant Administrator and Deputy, Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 230.04 Section 230.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY...

  16. Marketing service guarantees for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J S

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the concept of service guarantees for application in health care and differentiates between explicit, implicit, and conditional vs. unconditional types of guarantees. An example of an unconditional guarantee of satisfaction is provided by the hospitality industry. Firms conveying an implicit guarantee are those with outstanding reputations for products such as luxury automobiles, or ultimate customer service, like Nordstrom. Federal Express and Domino's Pizza offer explicit guarantees of on-time delivery. Taking this concept into efforts to improve health care delivery involves a number of caveats. Customers invited to use exceptional service cards may use these to record either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The cards need to provide enough specific information about issues so that "immediate action could be taken to improve processes." Front-line employees should be empowered to respond to complaints in a meaningful way to resolve the problem before the client leaves the premises.

  17. 77 FR 5759 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2012; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... benefiting financially or must be a high impact business investment as defined in 7 CFR 4279.155(b)(5) and be... experiencing fundamental structural changes in its economic base. For guaranteed loans exceeding 80 percent...

  18. 78 FR 76593 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2014; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... agriculture and result in farmers benefiting financially or must be a high impact business investment as... disaster, or are experiencing fundamental structural changes in its economic base. For guaranteed loans...

  19. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  20. Waiting time care guarantees: necessity or nemesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N P; Noseworthy, F T; Noseworthy, T W

    2006-01-01

    One of the priorities of governments in Canada is to reduce long waiting times for health services. This has raised the prospect of introducing waiting time care guarantees. Such guarantees affirm the healthcare system's social contract with the public and provide an entitlement to Canadians to receive timely care. There are clinical, legal and political implications, which must be considered and well managed before introduction. Other countries have ventured down this path. They teach us that waiting time care guarantees are good policy and make good sense. Correspondingly, they remind us not to make a promise we are not ready to keep.

  1. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the desirability of fair pricing of government guarantees for bank liabilities. Fair pricing is desirable only if the banking sector is sufficiently transparent. In opaque banking systems, fair pricing may exacerbate banks' incentive to take excessive risks.

  2. OPTIMAL GUARANTEED SERVICES TIMED TOKEN (OGSTT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 32, No. 3, November 2013. 470. OPTIMAL GUARANTEED SERVICES TIMED TOKEN (OGSTT) MEDIA ACCESS. CONTROL (MAC) PRO. CONTROL (MAC) PROTOCOL FOR NETWORKS THAT. TOCOL FOR NETWORKS THAT. TOCOL FOR NETWORKS THAT. SUPPORT HARD REAL.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with ... from your health care provider. What is a staph infection? Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of ...

  4. 7 CFR 1493.70 - Guarantee rates and fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103...

  5. 76 FR 30641 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    .... Connecticut: Served by Massachusetts State Office. Delaware and Maryland State Office, 1221 College Park Drive... Total Development Cost......... Guaranteed loan divided by the total development costs of project. Debt Coverage Ratio Net Operating Income divided by debt service payments. Percentage of Guarantee Percentage...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Probabilistic Recovery Guarantees for Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Graeme; Studer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We consider the recovery of sparse signals subject to sparse interference, as introduced in Studer et al., IEEE Trans. IT, 2012. We present novel probabilistic recovery guarantees for this framework, covering varying degrees of knowledge of the signal and interference support, which are relevant for a large number of practical applications. Our results assume that the sparsifying dictionaries are solely characterized by coherence parameters and we require randomness only in the signal and/or interference. The obtained recovery guarantees show that one can recover sparsely corrupted signals with overwhelming probability, even if the sparsity of both the signal and interference scale (near) linearly with the number of measurements.

  8. Probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection in SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Ma, Shugen

    2016-01-01

    For determining whether kidnapping has happened and which type of kidnapping it is while a robot performs autonomous tasks in an unknown environment, a double guarantee kidnapping detection (DGKD) method has been proposed. The good performance of DGKD in a relative small environment is shown. However, a limitation of DGKD is found in a large-scale environment by our recent work. In order to increase the adaptability of DGKD in a large-scale environment, an improved method called probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection is proposed in this paper to combine probability of features' positions and the robot's posture. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  9. Improving Storage Bandwidth Guarantees with Performance Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    schedulers are not guaranteed to be high. 2.3 Other related work Other systems have been proposed for storage quality of service. Cello [14...Systems, 2008. [14] Prashant Shenoy and Harrick M. Vin. Cello : A Disk Scheduling Framework for Next Generation Oper- ating Systems. SIGMETRICS ’98

  10. 31 CFR 240.4 - Presentment guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentment guarantees. 240.4 Section 240.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... Treasury check, not a counterfeit check. (e) Electronic check. If the check is an electronic check, that...

  11. 78 FR 36029 - CDFI Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... credit documents. Interested parties should review the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A... Purchaser and the terms of the Agreement to Guarantee; (f) Tracking the movement of funds between the... law, all the rights and remedies of a secured party under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC); (8) If...

  12. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    Mahayni, Antje; Schlögl, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We analyse contracts which pay out a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified on the basis of a benchmark portfolio. These contracts are closely related to unit--linked life--insurance/savings plan products and can be considered as alternatives to a direct investment in the underlying benchmark portfolio. The option embedded into the savings plan is in fact a power option, and thus the specification of the ``fair'' contract parameters is c...

  13. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because the construction and payment guarantees are so closely linked to the terms and conditions of the JBCC principal and nominated/selected subcontract agreements, changes made to the pro forma guarantees or agreements, which disturb the risk of the guarantor, could very well render the guarantee null and void.

  14. 32 CFR 151.7 - Fair trial guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fair trial guarantees. 151.7 Section 151.7... MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.7 Fair trial guarantees. The following is a listing of “fair trial” safeguards or guarantees that are considered to be applicable to U.S...

  15. 48 CFR 32.306 - Loan guarantees for subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide the progress payments. As a result, the need for the loan guarantee may be reduced or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan guarantees for... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Loan Guarantees for Defense Production 32.306 Loan...

  16. 78 FR 79253 - CCC Export Credit Guarantee (GSM-102) Program and Facility Guarantee Program (FGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... on-board bill of lading as a required document. A number of program participants have suggested this... information is contained in the bill of lading and invoice, and another commenter suggested attaching the... that will be taking receipt of the commodities exported under the payment guarantee. CCC will routinely...

  17. Guaranteeing CERN’s excellence: consolidate experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    For its missions CERN requires staff with solid experience in all its domains of activity The Organization has several missions: fundamental research, technical developments and innovation, training the several hundreds of associates, fellows and students, while at the same time taking care of more than 10000 users. In order to guarantee excellence in all of these areas, CERN has to put in place an efficient personnel policy. Such a policy must allow the Organization to recruit collaborators with the highest competence from all Member States, and to keep and motivate them during their entire professional career. But, more importantly, the Organization has to be able to count on a stable workforce. It needs staff with experience gained over a long period in the fields of accelerators, detectors, and operating procedures, if it is to fulfil successfully its important mission of training and knowledge transfer, which is very much appreciated by our Member states, since it highlights a visible return on invest...

  18. Framework for analysis of guaranteed QOS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shailender; Choudhary, Alok

    1997-01-01

    Multimedia data is isochronous in nature and entails managing and delivering high volumes of data. Multiprocessors with their large processing power, vast memory, and fast interconnects, are an ideal candidate for the implementation of multimedia applications. Initially, multiprocessors were designed to execute scientific programs and thus their architecture was optimized to provide low message latency and efficiently support regular communication patterns. Hence, they have a regular network topology and most use wormhole routing. The design offers the benefits of a simple router, small buffer size, and network latency that is almost independent of path length. Among the various multimedia applications, video on demand (VOD) server is well-suited for implementation using parallel multiprocessors. Logical models for VOD servers are presently mapped onto multiprocessors. Our paper provides a framework for calculating bounds on utilization of system resources with which QoS parameters for each isochronous stream can be guaranteed. Effects of the architecture of multiprocessors, and efficiency of various local models and mapping on particular architectures can be investigated within our framework. Our framework is based on rigorous proofs and provides tight bounds. The results obtained may be used as the basis for admission control tests. To illustrate the versatility of our framework, we provide bounds on utilization for various logical models applied to mesh connected architectures for a video on demand server. Our results show that worm hole routing can lead to packets waiting for transmission of other packets that apparently share no common resources. This situation is analogous to head-of-the-line blocking. We find that the provision of multiple VCs per link and multiple flit buffers improves utilization (even under guaranteed QoS parameters). This analogous to parallel iterative matching.

  19. Financial Innovation and Risk Management: The Cross-Guarantee Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Ely

    1998-01-01

    The cross-guarantee concept, which is summarized below, will eliminate the regulatory moral hazard that electronic technology has greatly exacerbated in recent years. The paper concludes by outlining the many benefits cross-guarantees will bring to the financial system as well as the structural and international implications of using cross-guarantees to bring market-driven regulation to the financial services sector of the American economy.

  20. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2008-01-01

    A broad variety of infections, ranging from minor infections of the skin to post-operative wound infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The adaptive power of S. aureus to antibiotics leaded, in the early 1960s, to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The cause of

  1. Staphylococcus aureus CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collectio...

  2. Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.

  3. 78 FR 1220 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Guarantee of Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Guarantee of Payment... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Guarantee of Payment (CBP Form I-510). This is a proposed extension of an... (77 FR 65899) on October 31, 2012, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an...

  4. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become common practice in the building industry for contractors to ... industry with regard to these guarantees, and will present what is considered to be best ...... 4.0. %. 28%. 56%. 11%. 0. 6%. 8. The lapsing of the construction guarantee after its expiry date leaves the employer with little recourse against the contractor.

  5. 7 CFR 1493.440 - Certification requirements for payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.440 Certification... § 1493.430(a)(17), certifies that: (a) The agricultural commodity or product to be exported under the...

  6. Guaranteed Student Loans: A Background Paper. Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, DC.

    The Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program's current operations, legislative history, and growth are reviewed, along with research needs. GSLs are made by lenders to college students, and the federal government guarantees them and provides incentive payments to lenders and subsidy payments on behalf of students until loan repayment begins. Today,…

  7. Azoreductase in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2009-01-01

    Azoreductase(s) catalyze a NAD(P)H-dependent reaction in bacteria to metabolize azo dyes to colorless aromatic amines. Azoreductases from bacteria represent a novel family of enzymes with little similarity to other reductases. This unit will describe the current methods for measuring azoreductase from Staphylococcus aureus, which has been suggested to serve as a model strain to study the azo dye degradation by human skin microflora.

  8. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... was determined that these could be disruptive, as lenders might be inclined to make fewer guaranteed... with the E-Government Act, to promote the use of the Internet and other information technologies to...

  9. Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.

  10. Current rules of the deposit guarantee system in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Zawadzka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the matter of the deposit guarantee system in Poland, which is coordinated by the Bank Guarantee Fund (BFG. Presented in the first part are the organization of the BFG and its tasks, such as guaranteeing, aiding, controlling and analyzing the banking sector. Discussed in the publication are changes in Polish law, especially in the reaction to the global crisis on the financial market in the late 2000s. Finally, the future outlook for EU regulation is presented, along with a number of conclusions on the potential legislative changes in the Act on the BFG. The main goal of the article is to characterize details of the Polish implementation of Directives 94/19/EC and 2009/14/EC, as well as the actual form of the deposit guarantee system, and to answer the question of whether the Act on the BFG corresponds to the EU directives.

  11. 78 FR 37277 - CDFI Bond Guarantee Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund CDFI Bond Guarantee Program; Correction AGENCY: Community... Proposals for Master Servicer/Trustee; correction. SUMMARY: The Community Development Financial Institutions... delivered by commercial carrier. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa M. Jones, Program Manager, CDFI Bond...

  12. Optimal Explicit Binomial Confidence Interval with Guaranteed Coverage Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinjia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach for optimizing the explicit binomial confidence interval recently derived by Chen et al. The optimization reduces conservativeness while guaranteeing prescribed coverage probability.

  13. 7 CFR 1720.8 - Issuance of the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting firm or federal banking regulator, annual consolidated financial statements audited by an... financial covenants, and events of default and remedies; (3) Prior to the issuance of the guarantee, the...

  14. 76 FR 44836 - CCC Export Credit Guarantee (GSM-102) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ..., Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Act). DATES: Comments concerning this proposed rule must be received... Designated Nationals (SDN) lists. There is no requirement for an exporter to assign the payment guarantee...

  15. [Controlled mechanical lung ventilation with guaranteed volume in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriakvina, O A; Grebennikov, V A; Tsypin, L E; Volodin, N N

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with guaranteed volumes combines advantages of time-cyclic ventilation with limitation of pressure and constant flow, with volume control ventilation. This symbiosis allows to choose the optimal, stable breathing volume of the newborn, while maintaining pressure control. The review presents the principles of work, the main advantages and limitations of ventilation systems with the guaranteed volumes, as well as results and analysis of studies.

  16. Several Guaranteed Descent Conjugate Gradient Methods for Unconstrained Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    San-Yang Liu; Yuan-Yuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a general form of guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods which satisfies the descent condition ${g}_{k}^{T}{d}_{k}\\le -(\\mathrm{1}-\\mathrm{1}/(\\mathrm{4}{\\theta }_{k})){{\\|}{g}_{k}{\\|}}^{2}  ({\\theta }_{k}>\\mathrm{1}/\\mathrm{4})$ and which is strongly convergent whenever the weak Wolfe line search is fulfilled. Moreover, we present several specific guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods and give their numerical results for large-scale unconstrained optimi...

  17. Several Guaranteed Descent Conjugate Gradient Methods for Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a general form of guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods which satisfies the descent condition gkTdk≤-1-1/4θkgk2  θk>1/4 and which is strongly convergent whenever the weak Wolfe line search is fulfilled. Moreover, we present several specific guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods and give their numerical results for large-scale unconstrained optimization.

  18. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  19. LEGAL GUARANTEES OF FARMERS’ TRADE UNIONS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gołaś

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall be considered as the direct legal basis of the guarantees. Having regard to the fact that even the Polish Constitution introduces transparent and direct legal frameworks for functioning of farmers’ trade unions, the author intends to prove that individual farmers’ unions’ operations should be considered as a fundamental and basic feature of the national agricultural system. The presented work should be also considered as thorough examination of legal provisions presented in the Act on individual farmers’ trade unions of 7th April 1989 (Ustawa…, 2015b, which is direct legal basis for functioning guarantees of the agricultural unions. The author shows how the Act is governing such fundamental issues as creation, registration, liquidation or legal operational guarantees of each individual farmers’ trade unions operating under the Act.

  20. Opportunistic scheduling policies for improved throughput guarantees in wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassel Vegard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Offering throughput guarantees for cellular wireless networks, carrying real-time traffic, is of interest to both the network operators and the customers. In this article, we formulate an optimization problem which aims at maximizing the throughput that can be guaranteed to the mobile users. By building on results obtained by Borst and Whiting and by assuming that the distributions of the users' carrier-to-noise ratios are known, we find the solution to this problem for users with different channel quality distributions, for both the scenario where all the users have the same throughput guarantees, and the scenario where all the users have different throughput guarantees. Based on these solutions, we also propose two simple and low complexity adaptive scheduling algorithms that perform significantly better than other well-known scheduling algorithms. We further develop an expression for the approximate throughput guarantee violation probability for users in time-slotted networks with the given cumulants of the distribution of bit-rate in a time-slot, and a given distribution for the number of time-slots allocated within a time-window.

  1. VISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DIRECTIVE ON DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae TAU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to illustrate the role of directives of the European Union in organizing the activity of banking deposit guarantee. Given the fact that, at present, financial crises are becoming more frequent, and the consequences affect the confidence of depositors in the banking system, it is necessary to undertake measures for the creation and improvement of institutions for guaranteeing bank deposits. At the European level, are drawn up directives relating to the imposition of banking deposit guarantee schemes and the member countries, during a given period of time, shall be obliged to transpose the requirements of this directive in the national law. The goal of research is to identify elements of deposit-guarantee schemes recommended by European directives, appreciation of amendments made to Directive 2014/49/EU. The methodology of research. The article was elaborated în base of European directives given in bibliographic references. In order to obtain research results the author was use the analytical method and comparison method, the last having a higher share. The research results. The study allowed the appreciation of the importance of European directives in elaborating the deposit guarantee schemes.

  2. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.

  4. Multiplex Networks of the Guarantee Market: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a multiplex network of the guarantee market with three layers corresponding to different types of guarantee relationships in China. We find that three single-layer networks all have the scale-free property and are of disassortative nature. A single-layer network is not quite representative of another single-layer network. The result of the betweenness centrality shows that central companies in one layer are not necessarily central in another layer. And the eigenvector centrality has the same result of the betweenness centrality except the top central company.

  5. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  6. 77 FR 3379 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 4279 Biorefinery assistance, Loan programs--Business and industry, Rural development... 3379-3380] [FR Doc No: 2012-1149] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4279 Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business...

  7. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an exempt employee with additional compensation without losing the exemption or violating the salary... basis. Similarly, the exemption is not lost if an exempt employee who is guaranteed at least $455 each.... (b) An exempt employee's earnings may be computed on an hourly, a daily or a shift basis, without...

  8. Toward Improvement of Credit Policies on Guaranteed Student Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Robert P.

    Four aspects of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program are compared with credit policies on other loans made by consumer installment lenders. The four aspects are: (1) the planning, screening, monitoring, collecting, and write-off policies on GSLs versus uninsured loans; (2) the importance of the Student Loan Marketing Association in providing…

  9. H2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Colmenares

    2000-01-01

    guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  10. Principles for Public Credit Guarantee Schemes for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Access to finance, particularly credit, is widely recognized as problematic for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), hampering their growth and development. To address this challenge, many governments around the world intervene in SME credit markets through credit guarantee schemes (CGSs). A CGS offers risk mitigation to lenders by taking a share of the lenders’ losses on SME loans in case ...

  11. 75 FR 27949 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... efficiency in managing the SFHGLP. The proposed changes are in accordance with the recommendations of the... Housing Service proposes two changes to its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP...-quarter of 1 percent. The first proposed rule change would eliminate the lender's published VA rate for...

  12. 78 FR 73927 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... compared to non-metropolitan rural homeowners indicates the guaranteed program has a positive impact in... in pursuing homeownership. The impacts of changes to the rule are positive to the federal budget... divorces, the wife gets the home if she desires, and can thus argue for custody of the children because the...

  13. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order nonlinear systems. It is shown that this controller imposes a bound- ing second-order error-dynamics, and thus guarantees robust performance during the reaching phase. The choice of the controller parameters based on the ...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.420 - Loan guarantee limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.420 Loan guarantee... factors involved, including but not limited to: (1) Borrower's management. The borrower's management, and when appropriate, equity capital, history of operation, marketing plan, raw material requirements, and...

  15. Coverage and Rate of Downlink Sequence Transmissions with Reliability Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Real-time distributed control is a promising application of 5G in which communication links should satisfy certain reliability guarantees. In this letter, we derive closed-form maximum average rate when a device (e.g. industrial machine) downloads a sequence of n operational commands through cell...

  16. 7 CFR 4290.1600 - Secretary's authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary's authority to issue and guarantee Trust... Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1600 Secretary's authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates. (a) Authorization. Section 384F of the Act authorizes the Secretary to issue TCs and to guarantee...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus paplitimas hospitalizavimo laikotarpiu

    OpenAIRE

    Maželienė, Žaneta; Kaukėnienė, Renata; Antuševas, Aleksandras; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among hospitalized patients at the beginning of their hospitalization and during their treatment and the resistance of strains to antibiotics, and to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of these strains. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients treated at the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery were examined. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains was performed using plasmacoagulase and DNase ...

  18. The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the fiduciary guarantee has not reached its full potential in the Romanian market, nor in the European area. The ongoing “dispute” between the fiduciary operations (familiar to the continental law and the trust (with its common -law heritage seems to be won by the latter. However, considering the express provisions on the fiduciary operations in the Romanian Civil Code entered into force in 2011, similar to the introduction of the same legal instrument in the French Civil Code in 2007, could give a boost to this ancient tool, present from the Roman era. Even if the European legal framework do not provide many rules on this institution, however, the Financial Collateral Directive raised many questions on how the fiduciary guarantees can be used in practice, and contributed to the change that followed in this area.

  19. MRAC Revisited: Guaranteed Performance with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmaje

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to achieve guaranteed transient performance both in the output and input signals of an uncertain system. The proposed modification is based on the tracking error feedback to the reference model. It is shown that approach guarantees tracking of a given command and the ideal control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient by a proper selection of the error feedback gain. The method prevents generation of high frequency oscillations that are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference command of any magnitude form any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated in simulations.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPORTS, CREDIT RISK AND CREDIT GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Rienstra-Munnicha, Paul; Turvey, Calum G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an understanding of how the export credit worthiness of an importing country affects export sales of agricultural and other manufactured products and how export credit guarantees or insurance can mitigate risks of non-payment. A theoretical model is developed. It shows how risk mitigation through export credit insurance could increase exports to high risk importing countries. The key result is that the export response curve is more inelastic in the presence of payment risk...

  1. Adaptive signed distance transform for curves with guaranteed error bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D A; Duchaineau, M A; Max, N L

    2000-12-04

    We present an adaptive signed distance transform algorithm for curves in the plane. The algorithm provides guaranteed error bounds with a selective refinement approach. The domain over which the signed distance function is desired is adaptive triangulated and piecewise discontinuous linear approximations are constructed within each triangle. The resulting transform performs work only were requested and does not rely on a preset sampling rate or other constraints.

  2. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  3. Scalable service architecture for providing strong service guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Nicolas; Liebeherr, Joerg

    2002-07-01

    For the past decade, a lot of Internet research has been devoted to providing different levels of service to applications. Initial proposals for service differentiation provided strong service guarantees, with strict bounds on delays, loss rates, and throughput, but required high overhead in terms of computational complexity and memory, both of which raise scalability concerns. Recently, the interest has shifted to service architectures with low overhead. However, these newer service architectures only provide weak service guarantees, which do not always address the needs of applications. In this paper, we describe a service architecture that supports strong service guarantees, can be implemented with low computational complexity, and only requires to maintain little state information. A key mechanism of the proposed service architecture is that it addresses scheduling and buffer management in a single algorithm. The presented architecture offers no solution for controlling the amount of traffic that enters the network. Instead, we plan on exploiting feedback mechanisms of TCP congestion control algorithms for the purpose of regulating the traffic entering the network.

  4. A Guaranteed Similarity Metric Learning Framework for Biological Sequence Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Keru; Yu, Qin; Zhang, Ruiming

    2016-01-01

    Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. The distance and similarity between two sequence are very important and widely studied. During the last decades, Similarity(distance) metric learning is one of the hottest topics of machine learning/data mining as well as their applications in the bioinformatics field. It is feasible to introduce machine learning technology to learn similarity metric from biological data. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of guaranteed similarity metric learning (GMSL) to perform alignment of biology sequences in any feature vector space. It introduces the (ϵ, γ, τ)-goodness similarity theory to Mahalanobis metric learning. As a theoretical guaranteed similarity metric learning approach, GMSL guarantees that the learned similarity function performs well in classification and clustering. Our experiments on the most used datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art biological sequences alignment methods and other similarity metric learning algorithms in both accuracy and stability.

  5. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of both community and hospital acquired bacterial infection. There is strong correlation between S aureus nasal carriage and disease progress. Nasal carriage is high among health care workers. Inappropriate usage of antibiotic may

  7. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus transmission : clinical and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, A.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in nosocomial infections. Up to 30% of UCI related infections are caused by S. aureus. In this thesis we explore both clinical and molecular aspects of patient-to-patient transmission of S. aureus. We performed a European ICU study exploring infection

  9. Vancomycin Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA), resistant to all antibiotics including Vancomycin, has been reported in Japan, USA, Canada and Brazil. Hence, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of Vancomycin resistant or intermediate S.aureus in Karachi. A total of 850 ...

  10. Political, criminal and dogmatic study of the principles and guarantees of the Roma Statute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Abello Gual; Jaime Sandoval Fernandez

    2006-01-01

      To understand Penal Law from a Guarantee conception permits to establish the limits of punitive power against the human being through the defense of the fundamental principles and guarantees whose...

  11. The Curtin-Chifley Origins of the Australian Bank Deposit Guarantee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Berg

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Australian government introduced a guarantee of bank deposits. However, in 1945 the Curtin-Chifley government had already introduced what it believed was an explicit bank deposit guarantee...

  12. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  13. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  14. An Optimal Turkish Private Pension Plan with a Guarantee Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül İşcanog̃lu-Çekiç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Private Pension System is an investment system which aims to generate income for future consumption. This is a volunteer system, and the contributions are held in individual portfolios. Therefore, management of the funds is an important issue for both the participants and the insurance company. In this study, we propose an optimal private pension plan with a guarantee feature that is based on Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI. We derive a closed form formula for the optimal strategy with the help of dynamic programming. Moreover, our model is evaluated with numerical examples, and we compare its performance by implementing a sensitivity analysis.

  15. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  16. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  17. 7 CFR 1493.50 - Certification requirements for obtaining payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations § 1493.50 Certification requirements for obtaining payment...

  18. 77 FR 44239 - Application for Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee Reason for Notice This Notice is to... long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with... final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million. Reference...

  19. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal Crop...

  20. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security overall...

  1. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  2. 7 CFR 3565.57 - Modification, extension, reinstatement of loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification, extension, reinstatement of loan...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Guarantee Requirements § 3565.57 Modification, extension, reinstatement of loan guarantee. To protect its interest or...

  3. 75 FR 20257 - Amendment of the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program To Extend the Transaction Account...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Transaction Account Guarantee Program With Opportunity To Opt Out AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... Rule to amend the Transaction Account Guarantee (TAG) component of the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee... in the TAG- related accounts. Further, the Interim Rule requires IDIs participating in the TAG...

  4. GMG: A Guaranteed, Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm for Remote Sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helon, CD

    2004-08-18

    The monocular passive ranging (MPR) problem in remote sensing consists of identifying the precise range of an airborne target (missile, plane, etc.) from its observed radiance. This inverse problem may be set as a global optimization problem (GOP) whereby the difference between the observed and model predicted radiances is minimized over the possible ranges and atmospheric conditions. Using additional information about the error function between the predicted and observed radiances of the target, we developed GMG, a new algorithm to find the Global Minimum with a Guarantee. The new algorithm transforms the original continuous GOP into a discrete search problem, thereby guaranteeing to find the position of the global minimum in a reasonably short time. The algorithm is first applied to the golf course problem, which serves as a litmus test for its performance in the presence of both complete and degraded additional information. GMG is further assessed on a set of standard benchmark functions and then applied to various realizations of the MPR problem.

  5. Robust guaranteed-cost adaptive quantum phase estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shibdas; Berry, Dominic W.; Petersen, Ian R.; Huntington, Elanor H.

    2017-05-01

    Quantum parameter estimation plays a key role in many fields like quantum computation, communication, and metrology. Optimal estimation allows one to achieve the most precise parameter estimates, but requires accurate knowledge of the model. Any inevitable uncertainty in the model parameters may heavily degrade the quality of the estimate. It is therefore desired to make the estimation process robust to such uncertainties. Robust estimation was previously studied for a varying phase, where the goal was to estimate the phase at some time in the past, using the measurement results from both before and after that time within a fixed time interval up to current time. Here, we consider a robust guaranteed-cost filter yielding robust estimates of a varying phase in real time, where the current phase is estimated using only past measurements. Our filter minimizes the largest (worst-case) variance in the allowable range of the uncertain model parameter(s) and this determines its guaranteed cost. It outperforms in the worst case the optimal Kalman filter designed for the model with no uncertainty, which corresponds to the center of the possible range of the uncertain parameter(s). Moreover, unlike the Kalman filter, our filter in the worst case always performs better than the best achievable variance for heterodyne measurements, which we consider as the tolerable threshold for our system. Furthermore, we consider effective quantum efficiency and effective noise power, and show that our filter provides the best results by these measures in the worst case.

  6. On the Guarantee of the Realization of the Right to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kashtanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of the essence and content of the guarantee of the realization of the right to education, the system of guarantees for the implementation of constitutional and legal principles and norms, including those that consolidate the system of rights and freedoms of human and citizen. The Author examines the functions of guarantee (stimulating, law enforcement and law enforcement, analyzes types of guaranteesguarantees related to the very right to education and quality of education.​

  7. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  8. Basic income guarantee: a review of implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-08-03

    To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events.

  10. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  11. ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SHEEP RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    G. Giacinti; Amatiste, S.; A. Tammaro; D. Sagrafoli; G. Giangolini; R. Rosati

    2011-01-01

    A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%). The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%). Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC) was recorded in 6 (60%) and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in 4 (40%) staphylococcal isolates. Raw m...

  12. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  13. S. aureus colonization at ICU admission as a risk factor for developing S. aureus ICU pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paling, Fleur P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413968669; Wolkewitz, Martin; Bode, Lonneke G M; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33706864X; Ong, David S Y; Depuydt, Pieter; de Bus, Liesbet; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Bonten, Marc J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; Kluijtmans, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323262139

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and its association with S. aureus colonization at ICU admission. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of two cohort studies in critically ill patients. The primary

  14. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  16. MONITORING REGISTRIES AT ITALIAN MEDICINES AGENCY: FOSTERING ACCESS, GUARANTEEING SUSTAINABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Simona; Xoxi, Entela; Russo, Pierluigi; Cicchetti, Americo; Pani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The AIFA (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco--Italian Medicines Agency) Monitoring Registries track the eligibility of patients and the complete flow of treatments, guaranteeing appropriateness in use of pharmaceutical products, according to approved indications. This study describes the Italian pharmaceutical context and the aims and functioning of AIFA Monitoring Registries, focusing on the applications to the Managed Entry Agreements (MEAs) and HTA approaches. The AIFA Monitoring Registries System has been operational in Italy since 2005. In 2012, the system became part of the NHS Information Technology system, aiming at enhancing appropriate use of pharmaceuticals and efficiency of the administrative activity. Currently, seventy-six medicines are monitored through the system, corresponding to fifty-eight therapeutic indications; individual treatments recorded are more than 515,000, for a population of approximately 505,000 patients. For each monitored product, patients eligible for treatment are registered in the specific therapeutic indication dynamic monitoring database to collect epidemiologic and clinical data, including data on the safety profile, and ex-post information missing at first evaluation stage. AIFA Monitoring Registries allow the evaluation of the pharmaceuticals' performance in clinical practice and may promote innovation and quicker access to medicines at affordable prices, for the benefit of patients.

  17. Multilayer neural-net robot controller with guaranteed tracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, F L; Yegildirek, A; Liu, K

    1996-01-01

    A multilayer neural-net (NN) controller for a general serial-link rigid robot arm is developed. The structure of the NN controller is derived using a filtered error/passivity approach. No off-line learning phase is needed for the proposed NN controller and the weights are easily initialized. The nonlinear nature of the NN, plus NN functional reconstruction inaccuracies and robot disturbances, mean that the standard delta rule using backpropagation tuning does not suffice for closed-loop dynamic control. Novel online weight tuning algorithms, including correction terms to the delta rule plus an added robust signal, guarantee bounded tracking errors as well as bounded NN weights. Specific bounds are determined, and the tracking error bound can be made arbitrarily small by increasing a certain feedback gain. The correction terms involve a second-order forward-propagated wave in the backpropagation network. New NN properties including the notions of a passive NN, a dissipative NN, and a robust NN are introduced.

  18. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability.

  19. Models for Call Acceptance Based on Handoff Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahiru Sule Alfa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Call admission control (CAC is important for cellular wireless networks to provide quality-of-service (QoS requirements to users. Static and adaptive CAC schemes, respectively, make unrealistic assumptions about the distributions of the handoff call arrival process and the number of users in a cell. Handoff arrivals are usually assumed to follow Poisson process in static CAC schemes for Poisson new call arrivals and exponentially distributed call holding and cell residence times. We use a simple proof to show that this assumption of Poisson handoff arrival process is not justified for a two-cell wireless network. In general, we find that the handoff process can be captured by a two-dimensional Markov chain. We propose a novel adaptive CAC scheme for the two-cell system which accepts a new call if it can guarantee, with a certain probability, that a user's call will be maintained irrespective of its (his/her movement in the system. Then, we extend this adaptive scheme for multiple-cell network. We develop another variant of this adaptive scheme which we call fractional adaptive scheme. Both the adaptive and fractional adaptive schemes are found to outperform the guard channel scheme in controlling the handoff failure probability in a cellular wireless network.

  20. Guaranteed resonance enclosures and exclosures for atoms and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögli, Sabine; Brown, B Malcolm; Marletta, Marco; Tretter, Christiane; Wagenhofer, Markus

    2014-11-08

    In this paper, we confirm, with absolute certainty, a conjecture on a certain oscillatory behaviour of higher auto-ionizing resonances of atoms and molecules beyond a threshold. These results not only definitely settle a more than 30 year old controversy in Rittby et al. (1981 Phys. Rev. A24, 1636-1639 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.24.1636)) and Korsch et al. (1982 Phys. Rev. A26, 1802-1803 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.26.1802)), but also provide new and reliable information on the threshold. Our interval-arithmetic-based method allows one, for the first time, to enclose and to exclude resonances with guaranteed certainty. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by the fact that we are able to show that the approximations in Rittby et al. (1981 Phys. Rev. A24, 1636-1639 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.24.1636)) do lie near true resonances, whereas the approximations of higher resonances in Korsch et al. (1982 Phys. Rev. A26, 1802-1803 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.26.1802)) do not, and further that there exist two new pairs of resonances as suggested in Abramov et al. (2001 J. Phys. A34, 57-72 (doi:10.1088/0305-4470/34/1/304)).

  1. Working Locally Thinking Globally: Theoretical Guarantees for Convolutional Sparse Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyan, Vardan; Sulam, Jeremias; Elad, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The celebrated sparse representation model has led to remarkable results in various signal processing tasks in the last decade. However, despite its initial purpose of serving as a global prior for entire signals, it has been commonly used for modeling low dimensional patches due to the computational constraints it entails when deployed with learned dictionaries. A way around this problem has been recently proposed, adopting a convolutional sparse representation model. This approach assumes that the global dictionary is a concatenation of banded Circulant matrices. While several works have presented algorithmic solutions to the global pursuit problem under this new model, very few truly-effective guarantees are known for the success of such methods. In this work, we address the theoretical aspects of the convolutional sparse model providing the first meaningful answers to questions of uniqueness of solutions and success of pursuit algorithms, both greedy and convex relaxations, in ideal and noisy regimes. To this end, we generalize mathematical quantities, such as the $\\ell_0$ norm, mutual coherence, Spark and RIP to their counterparts in the convolutional setting, intrinsically capturing local measures of the global model. On the algorithmic side, we demonstrate how to solve the global pursuit problem by using simple local processing, thus offering a first of its kind bridge between global modeling of signals and their patch-based local treatment.

  2. COCOA PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURAL CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEME FUND NEXUS IN NIGERIA: A COINTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyakhilomen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund using time series data on cocoa production in Nigeria, value of loans guaranteed and number of loans guaranteed spanning over the period of 1981 to 2011. The Johansen cointegration test was employed in this study and the result indicated that there was no cointegrating relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund over the period under study. This could be attributed to the guaranteeing of few number as well as limited value of credit to the farmers by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund and the high incidence of loan diversion by the cocoa farmers who had access to the loans guaranteed by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund. It is recommended that the number as well as the value of credit guaranteed to cocoa farmers should be significantly increased so as to enable the farmers expand their production and thereby, reposition the cocoa to assume a critical role as a major non-oil foreign exchange earner in the Agricultural transformation plan of Nigeria.

  3. Do not pay for a Danish interest guarantee. The law of the triple blow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillén, Montserrat; Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Perch Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustrate...... that the price of an interest guarantee is high in pension products that are currently commercialised in the market. We have found that the customer loses up to about 0.75% yearly in the rate of return when an interest guarantee is purchased, compared to the return of an equivalent saving strategy with the same...

  4. Relative prevalence of methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our region, although methicillin resistance increased in S. aureus strains, because of the unavailability and the high cost of alternative antibiotics, gentamycin is still suggested as an alternative for treatment of S. aureus infections. These results however indicate that vancomycin seemed to be the only antimicrobial agent ...

  5. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus have an important role in its dissemination. The colonization rates of S. aureus in anterior nose nares from 210 healthy volunteers (70 from the non-hospital adult personnel in the community, 68 from clinical students and 72 from healthcare workers “HCWs” in 6 hospitals) in the eastern ...

  6. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  7. (allium sativum) on staphylococcus aureus conjunctivites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Bacterial conjunctivitis is common usually self-limiting. The most common causative organisms are staphylococcus epidermis and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Bacterial conjunctivitis is rarely sight threatening. However, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment at the primary level is important as it ...

  8. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  9. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it is the main bacterial organism responsible for diseases caused by exotoxin production and direct invasion with systemic dissemination. In poultry, S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, ...

  10. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. Methods: a cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 ...

  11. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects

  12. Nasal carriage of Meticillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemeda

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 11 (Number 1). June, 2013. 51 ... Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many ..... enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight catering employees. Journal of Food. Protection, 11, 1487–1491. Hill JE ...

  14. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population. Clinical isolates of S. aureus strains were collected from Medical Microbiology Unit of University College Hospital, Ibadan between May and October, 2012. The isolates were confirmed through growth on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and tube coagulase test.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817716

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P

  17. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Bröker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research.

  18. ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SHEEP RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 366 raw milk samples from 30 sheep farms were examined quantitatively for Staphylococcus aureus. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated was investigated. S. aureus was detected in 19 farms (63,3%. The ability to synthetise enterotoxins was found in ten strains (52,6%. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SEC was recorded in 6 (60% and production of SEC together with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA in 4 (40% staphylococcal isolates. Raw milk products are vulnerable to contamination by S. aureus. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of S. aureus in bulk milk are of particular importance on farms where milk is used for raw milk products.

  19. Operon structure of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke-Smits, Nicole J P; Pronk, Tessa E; Jongerius, Ilse; Bruning, Oskar; Wittink, Floyd R; Breit, Timo M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Fluit, Ad C; Boel, C H Edwin

    2010-06-01

    In bacteria, gene regulation is one of the fundamental characteristics of survival, colonization and pathogenesis. Operons play a key role in regulating expression of diverse genes involved in metabolism and virulence. However, operon structures in pathogenic bacteria have been determined only by in silico approaches that are dependent on factors such as intergenic distances and terminator/promoter sequences. Knowledge of operon structures is crucial to fully understand the pathophysiology of infections. Presently, transcriptome data obtained from growth curves in a defined medium were used to predict operons in Staphylococcus aureus. This unbiased approach and the use of five highly reproducible biological replicates resulted in 93.5% significantly regulated genes. These data, combined with Pearson's correlation coefficients of the transcriptional profiles, enabled us to accurately compile 93% of the genome in operon structures. A total of 1640 genes of different functional classes were identified in operons. Interestingly, we found several operons containing virulence genes and showed synergistic effects for two complement convertase inhibitors transcribed in one operon. This is the first experimental approach to fully identify operon structures in S. aureus. It forms the basis for further in vitro regulation studies that will profoundly advance the understanding of bacterial pathophysiology in vivo.

  20. Realization of Human Rights Guarantees in Civil Proceedings in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badma V. Sangadzhiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil legal proceedings are conducted according to the federal laws existing during consideration and permission of a civil case (making of separate legal proceedings or execution of court decrees. In case of lack of the regulation of a procedural law governing the relations which arose during civil legal proceedings, federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate's courts apply the regulation governing the similar relations (analogy of the law. In the absence of such regulation of the judge work proceeding from the general principles of implementation of justice in the Russian Federation (analogy is right. Dispositions of general constitutional guarantees (which don't belong directly to judicial system, however their sense can quite be applied to judicial process of consideration of civil cases contain in the following articles of the Constitution of Russia: 17, 19, 29 and 45. Judicial activities are characterized by the major indicators: quality and efficiency (observance of procedural terms. According to the conventional principles and rules of international law to be an offender without unjustifiable delay constitutes one of the fundamental human rights inseparably linked with the right to fair legal proceeding. In a sense of the constitutional regulation, first, everyone has the right, but isn't obliged to protect the rights, secondly, to protect by all methods which aren't forbidden by the law. It is thought, the last purchases the force and the importance not as ascertaining (or transfer these methods in the law and as availability of real mechanisms of their use by the individual and availability of use.

  1. A Scheduling Discipline for Latency and Bandwidth Guarantees in Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Guaranteed services (GS) are important in that they provide predictability in the complex dynamics of shared communication structures. This paper discusses the implementation of GS in asynchronous Network-on-Chip. We present a novel scheduling discipline called Asynchronous Latency Guarantee (ALG...

  2. Evaluating India's national rural employment guarantee scheme : The case of Birbhum districts, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dey (Subhasish)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe world's biggest Employment Guarantee Programme, India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) has been in operation in rural India since February 2006. In principle, the scheme is a self-targeted programme designed to provide 100 days of employment to rural households

  3. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 230 Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental... and conditions applicable to loan guarantees issued for the benefit of the Government of Israel on behalf of the State of Israel. Pursuant to the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

  4. 77 FR 54877 - Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Low Loan-to-Cost Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ...: Monica Cole, Financial and Loan Analyst, USDA Rural Development Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program, Multi-Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, South Agriculture... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Some Modeling Considerations in Deciding Multi-Year Guaranteed Tuition Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, Marvin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of guaranteed college tuition programs first explores their origins and reasons for continuing high inflation rates for tuition. The relationship between tuition increase and enrollment is examined, and many current guaranteed tuition plans are reviewed. Basic considerations in developing a model for a multiyear plan are outlined and a…

  6. The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, government guarantees for savings banks in Germany were removed following a law suit. We use this natural experiment to examine the effect of government guarantees on bank risk taking, using a large data set of matched bank/borrower information. The results suggest that banks whose

  7. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative. 404.232 Section 404.232 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed...

  8. 76 FR 37779 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Rural Utilities Service Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities... for the Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program for fiscal year (FY) 2011. A Notice..., 2011, at 76 FR 13797, prior to the passage of a final appropriations bill identifying a definite...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.345 - Applicant eligibility requirements for a guaranteed loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is used to determine eligibility for the RHS loan guarantee. (b) Adequate and dependable income. The... collections within the last 12 months (utility bills, hospital bills, etc.). (vii) Collection accounts... previous loan, a loan guarantee shall not be issued unless RHS determines the RHS loss was beyond the...

  10. 7 CFR 762.130 - Loan approval and issuing the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... those approved in the interim by the Agency in writing); (ii) Required hazard, flood, crop, worker's... assignment on all USDA crop and livestock program payments has been obtained; (vii) When required, personal... the terms of the original note. (f) Replacement of loan guarantee, or assignment guarantee agreement...

  11. Low-cost guaranteed-throughput communication ring for real-time streaming MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, B.H.J.; Kurtin, Philip Sebastian; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    Connection-oriented guaranteed-throughput mesh-based networks on chip have been proposed as a replacement for buses in real-time embedded multiprocessor systems such as software defined radios. Even with attractive features like throughput and latency guarantees they are not always used because

  12. 16 CFR 239.2 - Disclosures in warranty or guarantee advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures in warranty or guarantee advertising. 239.2 Section 239.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES...: (address).” B. “ABC power tools are guaranteed. Read about our limited 90 day warranty in this catalogue...

  13. 17 CFR 3.44 - Temporary licensing of applicants for guaranteed introducing broker registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicants for guaranteed introducing broker registration. 3.44 Section 3.44 Commodity and Securities... applicants for guaranteed introducing broker registration. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of these... grant a temporary license to any applicant for registration as an introducing broker upon the...

  14. PARAMETER KINETIKA INAKTIVASI TERMAL DAN ISOLASI Staphylococcus aureus PADA MINUMAN DARI GEL CINCAU HIJAU DAN ROSELA [Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Parameter and Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus on Drink from Green Grass Jelly and Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hari Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about heat resistance (D and z values of target bacteria is needed for the thermal process design on drink from Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr. and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., so it can guarantee quality and safety of the product. The objectives of this research were to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from commercial green grass jelly and to determine the D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus (from commercial product and standard clinical isolate ATCC 25923 on heating menstruum of green grass jelly and roselle. Isolation of S. aureus was done by inoculation in selective medium, D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus were assessed by heating at constant temperatures of 57, 53, 49, and 45°C during the time interval 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results showed that one isolate (Isolate A gave positive response of Staphylococcus aureus in isolation tests and had similar percentage with the reference culture of 41.8% using the API Staph Kit. Heat resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (represented as D value isolated from green grass jelly at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 32.3, 17.9, 4.6, and 1.5 minutes. On the other hand, D value of isolates ATCC 25923 (standard clinical isolate at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 18.5, 6.8, 2.9, and 1.4 minutes. The z value of isolates A and ATCC 25923 were 8.8°C and 10.8°C. Smaller z value of isolate A showed that pasteurization process can be accelerated and optimized with increasing the temperature slightly but has the same lethality effect.

  15. Safety-Guaranteed Trajectory Tracking Control for the Underactuated Hovercraft with State and Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a safety-guaranteed trajectory tracking controller for hovercraft by using a safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system, an integral sliding mode control, and an adaptive neural network method. The safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system is designed to implement system state and input constraints. By considering the relationship of velocity and resistance hump, the velocity of hovercraft is constrained to eliminate the effect of resistance hump and obtain better stability. And the safety limit of drift angle is well performed to guarantee the light safe maneuvers of hovercraft tracking with high velocities. In view of the natural capabilities of actuators, the control input is constrained. High nonlinearity and model uncertainties of hovercraft are approximated by employing adaptive radical basis function neural networks. The proposed controller guarantees the boundedness of all the closed-loop signals. Specifically, the tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded. Numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate the efficacy of the designed controller.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.

  17. IMPROVING THE PROVISION OF STATE GUARANTEES UNDER CREDITS OR BONDED LOANS RAISED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola D. Sanginova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the

  18. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Most staph germs are spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or ...

  20. Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Keizerweerd, Gabriella D.; de Gans, Jan; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    We present 9 patients with community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Foci of infection outside the central nervous system were present in 8 (89%) patients, mostly endocarditis and pneumonia. Cardiorespiratory complications occurred frequently and 6 patients died (67%). Identification and

  1. Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 ...

  2. An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management

  3. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Virulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Silkworm hemolymph inhibits hemolysin production by Staphylococcus aureus. We purified a factor in the silkworm hemolymph responsible for this inhibitory activity. The final fraction with the greatest specific activity contained 220- and 74-kDa proteins. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the 220- and 74-kDa proteins were apolipophorin I and apolipophorin II, respectively, indicating that the factor was apolipophorin (ApoLp). The purified ApoLp fraction showed decreased expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin, hlb encoding β-hemolysin, saeRS, and RNAIII, which activate the expression of these hemolysin genes. Injection of an anti-ApoLp antibody into the hemolymph increased the sensitivity of silkworms to the lethal effect of S. aureus. Hog gastric mucin, a mammalian homologue of ApoLp, decreased the expression of S. aureus hla and hlb. These findings suggest that ApoLp in the silkworm hemolymph inhibits S. aureus virulence and contributes to defense against S. aureus infection and that its activity is conserved in mammalian mucin. PMID:21937431

  5. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  6. 22 CFR 230.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agreement or other document executed by a Noteholder, USAID, the Fiscal Agent or the Borrower in connection... guarantee provision shall not, however, be operative with respect to any loss arising out of fraud or...

  7. Guaranteed electric power with wind turbines; Puissance electrique garantie avec des eoliennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-05-15

    Intermittency considerably reduces guaranteed power at high availability. This is a consequence of wind power production statistics. Unless appropriate storage devices are implemented, power from wind generators is substituted to the production of conventional power plants. (author)

  8. Investigating the effects of issuance of bank debt guarantee on profitability of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirayesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between bank debt guarantee and profitability, increase in banks resources and customer retention. The proposed study has been implemented in one of Iranian banks located in city of Zanjan, Iran over the period of 10 years. The study has used Pearson correlation test to examine three hypotheses of the survey. The results indicate that there were positive and meaningful relationship between bank debt guarantee and profitability (r = 0.863, P-value = 0.001, a positive relationship between bank debt guarantee and bank resources (r = 0.708 with P-value = 0.015 and there was a positive and meaningful relationship between bank debt guarantee and customer retention (r = 0.252 with P-value = 0.001.

  9. 17 CFR 270.5b-2 - Exclusion of certain guarantees as securities of the guarantor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management company, does not exceed 10 percent of the value of the total assets of such management company... guarantee by a railroad company of a security issued by a terminal company, warehouse company, switching...

  10. 77 FR 52025 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  11. 14 CFR 1310.15 - Amendment or Waiver of a term or condition of a guaranteed loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AND AMENDMENT OR WAIVER OF A TERM OR CONDITION OF GUARANTEED LOAN § 1310.15 Amendment or Waiver of a term or condition of a guaranteed loan. The Board may, in its discretion, charge the borrower a... term or condition of any guaranteed loan document or related instrument approved by the Board. ...

  12. 77 FR 50102 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million AGENCY... for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million. SUMMARY... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  13. 77 FR 58139 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million; 25 Day... regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  14. 77 FR 67362 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million; 25 Day... regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  15. 77 FR 52026 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as...

  16. 77 FR 66616 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million; 25 Day... application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million. Reason... application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as...

  17. 77 FR 51023 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  18. 77 FR 61749 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... comment period regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee...-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee...

  19. 77 FR 62236 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 million; 25 Day Comment... an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as...

  20. 77 FR 68120 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million; 25 Day... regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  1. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  2. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateete, David P; Kimani, Cyrus N; Katabazi, Fred A; Okeng, Alfred; Okee, Moses S; Nanteza, Ann; Joloba, Moses L; Najjuka, Florence C

    2010-08-13

    The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of human and sheep plasma with tube coagulase tests was also evaluated. One hundred and eighty Gram positive, Catalase positive cocci occurring in pairs, short chains or clusters were subjected to growth on Mannitol salt agar, deoxyribonuclease and tube coagulase tests. Of these, isolates that were positive for at least two of the three tests (n = 60) were used to evaluate the performance of the tube coagulase test for identification of S. aureus, using PCR-amplification of the nuc gene as a gold standard. Human plasma was more sensitive than sheep plasma for the tube coagulase test (sensitivity of 91% vs. 81% respectively), but both plasmas had very low specificity (11% and 7% respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the tube coagulase test (human plasma) was markedly improved when Mannitol salt agar and DNase were introduced as a tri-combination test for routine identification of Staphylococcus aureus (100% specificity and 75% sensitivity). The specificity and sensitivity of Mannitol salt agar/DNase/tube coagulase (sheep plasma) combination was 100% and 67%, respectively. The efficiency of the tube coagulase test can be markedly improved by sequel testing of the isolates with Mannitol salt agar, DNase and Tube coagulase. There is no single phenotypic test (including tube coagulase) that can guarantee reliable results in the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateete David P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of human and sheep plasma with tube coagulase tests was also evaluated. Methods One hundred and eighty Gram positive, Catalase positive cocci occurring in pairs, short chains or clusters were subjected to growth on Mannitol salt agar, deoxyribonuclease and tube coagulase tests. Of these, isolates that were positive for at least two of the three tests (n = 60 were used to evaluate the performance of the tube coagulase test for identification of S. aureus, using PCR-amplification of the nuc gene as a gold standard. Results Human plasma was more sensitive than sheep plasma for the tube coagulase test (sensitivity of 91% vs. 81% respectively, but both plasmas had very low specificity (11% and 7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the tube coagulase test (human plasma was markedly improved when Mannitol salt agar and DNase were introduced as a tri-combination test for routine identification of Staphylococcus aureus (100% specificity and 75% sensitivity. The specificity and sensitivity of Mannitol salt agar/DNase/tube coagulase (sheep plasma combination was 100% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion The efficiency of the tube coagulase test can be markedly improved by sequel testing of the isolates with Mannitol salt agar, DNase and Tube coagulase. There is no single phenotypic test (including tube coagulase that can guarantee reliable results in the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. PRICING AND ASSESSING UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE CONTRACTS WITH INVESTMENT GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the

  5. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  6. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  7. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis in diverse host environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Divya; Harper, Lamia; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an eminent human pathogen that can colonize the human host and cause severe life-threatening illnesses. This bacterium can reside in and infect a wide range of host tissues, ranging from superficial surfaces like the skin to deeper tissues such as in the gastrointestinal tract, heart and bones. Due to its multifaceted lifestyle, S. aureus uses complex regulatory networks to sense diverse signals that enable it to adapt to different environments and modulate virulence. In this minireview, we explore well-characterized environmental and host cues that S. aureus responds to and describe how this pathogen modulates virulence in response to these signals. Lastly, we highlight therapeutic approaches undertaken by several groups to inhibit both signaling and the cognate regulators that sense and transmit these signals downstream. PMID:28104617

  9. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador encarregado de fazer o diagnóstico de gestação nas coelhas. Histologicamente, havia formação de múltiplos abscessos, presença de bactérias gram positivas em vasos sangüíneos e linfáticos, além de êmbolos bacterianos nos tecidos. Nas mamas, observou-se tecido glandular normal associado a abscessos multifocais delimitados.At a commercial rabbitry which was composed of 1800 New Zealand White rabbits, 30% of the does had presented mastitis and purulent cutaneal lesions. The age of the animals ranged from 10 to 12 months and were at the second parturition. At necropsy, microabscesses were observed in several organs. Bacteriological samples collected from affected animals resulted Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus.. Additionally, the same agent has been isolated from a nasal swab collected from the person responsible for the pregnancy diagnosis. Histologically, there were multiple abscesses, gram positive bacteria within blood and lymphatic vessels, and bacterial emboli scattered in the tissues. In the mammas, normal glandular tissue associated with multifocal abscesses were observed.

  10. Community oral health literacy: improving use of oral-health care guarantee in children aged 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cornejo-Ovalle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.

  11. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 ear and nasal swab samples collected from 35 persons, 16-hospital population and 19 non-hospital population was examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Eighty percent of the population studied were found to be carriers of S. aureus. Of the 28 positive cases, 35.7% were carriers of S. aureus. in ...

  12. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the anterior nares of healthy pupils and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. 116 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were biochemically characterized as coagulase positive S. aureus. Susceptibility profile of the isolates revealed that 15(14.85%) ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and provides...

  14. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...

  15. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2008-10-30

    Oct 30, 2008 ... Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We investigated the frequency of nasal S. aureus carriage in patients with perennial ...

  16. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  17. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three Hundred and Sixty fresh cow milk samples were collected from settled Fulani herds in Kaduna State and examined for S. aureus and their antibiotic resistance. Fifty five samples (15.3%) were positive for S. aureus. The occurrence of S. aureus was statistically significant (P<0.005) based on locations. Statistical ...

  18. Execution of Fiduciary Guarantee Under Law No. 42 of 1999 on Fiduciary Guarantee (A Socio-Juridical Analysis to Anticipate Its Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Sukanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiduciary Guarantee (Fiduciary Law which approved by the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia (DPR RI on September 9, 1999 has accommodate the public needs to help business activities and to provide legal certainty to the interested parties. With the increase in the development activities and the needs for funding, a majority of funds are needed to meet the lending and borrowing activities that require protection for the lender and the borrower through a guarantee institution that can provide legal certainty and protection to the lender or the borrower. Viewed from the current lending practices, there is a difficulty on the part of the Fiduciary Guarantee to conduct the fiduciary execution if the Fiduciary Grantor defaults since in fact the goods being a fiduciary object are still in the possession of the Fiduciary Grantor or Debtor, then in line with the provisions of article 1977 of the Indonesian Civil Code, known as the principle of bezit geldt als volkomen titel.

  19. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  20. The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  3. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there was no bacterial growth after 48hrs incubation recorded for group one, only 5(13.9%) samples yielded growth of Staphylococcus aureus for group two with 31(86.1%) yielding no bacterial growth. All group three samples yielded profuse growth of which 11(36.7%) yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  5. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected ...

  6. Profiling the surfacome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; Hempel, Kristina; Buist, Girbe; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Doerte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide variety of life-threatening diseases. Especially for the colonization of human tissues and the development of invasiveness, surface-exposed proteins are of major importance. In the present studies, we optimized a

  7. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples collected from patients in Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance to quinolones by the agar disk diffusion susceptibility test and the agar ...

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a mainly acquired hospital infection is responsible for many suppurative lesions and has demonstrated the ability of developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents leading to life threatening infections and long hospital stay. Objective: To determined the prevalence and antibiotic ...

  11. Polyclonal antibodies production against Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... The main aim of this project is to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against the Staphylococcus aureus protein A and their use to appreciate bacteriological analysis of milk quality. In this context, an immunization produce was set up to test and detect in a batch of animals the convenient responder to.

  12. Meticillineresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in de gemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from

  13. Staphylococcus aureus infections; Lead by the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn overview and the latest insights regarding S. aureus nasal carriage, associated risks of developing infections and possible preventive measures, will be given in Chapter 2. Since mupirocin efficacy studies in preventing nosocomial infections have only been performed in surgical and

  14. Microbial population of Staphyloccous aureus from inanimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High frequency of S. aureus was observed in toilet seat with perecentage distribution of 78%, followed by floor with percentage distribution of 70% and locker with percentage distribution of 65% and the lowest frequency occurence was observed in switch with percentage distribution of 30%. Frequency occurrence of S.

  15. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208527.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel" of January 2014. This document contains a single change to reflect the terminology under the new career structure: the term "career path" is replaced by "grade". This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  16. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Slini, Theodora; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in plaque and tongue samples from systemically healthy subjects with periodontal health, gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 systemically healthy participants were ultimately enrolled in the current study. Subgingival samples were taken from the first molars and the tongue and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus and MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. In addition, samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. Statistical analysis was performed by applying non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis for clinical parameters, and z-test with Bonferroni corrections for distributions of assessed parameters). All comparisons were set at the 0.05 significance level. S. aureus was detected in 18% of all participants and in 10% of the samples tested. No significant differences were found in its distribution among the three investigated groups (z-test for proportions with Bonferroni corrections, p>0.05). The mecA gene was not present in any of the S. aureus found. S. aureus can be found in the oral environment regardless of the periodontal conditions and therefore should be considered as a member of the transient flora not participating in periodontal pathology. Subgingival sites and tongue surfaces seem to be an unusual habitat of MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction of a New Fusion Protein Vector Associated to Fibronectin Binding Protein A and Clumping Factor A derived from Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Faghri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of many nosocomial and community acquired infections. According to many reports, antibiotic therapy can not guarantee the eradication of S. aureus infections. Thus designing an adhesin based vaccine could restrain the S. aureus infections. This study designed for construction of a new fusion protein vaccine against S. aureus infections based on adhesin molecules fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA and clumping factor A (ClfA. Materials and Methods Bioinformatic experiments were performed using Oligo analyzer and DNAMAN softwares. The fragments corresponding to fnbA binding domain and a C-terminal fragment from clfA were amplified from S. aureus NCTC8325 genomic DNA. Purified PCR products and the vector, pET15b, were digested with NcoI and BamHI. The digested PCR products were hybridized together and then ligated to digested vector. Finally incomplete construct was assembled by Taq DNA polymerase. To quick confirmation of cloning procedure the new construct designated pfnbA-clfA was digested with NcoI and BamHI. To further verification, the product was sent for sequencing. Results The data based on bioinformatic analysis showed no homology between fusion protein and human proteins. Digestion of new vector with NcoI and BamHI confirmed the ligation of fusion protein sequence into pET15b. Sequencing results verified the integrity of target sequences. Conclusion This study is the first effort to construct a new fusion protein vector based on S. aureus adhesins using a new design. This project is being continued to study the expression and biological activity of the fusion protein in a cell culture model.

  18. Study on Risk Analysis and the Way of Framing the Activity of Credit Guarantee for SMEs in Prudential Requirements/ Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Nancu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with risk analysis and with the way of framing the activity of credit guaranteefor SMEs in terms of prudential requirements/ indicators. Il also tackles the ways of framing theactivity of guaranteeing, financing and treasury, under prudential requirements/ indicators, withinthe limits laid down for Non-Banking Financial Institutions, for Guaranteeing the Credits grantedto SMEs, by the National Credit Guarantee Fund for SMEs, under the Risk Policy and internalregulations (rules, procedures, operation instructions.

  19. Guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants in Germany and Austria; Gesicherte Leistung der Wasserkraft in Deutschland und Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Markus [VERBUND Hydro Power GmbH, Wien (Austria); Ernst, Hans-Peter; Engels, Klaus [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Sparte Wasserkraft, Landshut (Germany); Metzka, Rudolf [Technische Hochschule Deggendorf (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Balancing fluctuations caused by renewable energy play an important role in the current transition of energy supply systems. Hydro power plants provide both: guaranteed capacity as well as renewability. In Germany and Austria definitions of how to quantify the guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants are well established to calculate the guaranteed capacity for an individual power plant. The definitions are challenged against real examples.

  20. A Type System for Unstructured Locking that Guarantees Deadlock Freedom without Imposing a Lock Ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodromos Gerakios

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Deadlocks occur in concurrent programs as a consequence of cyclic resource acquisition between threads. In this paper we present a novel type system that guarantees deadlock freedom for a language with references, unstructured locking primitives, and locks which are implicitly associated with references. The proposed type system does not impose a strict lock acquisition order and thus increases programming language expressiveness.

  1. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. ...

  2. Routing of guaranteed throughput traffic in a network-on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Wolkotte, P.T.; Jansen, P.G.

    This paper examines the possibilities of providing throughput guarantees in a network-on-chip by appropriate traffic routing. A source routing function is used to find routes with specified throughput for the data streams in a streaming multiprocessor system-on-chip. The influence of the routing

  3. 75 FR 3892 - USDA Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program; 2010 Industry Forums-Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... and Loan Analyst, Multifamily Housing Guaranteed Loan Division, Rural Development, United States Department of Agriculture, telephone: (202) 401-2307, fax: (202) 205-5066, or e-mail: [email protected] From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 48 CFR 846.710-71 - Warranty for construction-guarantee period services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710-71 Warranty for construction—guarantee period services. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-75, Warranty... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranty for construction...

  5. 78 FR 75215 - Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... CFR Parts 201, 203, 1005, and 1007 RIN 2502-AJ18 Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages AGENCY: Office of Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Through this final rule, HUD establishes a definition of ``qualified mortgage'' for the single family...

  6. 78 FR 59890 - Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 201, 203, 1005, and 1007 RIN 2502-AJ18 Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages AGENCY: Office of Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Proposed... mortgages, and generally prohibits a creditor from making a residential mortgage loan unless the creditor...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... receivable taken from a current aging of accounts receivable from the borrower's most recent financial... and current (not over 90 days old) credit report, proven management, evidence of the market necessary... borrowers will: (i) In the case of personal guarantees, provide current financial statements (not over 60...

  8. Benefits and Guarantees of Law Enforcement Members under Transitional Justice in Compared Perspective: Lessons for Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Benítez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the acknowledgement of the rights given to the Army in transitional justice processes through a revision of countries that have changed from a dictatorship to a democracy and from war to peace. This is carried out in order to show the possible rights and guarantees given to the Army during the transitional justice process in Colombia.

  9. Massive M2M Access with Reliability Guarantees in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are one of the major drivers of the cellular network evolution towards 5G systems. One of the key challenges is on how to provide reliability guarantees to each accessing device in a situation in which there is a massive number of almost-simultaneous arriva...

  10. 76 FR 13797 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... (download plus upload speeds) for both fixed and mobile broadband service and the broadband lending speed will be a minimum bandwidth of 5 megabits per second for both fixed and mobile service to the customer...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program...

  11. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  12. A Unified Pricing of Variable Annuity Guarantees under the Optimal Stochastic Control Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review pricing of the variable annuity living and death guarantees offered to retail investors in many countries. Investors purchase these products to take advantage of market growth and protect savings. We present pricing of these products via an optimal stochastic control framework and review the existing numerical methods. We also discuss pricing under the complete/incomplete financial market models, stochastic mortality and optimal/sub-optimal policyholder behavior, and in the presence of taxes. For numerical valuation of these contracts in the case of simple risky asset process, we develop a direct integration method based on the Gauss-Hermite quadratures with a one-dimensional cubic spline for calculation of the expected contract value, and a bi-cubic spline interpolation for applying the jump conditions across the contract cashflow event times. This method is easier to implement and faster when compared to the partial differential equation methods if the transition density (or its moments of the risky asset underlying the contract is known in closed form between the event times. We present accurate numerical results for pricing of a Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB guarantee available on the market that can serve as a numerical benchmark for practitioners and researchers developing pricing of variable annuity guarantees to assess the accuracy of their numerical implementation.

  13. Fair Valuation of Guaranteed Contracts : The Interaction Between Assets and Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.; Kleynen, R.H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the investment behavior of an insurance company consisting of policy and equity holders and issuing fair valued guaranteed contracts.Building up on the work of Briys and De Varenne (1997) and De Munnik and Schotman (1994) an intertemporal stochastic asset model and an interest

  14. 20 CFR 404.242 - Use of old-start primary insurance amount as guaranteed alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guaranteed alternative. 404.242 Section 404.242 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Old-Start Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.242 Use of old-start primary insurance amount as...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.413 - Transactions which will not be guaranteed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Guaranteeing of loans involved in tax-exempt obligations under § 1980.23 of Subpart A of this Part. Administrative The State Director will consider the overall State allocations of funding authority in...) authority should continue to be referred to SBA. If the State Director decides to process SBA size loans...

  16. Deterministic Price Setting Rules to Guarantee Profitability of Unbundling in the Airline Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diepen, G.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Unbundling the traditional airfare is one of the airline industry’s practices to generate ancillary revenue in its struggle for profitability. However, unbundling might just as well negatively affect profit. In this paper deterministic price setting rules are established to guarantee profitability

  17. Enabling customer satisfaction and stock reduction through service differentiation with response time guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Gabor (Adriana); L.A. van Vianen (Lars); G. Yang (Guangyuan); S. Axsäter (Sven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn response to customer specific service time guarantee requirements, service providers can offer differentiated services. However, conventional customer differentiation models based on fill rate constraints do not take full advantage of the stock reduction that can be achieved by

  18. 75 FR 17303 - Section 108 Community Development Loan Guarantee Program: Participation of States as Borrowers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... procedure, American Samoa, Community Development Block Grants, Grant programs--education, Grant programs-- housing and community development, Guam, Indians, Loan programs-- housing and community development, Low... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 570 RIN 2506-AC28 Section 108 Community Development Loan Guarantee Program...

  19. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of any TC. (b) SBA authority to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public or private financing under its guarantee authority. Such financing arranged by... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public or private financing under its guarantee authority. Such financing arranged by SBA may be accomplished by the... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding...

  1. 76 FR 30904 - Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program... telecommunications systems, equipment and services. The List of Materials historically has been a very useful tool in... to advancing state-of-the-art telecommunications technologies, consistent with our commitment to high...

  2. 75 FR 13329 - Implications of Financial Accounting System (FAS) 166 on SBA Guaranteed Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Implications of Financial Accounting System (FAS) 166 on SBA Guaranteed Loan Programs AGENCY... Administration (SBA) is soliciting information and views from the public on: (1) The effect that the accounting changes mandated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in Financial Accounting Standard (FAS...

  3. Economic valuation of a toll road concession with traffic guarantees and the abandonment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Fischberg Blank

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Governments worldwide have been encouraging private participation in transportation infrastructure. To increase the feasibility of a project, public-private partnership (PPP may include guarantees or other support to reduce the risks for private investors. It is necessary to value these opportunities under a real options framework and thereby analyze the project's economic feasibility and risk allocation. However, within this structure, sponsors have an implicit option to abandon the project that should be simultaneously valued. Thus, this article proposes a hypothetical toll road concession in Brazil with a minimum traffic guarantee, a maximum traffic ceiling, and an implicit abandonment option. Different combinations of the minimum and maximum levels are presented, resulting in very high or even negative value added to the net present value (NPV. The abandonment option impacts the level of guarantee to be given. Governments should calibrate an optimal level of guarantees to avoid unnecessarily high costs, protect the returns of the sponsor, and lower the probability of abandonment.

  4. Participating Life Insurance Products with Alternative Guarantees: Reconciling Policyholders’ and Insurers’ Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Reuß

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional participating life insurance contracts with year-to-year (cliquet-style guarantees have come under pressure in the current situation of low interest rates and volatile capital markets, in particular when priced in a market-consistent valuation framework. In addition, such guarantees lead to rather high capital requirements under risk-based solvency frameworks such as Solvency II or the Swiss Solvency Test (SST. Therefore, insurers in several countries have developed new forms of participating products with alternative (typically weaker and/or lower guarantees that are less risky for the insurer. In a previous paper, it has been shown that such alternative product designs can lead to higher capital efficiency, i.e., higher and more stable profits and reduced capital requirements. As a result, the financial risk for the insurer is significantly reduced while the main guarantee features perceived and requested by the policyholder are preserved. Based on these findings, this paper now combines the insurer’s and the policyholder’s perspective by analyzing product versions that compensate policyholders for the less valuable guarantees. We particularly identify combinations of asset allocation and profit participation rate for the different product designs that lead to an identical expected profit for the insurer (and identical risk-neutral value for the policyholder, but differ with respect to the insurer’s risk and solvency capital requirements as well as with respect to the real-world return distribution for the policyholder. We show that alternative products can be designed in a way that the insurer’s expected profitability remains unchanged, the insurer’s risk and hence capital requirement is substantially reduced and the policyholder’s expected return is increased. This illustrates that such products might be able to reconcile insurers’ and policyholders’ interests and serve as an alternative to the rather risky

  5. Stilbenes reduce Staphylococcus aureus hemolysis, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ryu, Shi Yong; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-09-01

    Stilbenoids have a broad range of beneficial health effects. On the other hand, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus presents a worldwide problem that requires new antibiotics or nonantibiotic strategies. S. aureus produces α-hemolysin (a pore-forming cytotoxin) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and pneumonia. Furthermore, the biofilms formed by S. aureus constitute a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we investigated the hemolytic and antibiofilm activities of 10 stilbene-related compounds against S. aureus. trans-Stilbene and resveratrol at 10 μg/mL were found to markedly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus, and trans-stilbene also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation without affecting its bacterial growth. Furthermore, trans-stilbene and resveratrol attenuated S. aureus virulence in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is normally killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analysis showed that trans-stilbene repressed the α-hemolysin hla gene and the intercellular adhesion locus (icaA and icaD) in S. aureus, and this finding was in line with observed reductions in virulence and biofilm formation. In addition, vitisin B, a stilbenoid tetramer, at 1 μg/mL was observed to significantly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M.; Freire, Marcelo O.; Gabrilska, Rebecca A.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Lemon, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe–microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  8. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2012-01-01

    decisions with regard to harmonisation of typing methods. A stratified, three-level organisation of testing laboratories was proposed: local; regional; and national. The functions of, and testing methodology used by, each laboratory were defined. The group consensus was to recommend spa and staphylococcal......This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  9. Mechanisms of Gentamicin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Three clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides have been examined for antibiotic modifying enzymes. The strains contain a number of these enzymes, most of them similar to those commonly found in aminoglycoside-resistant gram-negative strains. All three strains (and a transductant derived from one of them) contain two enzymes mediating gentamicin resistance, an aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase and a novel enzyme, gentamicin phosphotransferase. PMID:836013

  10. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  12. Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen highly evolved as both a component of the commensal flora and as a major cause of invasive infection. Severe respiratory infection due to staphylococci has been increasing due to the prevalence of more virulent USA300 CA-MRSA strains in the general population. The ability of S. aureus to adapt to the milieu of the respiratory tract has facilitated its emergence as a respiratory pathogen. Its metabolic versatility, the ability to scavenge iron, coordinate gene expression, and the horizontal acquisition of useful genetic elements have all contributed to its success as a component of the respiratory flora, in hospitalized patients, as a complication of influenza and in normal hosts. The expression of surface adhesins facilitates its persistence in the airways. In addition, the highly sophisticated interactions of the multiple S. aureus virulence factors, particularly the α-hemolysin and protein A, with diverse immune effectors in the lung such as ADAM10, TNFR1, EGFR, immunoglobulin, and complement all contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:22037948

  13. Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar medium to conventional media for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhart, Diane; Lema, Clara; Borek, Anita; Carroll, Karen C

    2004-08-01

    Screening for Staphylococcus aureus has become routine in certain patient populations. This study is the first clinical evaluation of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar (CSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, Md.) for detection of S. aureus in nasal surveillance cultures and in respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. S. aureus colonies appear mauve on CSA. Other organisms are inhibited or produce a distinctly different colony color. S. aureus was identified from all media by slide coagulase, exogenous DNase, and mannitol fermentation assays. Susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. A total of 679 samples were evaluated. All samples were inoculated onto CSA. Nasal surveillance cultures were inoculated onto sheep blood agar (SBA) (BD Diagnostics), and samples from CF patients were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar (MSA) (BD Diagnostics). Of the 679 samples cultured, 200 organisms produced a mauve color on CSA (suspicious for S. aureus) and 180 were positive for S. aureus on SBA or MSA. Of 200 CSA-positive samples 191 were identified as S. aureus. Nine mauve colonies were slide coagulase negative and were subsequently identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis (one), Staphylococcus epidermidis (three), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one), and Corynebacterium species (four). CSA improved the ability to detect S. aureus by recovering 12 S. aureus isolates missed by conventional media. Of the 192 S. aureus isolates recovered, 122 were methicillin susceptible and 70 were methicillin resistant. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in this study were 99.5 and 98%, respectively. There was no difference in the performance of the slide coagulase test or in susceptibility testing performed on S. aureus recovered from CSA compared to SBA or MSA. Our data support the use of CSA in place of standard culture media for detection of S. aureus in heavily contaminated respiratory samples.

  14. 75 FR 3197 - Notice of a Public Meeting on Administration of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of a Public Meeting on Administration of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public... Development Mission area, will hold a public meeting entitled ``Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program...

  15. 78 FR 5439 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  16. 78 FR 75344 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  17. 78 FR 54465 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  18. 78 FR 8129 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in...

  19. 78 FR 53146 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  20. 78 FR 20317 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  1. 78 FR 42072 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance.... Reference: AP087586XX. Purpose and Use Brief description of the purpose of the transaction: A direct loan to...

  2. 78 FR 69414 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with...

  3. 77 FR 74010 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  4. 78 FR 23763 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  5. 78 FR 50414 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee ] in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c...

  6. 78 FR 21948 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  7. 78 FR 1211 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  8. 78 FR 78955 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as...

  9. 78 FR 8130 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  10. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  11. 78 FR 27236 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  12. 78 FR 56227 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  13. 78 FR 44562 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  14. 78 FR 59688 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in...

  15. 78 FR 76614 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  16. 78 FR 42776 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  17. 78 FR 13875 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  18. 77 FR 74846 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  19. 78 FR 16675 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  20. 78 FR 75563 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  1. 78 FR 67144 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  2. 78 FR 16852 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  3. 78 FR 2673 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in...

  4. 78 FR 69850 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance...

  5. 78 FR 42777 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  6. 77 FR 47382 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance... components and US supplied engineering services to the United Arab Emirates. Brief non-proprietary...

  7. 78 FR 16501 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 million... loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with Section 3(c)(10... equipment, plus consulting and engineering services. Information on Decision: Information on the final...

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle targeted hyperthermia of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho; Yamayoshi, Itsukyo; Mathew, Steven; Liln, Hubert; Nayfach, Joseph; Simon, Scott I.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of wound infections that do not adequately respond to standard-of-care antimicrobial treatment has been increasing. To address this challenge, a novel antimicrobial magnetic thermotherapy platform has been developed in which a high-amplitude, high-frequency, alternating magnetic field (AMF) is used to rapidly heat magnetic nanoparticles that are bound to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antimicrobial efficacy of this platform was evaluated in the treatment of both an in vitro culture model of S. aureus biofilm and a mouse model of cutaneous S. aureus infection. We demonstrated that an antibody-targeted magnetic nanoparticle bound to S. aureus was effective at thermally inactivating S. aureus and achieving accelerated wound healing without causing tissue injury. PMID:23149904

  9. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissa Diawara; Khadija Bekhti; Driss Elhabchi; Rachid Saile; Naima Elmdaghri; Mohammed Timinouni; Mohamed Elazhari

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Patients and Methods Nasal swab specim...

  10. GRS - Guarantee of results for grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems; GRS - Garantierte Resultate von Solarstromanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Ch.; Frei, R.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the development of a performance guarantee for the power delivered by grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power plant. This is important for investors, who need to be able to calculate the price of the energy produced by the PV plant. The report examines the results of various case studies and experience gained with GRS contracts developed in different countries including Switzerland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. The problems encountered, which provided feedback for the further development of the contract presented in the report, are discussed. The model contract, which proposes a framework which provides many possible variations and adaptations, is presented in detail. Various problem areas such as guaranteed energy yield, meteorological references, correction methods, failure detection, dispute settlement and many other points are covered.

  11. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) entitled “Guarantees for representatives of the personnel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 2) entitled “Guarantees for members of the personnel holding representative office” of November 1992. The circular was revised in order to adapt the time given to the representatives of the personnel to perform their elective mandate and to ensure more transparency in their activities, by indicating, inter alia, the percentage of time worked in the framework of their mandate, as well as the training, activities and ensuing results. Department Head Office HR Department

  12. Optimal Guaranteed Service Time and Service Level Decision with Time and Service Level Sensitive Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-stage supply chain with one supplier and one retailer. The retailer sells a product to customer and the supplier provides a product in a make-to-order mode. In this case, the supplier’s decisions on service time and service level and the retailer’s decision on retail price have effects on customer demand. We develop optimization models to determine the optimal retail price, the optimal guaranteed service time, the optimal service level, and the optimal capacity to maximize the expected profit of the whole supply chain. The results of numerical experiments show that it is more profitable to determine the optimal price, the optimal guaranteed service time, and the optimal service level simultaneously and the proposed model is more profitable in service level sensitive market.

  13. Cross-Layer Control with Worst Case Delay Guarantees in Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay guarantee is a challenge to meet different real-time requirements in applications of backpressure-based wireless multihop networks, and therefore, researchers are interested in the possibility of providing bounded end-to-end delay. In this paper, a new cross-layer control algorithm with worst case delay guarantees is proposed. The utility maximization algorithm is developed using a Lyapunov optimization framework. Virtual queues that ensure the worst case delay of nondropped packets are designed. It is proved through rigorous theoretical analyses and verified by simulations that the time average overall utility achieved by the new algorithm can be arbitrarily close to the optimal solution with finite queue backlogs. The simulation results evaluated with Matlab show that the proposed algorithm achieves higher throughput utility with fewer data dropped compared with the existing work.

  14. Attaining Sustainable Rural Infrastructure through the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Datta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA 2005, with its rights-based approach through a time-bound employment guarantee and legal framework, has marked a paradigm shift not only from other wage-employment programmes hitherto pursued in India, but also from neo-liberal reforms undertaken since 1991. The Act came into force on 2 February 2006 and was implemented in a phased manner. In Phase I it was introduced in 200 of the most backward districts of the country; Phase II added another 130 districts in 2007-08; and in Phase III the scheme was further extended to the remaining 274 rural districts of India from 1 April 2008.

  15. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  16. Development Concept of Guaranteed Verification Electric Power System Simulation Tools and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problem reliability and verification of widespread electric power systems (EPS simulation tools is presented in this article. Everything simulation tools are based on the using of numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Described the concept of guaranteed verification EPS simulation tools and the structure of its realization are based using the Simulator having properties of continuous , without decomposition three-phase EPS simulation in real time and on an unlimited range with guaranteed accuracy. The information from the Simulator can be verified by using data only quasi-steady-state regime received from the SCADA and such Simulator can be applied as the standard model for verification any EPS simulation tools.

  17. Immunohistochemical Labelling for Cyclo-oxygenase-2: Does the Positive Control Guarantee Standardized Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluco, S; Carnier, P; Castagnaro, M; Chiers, K; Millanta, F; Peña, L; Pires, I; Queiroga, F; Riffard, S; Scase, T; Polton, G

    2016-01-01

    Since the identification of cyclo-oxygenase-2 as a potentially important therapeutic target in veterinary oncology, numerous studies on its expression have been conducted. Unfortunately, results have been heterogeneous and conclusions are difficult to draw. We tested the ability of a defined positive control to guarantee reproducibility of results among different laboratories. Valid positive controls were defined by positivity of the renal macula densa without background labelling. Fifteen colorectal tumours and 15 oral squamous cell carcinomas were labelled immunohistochemically by six European laboratories. Slides were evaluated in blinded fashion for percentage of positive cells and labelling intensity by three pathologists, and results were analyzed statistically for reproducibility and inter-reader variability. Macula densa positivity was an insufficiently sensitive control to guarantee reproducible results for percentage of positive cells and labelling intensity. Inter-reader variability was proven statistically, making the case for image analysis or other automated quantitative evaluation techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GUARANTEEING ASYMPTOTIC ZERO INTERSAMPLING TRACKING ERROR VIA A DISCRETIZED REGULATOR AND EXPONENTIAL HOLDER FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Castillo-Toledo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a robust discretized controller based in the theory of regulation for nonlinear systems. In the general command tracking and disturbance rejection problem, it is known that a sample data controller using zero order holder may only guarantee asymptotic tracking at the sampling instances. We show that by means of a so-called exponential holder, we are able to guarantee asymptotic zero output tracking error, not only in the sampling instant, but also between these instant. Some considerations on the design of exponential holders are presented. The application in simulation to some typical nonlinear systems shows the good performance of the proposed scheme.

  19. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  20. Penetration of antibiotics through Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Rachna; Ray, Pallab; Das, Anindita; Sharma, Meera

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to elucidate the role of reduced antibiotic penetration in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms to different antibiotics. The biofilms...

  1. Guaranteed Cost H∞ Controller Synthesis for Switched Systems Defined on Semi-algebraic Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mohamadreza; Mojallali, Hamed; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    of Filippov solutions which subsumes solutions with infinite switching in finite time and sliding modes. Firstly, conditions assuring asymptotic stability of Filippov solutions pertained to a switched system defined on semi-algebraic sets are formulated. Accordingly, we derive a set of sum of squares...... feasibility tests leading to a stabilizing switching controller. Finally, we propose a scheme to synthesize stabilizing switching controllers with a guaranteed cost H∞ disturbance attenuation performance. The applicability of the proposed methods is elucidated thorough simulation analysis....

  2. The Employment Guarantee Scheme as a Social Safety Net - Poverty Dynamics and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Katsushi Imai

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic aspects of poverty and anti-poverty interventions, particularly focusing on promotional effects, i.e., the effects of helping the poor escape poverty and protective effects, i.e., the effects of preventing the non-poor from slipping into poverty. We test the effectiveness of the Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS) in rural India as a social safety net drawing upon the ICRISAT survey data. We have carried out the econometric analysis, namely Cox Proportional H...

  3. Guaranteeing Co-running Program’s Performance in Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ti; Liu, Yong; Wu, Guanbin; You, Daning; Zhang, Xuekai

    2017-10-01

    The data centers are more popular nowadays. In order to improve the utilization of the servers, programs commonly co-running with each other on one server, and programs may interference with each other. Otherwise, for programs who running in cluster or data centers, commonly they can be classified to different kind of program, for example, the batch program, the latency-sensitive program and so on. Different kind of programs has different kind of duty for performance. In order to improve the utilization of the servers while concurrently guarantee the performance of latency-sensitive program, we propose performance guaranteed program co-running algorithm. We design three engines to realize the performance guaranteed program co-running algorithm, they are Program Monitor Engine, Resource Division Engine and Resource Partition Engine respectively. The Program Monitor Engine collects the program’s resource usage information about CPU and memory, and then label the programs. The Resource Division Engine calculate the size of CPU and memory resource should be divided for latency-sensitive program. The Resource Division Engine set the resource control group with the CPU and memory value. All the latency-sensitive programs are running in this resource control group. Meanwhile, out side the resource control group, multiple batch programs can be executed. The experiment result show that by making use of the performance guaranteed program co-running algorithm, most of the latency-sensitive program’s performance sustain with in 95%, at the same time, the batch programs are used to increase the throughput as more as possible.

  4. Guaranteed computation methods for compartmental in-series models under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda Sebastián, Diego de; Romero Vivó, Sergio; Ricarte Benedito, Beatriz; Bondía Company, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of some real phenomenon can be described by compartmental in-series models. Nevertheless, most of these processes are characterized by their variability, which produces that the exact values of the model parameters are uncertain, although they can be bounded by intervals. The aim of this paper is to compute tight solution envelopes that guarantee the inclusion of all possible behaviors of such processes. Current methods, such as monotonicity analysis, enable us t...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Minimum Income Guaranteed Schemes within the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The commitment of the European Union (EU Member States towards accomplishing the commonly agreed goals (1997 European Employment Strategy, Lisbon 2000, and Europe 2020 is supported by a continuous assessment of domestic social policy tendencies. From this perspective, the main goal of the paper is to comparatively analyse the last safety net for the most vulnerable people. The screening of guaranteed minimum resources provides an overview of the applicable statutory basis, schemes in place, types of social benefits concerned, financing and organisation mechanisms, eligibility conditions, duration and time limits. As methodology, the article uses the MISSOC database, and due to the current lack of comparable information, recommendations for further harmonisation are included. 20 of the EU member states follow the minimum income guaranteed (MIG regulations adopted already during the pre-accession period and updated after the accession phase. Seven types of domestic regulations are in force, among which the most frequent ones are acts and laws (ten countries. Common concepts used are social, and assistance. Provided allowances are mainly focused on elderly people, unemployment benefits, pensions, allowances supporting various house related costs, and benefits for disabled people. In line with 2007, 2010, and 2014 data, the financing of guaranteed minimum resources continues to remain mainly central with a shift in 2014 towards mixed financing (both central and local. The management in 2014 continues to be mainly centrally organised but the local stakeholders are also empowered. The residency is the most frequent eligibility condition. No nationality is required in 24 EU member states, for all allowances (21 countries or for particular ones (three countries. 17 member states require no age conditions. Unlimited guaranteed minimum resources were provided in 2014 as long as the eligibility criteria were met in 23 EU member states.

  6. Learning from label proportions in brain-computer interfaces: Online unsupervised learning with guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Thibault; Schmid, Konstantin; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tangermann, Michael; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using traditional approaches, a brain-computer interface (BCI) requires the collection of calibration data for new subjects prior to online use. Calibration time can be reduced or eliminated e.g., by subject-to-subject transfer of a pre-trained classifier or unsupervised adaptive classification methods which learn from scratch and adapt over time. While such heuristics work well in practice, none of them can provide theoretical guarantees. Our objective is to modify an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm to work in unison with the machine learning decoder, and thus to achieve a reliable unsupervised calibrationless decoding with a guarantee to recover the true class means. Method We introduce learning from label proportions (LLP) to the BCI community as a new unsupervised, and easy-to-implement classification approach for ERP-based BCIs. The LLP estimates the mean target and non-target responses based on known proportions of these two classes in different groups of the data. We present a visual ERP speller to meet the requirements of LLP. For evaluation, we ran simulations on artificially created data sets and conducted an online BCI study with 13 subjects performing a copy-spelling task. Results Theoretical considerations show that LLP is guaranteed to minimize the loss function similar to a corresponding supervised classifier. LLP performed well in simulations and in the online application, where 84.5% of characters were spelled correctly on average without prior calibration. Significance The continuously adapting LLP classifier is the first unsupervised decoder for ERP BCIs guaranteed to find the optimal decoder. This makes it an ideal solution to avoid tedious calibration sessions. Additionally, LLP works on complementary principles compared to existing unsupervised methods, opening the door for their further enhancement when combined with LLP. PMID:28407016

  7. Fuzzy Logic-Based Guaranteed Lifetime Protocol for Real-Time Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Babar; Iqbal, Farkhund; Abbas, Ali; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-08-18

    Few techniques for guaranteeing a network lifetime have been proposed despite its great impact on network management. Moreover, since the existing schemes are mostly dependent on the combination of disparate parameters, they do not provide additional services, such as real-time communications and balanced energy consumption among sensor nodes; thus, the adaptability problems remain unresolved among nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To solve these problems, we propose a novel fuzzy logic model to provide real-time communication in a guaranteed WSN lifetime. The proposed fuzzy logic controller accepts the input descriptors energy, time and velocity to determine each node's role for the next duration and the next hop relay node for real-time packets. Through the simulation results, we verified that both the guaranteed network's lifetime and real-time delivery are efficiently ensured by the new fuzzy logic model. In more detail, the above-mentioned two performance metrics are improved up to 8%, as compared to our previous work, and 14% compared to existing schemes, respectively.

  8. Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner's dilemma games on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

    2014-09-05

    It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold arccos √b/b for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree γ is less than the threshold arccos √b/b, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree γ, and that if γ is less than arccos √b/b and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases.

  9. FP/FIFO scheduling: coexistence of deterministic and probabilistic QoS guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Minet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on applications having quantitative QoS (Quality of Service requirements on their end-to-end response time (or jitter. We propose a solution allowing the coexistence of two types of quantitative QoS garantees, deterministic and probabilistic, while providing a high resource utilization. Our solution combines the advantages of the deterministic approach and the probabilistic one. The deterministic approach is based on a worst case analysis. The probabilistic approach uses a mathematical model to obtain the probability that the response time exceeds a given value. We assume that flows are scheduled according to non-preemptive FP/FIFO. The packet with the highest fixed priority is scheduled first. If two packets share the same priority, the packet arrived first is scheduled first. We make no particular assumption concerning the flow priority and the nature of the QoS guarantee requested by the flow. An admission control derived from these results is then proposed, allowing each flow to receive a quantitative QoS guarantee adapted to its QoS requirements. An example illustrates the merits of the coexistence of deterministic and probabilistic QoS guarantees.

  10. Mahanaxar: quality of service guarantees in high-bandwidth, real-time streaming data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott [UCSC

    2010-04-05

    Large radio telescopes, cyber-security systems monitoring real-time network traffic, and others have specialized data storage needs: guaranteed capture of an ultra-high-bandwidth data stream, retention of the data long enough to determine what is 'interesting,' retention of interesting data indefinitely, and concurrent read/write access to determine what data is interesting, without interrupting the ongoing capture of incoming data. Mahanaxar addresses this problem. Mahanaxar guarantees streaming real-time data capture at (nearly) the full rate of the raw device, allows concurrent read and write access to the device on a best-effort basis without interrupting the data capture, and retains data as long as possible given the available storage. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale to meet arbitrary bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. Results from our prototype implementation shows that Mahanaxar provides both better guarantees and better performance than traditional file systems.

  11. Guarantee Funds of Credits in Romania - Necessity, Features and Networking - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current context, marked by financial crisis, economic recession, lack of liquidity andlow capitalization, the access tofinancing is more difficult, mainly due to the lack, insufficiency orlimited availability of guarantees. Guarantee funds represent an innovative solution, proven by theEuropean economies and recently launched in Romania. Taking over the international experience inorder to facilitate the SMEs’ access to financial resources has become a necessity in Romania, whichwas reflected by the creation of three specialized financial institutions in granting guarantees domain.These are bodies with private or publiccapital, which relate, based on agreements with commercialbanks. After a period of exposure to major risks from the lack of regulatory activity, the guaranteefunds, along with other non-banking financial institutions are absolutely governed by rules oftheNRB, according to the banking law and special laws. The analysis in this paper is based on the studyof several official documents, reports of specialized bodies, statistics and examples of good practice,summarized and interpreted in through comparison and developments. The aim is to identify anumber of issues that may lead to sensitize the responsible factors-public authorities, creditinstitutions, and specialists-to come up with new practical solutions that would stimulate thefinancing processof small entrepreneurs.

  12. Expectations or Guarantees? I Want It All! A crossroad between games and MDPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bruyère

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When reasoning about the strategic capabilities of an agent, it is important to consider the nature of its adversaries. In the particular context of controller synthesis for quantitative specifications, the usual problem is to devise a strategy for a reactive system which yields some desired performance, taking into account the possible impact of the environment of the system. There are at least two ways to look at this environment. In the classical analysis of two-player quantitative games, the environment is purely antagonistic and the problem is to provide strict performance guarantees. In Markov decision processes, the environment is seen as purely stochastic: the aim is then to optimize the expected payoff, with no guarantee on individual outcomes. In this expository work, we report on recent results introducing the beyond worst-case synthesis problem, which is to construct strategies that guarantee some quantitative requirement in the worst-case while providing an higher expected value against a particular stochastic model of the environment given as input. This problem is relevant to produce system controllers that provide nice expected performance in the everyday situation while ensuring a strict (but relaxed performance threshold even in the event of very bad (while unlikely circumstances. It has been studied for both the mean-payoff and the shortest path quantitative measures.

  13. Guaranteeing Isochronous Control of Networked Motion Control Systems Using Phase Offset Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing isochronous transfer of control commands is an essential function for networked motion control systems. The adoption of real-time Ethernet (RTE technologies may be profitable in guaranteeing deterministic transfer of control messages. However, unpredictable behavior of software in the motion controller often results in unexpectedly large deviation in control message transmission intervals, and thus leads to imprecise motion. This paper presents a simple and efficient heuristic to guarantee the end-to-end isochronous control with very small jitter. The key idea of our approach is to adjust the phase offset of control message transmission time in the motion controller by investigating the behavior of motion control task. In realizing the idea, we performed a pre-runtime analysis to determine a safe and reliable phase offset and applied the phase offset to the runtime code of motion controller by customizing an open-source based integrated development environment (IDE. We also constructed an EtherCAT-based motion control system testbed and performed extensive experiments on the testbed to verify the effectiveness of our approach. The experimental results show that our heuristic is highly effective even for low-end embedded controller implemented in open-source software components under various configurations of control period and the number of motor drives.

  14. Comparison of five tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luijendijk (Ad); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFive different laboratory tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus were compared. Analyses of 271 presumptive S. aureus strains, supplemented with 59 well-defined methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, were performed. Only the

  15. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at the physiologic glucose concentration depends on the S. aureus lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Sander; Deurenberg, Ruud H; Boumans, Marie-Louise L; Beisser, Patrick S; Neef, Cees; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since bacteria embedded in biofilms are far more difficult to eradicate than planktonic infections, it would be useful to know whether certain Staphylococcus aureus lineages are especially involved in strong biofilm formation. For this reason, in vitro biofilm formation of 228 clinical

  16. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  17. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Mun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600 of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD and sodium azide (NaN3 were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0–125 μg/mL gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 μg/mL; however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was

  18. Cytoplasmic peptidoglycan intermediate levels in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Harika; Ayon, Navid J; Gutheil, William G

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular cytoplasmic peptidoglycan (PG) intermediate levels were determined in Staphylococcus aureus during log-phase growth in enriched media. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates were quantitatively determined using ion pairing LC-MS/MS in negative mode, and amine intermediates were quantitatively determined stereospecifically as their Marfey's reagent derivatives in positive mode. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates in S. aureus varied from 1.4 μM for UDP-GlcNAc-Enolpyruvyate to 1200 μM for UDP-MurNAc. Levels of amine intermediates (L-Ala, D-Ala, D-Ala-D-Ala, L-Glu, D-Glu, and L-Lys) varied over a range of from 860 μM for D-Ala-D-Ala to 30-260 mM for the others. Total PG was determined from the D-Glu content of isolated PG, and used to estimate the rate of PG synthesis (in terms of cytoplasmic metabolite flux) as 690 μM/min. The total UDP-linked intermediates pool (2490 μM) is therefore sufficient to sustain growth for 3.6 min. Comparison of UDP-linked metabolite levels with published pathway enzyme characteristics demonstrates that enzymes on the UDP-branch range from >80% saturation for MurA, Z, and C, to <5% saturation for MurB. Metabolite levels were compared with literature values for Escherichia coli, with the major difference in UDP-intermediates being the level of UDP-MurNAc, which was high in S. aureus (1200 μM) and low in E. coli (45 μM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Ran, F. Ann; Zetsche, Bernd; Li, Yinqing; Kurabayashi, Arisa; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets with a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and complementarity to the guide RNA. Recently, we harnessed Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), which is significantly smaller than Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), to facilitate efficient in vivo genome editing. Here, we report the crystal structures of SaCas9 in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) and its double-stranded DNA targets, containing the 5′-TTGAAT-3′ PAM and...

  20. A cohort study of the Copenhagen CF Centre eradication strategy against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with CF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Christina Schjellerup; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed.......Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed....

  1. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  2. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chong Seng; Yin, Chow Suet; Bakar, Afra Abu; Sakewi, Zamberi; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Jamal, Farida; Othman, Norlijah

    2006-12-01

    Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Malaysia. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. A cross-sectional study involving 346 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of S. aureus. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 23.4%. The findings also revealed that ex-smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-6.32, p=0.033) and oral contraceptive users (95% CI 1.12-21.67, p=0.035) were more likely to harbor S. aureus. One person was colonized with MRSA, which was different from the hospital strain. MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment. Smokers and oral contraceptive users have high nasal carrier rates.

  3. Beta Lactamase production by Staphylococcus aureus from children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from children aged 5 years and below with sporadic diarrhoea were tested for their ability to produce beta-lactamase enzyme. Of the 95 isolates tested 79 (83.2%) were beta-lactamase-producing strains. The study confirms that majority of clinical isolates of S. aureus from diarrhoeic ...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus strategies to evade the host acquired immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Oliver; Medina, Eva

    2017-09-15

    Staphylococcus aureus poses a significant public-health problem. Infection caused by S. aureus can manifest as acute or long-lasting persistent diseases that are often refractory to antibiotic and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To develop more effective strategies for preventing or treating these infections, it is crucial to understand why the immune response is incapable to eradicate the bacterium. When S. aureus first infect the host, there is a robust activation of the host innate immune responses. Generally, S. aureus can survive this initial interaction due to the expression of a wide array of virulence factors that interfere with the host innate immune defenses. After this initial interaction the acquired immune response is the arm of the host defenses that will try to clear the pathogen. However, S. aureus is capable of maintaining infection in the host even in the presence of a robust antigen-specific immune response. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying the ability of S. aureus to escape immune surveillance by the acquired immune response will help uncover potentially important targets for the development of immune-based adjunctive therapies and more efficient vaccines. There are several lines of evidence that lead us to believe that S. aureus can directly or indirectly disable the acquired immune response. This review will discuss the different immune evasion strategies used by S. aureus to modulate the different components of the acquired immune defenses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Intercenter reproducibility of binary typing for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Snoeijers, Sandor; van der Werken-Libregts, Christel; Tuip, Anita; van der Zee, Anneke; Egberink, Diane; de Proost, Monique; Bik, Elisabeth; Lunter, Bjorn; Kluytmans, Jan; Gits, Etty; van Duyn, Inge; Heck, Max; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Wannet, Wim; Noordhoek, Gerda T.; Mulder, Sije; Renders, Nicole; Boers, Miranda; Zaat, Sebastiaan; van der Riet, Daniëlle; Kooistra, Mirjam; Talens, Adriaan; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; van der Reyden, Tanny; Veenendaal, Dick; Bakker, Nancy; Cookson, Barry; Lynch, Alisson; Witte, Wolfgang; Cuny, Christa; Blanc, Dominique; Vernez, Isabelle; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fiett, Janusz; Struelens, Marc; Deplano, Ariane; Landegent, Jim; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Belkum, Alex

    2002-01-01

    The reproducibility of the binary typing (BT) protocol developed for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed in a biphasic multicenter study. In a Dutch multicenter pilot study, 10 genetically unique isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were characterized by the BT

  6. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  7. Heterogeneity of the humoral immune response following Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); M. Tavakol (Mehri); L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExpanding knowledge on the humoral immune response in Staphylococcus aureus-infected patients is a mandatory step in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. Here, we present novel insights into the antibody responses following S. aureus bacteremia. Fifteen bacteremic patients

  8. Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathogens that can cause mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus is probably the most lethal agent because it causes chronic and deep infection in the mammary glands that is extremely difficult to be cured. The present study was to detect some of the virulence factors in the S. aureus isolated from 360 mastitis milk samples in ...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kock, Robin

    Objectives: This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Methods: Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus.

  10. Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an African adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains an important cause of mortality, in the community and health care set-ups. S. aureus strains with genes encoding lethal toxins and culture negative sepsis augment the diagnostic challenge in resource limited settings. With a growing rate of resistance to the causative bacteria and atypical ...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in children: a formidable foe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most common causes of bacteraemia in children. In order to evade and overcome the immune responses of its host and any antimicrobial therapies aimed at destroying it, this organism, through various mechanisms, continues to evolve. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a ...

  12. Identification of the ClpX Regulon in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Ingmer, Hanne

    Staphyloccous aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections ranging from superficial wound infections to life-threatening endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. Essential for S. aureus virulence is a large number of cell-surface-associated proteins and secreted...

  13. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  14. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes foodborne diseases if consumed in contaminated milk products. Rapid detection and characterization of foodborne pathogen S. aureus is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. It is still a challenge to detect and identify bacterial pathogens quickly and ...

  15. Toxins and adhesion factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of acute and infectious diarrhoea. In Africa, there is no sufficient information on the virulence and the degree of factors produced by its diarrhoea-isolated strains. Clinical features and virulence factors produced by S. aureus isolated from diarrhoeal-patients admitted at the ...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  17. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in apparently healthy ... Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Nasal swabs, Multidrug resistance, Rational chemotherapy .... Figure 2: Antibiotic resistance profile of the MRSA isolates. Key: AM-amoxicillin ...

  18. Pneumonia and new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnier, Fabien; Tristan, Anne; François, Bruno; Etienne, Jerome; Delage-Corre, Manuella; Martin, Christian; Liassine, Nadia; Wannet, Wim; Denis, François; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2006-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the Panton-Valentin leukocidin gene is a newly described disease entity. We report a new fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. An S. aureus strain with an agr1 allele and of a new sequence type 377 was recovered, representing a

  19. Nasal carriage of methicilli-resistant staphylococcus aureus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from anterior nares of fifty healthy adults in Zaria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns determined. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while 20% were methicillin-susceptible. The isolates were generally resistant to multiple ...

  20. Prevalence of Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes different community and hospital-acquired infections. Over time, strains of S. aureus have become resistant to different antibiotics including penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Having data on the local antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of this pathogen is ...

  1. Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... present study was to detect some of the virulence factors in the S. aureus isolated from 360 mastitis milk samples in ... Key words: Bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, virulence factors, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Iran. INTRODUCTION ..... staphylococcal hemolysins. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A.

  2. Virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Buruli ulcer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W.

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic crossbreed cows and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and its associated risk factors in Addis Ababa City,. Ethiopia ... and wide spread livestock diseases (Mohammed Ahmed et al., 2004). Mastitis .... Legesse Garedew et al.,. Table 2: Risk factors associated with the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic cows. Risk factor. Total animals S. aureus positives. X2 p-value.

  4. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Aloe Vera terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, drg.Sp,Pros

    2011-01-01

    Dari hasil penelitian , maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak Aloe Vera dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus, dan kadar hambat minimal ekstrak Aloe Vera adalah pada konsentrasi 25%. Tujuan Penelitan Ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak Aloe vera dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus dan daya hambat menimal, (DHM) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri tersebut. Metode yang digunakan adalah pertumbuhan ekstrak Aloe vera, penegnceran ekstrak , pemur...

  5. Maternal-neonatal outcome with Staphylococcus aureus rectovaginal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Nibal; Alchyib, Omrou; Morrish, Donald; Tompkins, David; Julliard, Kell; Visconti, Ernest; Hoskins, Iffath A

    2011-01-01

    To estimate prevalence of rectovaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among pregnant women with group B streptococcus (GBS) screening results and its association with maternal and infant outcomes. Cultures that detected both group B streptococcus (GBS) and S. aureus were obtained at > or = 35 weeks of gestation. Computerized database search and chart review determined invasive neonatal infection and maternal outcomes at the time of delivery through 6 months postpartum. A total of 6,626 GBS screening cultures met study criteria, and 769 (11.6%) GBS isolates and 67 (1.0%) S. aureus were identified. No maternal S. aureus-related outcomes were found. The rate of maternal methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization was 0.1% (7 in 6,626). GBS-positive patients were twice as likely to be colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus than GBS-negative patients. GBS-positive culture rates differed significantly by primary language: Spanish 10.0%, English 13.7%, Russian 26.9%, Cantonese 13.2%, Mandarin 11.5%, Arabic 15.9%, and other 17.8%. In our population, S. aureus colonization percentage (1.0%) was lower than the 7.5-8.2% reported by other medical centers, as was overall GBS carriage rate. S. aureus did not predispose to maternal or infant morbidity or mortality up to 6 months postpartum.

  6. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus on armpits of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus on armpits and factors affecting it was carried out on 50 students from Community Secondary School, Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt and 50 University of Port Harcourt students. Samples were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar plates and coagulate positive S. aureus isolates were ...

  7. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus vs. Osteoblast: Relationship and Consequences in Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Jérôme; Velard, Frédéric; Gangloff, Sophie C.

    2015-01-01

    Bone cells, namely osteoblasts and osteoclasts work in concert and are responsible for bone extracellular matrix formation and resorption. This homeostasis is, in part, altered during infections by Staphylococcus aureus through the induction of various responses from the osteoblasts. This includes the over-production of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors, thus suggesting a role for these cells in both innate and adaptive immunity. S. aureus decreases the activity and viability of osteoblasts, by induction of apoptosis-dependent and independent mechanisms. The tight relationship between osteoclasts and osteoblasts is also modulated by S. aureus infection. The present review provides a survey of the relevant literature discussing the important aspects of S. aureus and osteoblast interaction as well as the ability for antimicrobial peptides to kill intra-osteoblastic S. aureus, hence emphasizing the necessity for new anti-infectious therapeutics. PMID:26636047

  9. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    . aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398......Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  10. Rapid Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Bactec Blood Culture Broth by the BinaxNOW S. aureus Test

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Qinfang; Eichelberger, Karen; Kirby, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus testing showed sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicative values of 97.6%, 100%, 100%, and 98.4%, respectively, for identification of S. aureus from Bactec blood culture broth. Importantly, the test performed equally well on aerobic and anaerobic culture broth.

  11. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  12. Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sung Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the performance of three methods: Cox regression, time-dependent Cox model and landmark method with different landmark times in order to address the problem of guarantee-time bias. Methods Through statistical modeling and simulation studies, the performance of the above three methods were assessed in terms of type I error, bias, power, and mean squared error (MSE. In addition, the three statistical approaches were applied to a real data example from the Korean National Health Insurance Database. Effect of cumulative rosiglitazone dose on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was used as an example for illustration. Results In the simulated data, time-dependent Cox regression outperformed the landmark method in terms of bias and mean squared error but the type I error rates were similar. The results from real-data example showed the same patterns as the simulation findings. Conclusions While both time-dependent Cox regression model and landmark analysis are useful in resolving the problem of guarantee-time bias, time-dependent Cox regression is the most appropriate method for analyzing cumulative dose effects in pharmaco-epidemiological studies.

  13. Implementation of Guaranteed Services in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Shared, segmented, on-chip interconnection networks, known as networks-on-chip (NoC), may become the preferred way of interconnecting intellectual property (IP) cores in future giga-scale system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A NoC can provide the required communication bandwidth while accommodating...... the effects of scaling microchip technologies. Equally important, a NoC facilitates a truly modular and scalable design flow. The MANGO (message-passing asynchronous network-on-chip providing guaranteed services over open core protocol (OCP) interfaces) NoC is presented, and how its key characteristics...

  14. The Guarantee Contract as a Typical Warranty Business in Brazilian Civil Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Siebeneichler de Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the guarantee contract, which is one of the most important forms of legal assurance business. It is one of the most widely used businesses in Brazilian negotiating practice. In this sense, considering the fact that Brazilian Private Law has gone through a renovation, by virtue of legislation such as the Civil Code of 2002 and the Consumer Protection Code, which welcomed the principle of good faith and social function of the contract, it is necessary to examine this important contract and check if it’s discipline is appropriate to the new contractual principles.

  15. INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MATTERS: IS THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO JUSTICE GUARANTEED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bastos Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an overview of international jurisdiction rules when it comes to intellectual property. Moreover, it provides an analysis of whether access to justice is guaranteed in international conflicts related to intellectual property. Firstly, the concept of international jurisdiction and its related principles are defined. Secondly, an explanation of the intellectual property rights is done in order to introduce the analysis of how international instruments regulate these conflicts. International and national case law are also analyzed. Lastly, it is concluded that legal uncertainty in this field can be itself an obstacle to access to justice.

  16. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, poverty and prices in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is mainly to construct an intuitive measure of the performance of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in India. The focus is on divergence between demand and supply at the district level. Some related issues addressed are: (i) whether the gap between demand and supply responds to poverty; and (ii) whether recent hikes in NREGS wages are inflationary. Our analysis confirms responsiveness of the positive gap between demand and supply to poverty. Also, apprehensions expressed about the inflationary potential of recent hikes in NREGS wages have been confirmed. More importantly, higher NREGS wages are likely to undermine self-selection of the poor in it.

  17. A hierarchical weighted bandwidth guaranteed scheme for QoS management over EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shijie; Zou, Junni; Li, Yingchun; Lin, Rujian

    2005-02-01

    As a promising solution for the next generation broadband access network, Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) are being designed to deliver multiple services and applications, such as voice communications, video conferencing, real-time transactions and new evolving bandwidth-consuming applications. To support these applications with their various requirements, Quality-of-Service (QoS) management over EPON is required. In this study, we present a novel scheduling scheme, hierarchical weighted bandwidth guaranteed (HWBG) scheme, which could effectively support QoS. Simulation results validate that the proposed scheme can achieve high efficiency and improve packet delay performance.

  18. Lack of growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in temperature abuse of E-beam treated ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, M C; Cambero, M I; Núñez, M; Medina, M; de la Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A

    2010-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in vacuum-packed cooked ham slices treated with an electron beam and stored at 4, 7 and 10 degrees C was investigated. Cooked ham slices were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus and electron beam treated at 2 and 3 kGy. After treatment, a long temperature-dependent death phase was observed, followed by growth at a slower rate than in untreated samples. Assuming a hypothetical load of 10 cells/g or cm(2) of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus as an original contamination in an industrial situation, an E-beam treatment of vacuum-packed cooked ham slices at 2 kGy guarantees the microbiological safety of the product along its shelf life, even if a noticeable temperature (10 degrees C) abuse occur during its storage period. Likewise, the E-beam treatment gave rise to a substantial increase of the RTE cooked ham shelf life off-sensory features associated to the spoilage only were detected in non-treated samples (controls) after 8 and 18 days of storage at 10 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative Labeling Programs and Purchasing Behavior toward Organic Foods: The Case of the Participatory Guarantee Systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Sacchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory standards and certification models are essential tools guaranteeing the authenticity of organic products. In particular, third-party certification is useful to consumers since it provides guarantees regarding production processes and food quality. In an attempt to cope with the costs and bureaucratic procedures related to the adoption of such certification, groups of small producers have begun to rely upon alternative quality assurance systems such as Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS. This study contextualizes and analyzes the PGS scheme and describes the Brazilian Rede Ecovida de Agroecologia network. We then investigate the effect of various factors on Brazilian consumers’ purchasing behavior for organic products guaranteed by PGS. The results show that employed and older consumers who live in rural and suburban areas are more likely to buy organic PGS products.

  20. 78 FR 39285 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP088099XX AGENCY: Export...''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...

  1. Guaranteed cost consensus protocol design for linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data information: An input delay approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the energy consumption involved in a sampled-data consensus process, the problem of guaranteed cost consensus for sampled-data linear multi-agent systems is considered. By using an input delay approach, an equivalent system is constructed to convert the guaranteed cost consensus problem to a guaranteed cost stabilization problem. A sufficient condition for guaranteed cost consensus is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), based on a refined time-dependent Lyapunov functional analysis. Reduced-order protocol design methodologies are proposed, with further discussions on determining sub-optimal protocol gain and enlarging allowable sampling interval bound made as a complement. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 62050 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC for the Abengoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... for the design, construction, and startup of commercial- scale integrated biorefineries. In February... commitment to Abengoa to provide a $134 million loan guarantee to support the financing of the Project...

  3. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... related to its proposal to provide up to $737 million in a loan guarantee to support the financing of the... Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for $737 million to support construction and startup of the Project as selected...

  4. An integrated DBP for streams with (m, k)-firm real-time guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Ji-Ming; Sun, You-Xian

    2004-07-01

    (m, k)-firm real-time or weakly hard real-time (WHRT) guarantee is becoming attractive as it closes the gap between hard and soft (or probabilistic) real-time guarantee, and enables finer granularity of real-time QoS through adjusting m and k. For multiple streams with (m, k)-firm constraint sharing a single server, an on-line priority assignment policy based on the most recent k-length history of each stream called distance based priority (DBP) has been proposed to assign priority. In case of priority equality among these head-of-queue instances, Earliest Deadline First (EDF) is used. Under the context of WHRT schedule theory, DBP is the most popular, gets much attention and has many applications due to its straightforward priority assignment policy and easy implementation. However, DBP combined with EDF cannot always provide good performance, mainly because the initial DBP does not underline the rich information on deadline met/missed distribution, specially streams in various failure states which will travel different distances to restore success states. Considering how to effectively restore the success state of each individual stream from a failure state, an integrated DBP utilizing deadline met/missed distribution is proposed in this paper. Simulation results validated the performance improvement of this proposal.

  5. Vertical Handover Algorithm for WBANs in Ubiquitous Healthcare with Quality of Service Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Doan Van

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have become an emerging technology in healthcare, where patients are equipped withwearable and implantable body sensor nodes to gather sensory information for remote monitoring. The increasing development of coordinator devices on patients enables the internetworking of WBANs in heterogeneous wireless networks to deliver physiological information that is collected at remote terminals in a timely fashion. However, in this type of network, providing a seamless handover with a guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS, especially emergency services, is a challenging task. In this paper, we proposed an effective Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM handover algorithm that guarantees seamless connectivity. A patient’s mobile devices automatically connect to the best network that fulfills the QoS requirements of different types of applications. Additionally, we integrated a Content-Centric Networking (CCN processing module into different wireless networks to reduce packet loss, enhance QoS and avoid unnecessary handovers by leveraging in-network caching to achieve efficient content dissemination for ubiquitous healthcare. Simulation results proved that our proposed approach forthe model with CCN outperforms the model without CCN and Received Signal Strength Vertical Handoff (RSS-VHD in terms of the number of handovers, enhancing QoS, packet loss, and energy efficiency.

  6. Modeling Message Queueing Services with Reliability Guarantee in Cloud Computing Environment Using Colored Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the need for loosely coupled and asynchronous dissemination of information, message queues are widely used in large-scale application areas. With the advent of virtualization technology, cloud-based message queueing services (CMQSs with distributed computing and storage are widely adopted to improve availability, scalability, and reliability; however, a critical issue is its performance and the quality of service (QoS. While numerous approaches evaluating system performance are available, there is no modeling approach for estimating and analyzing the performance of CMQSs. In this paper, we employ both the analytical and simulation modeling to address the performance of CMQSs with reliability guarantee. We present a visibility-based modeling approach (VMA for simulation model using colored Petri nets (CPN. Our model incorporates the important features of message queueing services in the cloud such as replication, message consistency, resource virtualization, and especially the mechanism named visibility timeout which is adopted in the services to guarantee system reliability. Finally, we evaluate our model through different experiments under varied scenarios to obtain important performance metrics such as total message delivery time, waiting number, and components utilization. Our results reveal considerable insights into resource scheduling and system configuration for service providers to estimate and gain performance optimization.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in selected kindergartens in Klang Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N A; Ramli, S; Amin, N N Z; Sulaiman, W S W; Isahak, I; Jamaluddin, T Z M T; Salleh, N M

    2016-04-01

    Nasal colonisation of S. aureus in healthy children was 18% to 30%. One to three percent of them were colonised by Methicillin-resistant Staphlycoccus aureus (MRSA). Although MRSA infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonisation estimates are lacking. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus carriage among children. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 250 children from three kindergartens in the Klang Valley, after consent was obtained from the children and their parents. Swabs were transported in Stuart medium, and inoculated on mannitol-salt agar within four hours of collection. Identification and disk diffusion test were done according to guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction was done on MRSA isolates for the presence of mecA and lukS/FPV genes. Overall prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were 19.2% (48/250) and 1.6% (4/250) respectively. mecA gene was present in all isolates, 50% isolates carried Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. Sccmec type I was found in 2 isolates and the remaining isolates has Sccmec type V. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were similar to other studies. However, risk of contracting severe infection might be higher due to presence of PVL gene in half of the MRSA isolates.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus infections following knee and hip prosthesis insertion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Jean Marie; Kaye, Keith S; Reed, Shelby D; Peter, Senaka A; Sexton, Daniel J; Chen, Luke F; Hardy, N Chantelle; Tong, Steven Yc; Smugar, Steven S; Fowler, Vance G; Anderson, Deverick J

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common and most important pathogen following knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. Understanding the epidemiology of invasive S. aureus infections is important to quantify this serious complication. This nested retrospective cohort analysis included adult patients who had undergone insertion of knee or hip prostheses with clean or clean-contaminated wound class at 11 hospitals between 2003-2006. Invasive S. aureus infections, non-superficial incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) and blood stream infections (BSIs), were prospectively identified following each procedure. Prevalence rates, per 100 procedures, were estimated. 13,719 prosthetic knee (62%) and hip (38%) insertion procedures were performed. Of 92 invasive S. aureus infections identified, SSIs were more common (80%) than SSI and BSI (10%) or BSI alone (10%). The rate of invasive S. aureus infection/100 procedures was 0.57 [95% CI: 0.43-0.73] for knee insertion and 0.83 [95% CI: 0.61-1.08] for hip insertion. More than half (53%) were methicillin-resistant. Median time-to-onset of infection was 34 and 26 days for knee and hip insertion, respectively. Infection was associated with higher National Healthcare Safety Network risk index (p ≤ 0.0001). Post-operative invasive S. aureus infections were rare, but difficult-to-treat methicillin-resistant infections were relatively common. Optimizing preventative efforts may greatly reduce the healthcare burden associated with S. aureus infections.

  9. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin E. Guerra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions.

  10. Silver nanoparticles for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Ortiz-Gila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un gran ecosistema microbiano en la cavidad oral donde Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus se puede encontrar, causando patologías orales tales como quelitis angular, las paperas y la mucositis estafilocócica. Estas enfermedades producidas por S. aureus en la cavidad oral son consecuencia de los factores de virulencia, toxinas y multiresistencia a los antibióticos, lo que contribuye a la infección. La colonización en la cavidad oral por S. aureus en pacientes sanos es de 24% a 36%. Sin embargo, la incidencia aumenta a 48% en pacientes con prótesis debido a la formación de biofilms en la superficie de las dentaduras postizas. Actualmente, no existe ningún tratamiento para infecciones orales sin el uso de antibióticos. Investigaciones recientes indican que las nanopartículas de plata (AgNPs son un material o estrategia para eliminar S. aureus debido a su efecto antibacteriano. Sin embargo, el mecanismo del efecto inhibidor de los iones de Ag sobre S. aureus es sólo parcialmente conocida y muy poco se ha informado. Por lo tanto, el propósito de la presente revisión sistemática es determinar las estrategias y retos de la utilización de biomateriales antimicrobianos con AgNPs frente a las infecciones orales de S. aureus.

  11. [Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in carrier patients undergoing joint arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero Allende, José M; Romanyk Cabrera, Juan; Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Vallés Purroy, Alfonso; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Agudo López, Rosa; Gete García, Luis; López Álvarez, Joaquín

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication with serious repercussions and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether decolonization of S.aureus carriers helps to reduce the incidence of PJI by S.aureus. An S.aureus screening test was performed on nasal carriers in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty between January and December 2011. Patients with a positive test were treated with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine soap 5 days. The incidence of PJI was compared with patients undergoing the same surgery between January and December 2010. A total of 393 joint replacements were performed in 391 patients from the control group, with 416 joint replacements being performed in the intervention group. Colonization study was performed in 382 patients (91.8%), of which 102 were positive (26.7%) and treated. There was 2 PJI due S.aureus compared with 9 in the control group (0.5% vs 2.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 2.3, P=.04). In our study, the detection of colonization and eradication of S.aureus carriers achieved a significant decrease in PJI due to S.aureus compared to a historical group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, K.B.; Lyytikäinen, O.; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  13. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fermin E.; Borgogna, Timothy R.; Patel, Delisha M.; Sward, Eli W.; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions. PMID:28713774

  14. Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT SAN ANTONIO Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic...Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MSSA Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus OD Optical density PBS Phosphate-buffered saline SEM... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm model that mimics wound-like conditions and employ this model to evaluate the anti-biofilm activity of four enzymatic compounds

  15. Clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria in a nationwide study of adults with S. aureus bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Kristjansson, Mar; Kristinsson, Karl G; Gudlaugsson, Olafur

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria (SABU) in adults with S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All individuals ≥18 years old diagnosed with SAB in Iceland between December 1st 2003 and November 30th 2008 were retrospectively identified. Data was collected from medical records. Concomitant SABU was defined as growth of S. aureus in a urine sample taken within 24 h of the index blood culture. SABU was seen in 27 of 166 (16.3%) SAB patients having urine cultured before administration of antibiotics, but after excluding those with SAB of urinary tract origin SABU was seen in 16 of 152 (10.5%). In this latter cohort SABU was independently associated with having endocarditis (RR 6.68; 95% CI 1.53-17.3) and admission to intensive-care unit (RR 2.84; 95% CI 1.25-4.44), while for having complicated SAB the RR was 1.56 (95% CI 0.96-1.80). No correlation was seen with mortality or relapse rates. SABU appears to be secondary to SAB in some cases while it is the primary infection causing SAB in others. In patients with SAB of non-urinary tract origin SABU should probably be regarded as distant haematogenous seeding and a marker of deep tissue dissemination, thus affecting general management and treatment duration. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a finger felon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B; Johnstone, F; Gerlinger, T; Puttler, E

    2000-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasingly prevalent nosocomial pathogen that presents therapeutic challenges. We report an incidence of methicillin-resistant S aureus in a felon. The biochemical and clinical characteristics of methicillin-resistant S aureus are reviewed. The alarming increase of this organism in various types of infections demands the attention of all surgeons and emphasizes the importance of early surgical drainage and culture of pus in all cases of infection. (J Hand Surg 2000; 25A:173-175. Copyright 2000 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.).

  18. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...... colonization? Our study of 46 monozygotic and 43 dizygotic twin pairs revealed that nasal microbiota is an environmentally derived trait, but the host's sex and genetics significantly influence nasal bacterial density. Although specific taxa, including lactic acid bacteria, can determine S. aureus colonization...

  20. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on skin of hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskey Curtis J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized that S. aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on patients' skin and nearby environmental surfaces. Methods Selected inpatients were cultured weekly for S. aureus from stool, nares, skin (groin and axilla, and environmental surfaces (bed rail and bedside table. Investigator's hands were cultured after contacting the patients' skin and the environmental surfaces. Results Of 71 subjects, 32 (45.1% had negative nares and stool cultures, 23 (32.4% had positive nares and stool cultures, 13 (18.3% were nares carriers only, and 3 (4.2% were stool carriers only. Of the 39 patients with S. aureus carriage, 30 (76.9% had methicillin-resistant isolates. In comparison to nares colonization only, nares and intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures (41% versus 77%; p = 0.001 and trends toward increased environmental contamination (45% versus 62%; p = 0.188 and acquisition on investigator's hands (36% versus 60%; p = 0.057. Patients with negative nares and stool cultures had low frequency of S. aureus on skin and the environment (4.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusion We found that hospitalized patients with S. aureus nares and/or stool carriage frequently had S. aureus on their skin and on nearby environmental surfaces. S. aureus intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures, which could potentially facilitate staphylococcal infections and nosocomial transmission.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Ruminant Staphylococcus aureus Reveals Diversification of the Core Genome▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Even, Sergine; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Barbey, Corinne; Alves, Priscila D.; Cochet, Marie-Françoise; Gautier, Michel; Otto, Michael; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Le Loir, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes disease in humans and a wide array of animals. Of note, S. aureus mastitis of ruminants, including cows, sheep, and goats, results in major economic losses worldwide. Extensive variation in genome content exists among S. aureus pathogenic clones. However, the genomic variation among S. aureus strains infecting different animal species has not been well examined. To investigate variation in the genome content of human and ruminant S. aureus, we carried out whole-ge...

  4. Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible, Vancomycin-Intermediate, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility, newer antibiotics, including daptomycin, have been used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is approved to treat S aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis, and reports of S aureus with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin are infrequent. To our knowledge, the present report describes the first Canadian case of daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomycin-intermediate S aureus infection.

  5. Facilitating working mothers' ability to breastfeed: global trends in guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks at work, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabay, Efe; Moreno, Gonzalo; Nandi, Arijit; Kranz, Gabriella; Vincent, Ilona; Assi, Tina-Marie; Winfrey, Elise Marie Vaughan; Earle, Alison; Raub, Amy; Heymann, S Jody

    2015-02-01

    Mothers who work away from home tend to stop breastfeeding earlier than their nonworking counterparts due to workplace barriers. Barriers to breastfeeding discriminate against women and may lead to inequities in children's health outcomes. Guaranteeing paid breastfeeding breaks at work is 1 mechanism that can improve mothers' opportunity to breastfeed in the workplace. This study aimed to assess the trends in the share of countries guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks in the workplace and paid maternal leave that lasts until the infant is 6 months old (the World Health Organization recommended duration for exclusive breastfeeding), between 1995 and 2014. Legislation and secondary source data were collected and reviewed for 193 United Nations member states. Legislation was analyzed for content on breastfeeding breaks and maternal leave guarantees. Fifty-one countries (26.7%) in 2014 did not guarantee breastfeeding breaks in any form and 4 countries provided only unpaid breaks or breaks that did not cover the first 6 months of life; since 1995, around 15 countries (10.2%) legislated for such a policy. In 2014, out of 55 countries that did not guarantee paid breastfeeding breaks for the first 6 months after birth, 7 countries guaranteed paid maternal leave for the same duration; 48 countries (25.1%) provided neither paid maternal leave nor paid breastfeeding breaks. Progress in the number of countries guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks at work is modest. Adopting measures to facilitate breastfeeding at work can be a critical opportunity for countries to increase breastfeeding rates among the growing number of women in the labor force. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , however, the prevalence of phage group III and α-haemolytic strains of S. aureus calls for concern since these groups have frequently been implicated in food borne diseases. Effective hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) evaluation ...

  7. The Pre - Eminence of Staphylococcus Aureus as The Causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specimens were collected for culture and sensitivity before commencement of antibiotic therapy. The major isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris Proteus rettgerri, Alkaligenes faecalis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ...

  8. A Closer Look at the Transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of genes upon changing environments is important in establishing and maintaining infections by pathogens. In Staphylococcus aureus, gene expression and particularly controlled expression of various groups of genes dependent on growth and environmental conditions is essential for

  9. Multilocus sequence typing of Staphylococcus aureus with DNA array technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. Jay (Corinne); S.V. Snijders (Susan); N. Durin (Nathalia); B. Lacroix (Bruno); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Enright (Mark); A. Troesch (Alain); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA newly developed oligonucleotide array suited for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus strains was analyzed with two strain collections in a two-center study. MLST allele identification for the first strain collection fully agreed with

  10. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de staphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Mohamed Lemine Ould Salem, Sidi Mohamed Ghaber, Sidi El Wafi Ould Baba, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Maouloud ...

  11. Host- and tissue-specific pathogenic traits of Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); D.C. Melles (Damian); A. Alaidan (Alwaleed); M. Al-Ahdal (Mohammed); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); S.V. Snijders (Susan); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E. van Duijkeren (Engeline); J.K. Peeters (Justine); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R.F.J. Gorkink (Raymond); G. Simons (Guus); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractComparative genomics were used to assess genetic differences between Staphylococcus aureus strains derived from infected animals versus colonized or infected humans. A total of 77 veterinary isolates were genetically characterized by high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism

  12. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  13. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-05

    Sep 5, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: Nasal samples were taken from anterior nares ..... 3599 preoperative nasal cultures for a year and found 16.6% .... methicillin‑resistant and methicillin‑susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in nursing.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Abraham, Alison G.; Larsen, Lisbeth A.; Christensen, Kaare; Stegger, Marc; Skov, Robert; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota—the host or the environment—and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus colonization? Our study of 46 monozygotic and 43 dizygotic twin pairs revealed that nasal microbiota is an environmentally derived trait, but the host’s sex and genetics significantly influence nasal bacterial density. Although specific taxa, including lactic acid bacteria, can determine S. aureus colonization, their negative interactions depend on thresholds of absolute abundance. These findings demonstrate that nasal microbiota is not fixed by host genetics and opens the possibility that nasal microbiota may be manipulated to prevent or eliminate S. aureus colonization. PMID:26601194

  16. Truncated Autoinducing Peptide Conjugates Selectively Recognize and Kill Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchikama, Kyoji; Shimamoto, Yasuhiro; Anami, Yasuaki

    2017-06-09

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus coordinates various pathogenic events and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for virulence control. S. aureus utilizes autoinducing peptides (AIPs), cyclic-peptide signaling molecules, to mediate the agr system. Despite the high potency of synthetic AIP analogues in agr inhibition, the potential of AIP molecules as a delivery vehicle for antibacterial agents remains unexplored. Herein, we report that truncated AIP scaffolds can be fused with fluorophore and cytotoxic photosensitizer molecules without compromising their high agr inhibitory activity, binding affinity to the receptor AgrC, or cell specificity. Strikingly, a photosensitizer-AIP conjugate exhibited 16-fold greater efficacy in a S. aureus cell-killing assay than a nontargeting analogue. These findings highlight the potential of truncated AIP conjugates as useful chemical tools for in-depth biological studies and as effective anti-S. aureus agents.

  17. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, J.; Cohn, M. T.; Petersen, A.

    2016-01-01

    culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical...... and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give...... an accurate estimate of cellular numbers in liquid cultures of S. aureus regardless of the aggregation level of the given strain. We further show that the sonication procedure is applicable for accurate determination of cell numbers using agar plate counting of aggregating strains....

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus adaptation to human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Grace; Paulino, Franklin; Wachtel, Sarah; Parker, Dane; Wickersham, Matthew; Zhang, Dongni; Brown, Armand; Lauren, Christine; Dowd, Margaret; West, Emily; Horst, Basil; Planet, Paul; Prince, Alice

    2015-04-21

    Skin is the most common site of Staphylococcus aureus infection. While most of these infections are self-limited, recurrent infections are common. Keratinocytes and recruited immune cells participate in skin defense against infection. We postulated that S. aureus is able to adapt to the milieu within human keratinocytes to avoid keratinocyte-mediated clearance. From a collection of S. aureus isolated from chronically infected patients with atopic dermatitis, we noted 22% had an agr mutant-like phenotype. Using several models of human skin infection, we demonstrate that toxin-deficient, agr mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 are able to persist within keratinocytes by stimulating autophagy and evading caspase-1 and inflammasome activation. MRSA infection induced keratinocyte autophagy, as evidenced by galectin-8 and LC3 accumulation. Autophagy promoted the degradation of inflammasome components and facilitated staphylococcal survival. The recovery of more than 58% agr or RNAIII mutants (P Soong et al.

  19. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Amoxycillin and vancomycin were 92.4% .... Kirmany N, Tuazon CV, Alling D. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients receiving allergy injections. Ann allergy. 1980;.

  20. A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier; Granados, Joel Andres

    2014-01-01

    new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access...... and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization...... data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project....

  1. An adaptive mechanism to guarantee the bandwidth fairness of TCP flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-liang; Ye, Cheng-qing

    2004-11-01

    End-to-end TCP (transmission control protocol) congestion control can cause unfairness among multiple TCP connections with different RTT (Round Trip Time). The throughput of TCP connection is inversely proportional to its RTT. To resolve this problem, researchers have proposed many methods. The existing proposals for RTT-aware conditioner work well when congestion level is low. However, they over-protect long RTT flows and starve short RTT flows when congestion level is high. Due to this reason, an improved method based on adaptive thought is proposed. According to the congestion level of networks, the mechanism can adaptively adjust the degree of the protection to long RTT flows. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can guarantee the bandwidth fairness of TCP flows effectively and outperforms the existing methods.

  2. Convergence Guaranteed Nonlinear Constraint Model Predictive Control via I/O Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constituting reliable optimal solution is a key issue for the nonlinear constrained model predictive control. Input-output feedback linearization is a popular method in nonlinear control. By using an input-output feedback linearizing controller, the original linear input constraints will change to nonlinear constraints and sometimes the constraints are state dependent. This paper presents an iterative quadratic program (IQP routine on the continuous-time system. To guarantee its convergence, another iterative approach is incorporated. The proposed algorithm can reach a feasible solution over the entire prediction horizon. Simulation results on both a numerical example and the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. H∞ Guaranteed Cost Control for Networked Control Systems under Scheduling Policy Based on Predicted Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling policy based on model prediction error is presented to reduce energy consumption and network conflicts at the actuator node, where the characters of networked control systems are considered, such as limited network bandwidth, limited node energy, and high collision probability. The object model is introduced to predict the state of system at the sensor node. And scheduling threshold is set at the controller node. Control signal is transmitted only if the absolute value of prediction error is larger than the threshold value. Furthermore, the model of networked control systems under scheduling policy based on predicted error is established by taking uncertain parameters and long time delay into consideration. The design method of H∞ guaranteed cost controller is presented by using the theory of Lyapunov and linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  4. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables — Guaranteed global optimality and benchmark examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    to global optimality. In addition, these convex problems can be further relaxed to quadratic programs for which very efficient numerical solution procedures exist. By exploiting this special problem structure, much larger problem instances can be solved to global optimality compared to similar mixed......This paper considers the problem of optimal truss topology design subject to multiple loading conditions. We minimize a weighted average of the compliances subject to a volume constraint. Based on the ground structure approach, the cross-sectional areas are chosen as the design variables. While.......e., a 0/1 problem. In contrast to the heuristic methods considered in many other approaches, our goal is to compute guaranteed globally optimal structures. This is done by a branch-and-bound method for which convergence can be proven. In this branch-and-bound framework, lower bounds of the optimal...

  5. Receding horizon H∞ guaranteed cost tracking control for microwave heating medium with temperature-dependent permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaqi; Liang, Shan; Xiong, Qingyu

    2018-01-10

    This paper considers the temperature spectrum tracking control of microwave heating model, in the presence of asymmetrical input saturation, nonhomogeneous Neumann boundary condition and temperature-dependent permittivity. The sufficient condition for the existence of receding horizon H∞ guaranteed cost control is proposed based on the derived finite-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE) error model. Furthermore, by on-line updating and solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) optimization problem, the constrained tracking controller can be obtained in the sense of minimizing H∞ norm and satisfying the quadratic cost performance. The proposed control strategy is implemented on a one-dimensional cavity heating model and its performance is evaluated through the simulation. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    to avoid flaws in the product or costly iterations during its development. We propose to use Modal Sequence Diagrams (MSDs), a formal, yet intuitive formalism for specifying the interaction of a system with its environment, and developed a formal synthesis approach that allows us to detect inconsistencies...... and even to automatically synthesize controllers from MSD specifications. The technique is suited for specifications of technical systems with real-time constraints and environment assumptions. However, synthesis is computationally expensive. In order to employ synthesis also for larger specifications, we...... present, in this paper, a novel assume-guarantee-style compositional synthesis technique for MSD specifications. We provide evaluation results underlining the benefit of our approach and formally justify its correctness....

  7. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    problem, we introduce a new optimization problem for a set of tasks with energy constraint and multiple security choices. We present a dynamic programming based approximation algorithm to minimize the security risk of the system while statistically guaranteeing energy consumption constraints for given......In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... energy slack ratio. The proposed algorithm is very efficient in both time and space dimensions, and achieves good solutions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over other approaches....

  8. Investigations on the critical feed rate guaranteeing the effectiveness of rotary ultrasonic machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjian; Feng, Pingfa; Zhang, Jianfu; Cai, Wanchong; Shen, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is a well-known and efficient method for manufacturing holes in brittle materials. RUM is characterized by improved material removal rates, reduced cutting forces and reduced edge chipping sizes at the hole exit. The aim of this study is to investigate the critical feed rate to guarantee the effectiveness of RUM. Experimental results on quartz glass and sapphire specimens show that when the feed rate exceeds a critical value, the cutting force increases abruptly, accompanied by a significant decrease of ultrasonic amplitude. An analytical model for the prediction of critical feed rates is presented, based on indentation fracture mechanic and the theory of impact of vibrating systems. This model establishes the theoretical relationships between the critical feed rate, idling resonant ultrasonic amplitude and spindle speed. The results predicted by the analytical model were in good agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SYSTEM OF GUARANTEED RESOLUTION OF DYNAMIC CONFLICTS OF AIRCRAFTS IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pavlova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work is devoted to improving of flight safety in civil aviation by creating and implementing a new system of resolution of dynamic conflict of aircrafts. The developed system is aimed at ensuring a guaranteed level of safety when resolution of rarefied conflict situations of aircraft in real-time. Methods: The proposed system is based on a new method of conflict resolution of aircraft on the basis of the theory of invariance. Results: The development of the system of conflict resolution of aircraft in real time and the implementation of the respective algorithms such control will ensure effective prevention of dangerous approaches. Discussion: The system is implemented as single unified equipment using satellite and radar navigation systems that will ensure the positioning of aircraft in real time. Provided that the system should be installed on all aircraft and integrated on board to properly ensure its functionality and interact with navigation systems.

  10. Guaranteed estimation of solutions to Helmholtz transmission problems with uncertain data from their indirect noisy observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlipenko, Yu. K.; Shestopalov, Yu. V.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the guaranteed estimation problem of linear functionals from solutions to transmission problems for the Helmholtz equation with inexact data. The right-hand sides of equations entering the statements of transmission problems and the statistical characteristics of observation errors are supposed to be unknown and belonging to certain sets. It is shown that the optimal linear mean square estimates of the above mentioned functionals and estimation errors are expressed via solutions to the systems of transmission problems of the special type. The results and techniques can be applied in the analysis and estimation of solution to forward and inverse electromagnetic and acoustic problems with uncertain data that arise in mathematical models of the wave diffraction on transparent bodies.

  11. Impact of a guaranteed annual income program on Canadian seniors' physical, mental and functional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Kwok, Cynthia; Emery, J C Herbert; Dutton, Daniel J

    2016-08-15

    Although there is widespread recognition that poverty is a key determinant of health, there has been less research on the impact of poverty reduction on health. Recent calls for a guaranteed annual income (GAI), defined as regular income provided to citizens by the state regardless of work status, raise questions about the impact, relative to the costs, of such a population health intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Canadian seniors' benefits (Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement, analogous to a GAI program) on the self-reported health, self-reported mental health and functional health of age-eligible, low-income seniors. We used the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey to examine unattached adult respondents with an annual income of $20,000 or less, stratified by seniors' benefits/GAI eligibility (55-64 years: ineligible; 65-74 years: eligible). Using regression, we assessed self-reported health, selfreported mental health and functional health as measured by the Health Utilities Index, as outcomes for seniors' benefits/GAI-eligible and -ineligible groups. We found that individuals age-eligible for seniors' benefits/GAI had better health outcomes than recipients of conditional income assistance programs. Eligibility for seniors' benefits/GAI after age 64 was associated with better self-reported health, functional health and self-reported mental health outcomes, and these effects were observed until age 74. Using seniors' benefits as an example, a GAI leads to significantly better mental health and improved health overall. These improvements are likely to yield reduced health care costs, which may offset the costs associated with program expansion.

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, Jason W.; Kenney, Daniel G.; Slavić, Durda; Weese, J Scott

    2012-01-01

    A 6-hour-old alpaca was presented for evaluation of respiratory difficulty. As part of routine surveillance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified from a nasal swab taken upon admission to the hospital. No signs of MRSA infection were noted. The MRSA strain recovered was a human epidemic clone that has been associated with horses. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization can occur in camelids, and the potential animal and public health risks require consideration.

  13. Membrane damage elicits an immunomodulatory program in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Attia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus aureus HrtAB system is a hemin-regulated ABC transporter composed of an ATPase (HrtA and a permease (HrtB that protect S. aureus against hemin toxicity. S. aureus strains lacking hrtA exhibit liver-specific hyper-virulence and upon hemin exposure over-express and secrete immunomodulatory factors that interfere with neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. It has been proposed that heme accumulation in strains lacking hrtAB is the signal which triggers S. aureus to elaborate this anti-neutrophil response. However, we report here that S. aureus strains expressing catalytically inactive HrtA do not elaborate the same secreted protein profile. This result indicates that the physical absence of HrtA is responsible for the increased expression of immunomodulatory factors, whereas deficiencies in the ATPase activity of HrtA do not contribute to this process. Furthermore, HrtB expression in strains lacking hrtA decreases membrane integrity consistent with dysregulated permease function. Based on these findings, we propose a model whereby hemin-mediated over-expression of HrtB in the absence of HrtA damages the staphylococcal membrane through pore formation. In turn, S. aureus senses this membrane damage, triggering the increased expression of immunomodulatory factors. In support of this model, wildtype S. aureus treated with anti-staphylococcal channel-forming peptides produce a secreted protein profile that mimics the effect of treating DeltahrtA with hemin. These results suggest that S. aureus senses membrane damage and elaborates a gene expression program that protects the organism from the innate immune response of the host.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Idrissa; Bekhti, Khadija; Elhabchi, Driss; Saile, Rachid; Elmdaghri, Naima; Timinouni, Mohammed; Elazhari, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration), comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy) and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization). PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes. Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002). But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61%) was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87%) had at least two virulence toxin genes. Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  15. Piperine, a Phytochemical Potentiator of Ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inshad Ali; Mirza, Zahid Mehmood; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Vijeshwar; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2006-01-01

    Piperine, a trans-trans isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine, in combination with ciprofloxacin markedly reduced the MICs and mutation prevention concentration of ciprofloxacin for Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The enhanced accumulation and decreased efflux of ethidium bromide in the wild-type and mutant (CIPr-1) strains in the presence of piperine suggest its involvement in the inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16436753

  16. An Improved Medium for Growing Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    Branch, US Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, United States a b s t r a c ta r t...hlgC), are up regulated Journal of Microbiological Methods 90 (2012) 115–118 ⁎ Corresponding author at: 3650 Chambers Pass, Bldg 3610, US Army Dental ...aureus biofilm formation in real time, we used overnight green fluores cent protein (GFP) tagged clinical isolate S. aureus UAMS 1 (University of

  17. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Methods: Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 °C. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, a...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  19. Glucose Augments Killing Efficiency of Daptomycin Challenged Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    OpenAIRE

    Prax, Marcel; Mechler, Lukas; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in stationary growth phase with high doses of the antibiotic daptomycin (DAP) eradicates the vast majority of the culture and leaves persister cells behind. Despite resting in a drug-tolerant and dormant state, persister cells exhibit metabolic activity which might be exploited for their elimination. We here report that the addition of glucose to S. aureus persisters treated with DAP increased killing by up to five-fold within one hour. This glucose-DAP effe...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Redirects Central Metabolism to Increase Iron Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Pishchany, Gleb; Whitwell, Corbin W; Torres, Victor J; Skaar, Eric P; Friedman, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein ...

  1. Molecular dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Hajj pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, P O; Gautret, P; Haddar, C H; Benkouiten, S; Gagnaire, J; Belhouchat, K; Grattard, F; Charrel, R; Pozzetto, B; Drali, T; Lucht, F; Brouqui, P; Memish, Z A; Berthelot, P; Botelho-Nevers, E

    2015-07-01

    During the 2012 Hajj season, the risk of acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a cohort of French pilgrims was 22.8%, and was statistically associated with the acquisition of viral respiratory pathogens (p 0.03). The carriage of S. aureus belonging to the emerging clonal complex 398 significantly increased following the pilgrimage (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal Iterative Learning Fault-Tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes in the 2D-FM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops the optimal fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme for a batch process with actuator failures. Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini (2D-FM model description of a batch process, the relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control are introduced. The robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC, which includes a robust extended feedback control for ensuring the performances over time and an iterative learning control (ILC for improving the tracking performance from cycle to cycle, is formulated such that it cannot only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along both the time and the cycle directions but also satisfy both the H∞ performance level and a cost function having upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures. Conditions for the existence of the controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, and a design procedure of the controller is presented. Furthermore, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the optimal guaranteed cost controller which minimizes the upper bound of the closed-loop system cost. Finally, an illustrative example of injection molding is given to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed 2D design approach.

  3. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdali, Anna M; Anna, Bogdali M; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga; Aleksander, Obtulowicz; Anna, Bialecka; Andrzej, Kasprowicz; Zofia, Magnowska; Krystyna, Obtulowicz

    2016-01-01

    The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus in atopic dermatitis. Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy volunteers without nickel allergy. The elevated secretion of IL-2 under nickel sulfate stimulation in vitro was exclusively found in atopic patients with nickel allergy infected by S. aureus. Our data suggest that nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus are linked in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. "Gesundheit!" sneezing, common colds, allergies, and Staphylococcus aureus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Werner E; Wallis, Michelle L; Tucker, Brian K; Reboussin, Beth A; Pfaller, Michael A; Hayden, Frederick G; Sherertz, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important pathogens in today's hospital setting. The effects of sneezing on the airborne dispersal of S. aureus and other bacteria were assessed in 11 healthy nasal S. aureus carriers with experimentally induced rhinovirus colds. Airborne dispersal was studied by volumetric air sampling in 2 chamber sessions with and without histamine-induced sneezing. After 2 days of preexposure measurements, volunteers were inoculated with a rhinovirus and monitored for 14 days. Daily quantitative nasal- and skin-culture samples for bacteria and nasal-culture samples for rhinovirus were obtained, cold symptoms were assessed, and volunteer activities were recorded during sessions. All participants developed a cold. Sneezing caused a 4.7-fold increase in the airborne dispersal of S. aureus, a 1.4-fold increase in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and a 3.9-fold increase in other bacteria (P Rhinovirus exposure did not change the frequency of sneezing or airborne dispersal. Having respiratory allergies increased the spread of S. aureus by 3.8-fold during sneezing sessions (P effect of dispersing S. aureus.

  5. Prevalence of nasal portal of Staphylococcus aureus in disabled children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Molin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonization of the nasal mucosa by Staphylococcus aureus set a carrier state. Which is recognized as a potential source of infection and a high risk factor for subsequent invasive infections. The prevalence of nasal carriage of this germ in disabled children in Paraguay is not known, thus contributing to the knowledge of their frequency and evaluate the profile of sensitivity to common antimicrobials was conducted this study, from May to July 2015.  Objective: to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and profile of antimicrobial resistance in disabled children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 80 nasal swabs of children, who attended the service laboratory of SENADIS (Secretaria Nacional por los Derechos Humanos de las Personas con Discapacidad. The identification and sensitivity of germ was accomplished by conventional testing.  Results: 80 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 34 girls. 18 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained, corresponding to a prevalence of 22,5%. Susceptibility testing indicated that 14 strains were MSSA (Methicillin – Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and 4 RMSA ( Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in a population with its own characteristics provides valuable data for the epidemiology, reflecting the need for continued vigilance and take steps to reduce associated infections. The detection of RMAR evidences their progress; it is important to evaluate the empirical treatment to primary care.

  6. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia S.; Junqueira, Elisabete; Palma, Cláudia; Viveiros, Miguel; Melo-Cristino, José; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide information on approaches useful to the assessment and characterization of efflux activity, as well as contributing to our understanding of the role of efflux to phenotypes of antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance in S. aureus clinical isolates. The results described show that efflux is an important contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in S. aureus and suggest it as a major mechanism in the early stages of resistance development. We also show that efflux plays an important role on the reduced susceptibility to biocides in S. aureus, strengthening the importance of this long neglected resistance mechanism to the persistence and proliferation of antibiotic/biocide-resistant S. aureus in the hospital environment. PMID:27029294

  7. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2014-03-22

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Clinical samples were cultured and Staphylococcus aureus was identified using standard microbiological methods recommended by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. Inducible clindamycin resistance was identified using D-zone test. From the processed samples, 306 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were recovered. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Methicillin resistance was observed in 43.1% of isolates while inducible clindamycin resistance in 12.4% of the isolates. The results of our study reveals that rates of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates is high. In particular, rate of methicillin resistance is alarming, prompting concern on the rational use of antibiotics and vigilant laboratory-based surveillance of resistance rates in Nepal.

  8. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer Design for Singular Markovian Jump Time-Delay Systems with Generally Incomplete Transition Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.

  9. ANTISTAPHYBASE: database of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and essential oils (EOs) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Taieb, Malek; Lamine, Mohamed Ashraf; Cherif, Ammar; Jridi, Taoufik; Mahjoubi, Basma; Mbarek, Sarra; Fliss, Ismail; Nefzi, Adel; Sebei, Khaled; Ben Hamida, Jeannette

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus are major pathogens. The antimicrobial peptides and essential oils (EOs) display narrow- or broad-spectrum activity against bacteria including these strains. A centralized resource, such as a database, designed specifically for anti-S. aureus/anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus antimicrobial peptides and EOs is therefore needed to facilitate the comprehensive investigation of their structure/activity associations and combinations. The database ANTISTAPHYBASE is created to facilitate access to important information on antimicrobial peptides and essential peptides against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus. At the moment, the database contains 596 sequences of antimicrobial peptides produced by diverse organisms and 287 essential oil records. It permits a quick and easy search of peptides based on their activity as well as their general, physicochemical properties and literature data. These data are very useful to perform further bioinformatic or chemometric analysis and would certainly be useful for the development of new drugs for medical use. The ANTISTAPHYBASE database is freely available at: https://www.antistaphybase.com/ .

  10. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  11. [Dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Aline; Nguyen, Ngan; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2009-02-02

    Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is an important cause of hospital-acquired infections, and nasal carriage of Sa is common among health care workers. This study was designed to measure the airborne dispersal of Sa and other bacteria from such carriers and to investigate whether the use of cap, gown, gloves, and mask could reduce this dispersal. A total of 13 nasal Sa carriers were identified among 63 persons screened for Sa nasal carriage. The volunteers were studied for airborne dispersal of Sa in four different situations: quiet breathing, movements of the arms, whispering and loud talking. These activities were performed with and without gown, gloves, mask and cap upon street clothes. The study showed that the highest number of Sa and bacteria in total was dispersed into the air when the volunteers were moving and wearing only their street clothes. The dispersal of Sa into the air was reduced into a minimum by wearing cap, gown and gloves, and no further significant decrease was achieved by wearing a mask. This applied for all volunteers except for one, who had to wear a mask in order to reduce his dispersal of Sa to a minimum. The total dispersal of bacteria was significantly reduced by wearing cap, gown and gloves; however, to reduce this dispersal to a minimum, volunteers also had to wear a mask. Our study supports the rational basis that gown, cap, gloves and mask should be used not only in the operating theatre, but also while e.g. inserting central venous catheters.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

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    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-García, Estrella; García-Gonzalez, Rafael; Reyes-Torres, Angélica; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María

    2015-01-01

    Background : Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs). Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods : A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results : We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions : The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors. 40.9% of all participants carried S. aureus at least once while 0.7% of the participants carried MRSA (mainly spa t011). MSSA isolates (n=1359) were associated with 331 different spa types; t084 (7.7%), t091 (6.1%) and t012 (71, 5.2%) were predominant. Of 206 participants carrying S. aureus at all three sampling time points, 14.1% carried the same spa type continuously; 5.3% carried different spa types with similar repeat patterns, but 80.6% carried S. aureus with unrelated spa types. MSSA isolates frequently harboured genes encoding enterotoxins (sec: 16.6%, seg: 63.1%, sei: 64.5%) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst: 17.5%), but rarely Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV/lukF-PV: 0.2%). MSSA colonizing human nares in the community are clonally highly diverse. Among those constantly carrying S. aureus, clonal lineages changed over time. The proportion of persistent S. aureus carriers was lower than reported elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus effect of different factors on mammary gland infection with staphylococcus aureus bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurčevič Alen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our investigation was to determine how certain factors (the environment, treatment, prevention, animal affect udder infection with Staphylococcus aureurs (S. aureus bacteria. A questionnaire investigated the effect of different factors on the frequency of infection with S. aureus bacteria. We established that prevention, treatment on the basis of results of bacteriological examinations and antibiograms, and the elimination of the negative influence of the environment, form a basis for reducing the frequency of udder infections. We verified the questionannire results with the variant analysis method and established that the effect of the environment significantly digresses from the other factors (prevention treatment and diagnosis, animal. Our results show that the breeder, with good prevention and good treatment of mastitis, often disregards the effects of the barn and the environment in which the cows are maintained. Poor barn conditions have a negative effect on cow resistance and at the same time enable the existence and multiplication of pathogenic species of bacteria. In addition to the maintenance conditions, one must not forget prevention and therapy of mammary gland inflammation, either. On the grounds of our previous investigations (Pengov et al., 2000, we recommend for the therapy of mammary gland inflammation the use of a combination of amoxicillin and clavulonic acid, and as prevention of mammary gland inflammation the use of an udder ointment.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  17. Concomitant Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria is associated with complicated S. aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Matta, Matta; Mondain, Véronique; Gaudart, Alice; Girard-Pipau, Fernand; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    To identify factors associated with complicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in adults. Prospective observational multicenter study during 2 years in Nice University Hospital and during 6 months in the Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, including all adult inpatients with SAB assessed by an Infectious Diseases (ID) specialist. We included 104 SAB (79 in Nice and 25 in Paris), of which 45 were complicated, including 18 endocarditis and 23 bone and joint infections. A concomitant urine sample was performed in 65% of the cases, showing S. aureus bacteriuria 23/68 (34%) times. Blood cultures were drawn 48-96h after an appropriate antibiotic therapy had been started in 70 of the 104 cases (67%) and were positive in 28 cases (40%). The 3 following factors were found to be associated with complicated SAB in univariate analysis: community acquisition (56% vs 26%, P=0.002), concomitant bacteriuria (47% vs 19%, P=0.016) and persistent bacteremia (55% vs 26%, P=0.016). This last factor was associated with endocarditis, but not with other complications such as bone and joint infections.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus: nuevos y antiguos antimicrobianos Staphylococcus aureus: new and old antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Perazzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la sensibilidad a antiguos y nuevos antimicrobianos de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la oxacilina, de origen hospitalario (SAOR-H y adquiridos en la comunidad (SAOR-AC, y también en aislamientos sensibles a la oxacilina (SAOS. Se estudió en forma prospectiva la concentración inhibitoria mínima a diversos antimicrobianos en 118 aislamientos consecutivos por dilución seriada en agar según las indicaciones del CLSI. En los aislamientos de SAOR sin resistencia acompañante se determinó la presencia de los genes mec A, leucocidina de Panton Valentine (LPV y γ-hemolisina por PCR, y del cassette SCC mec por PCR múltiple. De los 118 aislamientos estudiados, 44 fueron SAOR-H, 16 SAOR-AC y 58 SAOS. Los aislamientos de SAOR-H presentaron resistencia simultánea a eritromicina, clindamicina, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, levofloxacina y moxifloxacina, y todos fueron sensibles a tigeciclina (TIG, vancomicina, teicoplanina y linezolid (LZD. Los aislamientos de SAOR-AC fueron resistentes solamente a OXA y sensibles a todos los antimicrobianos ensayados. En todos ellos se detectaron los genes mec A, LPV, γ-hemolisina y el cassette SCC mec IV. En SAOS y en SAOR-AC todos los antimicrobianos no ß-lactámicos ensayados presentaron excelente actividad in vitro, mientras que en SAOR-H sólo los antiguos antimicrobianos como glucopéptidos, doxiciclina, rifampicina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol presentaron buena actividad in vitro, al igual que LZD y TIG entre los nuevos antimicrobianos. El fenotipo de SAOR sin resistencia acompañante fue altamente predictivo de SAOR-AC, ya que fue confirmado por presentar el cassette SCC mec IV.The objective of the study was to evaluate the susceptibility to old and new antimicrobial agents against hospital-acquired oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-ORSA, community-acquired oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-ORSA, and oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (OSSA

  19. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmand, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam's-eye-view) known as "apertures". Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan since the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used simultaneously, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined m...

  20. Dynamic Learning from Adaptive Neural Control of Uncertain Robots with Guaranteed Full-State Tracking Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic learning method is developed for an uncertain n-link robot with unknown system dynamics, achieving predefined performance attributes on the link angular position and velocity tracking errors. For a known nonsingular initial robotic condition, performance functions and unconstrained transformation errors are employed to prevent the violation of the full-state tracking error constraints. By combining two independent Lyapunov functions and radial basis function (RBF neural network (NN approximator, a novel and simple adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for the dynamics of the unconstrained transformation errors, which guarantees uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system. In the steady-state control process, RBF NNs are verified to satisfy the partial persistent excitation (PE condition. Subsequently, an appropriate state transformation is adopted to achieve the accurate convergence of neural weight estimates. The corresponding experienced knowledge on unknown robotic dynamics is stored in NNs with constant neural weight values. Using the stored knowledge, a static neural learning controller is developed to improve the full-state tracking performance. A comparative simulation study on a 2-link robot illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  1. Passive Guaranteed Simulation of Analog Audio Circuits: A Port-Hamiltonian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Falaize

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a method that generates passive-guaranteed stable simulations of analog audio circuits from electronic schematics for real-time issues. On one hand, this method is based on a continuous-time power-balanced state-space representation structured into its energy-storing parts, dissipative parts, and external sources. On the other hand, a numerical scheme is especially designed to preserve this structure and the power balance. These state-space structures define the class of port-Hamiltonian systems. The derivation of this structured system associated with the electronic circuit is achieved by an automated analysis of the interconnection network combined with a dictionary of models for each elementary component. The numerical scheme is based on the combination of finite differences applied on the state (with respect to the time variable and on the total energy (with respect to the state. This combination provides a discrete-time version of the power balance. This set of algorithms is valid for both the linear and nonlinear case. Finally, three applications of increasing complexities are given: a diode clipper, a common-emitter bipolar-junction transistor amplifier, and a wah pedal. The results are compared to offline simulations obtained from a popular circuit simulator.

  2. A QoS-Guaranteed Coverage Precedence Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Chuan Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs involving extensive battlefield surveillance, medical healthcare, etc., it is crucial to have low-power, new protocols, methodologies and structures for transferring data and information in a network with full sensing coverage capability for an extended working period. The upmost mission is to ensure that the network is fully functional providing reliable transmission of the sensed data without the risk of data loss. WSNs have been applied to various types of mission-critical applications. Coverage preservation is one of the most essential functions to guarantee quality of service (QoS in WSNs. However, a tradeoff exists between sensing coverage and network lifetime due to the limited energy supplies of sensor nodes. In this study, we propose a routing protocol to accommodate both energy-balance and coverage-preservation for sensor nodes in WSNs. The energy consumption for radio transmissions and the residual energy over the network are taken into account when the proposed protocol determines an energy-efficient route for a packet. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol is able to increase the duration of the on-duty network and provide up to 98.3% and 85.7% of extra service time with 100% sensing coverage ratio comparing with LEACH and the LEACH-Coverage-U protocols, respectively.

  3. A NEPA follow-up study of DOE loan guarantee fuel ethanol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Miller, R.L.; Webb, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    This study was implemented to examine and characterize the actual environmental impacts of three fuel ethanol plants constructed under the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program, and to compare actual impacts with those predicted about six years ago in environmental assessments (EAs) prepared for these facilities. The objective of the program, established under the Energy Security Act of 1980, was to conserve petroleum resources by promoting the use of fuel ethanol in motor vehicles. The plants were designed to produce fuel-grade ethanol for blending with gasoline and reflect differentfeedstocks, processes, fuel sources, and site locations. Although two of the facilities as constructed differed substantially from those assessed previously, actual environmental impacts generally occurred in the areas predicted by the EAs. Major impacts not anticipated include odor from air emissions, effects of wastewater discharge on operation of a municipal sewage treatment plant, possible classification of treated wastewater from a molasses-based process as a nuisance, and habitat losses from both vegetation removal and unforeseen construction of barge terminals. In all cases, impacts were judged to be not significantn the final outcome, either because plant management (or other involved parties) took corrective action or because the resources affected in these particular cases were not important. Mitigation measures reliedon in the EAs to limit adverse impacts to insignificant levels were implemented and were required by permit condition, law, or regulation. Future follow-up studies would benefit from the availability of ambientmonitoring data to more thoroughly characterize actual impacts.

  4. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-08-23

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  5. Computation Offloading for Frame-Based Real-Time Tasks under Given Server Response Time Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas S. M. Toma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation offloading has been adopted to improve the performance of embedded systems by offloading the computation of some tasks, especially computation-intensive tasks, to servers or clouds. This paper explores computation offloading for real-time tasks in embedded systems, provided given response time guarantees from the servers, to decide which tasks should be offloaded to get the results in time. We consider frame-based real-time tasks with the same period and relative deadline. When the execution order of the tasks is given, the problem can be solved in linear time. However, when the execution order is not specified, we prove that the problem is NP-complete. We develop a pseudo-polynomial-time algorithm for deriving feasible schedules, if they exist.  An approximation scheme is also developed to trade the error made from the algorithm and the complexity. Our algorithms are extended to minimize the period/relative deadline of the tasks for performance maximization. The algorithms are evaluated with a case study for a surveillance system and synthesized benchmarks.

  6. Seamless interworking architecture for WBAN in heterogeneous wireless networks with QoS guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-10-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 standard is a communication standard optimized for low-power and short-range in-body/on-body nodes to serve a variety of medical, consumer electronics and entertainment applications. Providing high mobility with guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to a WBAN user in heterogeneous wireless networks is a challenging task. A WBAN uses a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to gather data from body sensors and forwards it to a remote server through wide range wireless networks. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of WBAN with Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs). The main issue is interworking of WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks including seamless handover, QoS, emergency services, cooperation and security. We propose a Seamless Interworking Architecture (SIA) for WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks based on a cost function. The cost function is based on power consumption and data throughput costs. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms typical approaches in terms of throughput, delay and packet loss rate.

  7. The effects of closed tracheal suctioning plus volume guarantee on cerebral hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, JR; Gauss, CH; Williams, DK

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of open tracheal suctioning (OS) plus intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) vs closed tracheal suctioning (CS) plus volume guarantee ventilation (VG) on changes in mean cerebral blood-flow velocity (CBFv) of ventilated very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design A total of 75 normotensive, ventilated VLBW infants (with normal cranial ultrasounds) had monitoring of mean CBFv, PCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) before, during and after 220 tracheal suctioning sessions during the first week of life. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the factor(s) influencing the magnitude of relative changes from baseline in mean CBFv after suctioning. Result In all, 49 VLBW infants receiving IMV had monitoring during 124 OS sessions between July 2002 and May 2005; 26 VLBW infants receiving VG had monitoring during 96 CS sessions between January 2006 and July 2007. The average magnitude of relative changes in mean CBFv was significantly less with CS + VG, and was associated with the magnitude of relative changes in PCO2 and suctioning-ventilator group. Conclusion The average magnitude of relative changes in mean CBFv was reduced in VLBW infants with CS + VG vs OS + IMV. PMID:21330995

  8. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. PMID:28832509

  9. Radioimmunoassays for protein A of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langone, J.J.; Das, C.; Bennett, D.; Terman, D.S. (Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine)

    1983-10-14

    Radioimmunoassays have been developed that can detect nanogram amounts of protein A (SpA), a product generated by Staphylococcus aureus that binds selectively to the Fc region of IgG from most mammalian species. Competition assays for fluid phase SpA utilize antibodies produced in chickens, /sup 125/I-labeled SpA as the tracer molecule, and either F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments of rabbit IgG anti-chicken IgG or 40% ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent to separate antigen-antibody complexes from free antigen. The double antibody assay could be carried out in serum from species that form only soluble complexes with SpA (e.g., rabbit), that react poorly with SpA (e.g., rat) or under appropriate conditions in serum from species (e.g., dog) that show high reactivity with SpA and form precipitating complexes. Chicken antibodies prepared by affinity chromatography on SpA-Sepharose and labeled with /sup 125/I were used in a direct binding assay for SpA present either on the cell wall of Cowan strain I or Wood 46 bacteria, in insoluble complexes prepared from SpA and whole serum or purified IgG, or in C1q binding complexes that were formed by passage of serum from normal or tumor bearing humans or dogs over SpA-collodion charcoal. Since both types of assays could detect SpA even in the presence of serum or IgG, they offer advantages over other techniques in which the SpA-Fc interaction may interfere.

  10. Room temperature aging to guarantee microbiological safety of Brazilian artisan Canastra cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Therezinha das Dores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Canastra cheese is one of the oldest and most traditional cheeses made from raw milk in Brazil. However, this type of practice may have severe consequences for human health. According to the current legislation, any cheese made from raw milk must be aged for at least 60 days. Traditionally, Canastra cheese is consumed after different ripening periods, but consumers usually prefer those that are aged less than eight days. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of physicochemical and microbiological parameters, with emphasis on the pathogenic microbiota regulated by law, on cheese aged at room temperature and under refrigeration. Cheese samples were collected from eight different cheese producers located in the Serra da Canastra region twice a year (rainy and dry seasons and analyzed with 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 64 days of ripening. Room temperature aging effectively reduced pathogens, reaching the total count established by law in 22 days, regardless of the season. However, ripening under refrigeration, it was ineffective in reducing the Staphylococcus aureus counts to the legislation limits, even after 64 days. Therefore, Canastra cheese should be ripened for at least 22 days at room temperature in order to fulfill the safety regulatory limits.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated the occu...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought.......The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...

  12. Role of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashimav Deb Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients suffering from chronic urticaria. Method: All total 82 patients were included for this study. Study group comprised 57 patients with chronic urticaria and the control group comprised 25 healthy volunteers. Nasal swab specimens were taken from all the 82 patients for bacterial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity. Patients with chronic urticaria who had positive growth for S. aureus were treated with sensitive antimicrobial agent. Nasal swab specimens were taken again from all the patients who received antimicrobial therapy to ensure complete eradication of S. aureus. All patients were followed up for a period of 6 weeks after the treatment. Urticarial activity was measured with the help of urticarial activity score. Results: S. aureus was detected in swab specimens from the nasal cavity in 32 patients in the study group and 7 patients in the control group. In the study group, after the antimicrobial treatment, 9 patients (28.12% had complete recovery from urticaria during the follow-up period; 4 patients (12.5% showed partial recovery from urticaria while the remaining patients (59.37% continued to suffer from urticaria. Conclusion: This study showed that nasal carriage of S. aureus can act as an etiological factor in chronic urticaria.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in chorizo and longaniza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refugio Torres-Vitela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research in developed and developing countries, had found meat products as the principal cause for foodbourne diseases. In addition, Salmonella and Staphyococcus aureus are well known pathogens for their mayor impact in public health. The objective for the present study consisted on determinate the sanitary quality from chorizo and longaniza samples from several butcheries in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Samples of chorizo (50 and longaniza (50 were obtained from different points in Guadalajara metropolis. Presence of Salmonella and recounts for S. aureus were tested in 25 g samples. Procedure was followed according Mexican NOM 145-SSA1-1995 methods. In chorizo, 18 samples were positive to Salmonella. The count of S. aureus showed a mean of 24,600 UFC/g. On the other hand, 24 samples of longaniza were positive to Salmonella spp. In this case, the mean of S. aureus was 7,800 UFC/g. The serotypes of Salmonella spp were: Derby (30%, Adelaile (17%, Azteca (15%, Infantis (15%, Muenster(10% y Anatum (13 %. The high positivity of Salmonella spp. and S. aureus is a potential hazard to consumers.

  14. The Bicomponent Pore-Forming Leucocidins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Francis

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to produce water-soluble proteins with the capacity to oligomerize and form pores within cellular lipid bilayers is a trait conserved among nearly all forms of life, including humans, single-celled eukaryotes, and numerous bacterial species. In bacteria, some of the most notable pore-forming molecules are protein toxins that interact with mammalian cell membranes to promote lysis, deliver effectors, and modulate cellular homeostasis. Of the bacterial species capable of producing pore-forming toxic molecules, the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most notorious. S. aureus can produce seven different pore-forming protein toxins, all of which are believed to play a unique role in promoting the ability of the organism to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The most diverse of these pore-forming toxins, in terms of both functional activity and global representation within S. aureus clinical isolates, are the bicomponent leucocidins. From the first description of their activity on host immune cells over 100 years ago to the detailed investigations of their biochemical function today, the leucocidins remain at the forefront of S. aureus pathogenesis research initiatives. Study of their mode of action is of immediate interest in the realm of therapeutic agent design as well as for studies of bacterial pathogenesis. This review provides an updated perspective on our understanding of the S. aureus leucocidins and their function, specificity, and potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:24847020

  15. Virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Buruli ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Friedrich, Alex W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W

    2017-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients. Previously sequenced genomes of 21 S. aureus isolates from BU patients were screened for the presence of virulence genes. The results show that all S. aureus isolates harbored on their core genomes genes for known virulence factors like α-hemolysin, and the α- and β-phenol soluble modulins. Besides the core genome virulence genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), i.e. prophages, genomic islands, pathogenicity islands and a Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) were found to carry different combinations of virulence factors, among them genes that are known to encode factors that promote immune evasion, superantigens and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin. The present observations imply that the S. aureus isolates from BU patients harbor a diverse repertoire of virulence genes that may enhance bacterial survival and persistence in the wound environment and potentially contribute to delayed wound healing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizner, W.; Hunter, J.G.; O’Malley, N.T.; Southgate, R.D.; Schwarz, E.M.; Kates, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed & Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorized by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarized and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting. PMID:24668594

  17. Frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rahimi-Alang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most important pathogen in hospitals. Healthcare personnel are the main source of nosocomial infections and identification and control of MRSA carriers can reduce incidence of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA and their antibiotic susceptibility profile among healthcare workers in Gorgan.Materials and Method: 333 healthcare workers were participated in this cross-sectional study in 2009. Samples were taken with sterile cotton swabs from both anterior nares and hands. Swabs were plated immediately on to the mannitol salt agar. Suspected colonies were confirmed as S. aureus by Gram staining, catalase, coagulase and DNase tests. Minimum inhibition concentration by micro dilution broth method was used to determine methicillin resistant strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility to other antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS guidelines by disc diffusion method.Result: Frequency of S.aureus and MRSA carriers among healthcare workers was 24% and 3% respectively. The highest rate of S. aureus and MRSA carriers were observed in operating room staff. Resistance to penicillin was seen in 97.5% of isolates and all strains were sensitive to vancomycin.Conclusions: Frequency of S. aureus and MRSA in healthcare workers was median and rather low respectively. Continual monitoring and control of carriers can reduce distribution of this organism and their infections

  18. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from tonsillectomized adult patients with recurrent tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkowska, Marta; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Stromkowski, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains from 118 tonsillectomized adults due to recurrent tonsillitis (RT). The study included strains isolated from the tonsillar surface prior to tonsillectomy, recovered from the tonsillar core at the time of surgery, and from the posterior throat 2-4 weeks after the procedure. Susceptibility of isolates to 19 antibiotics was tested in line with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Irrespective of the stage, the most commonly isolated bacteria were gram-positive cocci, and among them S. aureus. The tonsillar core was the most common site of S. aureus isolation (30.5%), followed by the tonsillar surface (10.8%) and the posterior pharynx (5.9%). This difference turned out to be statistically significant (p Staphylococcus aureus seems to be the most common pathogen isolated from patients tonsillectomized due to RT. Staphylococcal isolates associated with RT are present mostly within the tonsillar core and susceptible to most antibiotics. They are typically isolated from patients between 21 and 30 years of age. Tonsillectomy results in less frequent isolation of S. aureus strains. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future. However, there are several noteworthy challenges in the development of curcumin as a medicine. S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by the multidrug-resistant strains, have emerged as a global health issue and urgent action is needed. This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of curcumin against both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. We also attempt to highlight the potential challenges in the effort of developing curcumin into a therapeutic antibacterial agent.

  1. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  2. A Router Architecture for Connection-Oriented Service Guarantees in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2005-01-01

    On-chip networks for future system-on-chip designs need simple, high performance implementations. In order to promote system-level integrity, guaranteed services (GS) need to be provided. We propose a network-on-chip (NoC) router architecture to support this, and demonstrate with a CMOS standard...

  3. 76 FR 61341 - Maximum Loan Amount Available for B&I Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Maximum Loan Amount Available for B&I Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year...) allows the Rural Development Administrator, at the Administrator's discretion, to grant an exception to...

  4. 76 FR 22078 - Maximum Loan Amount Available for B&I Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Maximum Loan Amount Available for B&I Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year...) allows the Rural Development Administrator, at the Administrator's discretion, to grant an exception to...

  5. 20 CFR 404.231 - Steps in computing your primary insurance amount under the guaranteed alternative-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steps in computing your primary insurance amount under the guaranteed alternative-general. 404.231 Section 404.231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary...

  6. Enabling application-level performance guarantees in network-based systems on chip by applying dataflow analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansson, A.; Hansson, A.; Wiggers, M.H.; Moonen, A.; Goossens, K.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Bekooij, M.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of applications, often with real-time requirements, are integrated on the same system on chip (SoC), in the form of hardware and software intellectual property (IP). To facilitate real-time applications, networks on chip (NoC) guarantee bounds on latency and throughput. These

  7. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Criteria Relating to Use of Financial Tests and Self Guarantees for Providing Reasonable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... least 10 times the total current decommissioning cost estimate for the total of all facilities or parts... Guarantees for Providing Reasonable Assurance of Funds for Decommissioning C Appendix C to Part 30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL...

  8. 77 FR 65878 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... 25 day comment period regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...

  9. 77 FR 61750 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of... 25 day comment period regarding an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...

  10. 45 CFR 148.120 - Guaranteed availability of individual health insurance coverage to certain individuals with prior...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and Renewability of Coverage § 148.120 Guaranteed availability of individual health insurance coverage to certain individuals with prior group... furnishes health insurance coverage in the individual market must meet the following requirements with...

  11. 31 CFR 285.13 - Barring delinquent debtors from obtaining Federal loans or loan insurance or guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... guarantee. FMS means the Financial Management Service, a bureau of the Department of the Treasury. Nontax... of Information Resources Management, Policy and Management Division, Office of Information Technology... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL...

  12. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Prohibition on guaranteed customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal... PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware or Services 1812.7000 Prohibition on guaranteed customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. Public Law 102-139, title III...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy cows and genetic diversity of resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results i...

  14. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Vos (Margreet); A. Ott (Alewijn); A. Voss (Andreas); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); M.H.M. Meester (Marlene); P.H.J. van Keulen (Peter); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical

  15. Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental

  16. Staphylococcus aureus strains in primiparous and multiparous cows in six herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Scheibe, Nicole; Zucker, Bert-Andree; Köster, Gudrun; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    The proportion of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested in four groups of lactating dairy cows in six herds with a high overall prevalence of Staph. aureus using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. Group 1 included primiparous cows in early lactation (250 days in milk). Groups 3 and 4 were multiparous cows in the respective stages of lactation. Eight cows from each group on each farm were tested. Overall quarter prevalence of Staph. aureus ranged from 23.4 to 32.0% in the herds. Of the 130 isolates included in the analysis 86.9% were high prevalence strains (more than three isolates per herd), while 13.1% were strains that were only identified in one or two samples. Low prevalence strains were found in all six herds. The proportion of low prevalence strains was higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows (odds ratio, OR 4.4, 1.2-16.6). It is concluded that low prevalence Staph. aureus strains are common even in herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus and that their frequency is lower in primiparous cows than in older cows.

  17. Antibiotic Combinations with Daptomycin for Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nadrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with a unique mechanism of action on Gram-positive bacteria. It is approved for treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections with Gram-positive bacteria, bacteraemia and right-sided infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Diminishing susceptibility of S. aureus to daptomycin during treatment of complicated infections and clinical failure have been described. Combinations of daptomycin with other antibiotics including gentamicin, rifampin, beta-lactams, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX, or clarithromycin present a new approach for therapy. In vitro and animal studies have shown that such combinations may, in some cases, be superior to daptomycin monotherapy. In this paper we focus on the antibiotic combinations for complicated S. aureus infections.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren

    2016-01-01

    antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination....... aureus HG001, a derivative of strain NCTC 8325, across experimental conditions ranging from optimal growth in vitro to intracellular growth in host cells. These data establish an extensive repertoire of transcription units and non-coding RNAs, a classification of 1412 promoters according...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...

  20. Biochemical Characterization of Lysine Auxotrophs of Staphylococcus aureus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Isabel J.; Bondi, Amedeo; Moat, Albert G.

    1969-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus has been studied by use of a series of lysine auxotrophs. The strains were isolated after chemical mutagenesis. The majority of these mutant strains were classified according to the enzymatic step found to be deficient. Specific enzyme assays as well as nutritional tests were used to group the organisms. The enzymes included were dihydrodipicolinate synthetase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, diaminopimelate epimerase, and diaminopimelate decarboxylase. The accumulation of diaminopimelate in certain mutants and the demonstration of dihydrodipicolinate synthetase and reductase provide the first detailed evidence that S. aureus utilizes the diaminopimelate pathway for lysine biosynthesis. A cell-free system was used to study the regulation of these enzymes with the exception of diaminopimelate epimerase. Lysine repressed all of the enzymes tested. The repression appeared to be coordinate in nature. The data presented provide suggestive evidence that the lysine biosynthetic region in S. aureus constitutes an operon. PMID:5802602

  1. Pesquisa de Staphylococcus aureus em leite a ser pasteurizado Staphylococcus aureus in milk before pasteurinzing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wilson

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Estuda-se a contaminação por S. aureus do leite a ser pasteurizado, demonstrando que está altamente contaminado. São discutidas as conseqüências que a contaminação pode ter e conclui-se serem necessárias medidas urgentes para alterar a estrutura epidemiológica da "linha de leite".The present paper is a study on Staphylococcal contamination of milk before pasteurizing. Gross contamination is shown, and possible consequences are discussed. That measures intended to alter the epidemiologic structure of the so called milk line are necessary and urgent, is the final conclusion of the paper.

  2. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system.We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1.We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  3. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C T; Frazier, W C

    1966-03-01

    Cultures of lactic acid bacteria, mostly from foods, were tested for their effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Trypticase Soy Broth (BBL). Some of the effectors, e.g., Streptococcus faecalis, S. faecium, Lactobacillus lactis, L. brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, stimulated growth of S. aureus during early hours of growth, especially at higher temperatures of incubation, but most cultures were inhibitory, and some (S. faecium and L. mesenteroides) were even killing by the time of attainment of the maximal phase of growth of the Staphylococcus. Low-temperature meat lactobacilli and Leuconostoc dextranicum inhibited S. aureus at 10, 15, 20, and 25 C throughout its growth. Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens inhibited at these temperatures and at 30 and 37 C, as well. When the ratio of effectors to staphylococci in the inoculum was 100:1, the three enterococci, the meat Lactobacillus, and L. dextranicum prevented the attainment of 5 x 10(6) staphylococci per milliliter at 15 C, and all but the meat Lactobacillus did so at 22 C. A ratio of 1:1 accomplished similar results at 15 C, except that S. aureus was only delayed for 12 hr by S. faecalis. A ratio of 1:100 usually was ineffective. In general, the more effector bacteria there were in the inoculum, the greater was the overall inhibition (or stimulation) of S. aureus. Inhibition was most effective at 10 or 15 C, less so at 20 or 25 C, and least at 30 or 37 C, whereas stimulation during early growth was greater at the higher temperatures. Results with different strains of the effectors and with two strains of S. aureus were similar, for the most part.

  4. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. UJI BIOAKTIVITAS FORBAZOL E TERHADAP HAMBATAN PERTUMBUHAN PADA STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Ristiati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forbazol E dapat disintesis dari 1-(p-tosil pirol-2-karbonil klorida dan fenasil amonium klorida dengan rendeman cukup tinggi melalui empat tahap reaksi yaitu : pertama, reaksi penggabungan; kedua, siklodehidrasi; ketiga,hidrolisis; dan keempat, klorinasi. Staphylococcus aureus merupakan bakteri gram positif. Untuk itu perlu diteliti : (a forbazol E dapat menghambat pertumbuhan S. aureus ; (b konsentrasi forbazol E 75 mg/L akan menimbulkan hambatan pertumbuhan S. aureus lebih tinggi dari konsentrasi 37,5 mg/L. Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan rancangan the randomized- posttest-only control group design dan melibatkan 9 sampel pada kelompok kontrol, 9 sampel pada kelompok perlakuan I dan 9 sampel pada perlakuan II. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji anova pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian membuktikan forbazol E dapat menghambat pertumbuhan, pemberian  forbazol E pada  pada kelompok perlakuan II dengan konsentrasi 75 mg/L menimbulkan    hambatan     pertumbuhan    S. aureus lebih    tinggi dibandingkan dengan kelompok perlakuan I dengan konsentrasi 37,5 mg/L (p<0,05, uji lanjutan dengan uji beda nyata terkecil (BNT pada taraf  signifikansi  5% diperoleh  bahwa  hambatan  pertumbuhan S. aureus pada kelompok perlakuan II (75 mg/L berbeda bermakna dengan kelompok perlakuan I (37,5 mg/L (p<0,05. Bertolak dari pembahasan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa bioaktivitas forbazol E dapat menghambat pertumbuhan   S. aureus.

  6. Methicillin and vancomycin resistant S. aureus in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sood Loomba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus is the major bacterial cause of skin, soft tissue and bone infections, and one of the commonest causes of healthcare-associated bacteremia. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA carriage is associated with an increased risk of infection, morbidity and mortality. Screening of high-risk patients at the time of hospital admission and decolonization has proved to be an important factor in an effort to reduce nosocomial transmission. The electronic database Pub Med was searched for all the articles on "Establishment of MRSA and the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA." The search included case reports, case series and reviews. All the articles were cross-referenced to search for any more available articles. A total of 88 references were obtained. The studies showed a steady increase in the number of vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Extensive use of vancomycin creates a selective pressure that favors the outgrowth of rare, vancomycin-resistant clones leading to heterogenous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus hVISA clones, and eventually, with continued exposure, to a uniform population of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA clones. However, the criteria for identifying hVISA strains have not been standardized, complicating any determination of their clinical significance and role in treatment failures. The spread of MRSA from the hospital to the community, coupled with the emergence of VISA and VRSA, has become major concern among healthcare providers. Infection-control measures, reliable laboratory screening for resistance, appropriate antibiotic prescribing practices and avoidance of blanket treatment can prevent long-term emergence of resistance.

  7. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  9. Beta-Hemolysin Promotes Skin Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Yuki; Baba, Tadashi; Sekine, Miwa; Fukuda, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is a characteristic feature of several inflammatory skin diseases and is often followed by epidermal damage and invasive infection. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of skin colonization by a virulent community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain, MW2, using a murine ear colonization model. MW2 does not produce a hemolytic toxin, beta-hemolysin (Hlb), due to integration of a prophage, ϕSa3mw, inside the toxin gene (hlb). H...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus still colonizes the untreated neonatal umbilicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, M; Dyas, A

    1992-06-01

    Two different neonatal umbilical cord treatment regimens were studied prospectively. Although a greater proportion of cords had separated by the seventh day in those babies not treated with topical antiseptics (47% vs. 26%), there was a significant excess (53% vs. 30%) of umbilical colonization by Staphylococcus aureus compared to those neonates whose cords were treated with alcohol wipes and hexachlorophane powder. The main purpose of treating cords is to prevent significant S. aureus colonization, and therefore current proposals to stop antiseptic treatment of umbilical cords should be disregarded.

  11. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  12. Staphylococcus aureus CcpA affects biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, K.; Goerke, C; Wolz, C; Mack, D; Berger-Bächi, B; Bischoff, M

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus under in vitro growth conditions is generally promoted by high concentrations of sugar and/or salts. The addition of glucose to routinely used complex growth media triggered biofilm formation in S. aureus strain SA113. Deletion of ccpA, coding for the catabolite control protein A (CcpA), which regulates gene expression in response to the carbon source, abolished the capacity of SA113 to form a biofilm under static and flow conditions, while still all...

  13. Coverage-Guaranteed Sensor Node Deployment Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Deployment quality and cost are two conflicting aspects in wireless sensor networks. Random deployment, where the monitored field is covered by randomly and uniformly deployed sensor nodes, is an appropriate approach for large-scale network applications. However, their successful applications depend considerably on the deployment quality that uses the minimum number of sensors to achieve a desired coverage. Currently, the number of sensors required to meet the desired coverage is based on asymptotic analysis, which cannot meet deployment quality due to coverage overestimation in real applications. In this paper, we first investigate the coverage overestimation and address the challenge of designing coverage-guaranteed deployment strategies. To overcome this problem, we propose two deployment strategies, namely, the Expected-area Coverage Deployment (ECD and BOundary Assistant Deployment (BOAD. The deployment quality of the two strategies is analyzed mathematically. Under the analysis, a lower bound on the number of deployed sensor nodes is given to satisfy the desired deployment quality. We justify the correctness of our analysis through rigorous proof, and validate the effectiveness of the two strategies through extensive simulation experiments. The simulation results show that both strategies alleviate the coverage overestimation significantly. In addition, we also evaluate two proposed strategies in the context of target detection application. The comparison results demonstrate that if the target appears at the boundary of monitored region in a given random deployment, the average intrusion distance of BOAD is considerably shorter than that of ECD with the same desired deployment quality. In contrast, ECD has better performance in terms of the average intrusion distance when the invasion of intruder is from the inside of monitored region.

  14. Effects of Volume Guaranteed Ventilation Combined with Two Different Modes in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sezin; Ergenekon, Ebru; Aktas, Selma; Altuntas, Nilgun; Beken, Serdar; Kazanci, Ebru; Kulali, Ferit; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim M; Onal, Esra; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Koc, Esin; Atalay, Yildiz

    2017-07-11

    Volume-controlled ventilation modes have been shown to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of chronic lung disease, failure of primary mode of ventilation, hypocarbia, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants when compared with pressure limited ventilation modes. Volume-guarantee (VG) ventilation is the most commonly used mode for volume-controlled ventilation. Assist control, pressure-support ventilation (PSV), and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) can be combined with VG; however, there is a lack of knowledge on the superiority of each regarding clinical outcomes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SIMV+VG and PSV+VG on ventilatory parameters, pulmonary inflammation, morbidity, and mortality in preterm infants. Preterm infants who were born in our hospital between 24-32 weeks gestation and needed mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome were considered eligible. Patients requiring high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for primary treatment were excluded. Subjects were randomized to either SIMV+VG or PSV+VG. Continuously recorded ventilatory parameters, clinical data, blood gas values, and tracheal aspirate cytokine levels were analyzed. The study enrolled 42 subjects. Clinical data were similar between groups. PSV+VG delivered closer tidal volumes to set tidal volumes (60% vs 49%, P = .02). Clinical data, including days on ventilation, morbidity, and mortality, were similar between groups. Chronic lung disease occurred less often and heart rate was lower in subjects who were ventilated with PSV+VG. The incidence of hypocarbia and hypercarbia were similar. Interleukin-β in the tracheal aspirates increased during both modes. PSV+VG provided closer tidal volumes to the set value in ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and was not associated with overventilation or a difference in mortality or morbidity when compared to

  15. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE, which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  16. SIGMATA: Storage Integrity Guaranteeing Mechanism against Tampering Attempts for Video Event Data Recorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuckmin Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The usage and market size of video event data recorders (VEDRs, also known as car black boxes, are rapidly increasing. Since VEDRs can provide more visual information about car accident situations than any other device that is currently used for accident investigations (e.g., closed-circuit television, the integrity of the VEDR contents is important to any meaningful investigation. Researchers have focused on the file system integrity or photographic approaches to integrity verification. However, unlike other general data, the video data in VEDRs exhibit a unique I/O behavior in that the videos are stored chronologically. In addition, the owners of VEDRs can manipulate unfavorable scenes after accidents to conceal their recorded behavior. Since prior arts do not consider the time relationship between the frames and fail to discover frame-wise forgery, a more detailed integrity assurance is required. In this paper, we focus on the development of a frame-wise forgery detection mechanism that resolves the limitations of previous mechanisms. We introduce SIGMATA, a novel storage integrity guaranteeing mechanism against tampering attempts for VEDRs. We describe its operation, demonstrate its effectiveness for detecting possible frame-wise forgery, and compare it with existing mechanisms. The result shows that the existing mechanisms fail to detect any frame-wise forgery, while our mechanism thoroughly detects every frame-wise forgery. We also evaluate its computational overhead using real VEDR videos. The results show that SIGMATA indeed discovers frame-wise forgery attacks effectively and efficiently, with the encoding overhead less than 1.5 milliseconds per frame.

  17. Identification of Factors Contributing to T-Cell Toxicity of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates▿

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, James; Buckling, Angus; Massey, Ruth C.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the ability of 206 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to lyse T cells and found differences between Agr groups. We found that the beta and delta hemolysins are involved and that methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains are less toxic than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains.

  18. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance traits of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a recognized pathogen in humans, which causes nosocomial infections and food poisoning. The transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus (ARSA), especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), between food products and humans has become a serious problem. Hence, it is n...

  20. Long-term cortisol levels are not associated with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manenschijn, L.; Jetten, A.M.; Wamel, W.J.B. van; Tavakol, M.; Koper, J.W.; Akker, E.L.T. van den; Belkum, A. van; Rossum, E.F.C. van

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonizes the anterior nares in part of the population and the persistent carrier state is associated with increased infection risk. Knowledge concerning the determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage is limited. Previously, we found that glucocorticoid receptor